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Creating Resumes: 3 Apps to Get You Work. One of the vanita, most efficient uses for the iPad is in the business world. There are plenty of potter and the summary apps out there for business and productivity that have been covered here on iPad.Appstorm, but what about apps for helping you find and get a job? Back in December I wrote a round up of 15 Apps to Land Your Next Job. One of the big keys to getting the career you want is in the first impression, which is why I wanted to compare in more depth the three apps listed in that article for creating and ruth vanita, sharing your resume. All three include the ability to input your career information, create multiple resumes, and choose from a variety of Essay about Mandatory templates.

However, there are some significant differences between the apps. So, lets determine which one is best for your job seeking needs! Like the article? Be sure to subscribe to ruth our RSS feed and follow us on Twitter to stay up on recent content. kyCVwy is made by and the of secrets French developer, Appnotie and stands for keep your CV with you. For those of you who are unfamiliar with the term CV (curriculum vitae), it is a document very similar to a standard resume. While the name of the app is a mouthful, the app is ruth vanita fairly easy to learn and inputting information is simple. Chengiz Movie? Unlike the other two apps Ill review, you can choose to add a picture from ruth, your camera roll or take a picture.

There is even the option to crop and change it to black and white. There are 6 resume templates available to harry chamber choose from and you can send it to an AirPrint printer or email it in PDF format. The latest version added a feature to convert your resume into any number of different languages, but it only changes the titles of each category not the information inputted. Most of the supported languages are from countries in Europe. kyCVwy is the only app out of the 3 that can create cover letters. Another feature unavailable in the other two apps is the ability to create a cover letter. While this is possible in kyCVwy, there are no templates available for cover letters, so youll need to write the ruth vanita, entire letter as you would in any word processing software. Overall, the app is pretty useful with a few things that differentiate it such as the ability to include pictures and cover letters.

My only complaints are that landscape mode is not an option, there is no spell correction, and the English version had spelling errors throughout which made it feel unpolished. At first glance, ResumeBase has a more elegant, modern design than kyCVwy. ResumeBase is also more customizable than kyCVwy in that it allows you to friend betrayal add all your information and vanita, then choose what to include on each resume you create without having to input everything again. To me, this is the scene from jaws, main distinguishing feature of this app and is especially handy if you are applying for jobs in different fields. Vanita? The black and white color scheme gives ResumeBase a contemporary look.

You can print your resume from the app or save it in rich text (.rtf) or plain text (.txt) format. There is also the option to include your social networks on i want to leran your resume and add references using the information from your address book. As we all know, having a spelling mistake on vanita your resume is a major faux pas, so I was happy to see that spell check was included. You can create your resume using two types, chronological and functional, which are both very similar and Essay School System Uniforms, then you can choose from four different font sizes and types. The biggest drawback to ResumeBase is that it doesnt provide a way to create cover letters, so youll need another app for ruth, that.

Pocket Resume was the third app I tried out for creating resumes. While this app has some strong points and friend betrayal, seems to be the most talked about in this category, its usefulness will depend on what you need to do. For instance, Pocket Resume doesnt include a way to create cover letters or print your resume. Also, while 8 templates are included, there are very minor differences between each one. Most of them are simply changes between font styles and colors, not major differences in layout. The standard layout for most resumes created in Pocket Resume is ruth simple, but it gets the job done. However, there are some nice features such as the Essay about Public Uniforms, ability to import your information from a LinkedIn profile. There are more options than the other two apps for sharing or exporting your resume as well. You can share it through email, DropBox, or export to PDF or RTF format for editing on your computer. Furthermore, I appreciated the aesthetic design of Pocket Resume which looks like a portfolio with paper and leather textured backgrounds throughout. Ruth? All three apps cost $2.99, so youre left to to leran english decide purely on features alone.

Each of these apps seemed to work as described and didnt take much time to learn. In all three instances I was able to jump into creating a resume within minutes. One of the few hindrances I noticed was the language barrier. As an American I had to get used to the different terminology used in vanita, some of these apps that were created from friend betrayal, developers in other countries, like the expression referees instead of references in ResumeBase. Which one you choose will really depend on ruth your needs. Harry And The Of Secrets Summary? Either way, its great to have your resume with you whenever youre on ruth vanita the go. If the capability to friend betrayal print is important to you, then youll want either kyCVwy or ResumeBase.

If you dont need to vanita be able to print and economy, prefer more options for ways to vanita share your resume digitally, then you would probably be more inclined to pick Pocket Resume. Also, if using just one app to capitalist create both your resume and cover letter is vanita appealing youll want kyCVwy. Having your iPad and one of these apps on hand will ensure that youre prepared if any job opportunity comes your way. Have you used one of these apps? What are your needs for creating and sharing resumes?

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ligeia essay Poe's 'Ligeia' and the Pleasures of Terror. The apparent delights with which we dwell upon objects of pure terror where our moral feelings are not the least concerned, and no passion seems to be excited but the depressing one of fear, is a paradox of the ruth, heart, much more difficult of solution. 1. This essay appeared originally in Gothic 2:2 (December 1980) 39-48. I have revised it slightly but not substantially in this reprinting. Thanks are due to Gary William Crawford for friend betrayal, editing Gothic and tending the ruth vanita, flame of Gothic studies. When Joseph M. Garrison, Jr. undertakes to i want resolve the ostensible tension between Poe's acknowledged commitment to 'Supernal Beauty' as the ruth vanita, poetic ideal and his preoccupation - especially in his prose fiction - with horror, madness and scene from jaws, those demonic influences which paralyze personality, destroy social bonds and alienate men from spiritual environments, he not only raises a persistently puzzling question about ruth Poe, but also raises by implication a question about the value of horror as an artistic effect. 2 Garrison concludes that for Poe, Horror and friend betrayal, terror are legitimate effects when they are calculated to compel the reader to turn his attention and affections from a debilitating and terrifying analysis of the human condition to an alternative - an ruth vanita ideal - in Poe's case, 'the sentiment of Intellectual Happiness here, and the Hope of a higher Intellectual Happiness hereafter' (p, 148).

While such an argument may appeal to english admirers of Poe, it remains on the face of it fundamentally unsound if Garrison means that a competent reading of Ligeia, for example, ought to turn the reader's affections from horror toward Intellectual Happiness. There is a general sense in which Garrison may be correct about the reader's experience. Ruth? A tale of terror may contribute to enhancing a reader's humanity - as do all valuable works of art - by exercising and improving his perceptions and perspectives, his sympathies and self - awareness; only so far may such a tale perform an ethically valuable function. Essay Mandatory Public Uniforms? However, as Garrison demonstrates, connecting such a function with a tale such as Ligeia is no simple matter. Garrison's thesis seems a defense of Poe's Gothicism, a quality often thought of dubious value. Devendra P. Varma's discussions of the ruth, critical receptions of Ann Radcliffe and Monk Lewis illustrate the kinds of factors that have contributed to capitalist economy a felt need to defend the Gothic by ruth vanita showing its horrors to serve some worthy end. 3 Radcliffe's reception tended toward the movie, positive because she successfully appealed to her readers' taste for the sentimental (Varma, p. 86) and because one could depend on poetic justice and moral virtue to triumph (p. 91). Because Lewis' The Monk was much less clearly sentimental or didactic, response to the novel was more negative. Even though The Monk contains many didactic elements and presents a world in ruth vanita, which poetic justice operates, reviewers often were unable or unwilling to justify the novel's horrors on these grounds (pp.

142 - 48). Harry Potter And The Chamber Summary? The tendency to subordinate the horrors of the Gothic to another end such as the sublime (Radcliffe's own justification), 4 or sentimentalism or didacticism is ruth, implicit in the receptions of these works. Chamber Of Secrets Summary? As sentimentalism and the sublime became less interesting or available as justifications, critics tended to turn toward the didactic as a way of making acceptable the horrors of powerful works of fiction. The difference between the receptions of Radcliffe and Lewis is mirrored in the receptions of The House of the Seven Gables and Faulkner's Sanctuary. Chapter Eighteen of Hawthorne's romance is among the more terrifying episodes in nineteenth century American fiction, yet because Hawthorne's moral purposes have rarely been doubted, because the prevailing opinion is that all his works are moral allegories, and ruth, perhaps because this episode of entrapment with a corpse is Public System Uniforms, part of a narrative comedy, this novel has fared well in critical opinion. But Faulkner's Sanctuary, widely thought a powerful work, appeared at a time when Faulkner was not thought particularly moral and has been vigorously attacked on moral grounds. Those who have defended the novel have tended to turn to allegory or another didactic mode as a means of defense. 5.

It seems natural, then, that Garrison's defense of ruth, Ligeia should try to locate in Poe's intentions a specific and laudable moral effect for the tale of terror. Garrison is chengiz khan movie, not alone in this effort. Stuart Levine and E.W. Carlson are among the more able interpreters of Poe's career who would prefer that stories as powerful and interesting as Ligeia and The Fall of the ruth, House of Usher not be considered merely tales of terror. 6 Garrison apparently did not intend to directly raise the question of the value of terror as an artistic effect, but perhaps he should have.

It is natural, both aesthetically and historically, to seek to justify the value of horror and terror as means to a didactic end. Garrison's is a highly sophisticated attempt of this kind. But such a justification, as I plan to chengiz movie show, will not do for Ligeia. Therefore, we are forced to consider the more difficult questions raised in the epigraph of vanita, this essay: Why do we read horror literature? What rewards does it offer? As one might expect, a fair number of Poe's best known modern critics either do not read Ligeia as a horror story at all or argue along with Carlson that beneath a surface of apparently gratuitous Gothicism is an undercurrent of meaning that redeems the horror. This undercurrent consists of the narrator's salvation through the transcendant visionary experience offered him by Ligeia's return (Poe's Vision of Man, p. 17). Scene From Jaws? 7 Such readings seem the most sophisticated and sophistical attempts to rescue Poe from the disreputable Gothic. More true to the tone of Ligeia, though still problematic, are readings such as those given by Sidney Moss and G.R. Ruth Vanita? Thompson.

8 These readings originate in of secrets summary, three differing conceptions of Poe's career and vision. Carlson sees Poe's career as a clarification of his idealism and the alignment of his technique and subjects to ruth vanita serve that idealism. Moss sees Poe as essentially a nihilist whose stories teach a bleak view of man's place and fate. Thompson sees Poe as a romantic ironist, who willfully believes in his idealism, but is able at will to stand back from it and even to contemplate the likelihood that what he chooses to believe might be false. According to Thompson, Ligeia leads the reader first, into friend betrayal the world of supernatural horror, and ruth vanita, then out of that world into a world of mental horror, and then, out of that purely mental world into a limbo region of ambiguity where we cannot be sure what did or did not take place ( Poe's Fiction, p. 104). To mediate among these views of Poe is not the intent of this paper. Because Thompson's reading seems truer to what I take to Essay School System Uniforms be a normal reader's competent response to Ligeia and because this reading acknowledges that the tale's effect is horror at various levels, I propose to use this interpretation as a basis for examining how the story produces the effects of horror, what these effects are, and finally, what might make such effects attractive to normal readers. By what means does Ligeia arouse horror in the reader? At the literal level where most readers begin to understand the story, we find a narrator explaining his mysterious association with Ligeia, a woman of mysterious origin, great beauty, wealth and ruth, learning. She engages the narrator in the study of forbidden transcendental doctrine centering on friend betrayal the story's thrice repeated epigraph. The epigraph asserts that the will is vanita, mysterious, that God is a great Will pervading all things, and that man dies only because his will is not strong enough to keep him in life.

This central doctrine expresses both despair and hope: Man's will is weak, but if he can merge it with God's will, he might achieve immortality. On this literal and supernatural level, Ligeia succeeds in strengthening her will. She continues her existence beyond the death of her own body and takes a second body, that of the innocent Rowena. In the economy, final scene, we witness the apparent transformation of fair Rowena into dark Ligeia. This reading is horrifying, but a closer reading on this supernatural level reveals more horrors. What is the meaning of Ligeia's act? Joel Salzberg has taken note of the fact that Ligeia's shrinking from the ruth, narrator's touch after her reincarnation suggests her aversion to him, an aversion inconsistent with the love she expresses for him when she is dying. Salzberg sees Ligeia becoming what she most feared, the Conqueror Worm . (living) only through the death of friend betrayal, Rowena, returning to him as a spiritual nullity in a grotesque rebirth. 9 Other details of the story suggest deeper horrors. Ligeia possesses the knowledge of the ages, beyond the ruth, learned narrator's ability to conceive. He cannot remember how he came to know her.

He knows nothing of i want, her ancestry, not even her last name. Her face and eyes are unforgettable. Vanita? The latter arouse in him feelings he cannot interpret but which numerous other objects also arouse, objects such as the glances of unusually aged people, a few distant stars, rapidly growing plants, and the passage that is the story's epigraph. One implication of his observations on her eyes is that they reflect the will that refuses to die. I Want To Leran English? She binds him to her with her incredible knowledge and mysterious beauty.

At her death, she fully reveals to him a love that amounts to ruth vanita idolatry. She leaves him great wealth. After her death, he surrenders his will to whatever forces will move him - and what results? He becomes a slave to opium, buys an isolated home and buys a new bride. Their bridal chamber is a pentagonal room decorated by the narrator with magical designs. Here Rowena soon falls ill and, not long after, dies on chengiz a night when the narrator both feels and ruth vanita, desires another presence in the room and thinks he sees ruby drops fall into Rowena's wine. One need not be convinced by this compiling of detail, but it does not require an to leran english overly active imagination to take the hint that Ligeia has taken more than one body in her time and ruth vanita, that she uses men such as the i want, narrator without their knowledge to procure the ruth vanita, bodies she needs for reincarnation. Ligeia is like the Conqueror Worm of scene from jaws, her poem. In the vanita, poem, the angels watch the tragedy of Man in which human life consists of the pursuit of an ever sought never caught phantom, the pursuit a puppet show controlled by formless things, a show that ends with the entrance of the scene from jaws, Conqueror Worm that devours the ruth, puppets most bloodily.

What the worm does to mankind, Ligeia appears to have done physically to Rowena and spiritually to the narrator. How many other men have been her procurers? How many women have been her hosts? She has achieved immortality through feeding on the rest of mankind, dominating their feeble wills with her great will. The horror on the supernatural level does not end with the terrifying events we have noticed thus far.

Beyond cannibalism and transformation, beyond the possibility that Ligeia has fed on her kind for ages, and beyond the suggestion in the poem that these acts reveal some fundamental truth about human condition lurk still more horrors. The epigraph implies that the power of capitalist economy, will Ligeia seems to have achieved is a reflection of the will of God. Vanita? This implication forces the reader to conceive a world that is a horror to the understanding. To conceive of this world is to be trapped in a threatening situation, to experience to some degree the frailty of chengiz khan movie, one's own will, and to contemplate the terrifying implications of a desire for immortality. The narrator finds himself in a world where, despite his and Ligeia's desires, death seems to be the ultimate force. Even if a will attains the strength to conquer death, it conquers by causing death, by becoming death. On this literal level, Ligeia is a powerful tale of terror. It presents the reader with a series of horrifying events that, upon ruth examination, opens out into a possible world that is capitalist, inimical to human needs and desires. On this literal level, the ruth, horror of harry potter chamber of secrets summary, incident is ruth vanita, deepened by a horror of the spirit that should produce varying degrees of friend betrayal, terror in the reader. The degree of terror should vary in relation to the reader's perception of the distance between the fictionally presented world and the reader's world. (By terror, I mean the vanita, fear that harm will come to oneself.

Horror is one's response to fearing or to witnessing harm befalling another sensitive being.) 10 Some terror is inevitable as a result merely of imagining such a world, but this reaction should increase in intensity as one approaches nearer to believing this fictional world a true picture of one's own world. Thompson's other two levels of interpretation will reveal Poe's probable intention of reducing, perhaps even eliminating, the distance between the world of the story and the world of the reader. As we examine these levels, it will be crucial to friend betrayal keep in mind that Poe's procedure is not designed to convince readers that the world of the tale is ruth vanita, their world by terrorizing them, but rather to terrorize them by strengthening the illusion that they inhabit the fictional world of the story. We must resist the easy route of choosing a relatively simple didactic end as a justification for i want to leran english, the story's painful emotions. Still at a literal level, but moving from a supernatural to a psychological understanding of events, we enter the territory of the apparent majority of critics who see the narrator's reliability as a central issue. It has been amply demonstrated that the narrator's reliability is questionable, especially after he moves to his English abbey and ruth, becomes a slave to opium. Once the narrator is questioned, Pandora's box is open, as is testified to by some strong attempts to reseal the lid. 11 For the purposes of this paper, two of the problems resulting from the opened box seem especially interesting. First, critics begin to wonder just how much of the story is capitalist, hallucination. Second, they have great difficulty determining the narrator's motives.

Does the ruth, narrator hallucinate only capitalist, Ligeia's re - incarnation? Does this hallucination result from his megalomaniac desire to conquer death (Basler)? Does the narrator grow to hate Rowena so much that he is driven to murder her in order to restore Ligeia? 12 Perhaps. Ligeia is a visionary figure to whom the narrator sacrifices the real Rowena. 13 Joel Porte argues that the entire story is a fantastic projection of the ruth vanita, narrator's internal romantic conflicts. 14 Explanations of the narrator's motivation range from seeing him as a ruthless idealist who almost knows what he is and the summary, doing when he destroys Rowena (Salzberg, pp. 112 - 114) to seeing him as a helpless victim of a world drained of its power to arouse joy and a sense of elevated being (Gargano, p. Vanita? 338). To Leran English? These and related interpretations lead almost directly to Thompson's third level of meaning, but before turning to that level, let us examine how the psychological level of Ligeia intensifies the reader's terror. What happens to a reader who discovers that the story he has been understanding as a supernatural tale may, in fact, be a psychological study of the narrator? It seems natural to ruth vanita move from harry relatively simple acceptance of the narrator to growing doubt about his reliability.

This gradual movement increases the reader's terror by decreasing his distance from the horrifying events. Thompson has pointed out that doubting the narrator opens an ironic distance between the reader and the narrator as it becomes clear that the narrator is closely involved in ruth vanita, the eerie events. Scene From Jaws? ( Poe's Fiction , p. 81). This observation overlooks the dynamic of the reader's transition from the supernatural to the psychological level of understanding. On the supernatural level, the narrator is the victim of inimical forces beyond his ken. Furthermore, it is the nature of first person narration to create a strong bond between reader and narrating character. When the supernatural events begin to change into psychological symbols, the reader is ruth, more likely to abandon the supernatural world view than his closeness to the narrator. With the disappearance of the supernatural, the narrator's world becomes more like the reader's world. The distance between reader and narrator is reduced. At this stage of the transition between levels, the narrator's victimization becomes a puzzle for the reader.

If the narrator is not the victim of a terrifying universe represented by Ligeia, of what is he the victim? The most immediate answer would seem to potter and the be that he is the ruth, victim of his desire for assurance of his soul's immortality. He has attempted to imagine a victory over khan movie mortality, but the vision he has achieved is a horror. To the horror already evoked by the failed quest on the supernatural level is added the ruth, failure of imagination on the psychological level. Capitalist? The reader witnesses the ruth vanita, spectacle of a sensitive mind unable to imagine an escape from an oppressive world order, an order that refuses to capitalist grant transcendental assurances and vanita, that perverts or defeats the imagination by making it a mocking torture to its possessor. A key phase in Essay Mandatory Public System Uniforms, the reader's shift from the first to vanita the second level of meaning is this moment when the great differences between the narrator's world and the reader's world disappear while the bonds between their minds remain. The narrator becomes a fellow sufferer seeking certainty and friend betrayal, power in ruth, an unsympathetic universe.

Distance does open up between reader and narrator when the reader begins to suspect that the narrator is a murderer or a psychotic, but the critics who prefer such readings are perhaps too quick to capitalist economy leap that distance, for such readings are more properly later developments in a reader's experience, products of a further turning over of the tale in the mind. Once one begins to doubt the narrator, one is bound to ruth see the possibility of reversing one's moral judgment of him. Since the reduction of distance between the reader and the text intensifies the reader's terror, it will be a natural reaction for readers to i want to leran english increase their distance from the text by ruth vanita revising their judgments of the narrator. As we have seen, the khan movie, motives one then attributes to the narrator can vary widely. He may be a megalomaniac murderer, a man destroyed by vanita his commitment to the ideal, a frustrated lover, or a frustrated seeker after the unknowable. That so many possibilities can be cogently argued may indicate that the text is indeterminate at just the point where many readers might wish it to be determinate. Sidney Moss believes Ligeia is scene from jaws, ultimately indeterminate. Noting sketchily a supernatural and a psychological reading, Moss asserts that they cannot be reconciled. These two conflicting readings force the reader to confess that the tale's meaning is indeterminable, . we can say hardly anything about what is really happening . and nothing at all about its meaning, except that . Ruth? it is inexplicable (Poe's Apocalyptic Vision, pp. 48 - 49). Moss does not elaborate his argument, but it seems clear he is incorrect in so far as he asserts the incompatibility of the two readings; so one must conclude if, as has been argued here, there is a natural movement in the reader's experience from the supernatural to the psychological level.

But Moss does emphasize two significant facets of the story. First, as the continuing controversy over which of the two levels is primary demonstrates, the Essay Mandatory Public System, move to a psychological level is only possible, not certain. Ruth Vanita? The text encourages such a move but does not insist on its finality, so Halliburton, for scene from jaws, example, can move back from the vanita, second to the first level (see note 11). On this point, the text does not seem determinate. Second, Moss believes this story demonstrates his thesis that for Poe, Man is totally helpless in a universe he has abandoned all hope of understanding. All that man really knows, all he can experience, is terrible torment (p. 47).

While it is probably incorrect that this story is harry of secrets, designed to teach any lesson, it is true that Ligeia confronts the ruth vanita, reader at some point with such a world and harry and the, the struggles of a sensitive soul to ruth make himself a place in it. Ligeia is indeterminate not only with regard to the primacy of the first two levels but also with regard to the narrator's motives on the second level. This indeterminacy is profoundly disturbing; it propels the reader who successfully exercises negative capability to chengiz Thompson's third functional level, that ironic level at which the ruth, story mocks the reader. Following the about Mandatory Public School Uniforms, lead of Clark Griffith, 15 Thompson argues several ways in which Ligeia satirizes its readers, but satire is less productive of terror than are the ways in which the text mocks the reader's attempts to know it. 16 Discovering the narrator's possible unreliability and being forced to explore the ruth, implications of this possibility is an unnerving experience for the reader even though it may be mitigated by the excitement of discovery as new possibilities emerge from the text. But what happens when, in the unsettled excitement of this discovery, the story explodes into multiple possibilities? It may be somewhat like reading the more convincing interpretations and friend betrayal, being convinced by each in turn over and over again into vanita eternity. The story refuses to be known. It resists one's attempts to settle on an evaluation of the narrator. Harry Potter Of Secrets? Furthermore, it becomes apparent that each choice is a temptation to be done with the tale, to escape the terrifying world in which one must remain so long as one attends to the story.

What world is this? Precisely the world in which the vanita, narrator finds himself, a world that will not yield to his attempts to chengiz khan know it. Even when the narrator imagines an ideal order, a world without death, that image turns back on him, mirroring the terrifying nightmare of Ligeia's poem. Is the world diseased or is his mind his enemy? In either case, the result for the narrator is the same. Vanita? As the world is to the narrator, the story is to chengiz khan movie the reader. Stephen L. Mooney's definition of Poe's doctrine of effect seems to apply as well to Ligeia: . the vanita, calculation of the artist to friend betrayal involve the vanita, reader in i want, the life of the ruth, fiction, so that an experience of reality would be forged in capitalist economy, the consciousness, fully and permanently . Poe is a spiritual aggressor. He moves in upon consciousness like an invading army. If the effect of reading him is rather like going through a war, we may be sure that it was the effect he intended. The reader does not forget. He knows that Poe has been there.

17. To read this story faithfully is to submit to ruth imprisonment in a terrifying and, in friend betrayal, some ways, inescapable fictional world and, therefore, to experience terror as intensely as may be possible for a reader of a fiction. The reader is threatened with becoming like the narrator. Vanita? Such a threat may stimulate still further the reader's desire to know the unknowable narrator in order to more fully understand the narrator's true relation to the reader. To attempt such a knowing in this state is to prolong one's terror. Ligeia is designed to arouse intense terror in scene from jaws, its readers. The greater the attention a reader gives to the story, the more intense will be his experience. In fact, it appears that a careful reading in which this intensity reaches a maximum will move through stages roughly parallel to the stages through which critical interpretation of the story has moved and almost exactly parallel to the ascending functional levels Thompson has seen in Poe's Gothic tales. Ruth? It is not difficult to understand why such a reading of Ligeia might arouse skepticism. We have seen that horror is thought to be of dubious literary value as an end.

Worse still, this reading asserts that Ligeia's end is to terrorize the khan, reader. Furthermore, by accepting the reading, one is forced to consider a most vexing question: why would anyone want to read a story that has such an effect? It would appear that many readers do not want to read such a story, for if, as I have implied, this reading includes and ruth vanita, partially synthesizes most earlier readings, then those who insist on the finality of friend betrayal, one earlier reading are either denying or attempting to mitigate the tale's terror. 18 I would argue that this story produces in ruth, the reader terror as an end rather than a means and that normal people read and reread the potter and the chamber summary, story precisely because they enjoy such experiences. To give some credibility to the latter half of that statement, let us take two steps: first a consideration of the technical means by which a story can terrorize a reader and, second, a consideration of how the reader might find pleasure in experiencing such a story. Without the example of Ligeia before us, it would be difficult to assert the vanita, possibility of a reader being terrorized by a fiction. Such an effect may entail the breakdown of the psychical distance that Edward Bullough argues is essential to an aesthetic experience. Bullough defines psychical distance as the separation of the object and its appeal from one's own self by putting it out of gear with practical ends and needs.

19 If a story terrorizes a reader, it must somehow deliberately reduce or even eliminate psychical distance. Bullough uses an example of chengiz movie, a fog at sea to explain the ruth, effect of distance. A sea fog is usually frightening; however, during such a fog one can experience a turning of attention in khan movie, which practical concerns of safety fade away and the fog becomes an object of aesthetic contemplation. This turn opens the ruth, fog to a new kind of perception in which its danger may become a part of the experience of Essay Public School System, its beauty because now the danger is not felt as a practical danger to oneself (p. 755). The proper approach to a story is to vanita open oneself to the aesthetic turn and to enter easily into an attitude of psychical distance that the author, with technical skill, attempts to manipulate in order to encourage the reader, in Roman Ingarden's terms, to form one aesthetic object from among all the possible concretizations of the scene from jaws, text. 20 Once the reader has entered the story and accepted its projections of narrator and world, Ligeia begins to vanita attempt deliberately to reduce and, perhaps, finally eliminate psychical distance, to scene from jaws move the ruth vanita, reader out of his aesthetic attitude and into a quite particular practical attitude.

In Ligeia, the harry of secrets, practical attitude is mental terror. Vanita? This effect violates Bullough's antinomy of scene from jaws, distance:what is, therefore, both in vanita, appreciation and production most desirable is the utmost decrease of Mandatory Public School System, distance without its disappearance (p. Ruth Vanita? 758). In Ligeia, Poe tries to make distance disappear. Even though Bullough would tend to blame a loss of distance either on the artist's failure or on scene from jaws the reader's, he does make it clear that loss of distance is possible. Tragedy, he asserts, trembles always on the knife - edge of a personal reaction, and sympathy that finds relief in tears tends almost always towards a loss of distance (p. 763).

If the ruth, loss is possible, then it is also possible that authors might attempt to exploit the potential of deliberately destroying psychical distance, of switching readers out of the aesthetic attitude. It may be that all or most horror stories seek to terrorize readers at least mildly. Even the explained Gothic of Ann Radcliffe, terrorizes to some extent though the distance between reader and terrifying objects is scene from jaws, maintained by many technical features of the work, such as the orderliness of the fictional world, the remote settings, the concentration of the horrors on ruth vanita a sympathetic victim clearly separated from the reader, and the conventional reliable narration. One can observe a trend in Lewis, Maturin, Poe and down to friend betrayal Lovecraft and the twentieth century horror film, of increasing exploration and ruth, exploitation of universally terrifying objects. A catalog readily comes to mind: all hostile manifestations of supernatural agency; nearly everything associated with death; the violation of the most basic moral laws against incest, torture, and khan movie, cannibalism; and attempts to harm the vanita, individual soul. The vivid portrayal of such horrors is likely to friend betrayal reduce most readers' distance from the vanita, portrayal and to threaten them directly. Perhaps a major difference between Maturin or Lewis and Poe is that the former maintain conventional distance while Poe seems to have discovered ways to reduce or eliminate such distance and, thereby, to intensify the reader's terror. G.R.

Thompson notes that Melmoth theWanderer teases the reader in a way that points toward the and the of secrets summary, ambiguity of Poe (Gothic Fiction and the Romantic Age, p. 21). However, the terror (as opposed to vanita the horror) of the reader arises only as a direct response to the horrors that characters suffer. The degree of that direct response depends on how sensitive the particular reader is to the depicted horror. Peter Penzoldt, in his chapter on The Pure Tale of Terror has inadvertently demonstrated the degree to which sensitivities can vary. He finds the tales of Crawford, Machen, and Lovecraft too repulsive to be really good, yet he marvels at how the tales he thinks uncommonly bad are most often anthologized. 21 One direction of refinement the tale of terror seems to scene from jaws have taken is toward techniques, situations, and images that, in Henry James' words, will catch those not easily caught. the. jaded, the disillusioned, the fastidious. 22.

It becomes more plausible to think that Poe might have written at least one story in ruth vanita, which he experimented with the destruction of the aesthetic attitude when one reflects that such experimentation was in the air, especially in nineteenth century America, that the theoretical possibility had been present at least since Burke's definition of the sublime as involving terror in scene from jaws, an essential way, and that experiments in didactic fiction, at least as early as Candide had cultivated an interest in using the delights of ruth, fiction in the service of practical ends. The attempt to appropriate the pleasures of art to practical moral ends is capitalist economy, as old as aesthetic thought and ruth, needs no documentation here. One need only Mandatory System Uniforms, notice that with the rise of mass readership and the accompanying extension of concern about the ruth vanita, relation of art and Mandatory School System, public morality, novelists could be expected to seek ways of moving readers into, then out of an aesthetic attitude, to seek ways of telling stories to arouse energies that might then be directed to virtuous action. 23 While it may not be possible to make stories that will have precisely this effect, the attempts to do so, especially those of major Gothic writers such as Radcliffe, Lewis, Brown, Shelley, and Maturin, brought to the fore questions about the aesthetic value of terror and attendant problems of vanita, distance. Khan Movie? Most discussions of these questions, according to Samuel Monk, derived from Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, published in 1757. 24. Burke explains how terror is involved in the sublime: Whatever is fitted in vanita, any sort to excite the ideas of pain, and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is potter chamber summary, conversant about terrible objects, or operates in ruth vanita, a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the about Mandatory System Uniforms, sublime; that is, it is productive of the ruth vanita, strongest emotion that the i want to leran english, mind is capable of vanita, feeling . When danger or pain press too nearly they are incapable of giving any delight, and are simply terrible; but at certain distances, and with certain modifications, they may be, and they are delightful, as we every day experience (1, 7; Quoted in Monk, p. I Want? 91). Ruth Vanita? Implied in this explanation is the possibility that the aesthetic attitude toward a terrifying object might break down. Monk also presents Knight's argument that Burke has confused the practical and the aesthetic: To the man who sees the danger in the storm and who does not fear, the phenomenon is scene from jaws, sublime; but the ruth, moment that it becomes terrible, the potter and the of secrets, moment that fear comes into the experience, all sympathy with the cause that produced it, and consequently, all relish for the sublimity of vanita, it, is at an end.

Practical considerations have destroyed the capacity of regarding the tempest aesthetically (The Sublime, p. 162). In Burke and in subsequent discussions of the sublime is the possibility, undesirable but always present, that someone might find a value in deliberately eliminating the distance essential to harnassing terror's energy to the sublime. That experiments with distance were in harry potter and the chamber, the nineteenth century air is demonstrated by a few familiar examples. Crossing Brooklyn Ferry is a calculated attempt to eliminate distance between speaker and reader. In The White Heron, Sarah Orne Jewett attempts the ruth vanita, imaginative union of narrator, character, landscape, and reader. As Richard Poirier has argued, American writers have long been interested in chengiz khan movie, inducing visions in their readers. 25 But for the purposes of this essay, a useful example is the eighteenth chapter of ruth vanita, The House of the chengiz movie, Seven Gables, Governor Pyncheon. In that chapter, Hawthorne approximates the movement we have seen in Ligeia in such a way as to reveal the springs of the tale's ability to attract and please readers. Like Ligeia, Governor Pyncheon captures the reader and provides a terrifying vision of the abyss, a vision virtually the opposite vanita of that offered by Whitman and Jewett. This chapter begins in a tone of mockery as narrator and reader play the about Mandatory School System, game of pretending the dead judge is alive in order to judge him for his sins and to twit him for his inability to carry out his ambitious and greedy projects. But as we mock the judge, time passes.

The twilight comes glooming upwards out of the corners of the room. 26 We are left in utter, deathlike darkness. An infinite, inscrutable blackness has annihilated sight! Where is our universe? All crumbled away from us; and we, adrift in ruth vanita, chaos, may harken to the gusts of homeless wind, that go sighing and murmuring about, in quest of what was once a world (p.241)!

We have been captured in our game and the mockery has turned back upon us. The narrator identifies us with the homeless wind, for we have experienced something like death and now are spirits without a world. We are transformed and entrapped. While time is no longer of importance to the judge (so we agreed as we mocked him), now we experience it as unendurable duration: Would that we were not an attendant spirit here! It is too awful! This clamor of the wind through the lonely house; the judge's quietude as he sits invisible; and that pertinacious ticking of his watch (p. 242)! When the moon restores some light, the narrator lightens the chengiz khan, tone by mentioning the ghost legends of the ruth, house.

However, we are again entrapped by his efforts to make a little sport with the Essay Public School System Uniforms, legends. Vanita? His vision assumes a life of its own and reveals more than we know, that the judge's heir is also dead. The intended relief intensifies terror and entrapment, We needed relief .. from our too long and exclusive contemplation of that figure in the chair . yonder leaden Judge sits immovably upon our soul. Will he never stir again? We shall go mad unless he stirs (p. 245)! Several distancing factors, including a certain playfulness in the narrative voice, prevent the degree of Essay School Uniforms, reduction of distance in this chapter that one experiences in Ligeia. Still, it is ruth vanita, clear that Hawthorne seriously intends to terrorize the reader to some extent, perhaps in order to evoke a deeper understanding of the sufferings of others, especially Clifford and Essay about System Uniforms, Hepzibah, that the judge lacked during his life and, perhaps, to explore the world implied by the judge's values.

This chapter of The House of the Seven Gables helps to demonstrate that Poe's contemporaries were experimenting with the possibilities of reducing psychical distance and vanita, provides one example, in addition to Ligeia, of a movement toward dissolving a previously created aesthetic attitude. This example is useful to chengiz movie the further extent that it is ruth vanita, specific about what means it intends to use for terrifying the reader. Essay Mandatory School System Uniforms? There is an ruth attempt to entrap the friend betrayal, reader in the fictional situation, to render that situation frightening via the presence of threatening objects, agencies, and events, and to transform the reader psychologically. The threats of entrapment, confrontation with the threatening, and transformation are familiar because they are primary means by which the villains of Gothic Romance terrorize their victims. However, Hawthorne and Poe have introduced a new factor. Elizabeth MacAndrew points out that in eighteenth - century critical thought, the misery of innocent suffering was thought to call forth the reader's benevolence on behalf of the sufferer (pp.39 - 40). Ruth Vanita? Presumably, when the victim is terrorized, the reader may feel an intensity of pity as a part of the suspense that such threats evoke. These effects are often associated with melodrama and are familiar in the films of Alfred Hitchcock; consider, for scene from jaws, example, the intensity of suspense and fear for any character in Psycho who enters the house alone. MacAndrew also discusses John and Anna Aiken's puzzling over vanita what they saw as gratuitous horrors in Gothic fiction.

For them, as for Burke, terror became functional only in evoking the sublime, a response valuable in itself (MacAndrew, pp. 41 - 2). I Want English? However, when Hawthorne mildly but directly threatens the reader and when Poe makes the reader an actual victim of Gothic terrors, neither of these explanations is adequate. For horror to intensify the reader's sympathy and for terror to serve the sublime, distance is essential. When a tale sets out to terrorize the reader directly, it must do so by drawing the reader into an aesthetic attitude; then it must quite deliberately move toward destroying that attitude in such a way as to threaten the reader. This new factor subverts the old aims. To understand why Poe may have thought the ruth vanita, experience of terror might be pleasurable to readers, it is helpful to look somewhat closely at how fictional characters are made to react to terror. In the Gothic Romance, heroines often undergo a sequence of events that includes entrapment, a confrontation with some threatening circumstance, and i want english, a threatened or actual transformation. For example, in ruth, C.B.

Brown's Wieland, Clara Wieland experiences progressive isolation and multiple physical entrapments that contribute to psycholocigal entrapment in a repulsive social identity. During the Essay School System, physical entrapments she is subjected to vanita physical threats such as rape and murder and the psychological threats of transformation of social identity and, eventually, of personality. When she witnesses her brother's transformation into harry potter chamber a madman, she experiences a profound threat that she will be similarly transformed even should she escape all the other threats. By observing how she reacts to these threats, we may gain insight into what sort of reactions one might expect from a reader threatened in parallel ways by a tale. The central effect of Clara's entrapment in ruth, threatening circumstances is the deterioration of her rational powers; a separation of reason and will precedes the disordering of reason.

Alone in her house, Clara has heard from within her closet a voice plotting her murder. Yet on a later night, after she dreams of being murdered, she decides to enter that closet in defiance of a rational evaluation of friend betrayal, her position. In her closet she meets a man who says his intentions were to rape her. 27 Like Arthur Gordon Pym, when he is trapped in the hold of ruth vanita, a ship, Clara loses control of her will and partially loses her self - possession. Poe's novel is even more instructive on Essay about Public this point; Pym, as a result of entrapment, experiences debilitation and vanita, loss of orientation. He imagines threatening agencies and, eventually, loses virtually all control over body and Essay about Mandatory System, mind. The sequence, from ruth entrapment through transformation, causes a progressive disordering of rational faculties in the victims of Gothic Romance. When Clara understands the capitalist, nature of her brother's transformation, she reflects, I wondered at my brother's condition.

Now was I stupified with tenfold wonder in contemplating myself. Was I not likewise transformed from rational and human into a creature of nameless and fearful attributes (Brown, p. 205)? Following this train of thought to a conclusion, she realizes that her sanity must appear madness to her brother, who has actually heard the voice of God commanding him to slay those he loves. How can she be certain that he has not heard God's voice? Her rationally ordered world crumbles away leaving her hoping for ruth, the comfort of an early death (Brown, pp. 205 - 7). The central Gothic horrors constitute an assault on the integration of the victim's personality. Elizabeth MacAndrew has argued that Ann Radcliffe's novels involve tests of and the of secrets, their heroines.

For example, in The Mysteries of Udolpho , Emily's travels are symbolic journeys between different worlds that represent different states of mind she must confront and understand, whether they are in herself or in others . Brought up surrounded by goodness . Emily . makes out of human wickedness, cruelty, greed, and ruth, desperation, a nightmare Gothic world of supernatural evil. This Gothic view is scene from jaws, hers, not Ann Radcliffe's. Before she can escape, she must first recognize that Montoni is not a human monster but a bandit. (MacAndrew, pp. 132 - 3) Perhaps a story could attempt to subject a reader to a direct approximation of this kind of test. That Ligeia is ruth vanita, intended to try its readers seems plausible.

It is a trial to withstand and deal with a story that leaps over the normal distance between fiction and reader in order to attack the reader. The story may give pleasure because successfully reading it is a test of one's ability to Public School Uniforms hold together in the face of a world that refuses to surrender to one's powers of integration. All literature offers, among its many pleasures, those of exercising peculiarly human faculties and capabilities: verbal mastery, the power of forming mental images, sympathy, intensity and variety of emotional response, moral judgment, and, perhaps also, the sense of ruth vanita, having the capitalist economy, strength to vanita maintain the integration of one's chosen personality. Scene From Jaws? Personality is chosen, not only in the sense that we commit ourselves to values and actions that contribute to our identities, but also in vanita, the existential sense of moment by moment choice to be one personality (sanity) as opposed to surrendering to alternate possible selves (psychosis). Entrapment, confrontation with horrific threats, and transformation suggest three major psychological threats: claustrophobia and related spatial fears, paranoia, and schizophrenia. Ligeia may be seen as giving the reader some sense of how these psychotic states feel. To the degree that Ligeia succeeds at threatening its reader with these psychoses, it must test that reader's ability to resist such states. It is possible that readers will feel greater pleasure in the exercise of their faculties of integration as the scene from jaws, threats they withstand are more direct and intense. And, if the threats prove too intense, the vanita, normal reader has available the usual defenses, flight and repression. The pleasure of reading a tale that to some degree attempts a direct attack of terror on the reader derives from the reader's successful exercise of friend betrayal, his faculties of personal integration in vanita, resistence to the threats posed by that story. Capitalist Economy? Even though this hypothesis about the ruth, pleasure of terror has the potter, value of ruth, suggesting that the modern taste for chengiz khan movie, the mental terror that fiction can arouse may not be a disease, it is, nevertheless, certain - to vanita evoke skepticism.

Perhaps the best way of enhancing the Essay about Mandatory School System Uniforms, credibility of the hypothesis would be to analyze a number of texts with similar effects, but to do so would make this essay too long. However, with the ruth vanita, help of other scholars and critics, it is possible to suggest that there are other works like Ligeia which to some degree terrorize their readers, that the effect of terror in movie, such works centers on threats to the reader's personality, and that the pleasure that attracts readers to ruth vanita such works derives from exercising the personality's integrative faculties to master those threats. The possibility that other works function in ways similar to Ligeia is strengthened if not demonstrated by recalling the Mandatory School System Uniforms, critical histories of two other major terror tales, The Fall of the House of Usher and The Turn of the Screw. Vanita? Each has gone through the friend betrayal, same three stages of interpretation from literal supernatural readings, through the discovery of psychological ambiguity, to a proliferation of explanations of the ambiguity that seems to suggest that in both works a potentially terrifying indeterminacy emerges from the most attentive readings. 28 Works that attack readers in other ways have a long history and seem, in contemporary fiction to have increased in ruth vanita, number. Philip Thomson demonstrates how since ancient times the technique of the grotesque has produced in readers an Mandatory System Uniforms unresolvable clash of incompatibles. 29 Mathew Winston has argued that contemporary Black Humor concerns itself with unsettling readers, by deliberately disorienting them, in order to achieve various effects.

30 David I. Ruth? Grossvogel believes that the modern mystery story attempts to achieve a kind of open-endedness that will make the text into a mystery; the text offers itself as a deciphering, as another form of the obdurate otherness at capitalist economy whose shifting limits the probing continues. Ruth? 31 He further argues that The Purloined Letter is designed, as we have seen that Ligeia is designed, to entrap or captivate those of its readers who attempt to attend to it fully. The more closely The Purloined Letter is read, the more stubbornly does it refuse to yield itself. This story confronts the close reader with an experience of reality (Grossvogel, pp. 93 - 109). S.S. Prawer indicates that he and others have been terrorized by horror films. He attempts to explain how the terror works and suggests some ideas about why such an experience may be pleasurable. 32.

In Caligari's Children, Prawer attempts an analysis of the fascination of fear which seems to support our hypothesis. He lists and describes the khan movie, fears to which horror films have spoken. He recognizes the general fear of entrapment (pp. 77 - 8) and threatening agencies. The fear of threatening agencies may include: fear of being possessed (p.

5 1), of invasion of privacy (p. 52) and of being manipulated against one's will (p. 57), fear of vanita, those who have defied human limitations (p. 56), of the dead (p. 68), and of encounters with hostile non - humans (p. 52). He also recognizes the fear of being transformed; among the other fears he mentions, those related to transformation are: of being possessed (again), of the escape of one's inner animal nature (p. 53), of the loss of wholeness of personality (p.

55) and. fear of loss of a rational world (p. About Public Uniforms? 81). Such a list makes clear one point that might easily be misunderstood; the categories of entrapment, threatening objects and agencies, and transformation are neither mutually exclusive nor guaranteed to be all - inclusive. Barton Levi St. Armand underlines this point in The Roots of Horror in the Fiction of H.P. Lovecraft. 33 According to St.

Armand, Lovecraft finds the experience of viscosity terrifying because he associates it with the ruth, primal slime from which life emerged: To become a part of friend betrayal, that (primal) sea without losing consciousness was the ultimate horror of Lovecraft's landlocked world. It was the triumph of viscosity, the ruth, triumph of filth, the triumph of all alien mixtures, and especially, the triumph of alien blood (St. Armand, p. 63). Contained in the concept of viscosity are all three general categories: entrapment in a physical process of deterioration in which one is powerless before the capitalist economy, force that transforms one into an alien substance. This image of viscosity suggests that the key to the mental terror of fiction is the threat of ruth, transformation, for this threat presupposes entrapment and confrontation with a power that is about Public System, perceived as alien whether it arises from within or from without.

The threat of transformation seems aimed directly at the personality of the ruth vanita, victim just as the mental threats of psychosis that Ligeia makes are aimed at the personality of the to leran english, reader. In the words of Lovecraft's Randolph Carter, Merging with nothingness is peaceful oblivion; but to be aware of existence and ruth vanita, yet to know that one is no longer a definite being distinguished from other beings - that one no longer has a self - that is the nameless summit of scene from jaws, agony and dread. Ruth? 34. Prawer speaks more directly than does St. Armand to the problem of the reader's or the viewer's pleasure in i want to leran, the terror of vanita, a fiction.

He goes beyond the usually unexamined assertions that horror or films are somehow thrilling, for to leran, he recognizes the problem of explaining why a thrill of terror should be pleasurable. In his conclusion, Prawer suggests that viewers somehow perceive that horror is good for ruth, them: terror - films articulate not infrequently terror at the order we have created or help to uphold as well as the anarchic desires that oppose such order (p. 270). Potter And The Summary? He also says, . the terror - film responds to a need one can also observe in any fairground: the need to be safely frightened, the need to test and objectify and vanita, come to grips with one's terrors in a setting of ultimate security, where one can tell oneself at any moment: 'It is only a film; these are only actors; this isn't even my own dream, I can get up and economy, leave the ruth, darkened cinema to to leran english step into ruth vanita a more familiar world at any moment' (p. 48). While it may be true that one is chengiz khan movie, ultimately safe in that one can physically escape the mental terror of ruth vanita, a film, it is not certain that one is very safe. The viewer must make his own distance. And because the threats are mental, once one has taken in the images, they must be dealt with. Mandatory School System Uniforms? Prawer comments on the degree to which distance may be reduced in the cinema (pp. 65 - 6) and, still more interesting, he tells of his own daughter's loss of distance from 7he Exorcist: Age - old fears that alien forces may enter and take over ruth our very bodies help to i want explain the undoubtedly disturbing effect that Friedkin's The Exorcist had on a number of susceptible viewers - including my teenage daughter, who had the vanita, screaming heebie-jeebees for weeks after seeing that film, but who seems now to have come to terms with the to leran english, terrors it articulated for her (p.

51). When a work of terror succeeds in erasing the barrier of distance, it becomes positively threatening to its reader or viewer. But, as another of Prawer's personal experiences suggests, this threat may be just what the reader or viewer sought in ruth vanita, the first place. He describes his reaction upon first seeing. White Zombie when he was fourteen: the whole added up to an encounter with deep - seated fears from which I felt I emerged with credit. I remember the experience with gratitude as a liberating and exhilarating one. (p. 202). Prawer is not speaking here of being safely frightened, but of being really frightened. He is not speaking of the thrills of terror, even though he most likely felt emotions that could be so named, but rather of chengiz, his own mastery of the terror that the film evoked. Prawer may not wholly agree with these derivations from his presentation, but his experiences seem to confirm the idea that the pleasures of terror arise from the successful exercise of faculties of ruth, personal integration in resistance to the mental terrors of the work.

For his more susceptible daughter, the process of mastery extends over to leran english some time after viewing the film. One is safe from such a film only because it will end; therefore, if one cannot master its terrors, one can only reassert some form of distanced relation to those terrors either during or after the film. Ruth Vanita? The latter response is probably much less pleasurable than the former. If the rewards of enduring the disappearance of distance that leads to psychological terror include the scene from jaws, liberation, the exhilaration, and the self - praise that Prawer describes, then, surely, tales of terror are valuable. They have not only the ethically valuable effect of helping us to master our terrors, but also the essential artistically valuable effect of pleasing us. Vanita? 35 Without the latter, there would be no readers or viewers to benefit from the former effect.

Normal people are attracted to terror in literature and film because it legitimately pleases them. In order to be pleased by terror, they must exercise their uniquely human faculties, not only all those faculties that are necessary for Mandatory System Uniforms, the arts of reading and understanding, but also those special faculties for ruth vanita, maintaining an integral personality. Inevitably, in the pleasurable exercise of those various faculties, those people who are terrorized are also humanized. The pleasures of terror are humane pleasures. 1 Quoted by capitalist Elizabeth MacAndrew, The Gothic Tradition in Fiction (New York: Columbia Univ.

Press, 1979), p. Ruth? 41. Her source is the third edition of friend betrayal, John Aikin and Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Pleasure Derived from Objects of Terror, Miscellaneous Pieces in Prose (London, 1792), p. 120. There are slight textual variations in the first (1773) and second (1775) editions. 2 Joseph M. Garrison, Jr., The Function of Terror in the Work of Edgar Allan Poe, American Qu arterly, 18 (1966), 137. 3 D.P. Varma, The Gothic Flame (London: Baker, 1957), chapters five and six. 4 Ann Radcliffe, On the Supernatural in Poetry, New Monthly Magazine, NS 16 (1826), 145 - 50. 5 The critical response to Hawthorne's works is well known and can be reviewed in B. Bernard Cohen, The Recognition of Nathaniel Hawthorne (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1969). For attacks on the morality of Sanctuary see H.S.

Canby, Seven Years Harvest (Murray Hill, New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1936), pp. Ruth Vanita? 79 - 82, Oscar Cargill, Intellectual America (New York: Macmillan, 1941), p. 378; and W. Lewis, A Moralist with a Corncob, Life and scene from jaws, Letters, 10 934), 312 - 28. Ruth Vanita? For a pair of less than satisfactory attempts to treat the khan movie, novel as allegory, see Richard Chase's discussion of George Marion O'Donnell's account of Sanctuary, 7he American Novel and Its Tradition (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1957), pp. 237 - 41. For a discussion of Sanctuary as a Gothic novel, see Robert D. Hume, Gothic vs. Romantic: A Reevaluation of the ruth, Gothic Novel, PMLA, 84 (1969), 288. 6 Stuart and Susan Levine, eds., The Short Fiction of Edgar Allan Poe (Indianapolis: Bobbs - Merrill, 1976), and Eric W. Carlson, Poe's Vision of capitalist, Man, R.P. Vanita? Veler, ed., Papers on Poe (Springfield, Ohio: Chantry Music Press, 1972), pp.

7 - 19. 7 David Halliburton, Edgar Allan Poe: A Phenomenological View (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1973), pp. 217 - 18, brings the horror of the narrator's defeat back into the story as subordinate to the victory of transcendent vision. 8 Sidney P. Moss, Poe's Apocalyptic Vision, R.P. Veler, ed. Papers on Poe, pp. 42 - 53 and G.R. Thompson Poe's Fiction (Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1973), pp.

77 - 87. For a discussion of the views of Carlson, Moss, and Thompson, see G.R. Thompson, Poe and capitalist, Nineteenth - Century Poetry, in J:A. Robbins, ed. American Literary Scholarship 1972 (Durham, North Carolina: Duke UP, 1974), pp. 212 - 14. 9 Joel Salzberg, The Gothic Hero in Transcendental Quest: Poe's 'Ligeia' and James' 'The Beast in the Jungle,' ESQ , 18 (1972), 113. 10 These definitions of terror and ruth, horror derive from modern usage, not from Ann Radcliffe's distinction in On the Supernatural in Poetry. It will be useful to notice that, according to the definitions I use in harry and the chamber, this essay, terror will vary according to ruth vanita the immediacy and intensity of the threat.

Horror will vary according to the moral deserts and scene from jaws, the intensity of suffering of the victim. Horror tends to become terror, or to mix with it, when the psychological distance between oneself and the victim decreases. 11 Roy P. Vanita? Basler began the controversy in his 1944 College English essay The Interpretation of Ligeia, reprinted in capitalist, R. Regan, ed., Poe (Englewood Cliffs. Ruth Vanita? New Jersey: Prentice - Hall. 1967). Mandatory School Uniforms? pp. 51 - 63. Arguments from various points of view for a supernatural reading include James Schroeter, A Misreading of Poe's 'Ligeia,' PMLA, 76 (1961), 397 - 406; Edward Wagenknecht, Edgar Allan Poe (New York: Oxford UP, 1963), pp.

248 - 49, John Lauber 'Ligeia' and Its Critics: A Plea for Literalism. Studies in Short Fiction. 4 (1966).28 - 32: E..W. Carlson. Poe on the Soul of Man . Ruth? ( Baltimore: The E.A. Poe Society and the Enoch Pratt Free Library. Economy? 1973). pp. 14 - 17. David Halliburton reads the story as both supernatural and psychological in Edgar Allan Poe , pp.207 - 18.

12 G. R. Thompson, ' Proper Evidences of Madness': American Gothic and the Interpretation of 'Ligeia,' ESQ , 18 (1972), 3049, and ruth vanita, Daniel Hoffman. I Have Been Faithful toYou in My Fashion: The Remarriage of english, Ligeia's Husband, Southern Review, 8 (1972), 89 - 105. 13 James W. Gargano, Poe's 'Ligeia': Dream and Destruction, College English, 23 (1962), 335-42. 14 Joel Porte, Tire Romance in America (Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan UP, 1969), pp. Vanita? 69 - 74. 15 Clark Griffith, Poe's ' Ligeia' and the English Romantics. University of Toronto Quarterly , 24 (1954), 8 - 13, 16 - 25. 16 Thompson's arguments appear both in scene from jaws, 'Proper Evidences of Madness': American Gothic and the Interpretation of 'Ligeia,' and in Poe's Vision, pp. Ruth? 77 - 87.

17 Stephen L. Mooney, Poe's Gothic Wasteland, in C.W. Carlson, ed. The Recognition of i want to leran, Edgar Allan Poe (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1966), p. 295. 18 I am aware of an element of unfairness in subjecting previous readings to a double - bind. Such a judgment seems inevitable from the point of view argued in this essay, but it is not meant to exempt this essay from careful scrutiny or opposing arguments. 19 Edward Bullough, 'Psychical Distance' as a Factor in Art and an Aesthetic Principle, in Hazard Adams, ed., Critical Theory Since Plato (New York: Harcourt, 1971), p. 756. 20 Roman Ingarden, Aesthetic Experience and Aesthetic Object. Philosophy, and Phenomenological Research, 21(March 1961), 289 - 313. 21 Peter Penzoldt, TheSupernatural in Fiction (1952; New York: Humanities Press, 1965), pp. 146 - 91.

22 James is speaking of his aims in The Turn of the Screw , Preface to 'The Aspern Papers,' in The Art of the Novel (New York:, Scribner's, 1934, 1962), p. 172. 23 David H. Richter suggests that The Vicar o f Wakefield may break down structurally under the strain of ruth vanita, attempting to and the chamber of secrets summary encompass such an end, Fable's End (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1974), pp. 171 - 76. 24 Samuel Monk, The Sublime (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1935), chapter 7. 25 Richard Poirier, A WorldElsewhere (New York: Oxford UP, 1966).

26 Nathaniel Hawthorne, The House of the Seven Gables (New York: Signet, 1961), p. 240, 27 C. B. Brown, Wieland (NewYork: Doubleday, 1962), pp. 100 - 104. 28 For a survey of the discussion of The Fall of the House of Usher, see E.W. Carlson, ed., Edgar Allan Poe: The Fall of the House of Usher, (Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill, 1971). This survey should be supplemented with Halliburton, with Thompson's Poe's Fiction, and with a suggestive essay about the story's formal structure by Walter Evans. 'The Fall of the House of Usher' and Poe's Theory of the Tale. Studies in Short Fiction,14 (1977 ),137 - 144. For a survey of ruth, discussions of The Turn of the Screw, see Robert Kimbrough, ed.. Henry James: The Turn of the Screw (New York: W.W.

Norton, 1966). Perhaps the most sophisticated argument yet to potter chamber of secrets appear for a supernatural reading of James' novella is in Wayne C. Booth, Critical Understanding (Chicago : U of Chicago P, 1979), pp. Ruth? 284 - 301. Economy? Booth bases his argument on - the vanita, limits imposed by an informed judgment of an potter author's capabilities. Were he to find this paper convincing, Booth might be able to revise his judgment of James' capabilities. 29 Philip Thomson, TheGrotesque (London: Methuen, 1972), p. 27. 30 Mathew Winston, Humour Noir and Black Humor, in vanita, Harry Levin. Scene From Jaws? ed..

Veins of ruth, Humor (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1972), pp. 269 - 84; and The Ethics of Contemporary Black Humor. Potter And The Of Secrets? The Colorado Quarter1y 24 (1976), 275 - 88. See also my Some Techniques of Black Humor, Thalia 2 (1979-80), 15-21.. 31 David I. Grossvogel, Mystery and Its Fictions (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1979), p. 21. 32 S.S. Prawer, Caligari's Children: The Film as Tale of Terror (New York: Oxford UP, 1980), chapters 2, 4, and 8. 33 Barton Levi St.

Armand, The Roots of Horror in the Fiction of H.P. Lovecraft (Elizabethtown, New York: Dragon Press, 1977), pp. 59 - 77. 34 H.P. Lovecraft, Through the ruth, Gates of the Silver Key, At the Mountains of Madness (London: Panther, 1970), p. 281. 35 That terror fiction tests and khan movie, strengthens the self seems to support Varma's argument that Gothic fiction originates out of the decline of religious belief in the eighteenth century ( The Gothic Flame, pp.

206 - 212). Ruth Vanita? In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, it has become increasingly clear how personal identity is threatened by the loss of a sense of relatedness to the cosmos on a spiritual level, Perhaps there is so much modem horror fiction and film because we need it now more than ever.

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Custom Compare and contrast between classical and ruth vanita, romantic period essay paper writing service. Classical and romantic music evolved in different eras which are highly distinguished by different features like their content and method of composition. The classical period took place from mid 18 th century to early 19 th century (1950-1820) (Dorak). This period was notably marked by structure which was particularly of the scene from jaws sonata form and consequently the period brought immense changes to ruth, the music industry. Capitalist Economy! On the other hand, romantic music or rather period is used to describe an era which evolved from the musical ideas, genres, and formats which had been established in earlier periods, notably the classical period and developed further through syncretism and expression of vanita, different forms of art with music. Therefore in scene from jaws this argumentative essay comparison and contrast will be extensively discussed between the classic and romantic periods preferably dwelling on their musical nature (Law). In these two periods, each had clear set of characteristics which differentiated one from the other. For instance in the classical period, lots of vanita, composers paid attention on expressing views, ideas, and thoughts of the enlightenment period. Chengiz Khan! Classical music emerged during this era and it was highly noticeable by a clearer quality than baroque music and was progressively more homophonic. Ruth Vanita! Homophonic indicates that a chordal accompaniment helps in supporting a melody on top of it. The orchestra or rather the band group of the classical period enlarged and i want to leran english, the harpsichord was surpassed and replaced by the piano-forte.

The early piano music was generally very light and simple in texture but as the ruth classical period progressed, it became more sonorous and richer (Swann). The major types of of secrets summary, compositions were divertimentos, serenades, symphonies, string quartets, trios, and sonatas. Vanita! Seemingly the capitalist economy sonata type developed and became the mainly important type. This type was applied to make up the initial movement of the majority large-scale works, but in addition it was also used on other single pieces and vanita, movements such as overtures. In this period the most renowned composers included Beethoven, Mozart, Schubert, and Haydn. Beethoven was a critical factor in the progression towards the romantic period and hence can be termed as both romantic and classical (Law, n.d.).

On the other hand in the romantic period known to have existed from 1815-1910 and characteristically this period was not necessary covered with romantic love literature. In other words the romantic composers focused greatly on romantic and self-expression themes like nationalism. Within a broader perspective the pieces or rather the Public School System Uniforms music written during this era had much of expression and passion in them. Ruth! Dissonance and chromaticism developed more diverse together with the properties and modulations of the 7th chord. Composers like Wagner and Beethoven and applied numerous new chords that improved the harmonic words of the time. Composers who thrived during the romantic era include Franck, Chopin, Weber, Schumann, Schubert, and Beethoven (Law, n.d.).

Romanticism followed a course that brought about the growth of formal structures for a masterpiece created or set down or in their common outlines in former periods, and the final result was that the pieces of work were understood to scene from jaws, be additional expressive and passionate, together by 19th century and nowadays audiences. Due to the growth of structure that is ruth vanita, those basics pertaining to instrumentation, key, and form within a typical masterpiece, and the increasing expressiveness and idiosyncrasies of the latest composers from the scene from jaws fresh century, it therefore became easier to recognize an artist based on vanita, her/his style or work (Swann, n.d.). Romantic music generally attempted to Essay Mandatory Public System, boost power and ruth, emotional expression to express human feelings or deeper truths, while keeping but in various cases making use of the formal structures found in the classical era, in friend betrayal others, making new forms that were seen as better appropriate to the new matter. This issue in the fresh music was at the present not only entirely abstract, but also regularly drawn from additional art-form sources such as nature itself, history, or literature (Law). Similarities between Classical and Romantic Music Styles. The two periods happened one after the ruth other thus the classical period was followed by the romantic era. This romantic period generally represented growth and khan, developmental expansion of expression and structure in European classical music which started on early 19th century and ended in early 20th century.

Throughout its development it maintained lots of the classical period characteristics hence both eras share a considerate number of similarities. It’s widely argued that for instance in the The Harvard Dictionary of ruth, Music, that classical and Romantic period music occurred as just stages in a continuum of friend betrayal, development. Thus as the eras commenced from ruth vanita 19 th to 20 th centuries, they assisted in bringing out the two forms of music hence worthy noting that there was extra continuity of the music than change (Gilmore, n.d.). Appreciation of the classical music form by about Public romantic era composers is highly evident in their works. These romantic artists kept on writing concertos, symphonies, and operas, all of which were established classical forms. Chamber music was extensively common during the classical period. Composers in the Romantic time such as Mendelssohn, Brahms, and Schubert got involved in producing Classical style chamber music, which was projected for small ensembles, in the late Romantic period (Gilmore, n.d.). Another similarity touches the both music eras include melody and harmony. In reference to vanita, the Billboard Illustrated Encyclopedia of Classical Music, aspects like melody and Essay Public System Uniforms, harmony were not ruined during the Romantic period; rather they were simply expanded upon.

Ludwig van Beethoven was a composer whose main notable contribution was by assisting in bridging the gap involving the two periods. His first compositions were during the ruth vanita classical era and were predominantly in the Classical approach, whereas his afterward compositions, for instance like the Mandatory Public School Moonlight Sonata were termed to be of romantic in nature hence depicting the romantic period (Gilmore, n.d.). Differences between the Classical Romantic Eras. From the above discussions on the similarities between the two eras, it’s clearly evident that the famous composer Beethoven acted as a bridge linking the classical and the romantic music together. Again its seen that in a large percentage the romantic music has its ancestry from the classical music style. The development of harmonic ideas and ruth vanita, forms those were eminent during the classical era some of them were carried forward and applied in the romantic period. Romantic composers worked extensively towards the defining of individual as opposed to group music perspective which was highly used in the classical period. Hence the romantic composers stretched out boundaries of harmonic and form function thus cultivating new forms of romantic music (Miller, n.d.). Beethoven carried a great significance and role as a composer who operated on both eras in chengiz khan movie creating different forms of music. Majority of music critics argue out that his music contradicts or rather confuses itself in terms of form. His early on vanita, symphonies sound similar to friend betrayal, Classical period pieces, specially his initial two symphonies.

After there, the composition changes into a Romantic method. The firm forms of vanita, Classical music began to fragment as he wrote the capitalist extremely programmatic Fifth Symphony. This symphony was composed by use of a 4-note victory purpose in which the song shows a tale of conquest in war. This work contrasts with the complete Classical period that dealt in melodious themes and not essentially human expression (Miller, n.d.). The development between the ruth vanita two forms of music was notably different. The classical period composers were into much effort to harry chamber of secrets, disengage themselves from the comparably disorganized, chaotic, and confused music which was in the previous era called the Baroque period. On the other hand, Romantic music composers did not strive to free themselves and progress away from the music of the Classical era. Thus this difference in philosophies is significant in comparing the disparity amid the two styles. Whilst the Classical period wanted to make something completely new, the Romantic period was satisfied to grow and develop the thoughts of the Classical period.

This overlapping of ruth, thoughts is why a lot of early Romantic composers might be tough to differentiate from late Classical composers (Miller) Lots of Romantic composers operated or rather worked on music in the formerly established structures but pushed the limits in innovative and new ways to meet their requirements for expressiveness. For example, music from the Baroque and Classical eras characteristically consisted of scene from jaws, phrases that had plain beginnings and vanita, endings. On the other hand the romantic composers often extended phrases, thus overlapping beginnings and endings, as in this example from Wagner’s Overture to the opera Tristan and Isolde ( Augusta State University ). The sonata-allegro form constantly continued to to leran, give a very helpful basic structure for major works such as sonatas, concertos, and vanita, symphonies. To Leran! Composers in the Romantic period, nevertheless, saw the development part, as well as the ruth transitions connecting sections, as opportunities for inventive expression. They on and on advanced to develop those sections. Occasionally the transitions became elongated than the thematic phrases themselves. Also romantic composers regularly added codas and introductions and to traditional forms or rather the harry classical forms. In a few instances, codas created a second growth section. This resulted in longer and longer works.

For instance, a classic Mahler symphony may play over an hour, even as some of Mozart's early symphonies ended all of twelve minutes ( Augusta State University ). During the classical era, composers had very much objective on safeguarding order and delivering melodies in the straightforward and clearest approach possible. Vanita! For this reason, chords in the Classical period were incredibly simple and based greatly on the minor-major scale relationships. Friend Betrayal! Unluckily this approach in the direction of musical regulations changed in the Romantic period. Music composers in the period of Romantic era started increasing the sonata structure, obscuring the vanita tune with extra chromatic and advanced chords, and developing a new mode of music that expressed the khan movie theatrical and not essentially the bodily aspects of music. The Romantic age bracket shed aside thoughts that did not provide their instantaneous desires and reserved concepts that improved their music (Miller, n.d.). On an expansion on the above point, much stress is put on the melody feature in music since it’s an important parameter. This essential element of music was mainly important to vanita, the romantic composers.

The romantic melodies tended to be flowing and long; they were incredibly singable melodies and were known to be emotionally expressive. Harry Potter And The Summary! Romantic composers frequently made use of long melodies as the themes in a piece of ruth vanita, music and then reused fragments of friend betrayal, those melodies as stuff for other parts of the similar piece. Additionally important, composers of this era did not consider constrained to the seven tones of a specific scale, and thus they freely made chromatic changes in their melodies. For instance, a fine case in point of a distinguishing Romantic melody can be found in the first movement of Franz Schubert’s 8th Symphony (known as the Unfinished Symphony). Pay attention to the extraordinary richness with which Schubert treats the melody in the short two minutes that the vanita following excerpt lasts: Play Symphony No.8 in B minor, Unfinished Franz Schubert. Symphony No.8 in Essay Mandatory Public System B minor, Unfinished: First Movement ( Augusta State University ).

The classical music composers were satisfied to stay and work within a definite boundary of what made up the acceptable music. Ruth! In this era the chord resolutions were at all times the identical, and furthermore the connection between keys, sections, and movements, maintained proportion. On the other hand the Romantic composers extended these boundaries or rather limitations, and in place they brought in new chords, atypical key changes and in numerous ways went in opposition to the policies and harry potter and the of secrets summary, procedures that were built up in the Classical period. Whilst the ruth vanita forms such as fugue, symphony, and even sonata, remained the similar, the explanation of these forms altered considerably by significantly increasing the character and length of these forms (Miller, n.d.). The Classical music era had a musical approach or rather style that was constant. Thus if you happened to be a composer in this time period, you definitely had knowledge of what was anticipated of of secrets, you. Haydn was a massive influence on the growth of Classical music with Mozart helping to ruth vanita, perfect and refine the style. Beethoven began his music career writing in potter summary a Classical style merely to desert and vanita, show the way in the direction of capitalist, a more Romantic style.

The early Romantic composers like Schubert and Brahms kept more directly with the Classical civilization and simpler chord organization. Ruth Vanita! In the meantime, all through the movie latter element of the Romantic period, composers such as Strauss and Wagner were stretching the incredibly core of tonality. These music composers gave way for the subsequently generation of composers (Miller). It’s of great important and honor to know the origin of music and the composers who were responsible for inventing different forms of music and vanita, how they natured the. In this discussion its clearly evident that classical music had a greater influence on movie, the emergence and development of romantic music.

Thus much respect should be granted to ruth, the composers of the harry potter summary two eras as they significantly helped in the growth of music up to now. Buy Compare and contrast between classical and romantic period essay paper online. Do you want to get an. Get a generous discount on the original paper on this topic.