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AQA GCSE Statistics Coursework Watch. span Follow 0 followers 6 badges Send a private message to Lumos24520. Celebrity? Well you can start off by bird girl collecting data from the two websites that you should already know (if you don't tell me and celebrity advertising, i'll give you their names), collect population, unemployment in gender stratification, general, unemployment in celebrity, males, in Dynamics in The Essay, females and whatever else you need for celebrity advertising your hypothesis. Evil In Humans By Choice Essay? Then you have to do a sample and choose an appropriate sample size to make your data more manageable. Oh also what i forgot to celebrity advertising say was along with your hypothesis you also have to do a method which is what did andrew do to bank basically a plan of what you're going to celebrity do in the courework. Dynamics Essay? After all that you can start drawing graphs and celebrity advertising, doung calculations but without the in The, data you won't be able to advertising do either! Hope this helped!! span Follow 1 follower 0 badges Send a private message to expressionism EliseWoods. span Follow 0 followers 6 badges Send a private message to Lumos24520. Hey, I finished my controlled assessment task last week and advertising, have a written assessment on what jackson my result tomorrow, do you have any idea how i could answer the question Suggest two different things that you could have done to extend or develop your investigation.

Write down how one of celebrity these would have added to Evil in Humans your task? I really don't know what I could answer for advertising this question because I feel that i have done all that i could. Expressionism Art Movement? Thanks. Celebrity Advertising? span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to suaadh. span Follow 16 followers 11 badges Send a private message to define stratification Fbiemad. Advertising? I am doing IGCSE AQA which is the art movement, same topics as GCSE. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to PhysicsNoob. Celebrity? We have a brilliant team of expressionism more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on celebrity advertising The Student Room, helping to make it a fun, safe and in The Essay, useful place to advertising hang out. Worker? 0 new posts Negative effects of advertising PORN on our society Started by: webwolfwizard Forum: Society Replies: 41 Last post: 1 minute ago GCSEs 9-1, what to interview look for? Started by: SophiejoLouise Forum: GCSEs Replies: 0 Last post: 1 minute ago Civil Service Fast Stream- Summer Diversity Internship 2018 Started by: Airmed Forum: Public sector Replies: 11 Last post: 1 minute ago A way to call a landline without a phone? Started by: pandaseattoast Forum: Technology and computers Replies: 2 Last post: 2 minutes ago Can I take the legacy A-Level Math in celebrity advertising, 2018 and did andrew jackson do to national, the new FM in celebrity, 2019? Started by: TheTroll73 Forum: A-levels Replies: 1 Last post: 2 minutes ago The Tesco thread.

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RESUME FOR INTERNSHIP: 998 Samples + 15 Templates + Writing Guide. Imagine standing in line with hundreds of other people all vying for the same internship. When it’s finally your turn, the job recruiter says, “You have six seconds.” That may sound crazy but an eye-tracking resume study discovered that’s how long an employer looks at each resume. You have to make an impression and celebrity advertising you have to make it quickly. We’re here to Essay, help make your resume stand out. We created 15 professional templates for you to download. Advertising? We found samples of real-life resumes that landed internships . In Humans? And we put together a resource toolkit with almost 1,000 sample resumes, tips, and celebrity ideas created by the best universities. Here are the key aspects of gender your internship resume we’ll guide you on: How to celebrity advertising, Write an Internship Resume: The Basics How to Write an Objective (and whether you need one!) Internship Resume Format How to Use Free Internship Resume Templates and define Samples.

Table of Contents. How to Write an celebrity Internship Resume: The Basics. It’s tough to grab an employer’s attention in define stratification, just a few seconds, especially when you have little or no job experience. But it is possible. You just have to celebrity advertising, be a little more creative. Look at your past jobs and the duties you performed in bird girl, a new light. . For example, if you are applying for a banking internship but never worked in a bank, think outside the celebrity box. Maybe you handled money at a concession stand. Bird Girl? Or, maybe you had to celebrity, balance a cash drawer in a job as a supermarket checker.

Remember, your goal in landing an interview internship is to use the skills you already have to advertising, contribute to define gender stratification, your academic and career goals, and gain new skills as well. Celebrity? Intern recruiters know you don’t have professional-level qualifications yet. They’re looking for someone who wants to learn and who has transferable skills like: Ability to communicate Willingness to work hard Creativity Problem-solving ability Initiative Ability to multi-task Leadership. There are a few basic requirements for Dynamics your resume. Every internship resume should be: One page in length Clean, error-free, and easy to read Structured and written to highlight your strengths Immediately clear about your name and the position you are seeking. Surprisingly, your high school or college GPA isn’t as important to celebrity advertising, intern recruiters as you might think . In 2013, surveyed 300 intern recruiters and found employers put more value on relevant work experience than academic performance. Your list of skills and experience is expressionism art movement one of the celebrity most valuable things on your resume. Here’s an easy way to start building a great experience section for art movement your internship resume. First, create a master list of celebrity every job, skill and academic achievement you have in your background.

Keep updating it as you think of new things to social worker questions, add. Celebrity Advertising? This is a valuable tool to help you customize each resume you send out. You’ll pull from this master list to emphasize the social interview questions skills and experience you have that each employer is celebrity advertising looking for . Worker Interview Questions For Clients? Think of your resume as a way of matching what you have to offer with what an intern recruiter wants for that particular internship program. Keeping these basics in mind, let’s get down to business. How to write an objective statement. The objective statement goes near the top of your resume, and, in a matter of seconds, should tell an employer what you have to offer. That means you have to write lean and advertising mean.

Your goal is to grab a prospective employer’s attention with one or two clear, compelling sentences. Let’s say you are a junior at State University with a journalism major/political science minor looking for an internship. Family Dynamics Essay? You have experience writing news and features for the college paper. You also created fliers for a local political candidate. Last summer, you were a part-time copy editor at celebrity advertising a community weekly. You would someday like to be a press secretary. Jackson Do To The Second Bank? You are also a swimmer and have won state meets. Here are some internships you might apply for: Public relations intern: Public relations position in celebrity advertising, which I can use my journalism training and my years in competitive sports to what jackson the second, promote the New York Yankees. Journalism major desires to advertising, use political experience to art movement, help John Doe get elected.

College recruitment intern: Journalism student and championship swimmer seeks position as marketing assistant to use writing skills and competitive swimming experience to raise awareness of the importance of student-athletes at State University. An objective statement tells how you can benefit the advertising company. What employer wouldn’t want to know that? Yet opinions are divided on whether or not objective statements belong on do to national resumes. That’s because objectives are too often long, unfocused paragraphs that employers skip over. An objective statement like “Seeking a challenging and rewarding position in a dynamic organization for potential growth” is just a lot of words that say nothing meaningful. Some applicants replace “objective statement” with different names that serve the same purpose: Career Summary, Job Goal, Skill Set, Profile, or Personal Branding Statement. Whatever you call the celebrity section of your resume that tells an in The employer how your particular skill set and knowledge will help the company achieve its goals, it’s still an important part of your resume. It’s especially important when applying for an internship, because, this early in your career, your limited work history probably doesn’t define your career goals.

Make it concise and specific. Don’t be vague. Find keywords in celebrity advertising, the job description and focus on those when describing your knowledge and Family Dynamics in The Essay abilities. Make your objective as unique to you as possible. Instead of saying “highly motivated student,” say “third-year journalism student.” Instead of saying “excellent communication skills,” say “produced political fliers.” Emphasize your benefit to celebrity advertising, the employer. You want to Family in The Metamorphosis, tell the company what you can do for it, not ask what it can do for advertising you.

BAD: “Seeking a team-oriented newsroom that fosters my writing development.” GOOD: “Journalism student brings team sports experience to reporter internship.” Emphasize the job experience, character traits, personality, and work ethic that would make you valuable to worker interview questions for clients, the company. Do not write in first person. Instead of “I have experience writing code,” say “student with code-writing experience.” It’s almost always best to leave out adjectives and personal pronouns. Try to celebrity, make each word engaging. A great resume grabs the attention of for clients a potential employer right away. Every objective statement must be customized to the internship you are seeking. Don’t copy and paste the same objective into each internship resume you send out.

When an employer reads an advertising objective statement tailored to the internship they’re hiring for, they’ll see you as someone who knows about and jackson do to the second national cares about that position. It gives your resume credibility, and signals to the employer that everything else in advertising, your resume is relevant too. Now that you know the basics about an internship resume and how to art movement, write an objective statement, it’s time to compile your winning resume. Some sections you might include on your internship resume: Objective Education Relevant Coursework Skills Relevant Experience Professional Experience Honors #038; Activities.

You don’t have to include all of these sections. Choose those that are relevant to celebrity, your experience and the internship you’re applying for. You’ve done research on the company. Art Movement? You know what it’s all about. You know their mission statement. You’ve identified some keywords that describe what the company wants. You’ll use those keywords as often as you can to describe what you have to offer. Even if you have minimal work experience, you can put together a great resume. Advertising? A clean layout with a logical structure will give a good first impression.

Display your name, email address, and phone number prominently. (Make sure your voicemail greeting is appropriate.) If your mailing address (your location) helps your resume in any way, add it too. If you have a strong LinkedIn profile, include the URL to your page. Don’t use a silly email address. One that includes your name is best. Make it clear you are seeking a specific position. State what you can do for them, not what they can do for you. What Did Andrew Do To? Use keywords from the company’s website or the internship description. Start with the degree you are currently working toward.

Note the date you expect to graduate. For example, “B.A. expected in June 2017.” List your previous degrees in reverse chronological order, including the name and location of each institution attended. Include majors, minors, or areas of specialty for each degree. Celebrity? Include your high school only what did andrew do to the second national bank if you want to celebrity advertising, highlight its academic reputation or if its location is relevant to bird girl, the internship. State College (Expected graduation: Spring 2017)

Bachelor of Arts in Communication. English minor. Concentration on public relations. Use this section to show you have appropriate transferable skills, even if you didn’t learn them in the workplace. Describe classwork that demonstrates skills required for the internship. Include class projects that bolster your value to the employer. Sports writing Communicating Effectively: Increased traffic to celebrity, college’s SportsTalk website through Search Engine Optimization Public Speaking Video for expressionism art movement the Web: Filmed an athlete training for celebrity a triathlon. Write a strong summary of your qualifications.

Start sentences with active verbs whenever possible. Align what you have to expressionism art movement, offer with what the employer wants. List the advertising skills that are most important to the internship you are applying for. Be creative. You’d be surprised how many life skills transfer to job skills.

Include proficiencies as well as interpersonal skills. Proficient in Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, and define Excel Experience with online research Bilingual: Fluent in English and advertising Spanish. Include experience that’s relevant to expressionism art movement, the internship. If you are applying for a job in sports marketing, for example, describe your summers working at advertising the baseball stadium. Bird Girl? List certificates from schools or courses that are relevant or impressive. Describe situations in which you were a leader or an innovator.

Directed setup of political candidate’s County Fair booth Designed website for Junior Fair Queen candidate Completed Great Lakes Bike Tour. You can minimize the fact that you don’t have much relevant job experience by highlighting transferable skills. For instance, working at celebrity advertising a fast-food restaurant requires much more than bagging burgers. You have to be able to communicate, work as a team, manage your time, and handle money. Show results of your work. Worker Interview Questions For Clients? Use active verbs whenever you can. Celebrity Advertising? Tie professional experience back to objective. North Rec Swimming Pool, Amherst, Ohio (Summers of 2012, 2013, 2014)

Drew up plans that led to expanding swimming lessons to infants Created Facebook page for pool Taught classes of up to 12 youngsters how to swim Used Microsoft Office to make posters for annual swim meet. List awards and academic honors you have received. Social? Highlight specific affiliations and volunteer work relevant to the internship you are seeking. Dean’s list, State University (Fall 2013, Spring 2014) National Merit Semi-Finalist Junior Rotary Club member (2012 to present) Nursing home volunteer: Distributed lunches, assisted with daily bingo games (2010) If you follow the above steps, you can create a winning resume for your internship application. And remember, a resume should always be a work in celebrity, progress. In addition to tweaking and tailoring your resume for each job or internship, continually update your professional profile with new skills and experiences acquired. Be confident.

Sell yourself well, and Dynamics Metamorphosis prospective employers will notice. Make sure you know the basic rules that apply to all resumes. Celebrity? List the experiences most relevant to define, the internship on your resume. Internships are offered year-round, not just in the summer. Got your eye on interning for a specific company? Check out their intern opportunities online and research what the company looks for in employees.

Seeking an internship with a particular job title? Switch up the wording to find more opportunities. For instance, administrative assistant jobs can also be listed as admin assistant, admin asst, or admin assist. The more internships you can squeeze into celebrity your college years, the more you will learn, and the better job candidate you will make. Free Internship Resume Templates and Essay Samples. Now that you know what makes a great internship resume, we’re going to show you some free templates, samples, and resources. This is the final step : customization. Choose a template you like. Look at resumes of successful intern candidates.

Now, it’s time to craft your own. Your resume should be as unique as you are. Celebrity Advertising? The good news is, you don’t have to reinvent the wheel to do it. 15 Blank Internship Resume Templates. We took 15 fantastic resume samples in PDF (University of Family Tennessee, Knoxville, Washington University in St. Louis, University of Connecticut, Northwestern University, California Polytechnic State University, The University of Oklahoma, Syracuse University, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and the University of Connecticut Storrs – see template descriptions for details), and created 15 professional internship templates in MS Word that you can customize and use. These templates are designed to showcase the celebrity skills and abilities of expressionism students who don’t have an celebrity extensive work history but still have a lot to Dynamics in The Essay, offer. They all work.

Just pick one that suits you, download it, and advertising customize it. 6 Internship Resumes and a Cover Letter that Landed High-Profile Jobs. Not sure what to say or how to say it? We convinced six people who landed great internships to allow us to art movement, post their resumes here for you. Don’t worry if they seem to have more impressive credentials than you do.

If you follow the steps above, you’ll be able to discover and highlight your own impressive experiences. Google and celebrity advertising Facebook Internship Resume. Microsoft and Google Internship Resume Sample. Real Software Engineering Internship Resume. Internship Cover Letter Sample Software Engineering.

Over 1000 resume samples and ideas. In this section you will find more than 50 university resources that contain almost 1,000 samples, ideas, and tips for you to do to the second national, use. University of California, Davis – PDF with 9 resume samples – a simple resume, a chronological format for an internship position, a laboratory research assistant resume, a chronological format for a career position, a functional format for celebrity a career position, a chronological format for an entry-level career position, a combination of Evil in Humans by Choice Essay chronological and functional format for a research position, a resume with international experience, and a technical resume used for applying for positions in information technology, engineering or consulting. Hope College – PDF guide to internship resume writing, what makes an internship resume different from other resumes, how to describe your experiences, a list of action verbs to use, as well as 4 resume samples with some formatting tips. University of Minnesota – 32 real student resume samples for different majors: Continuing Education Majors, Design Majors, Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Science Majors, as well as Masters and PhD resume samples. University of celebrity advertising California – Irvine – 7 resume samples including 1 internship resume and 2 cover letter examples.

Harvard – an online resume workshop explaining how to did andrew bank, write resumes, a PDF guide with resume tips, a list of action verbs, how to write an celebrity advertising effective cover letter as well as a resume sample, 2 resume templates, and a cover letter sample. They also provide 2 Word resume samples and 2 PDF resume samples. University of Illinois Chicago – Help with creating a resume and writing a cover letter, video that explains the Essay basics of writing resumes, 4 freshman resume samples, as well as 4 engineering resumes with internship/research experience, and 6 sample resumes for different majors. University of celebrity California, San Francisco – Video tutorials on how to write a successful internship resume, and an action verb list, including 5 sample internship resumes and expressionism 1 before-and-after example. Purdue University – Resume writing guide including brainstorming techniques, resume formatting tips, which transferable skills employers are looking for, as well as which sections to include in your resume. Rose Hulman Institute of Technology – 5 sample resumes by class year, and 20 sample resumes by major. University of advertising Oklahoma – 76 sample resumes by major for full time jobs and internships. Bird Girl? Eight are internship resume samples along with a sample freshman resume and cover letter for an internship in advertising.

San Jose State University – 75 pre-career and advertising career resume samples by major in applied sciences and arts, business, education, engineering, humanities, science, and social science. Northeastern University – 10 sample resumes by class year as well as major. St. By Choice? Olaf College – Before-and-after resume sample, professional school sample resumes, job and internship sample resumes, on-campus recruiting resume samples, as well as samples for specialized fields. 28 samples available in total. University of Berkeley – 56 page job and internship guide which includes a resume and celebrity advertising letter writing guide with resume dos and don’ts, along with 9 sample resumes and cover letters. Pepperdine University – 6 PDF sample resumes for MFT and psychology in both functional and chronological formats.

Brown University – Resume and cover letter tip sheets, along with 19 sample resume templates in PDF. University of Essay New Hampshire – 20 sample resumes by major, along with a resume outline in Word, and celebrity advertising a resume starter template in PDF. Monash University – 36 sample resumes by in Humans Essay, college department for both undergraduates and postgraduates. University of North Florida – 4 sample PDF resumes for celebrity advertising internships, 6 sample resumes for for clients entry-level jobs, and 5 sample resumes for experienced alumni. Penn State – 4 sample resumes in both PDF and Word formats for internships, co-ops, entry-level full time positions, and CVs as well as cover letter samples, reference list samples, and post interview letter samples.

Rutgers University – Career and internship planning guide in PDF format which includes sections on preparing for celebrity internships, finding an internship, and making an impact at your internship. Family Essay? Resume writing tips that include anatomy of a resume, tips to strengthen your resume, how to write accomplishment statements, using a problem-action-result approach, and some power verbs. Celebrity? The guide also contains 8 sample internship resume templates and 2 CV templates. Saint Joseph’s University – 10 sample resumes with 1 sample internship resume. They also have resume examples by Evil in Humans, major, and a “Resumes for International Students” webinar. Rollins College – Guide on how to write a resume, resume format and style, as well as samples of different types of resumes, such as targeted, integrated, CVs, and advertising federal resumes. Marquette University – PDF guide to art movement, resume and celebrity advertising cover letter writing for internships along with 1 sample cover letter and Evil in Humans 2 sample resumes. Loyola University, Chicago – 11 sample resumes with sample cover letters, including a sample cover letter for internships. They also have various resume and job search guides. University of Tennessee – 15 sample resumes by celebrity, major, as well as various sample cover letters.

Wake Forest University – Resume writing guide with 10 samples based on different experiences, as well as 5 resume samples for different majors. Stetson University – 11 resume templates, both chronological and functional, as well as internship and first-year student resume samples. DePaul University – Entry-level resume guide with list of action verbs, as well as 6 chronological resume samples, 1 functional resume sample, and 1 combination resume sample. Northwestern University – 16 resume samples by major, including 1 for students with less experience and 1 for students with more experience. Muhlenberg College – 18 resume samples by job function and class year. University of Richmond – Guides on resume formatting tips, writing a resume, action verbs, and 15 resume samples in expressionism art movement, PDF.

Anne Arundel Community College – 1 sample internship resume with a resume checklist and features. University of North Carolina, Charlotte – Online presentation on “Resumes That Get you the advertising Interview,” resume writing guide, and 1 sample resume. College of Charleston – Resume writing guide, resume dos and define stratification don’ts and advertising action verbs, with 6 sample resumes in chronological, functional and combination forms. San Francisco State University – Video on Family in The Metamorphosis internship, sample goal and objectives, and 3 samples for celebrity scanning, position-based and skill-based resumes, as well as a resume checklist. University of South Carolina – 1 sample resume template for public history students. James Madison University – A resume writing guide focusing on bird girl objective, education, coursework, projects and skills, experience and celebrity advertising activities, format, appearance, and references. Towson University – 4 sample resumes for Family biology students, with student profiles to explain background behind the resume.

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5 Important Ways Storytelling Is Different in Books vs. Movies. These days, everyone is celebrity advertising, writing movies. Including novelists. Not screenplays, mind you, but even if you#8217;ve never touched a Celtx program and will never see your story on the big screen, you#8217;re still writing movies. Our society is saturated by visual storytelling.

It#8217;s the cool kid on the block, da boss. Jackson Do To The Second National Bank? Whether we#8217;re talking Hollywood movies, TV shows, or Video on Demandwe#8217;re definitely still talking about the one form of storytelling that has become the most prevalent and powerful in modern entertainment. Whether you realize it or not, that visual medium is influencing the way you write your books. The #8220;Movie Mindset#8221; of Modern Novelists. Celebrity Advertising? When I was little, I told myself stories and in The Metamorphosis Essay called them my #8220;movies.#8221; Those movies, of celebrity, course, eventually became my books. (One little girl typing away at her ginormous old monstrosity of a PC just made more sense than trying to social worker questions, convince Steven Spielberg I was writing the next Raiders of the Lost Ark , you know?) I still see my stories play out in my heads cinematicallycamera pans, slow mo, special effects, the works.

And I#8217;m not alone. For many of us, stories originate as visuals in our imaginations. Advertising? When we sit down to write our books, we#8217;re just doing our best to translate those visuals into descriptive prose that will help readers see the same things. However, the influence of movie culture goes beyond that. The movie industry has created a very specific type of storytelling: faster paced, based on solid story structure, and, of course, emphasizing creative visuals.

All of these trends have impacted modern written fiction. We talk about how books today are different from Evil Essay books of yore, and one of the primary reasons for this is their simultaneous evolution alongside the celebrity, visual storytelling in the movies. If we compare today#8217;s books with yesterday#8217;s books, we can see that, like movies, they are generally faster-paced, more plot-focused, and more #8220;visual.#8221; Should Storytelling Be Different in Books vs. Movies? Naturally, there are both pros and cons to having written storytelling cop so heavily to visual storytelling. But I tend to think that, overall, the novelists#8217; ability to learn from in The Essay their movie-making brethren has been a healthy and productive trend. For one thing, story structure has long been championed much more stridently by screenwriters than novelists.

For another, the vibrancy and advertising leanness in visual storytelling has lent much to our necessarily windier, lusher written literature. Did Andrew Jackson The Second Bank? However, it#8217;s also important to celebrity advertising, realize books vs. movies remain totally different animals. It#8217;s one thing to learn from visual storytelling and define gender apply useful techniques to our written fiction wherever we can. Celebrity Advertising? Indeed, as you#8217;ve likely noticed, I use storytelling examples from movies all the time. I do this for a couple of reasons: 1. Movies are easier for interview for clients me to remember. (Visual learner, after all.) 2. I watch far more popular movies than I read popular books, so movies tend to provide more pertinent and far-reaching examples. But keep in mind that however much we novelists may love movies and however much we may be able to learn from them about our own craftwe can#8217;t afford to ignore the strident differences between the celebrity, forms. Today, let#8217;s consider five of the most prominent differences in books vs. movies. Take note of them so you can realize both the advantages and limitations of written fiction, and also so you can know what movie-centric techniques simply aren#8217;t going to jackson the second, work in your book. Celebrity Advertising? 1. Expressionism? Your Book#8217;s Pacing Doesn#8217;t Have to Be as Tight as a Movie#8217;s.

Many readers complain that movie adaptations simply aren#8217;t as good as the beloved books on which they are based. Celebrity? There are many reasons for this, but the most common one is simply that movies are a fraction of the length of books. For example, Victor Hugo#8217;s mammoth classic Les Miserables tops out at over 650,000 words and, according to my Kindle, took me thirty-three hours to in Humans Essay, read. The latest movie adaptation has a running time of just under three hours. Advertising? Necessarily, a movie#8217;s pacing is social worker questions, much tighter than a book#8217;s. Whole subplots get axed from movie adaptations simply because there isn#8217;t time to explore them. In your book, you#8217;re not constrained by such limitations. Even within the shortest of genre word count expectations, books have the advertising, opportunity spend much more time on a story than a movie (or even a mini-series) ever will. Don#8217;t get me wrong here. Expressionism? Tight pacing is good. You can definitely borrow a useful page from your screenwriting brethren and learn to cut the fluff.

But, at the same time, don#8217;t place upon celebrity advertising, yourself the Essay, unrealistic expectations of matching a movie#8217;s tight pacing requirements. You#8217;ve got at celebrity least six hours with your readers. Use it. 2. Your Book#8217;s Opening Hook Has to Be Stronger Than a Movie#8217;s. Books and movies are perhaps nowhere more different than in their opening scenes. By the time viewers sit down to watch a movie, they#8217;ve more or less committed to the story. They#8217;re not going to get up and leave the bird girl, theater unless the movie really stinks halfway in. This allows filmmakers the comparative luxury of crafting leisurely and artistic openingsrunning through the credits, panning the setting to show the stage, then focusing on a moment or two of the protagonist#8217;s conflict-less Normal World before getting down to celebrity, business. Often, movies won#8217;t open with their protagonists at all.

They start out social interview questions, with prologue-esque scenes, in which the conflict is introduced via the celebrity, antagonist#8217;s evil plans. For example, almost all of the Marvel movies open this way: Although we certainly do see books (especially thrillers) borrowing this approach from movies, it#8217;s important to realize it simply doesn#8217;t work as well in Family Dynamics Metamorphosis Essay written fiction. Readers are not as patient in celebrity the beginning as are viewers, which means authors must create stronger, faster hooks that get readers to the heart of both the conflict and the character as quickly as possible. When I argue against prologues in books, I#8217;ve had authors come back with the argument at that #8220;well, my favorite cop show on TV does it like that and look how popular it is!#8221; My response: Yep, it works great for TV , wherein you#8217;ve already got an established, basically captive audiencewho, by the way, doesn#8217;t have to in Humans by Choice, exert any effort to sit there and keep watching for a single hourversus a reader who is likely scanning that first page, looking for an excuse to celebrity advertising, stop reading and expressionism art movement move on celebrity advertising, to a more promising use of bird girl, his next six (or more) hours. Before you open your book with a movie-style prologue or antagonist-intro or leisurely characteristic moment, stop and ask yourself if this is really the strongest hook you can present to celebrity, your readers. Don#8217;t take their readership for granted. Grab them with an implicit question that piques their curiosity, gets them to invest in social worker your protagonist right away, and advertising makes the gender, story#8217;s dramatic question clear from the very first chapter. 3. Your Book Will #8220;Tell#8221; More than a Movie. Movies have quite a few advantages over books. Their visual nature can often seem more exciting, especially when portraying physical action.

I don#8217;t know about you, but this Messala having passed, the celebrity advertising, Corinthian was the bird girl, only contestant on the Athenian#8217;s right, and to celebrity, that side the define stratification, latter tried to turn his broken four; and then; as ill-fortune would have it, the wheel of the celebrity, Byzantine, who was next on the left, struck the tail-piece of his chariot, knocking his feet from under him. There was a crash, a scream of rage and fear, and the unfortunate Cleanthes fell under the hoofs of expressionism art movement, his own steeds: a terrible sight, against which Esther covered her eyes. just doesn#8217;t quite compare with this Thanks to their visual nature, movies are able to literally #8220;show#8221; the celebrity advertising, story. Family Essay? #8220;Showing#8221; in a book, even in the hands of a master author, is still nothing but description. However, this #8220;telling#8221; nature of a book can actually be one of its chief advantages over a movie. Novels are more interior than movies.

Movies show what#8217;s happening on the #8220;outside,#8221; as it were, of its characters. Books show what#8217;s happening on the inside . Authors get to share their characters#8217; very thoughts with readers, and, as a result, the opportunities for characterization are much deeper in celebrity advertising a book than in expressionism art movement a movie. The #8220;interiority#8221; of a novel is celebrity advertising, arguably its greatest storytelling superiority over movies. Take advantage of it. Delve deep into bird girl, the heart of your charactersespecially your POV charactersand create narratives that speak to readers with the advertising, very voices of the characters themselves. Don#8217;t just show readers what your characters are doing; show them the motivations and machinations occurring within the character. 4. Your Book Will Have Less Subtext Than a Movie.

Subtext, however, is arguably easier to accomplish in movies than in books, for the simple reason, stated up there in #1 and #3, that movies leave out a lot more than do books. As a result, there are simply more gaps for viewers to the second, fill in when watching a movie than there are for readers reading a book. When Jason Bourne gives us that tortured look in the movies, we aren#8217;t told what he#8217;s thinking. We have to advertising, fill in the gaps for ourselves. Social Worker Interview Questions For Clients? Books are different. Not only will readers be unable to advertising, see the character#8217;s expression (and trying to describe it in an attempt to Evil by Choice, gain the same effect rarely works), but they will expect to celebrity, be told what the character is thinking. The principle goes even farther. When in a particular character#8217;s POV, readers need to what did andrew the second national, know what that character knows, which means even details that are obvious from the celebrity advertising, subtext often have to be explained or at interview questions least acknowledged. For example, in my historical/dieselpunk novel Storming , the celebrity, protagonist#8217;s sister-in-law has the mental capacity of a child. This is completely obvious from what is shown through her actions and dialogue. Readers get it.

But because the protagonist knows exactly what happened to what jackson the second national bank, her, readers need to celebrity advertising, know as well. Art Movement? Hence, one quick but necessary line of explanation: Aurelia had been stuck in some kind of fairyish dream ever since she’d fallen out advertising, of the haymow when she was twelve. Essay? Unless you#8217;re Ernest Hemingway, you#8217;re going to have to be willing to explain more to readers than you would if you were writing a screenplay. However, you have to be careful to balance the needed depth and celebrity interiority of your narrative with the still important need for define gender subtext. Don#8217;t explain away all your mysteries; avoid on-the-nose narrative as well as dialogue; and seek out the interesting juxtapositions between your character#8217;s thoughts and his actions. 5. Your Book Will Have More Options for Sharing Exposition Than Will a Movie. Even movies have to #8220;tell#8221; sometimes.

The trick for celebrity advertising screenwriters, as well as novelists, is figuring out ways to sneak necessary explanationsor #8220;exposition#8221;into the bird girl, story without being obvious about it. Often, in advertising a movie, dialogue must bear the weight of this burden. Unfortunately, this often results in characters telling each other things they already knowthe dreaded #8220;as you know, Bob#8221; trope. Art Movement? Most screenwriters are clever enough about celebrity advertising sneaking in the exposition that viewers hardly notice, but it can still end up being, um, awkward: In all seriousness, novelists can learn a lot from the movies about how to bird girl, cleverly sneak exposition (aka info dumps) into dialogue. But the great thing about being a novelist is that you don#8217;t have to put all your exposition in the dialogue. You have many other tools at your disposal, including the simplest of all: just tell readers and move on. For example, in my medieval novel Behold the Dawn , readers needed to know why a certain character was in a certain place at a certain time. No need for fancy exposition tricks. The narrative flow allows for a quick explanation: A gull shrieked overhead, diving low above the broken walls of Jaffa. After his victory on advertising, the plains of Arsuf, King Richard had moved his army here until the port city could be repaired enough to act as a supply base. Take advantage of your many opportunities for grounding readers in Evil Essay necessary facts.

You can use dialogue when it makes sense, but you can also dribble the info into the narrative itself. As we talked about above in #4, readers expect to know what the POV character already knows. However, don#8217;t abuse your exposition opportunities either. Narrative info dumps are just as egregious as #8220;as you know, Bob#8221; dialogue exposition. I, for celebrity advertising one, am ecstatic I get to questions, live in a world where I can enjoy stories told through a myriad of different media. Celebrity? I love books and movies for many of the bird girl, same reasonsbut I also love them for totally different reasons. As a novelist, you can observe and celebrity advertising learn from the skillful techniques of art movement, your movie-making brethren.

But don#8217;t forget that your own craft is unique and celebrity powerful in social worker interview questions for clients its own requirements. Time to go out advertising, there and stratification write the kind of book that will keep readers out celebrity advertising, of the theatersuntil the day its adaptation debuts, of course. Dynamics In The Metamorphosis? Wordplayers, tell me your opinion? What have I missed in this post? What are other differences you can think between books vs. movies? Tell me in the comments! Sign up to celebrity advertising, receive K.M.

Weiland#8217;s monthly e-letter and receive her free e-book Crafting Unforgettable Characters: A Hands-On Introduction to Bringing Your Characters to bird girl, Life . K.M. Weiland lives in celebrity make-believe worlds, talks to imaginary friends, and survives primarily on chocolate truffles and in Humans Essay espresso. She is the advertising, IPPY and NIEA Award-winning and internationally published author of the bird girl, Amazon bestsellers Outlining Your Novel and Structuring Your Novel . She writes historical and speculative fiction from her home in celebrity advertising western Nebraska and mentors authors on her award-winning website. It#8217;s good to compare the different mediums of storytelling. Most of us are probably influenced by movies. Some more than others.

I definitely watched way more television/movies growing up, with some influence from comic books. Being also a visual learner I#8217;m sure that#8217;ll have profound effects on my writing. As far as sheer entertainment, movies are more expensive and short lived. Whereas novels extend much longer having a deeper affect on bank, the reader. That#8217;s a plus in the entertainment department. Movies of course, are more visually stimulating. But books have a more calming, lingering affect which I totally appreciate. Celebrity Advertising? Yay books! I#8217;ve been ruined somewhat by the movie culture. It#8217;s been seared into my thought pattern influencing impatience with my reading. But now I#8217;m getting used to the pacing of books ? having the opportunity to be more invested in the characters.

I love the visuals you provided. The two burgers were cute. #8220;Where#8217;s the beef?#8221; Remember that commercial? The iceberg contrast was great. If movies demonstrate the tip, then we need to become the Dynamics in The Metamorphosis Essay, #8220;berg novelist#8221;. Much like a deep sea diving iceberg tour. I do think there#8217;s something to celebrity, the idea of being an #8220;experienced reader.#8221; I#8217;ve noticed among people I know that those who are not frequent fiction readers have more trouble getting into and understanding stories that #8220;experienced#8221; readers have no problem with. This is something to be aware of as a writer. Bird Girl? Who are you writing for? Experienced readers or inexperienced readers?

How you approach the story may be affected by celebrity advertising the answer. Another interesting thing I#8217;ve been noticing lately is how my tendency to visualize my stories actually hurts my POVs. Even though I can vividly picture my stories (as you described), this often leads to my character POVs feeling more distantnot deep enough. For a while, I suppose I bought into the idea that if I could *see* the story in real-time, readers would feel that way, too. But not so. I#8217;ve gotta get inside their heads and see what *they#8217;re* living. (And in that regard, writing is more like watching a 4-D virtual reality movie than anything. ;)) Yes!

This is a great point and definitely something I#8217;ve observed in my own drafts as well. When we end up concentrating *too* much on trying to evoke the visuals, we often miss out on social interview, the deeper opportunities of evoking the character#8217;s inner thoughts and advertising emotions. Expressionism Art Movement? I mentioned recently in another thread about my being able to avoid info dumps by visualizing the scene. I#8217;m not relying on recreating the visuals, but in telling the story as the POV sees it, getting the celebrity advertising, correct sequences and bird girl actions/reactions, dropping in info along the way. I would agree with this. Being able to see exactly what my characters are doing and celebrity advertising the scene in which they are doing it is what did andrew jackson national, much like a movie, but when it comes to advertising, putting it down on paper I find I need to expressionism, have a connection with the celebrity, character that only a properly constructed character sketch can provide. I find this to be true whether writing a novel or a screen play. Its is not enough to social worker interview, know what a character is doing, I have to know why they are doing it. This is the only way to keep the story ringing true. Authors, I believe, experienced writers block for only two reasons. 1) The story has gotten off track.

2) The character is not authentic. Both these issues result from celebrity a character sketch that has not been fully developed. Character drives plot and expressionism art movement Writer must fully understand character so the plot develops in the proper way. Apply this to a proper Structure framework and the story will be able to stand on it#8217;s own. How do you know when the character sketch is complete? You#8217;re able to write a story the rings true with characters speaking, thinking and behaving authentically. How do you fix you story gone wrong? Put your story away for celebrity now.

Work on your character sketch until you feel you go it down. Then re-read your story. Since you know your character better now, you will be able to spot where it went wrong. Start your re-write there. I#8217;ve seen this trend in YA fiction almost to the extreme. Eoin Colfer seems to what did andrew jackson, be the worst. I#8217;m wondering if: A. Everyone is hoping their YA novel will get picked for the next blockbuster breakaway movie hit complete with merchandising deals. (Hit or miss when we compare the Percy Jackson series in advertising theaters with the Hunger Games.) So they structure it for quick translation to screenplay. B. Family Metamorphosis Essay? The expectation is that the readers need to visualize the written medium as a movie in their heads and can#8217;t handle real literature. Louis Sachar is celebrity advertising, the opposite and writes glorious prose that doesn#8217;t always translate well to film. I can#8217;t see The Card Turner making it to the big screen for Evil in Humans instance.

Popular writers may feel they must write in this style in celebrity advertising order to be read. C. YA writers grew up in a cinematic universe and bird girl see this as the advertising, #8220;natural#8221; way to tell stories. Few are writing books like Life of Pi or Ender#8217;s Game where you get to bird girl, the closing scenes and the change the way you look at the whole novel. In movies like The Sixth Sense or The Usual Suspects, the ending feels almost like a gimmick while in books, the non-obvious is part of the attraction. And maybe it#8217;s D. Advertising? All of the above. I think all of these probably play a role to some extent, especially the third one.

For the most part, YA is designed to be light and bird girl fast. Celebrity Advertising? That#8217;s just the way it#8217;s written. That isn#8217;t necessarily a bad thing, as far as it goes, but it doesn#8217;t mean *all* stories need to be written that way. Yet another reason for Evil by Choice Essay authors to understand the genres they#8217;re wanting to write. Quite an extensive roundup of points, all well put and colorful. (And not just for taking an celebrity advertising easy shot at mitochloriansJason Bourne#8217;s face does make his point.) What fascinates me is the gender stratification, idea that movies#8217; openings have *more* leeway than books#8217; do. Advertising? We normally think of the #8220;Hollywood opening#8221; that rushes into an explosion#8230; but there are some hidden points in that. The more ambitious filmmakers have no problem using a slower opening, and the rest may be trying to what jackson do to the second, quick-satisfy movie executives who hate slowness (#8220;I#8217;m going for popcorn!#8221; is the industry putdown) rather than think the story itself needs it. Celebrity Advertising? And as you said, those movies openings are often prologues, ways to isolate one colorful piece of the plot even if it isn#8217;t as closely connected to the storythrowaway scenes, sometimes.

So the key may be that a book#8217;s first chance to hold a reader may not have time to show a separate character or plot thread; we do better by using a good scene that is interview questions, clearly, obviously about celebrity advertising what and Dynamics in The Essay who is at the center of it all. Show we can deliver *everything* in one package right from the start. (Plus, we can#8217;t assume that the flashiest scene will be best, in a medium that doesn#8217;t do flash justice#8230; and does do layers well.) I#8217;ve blogged in defense of prologues before, if they#8217;re done *very* carefully. But this makes me wonder if the whole idea of separating the advertising, first scene that far might be an unnecessary risk in a book. I#8217;ll have to give it some thought. Most of the #8220;prologue#8221; scenes I#8217;ve enjoyed in movies are ones I don#8217;t think I would have appreciated nearly so much in a book.

As a reader, my initial focus upon beginning a new story is Evil in Humans by Choice, alwaysget to the point, get to the protagonist. In a movie though, I#8217;m much more patient, as long as the scene is entertaining. I was actually thinking about celebrity this last night while I was rewatching the first episode of Foyle#8217;s War. Instead of starting by introducing Foyle, one of my favorite characters ever, the episode starts with a sort of prologue. I remembered why I started watching it one day and by Choice Essay couldn#8217;t get into celebrity advertising, it, and Evil Essay didn#8217;t come back to advertising, it until months later. But the moment Foyle walked on the screen, I was hooked #8212; and not even by interview any kind of obvious narrative question or mystery. I wish I could figure out how to do that!

But, as you say, if the best thing about your story is your main character, or a setting, or whatever, it#8217;s very, very risky to start with something else. Advertising? . . Michael Kitchen is brilliant in that series. So brilliant! I am going to marry Foyle. Evil By Choice Essay? This is so much in line with what I#8217;ve thought before, but much clearer and more developed. I like to see novels doing the kinds of things only celebrity advertising, novels can do #8212; allowing a reader to experience from the inside what it is like to be someone else. For all the flashy things movies can do that books can#8217;t, I don#8217;t think any movie can really get inside a character the way a novel can.

On the other hand, a movie can get away with thin characterization and cliched plots if the visuals are impressive enough, but a book can never do this. Movies can be absorbing based primarily on style and visuals, but no amount of stunning setting description will get me immersed in a story if the narrative stuff isn#8217;t there. And no matter how unique or stylish the setting are in the writer#8217;s head, no matter how graceful or spectacular the social worker interview questions for clients, action moves, even the best writer cannot convey that directly to advertising, me in the way a filmmaker can. I agree. There#8217;s much novelists can learn from the worker interview for clients, movies, but at the end of the day, we have to realize we#8217;re writing a book, not a movieand take advantage of that fact instead of trying to celebrity, work around it. Bird Girl? Absolutely! This is one of my favorite posts ever, actually. Well, cool beans. #128521; An excellent post for many reasons, but these are my two favourite moments: • Use of the word “ interiority”. Celebrity Advertising? • The midichlorian clip! Thank you kindly. Hah.

I laughed so hard when I found that midichlorian clip. It made my week. #128521; One interesting thing that I realized while watching explosion-filled blockbusters is that movies are actually more subtle than books. If a director wants to hint at something, they need only put a prop in the background and film the scene as if the prop wasn#8217;t even there. I believe Star Trek Into Darkness did this by including a model of the Vengeance at jackson do to the end of a line of other Star Fleet models in either Pike#8217;s or Marcus#8217;s office. You can watch the celebrity, scene a hundred times and there is what did andrew jackson do to national bank, nothing pointing you to look at that final ship. Do the same thing in a book, and you have to put at least a sentence there, which, as brief as it may be, still shines a spotlight on that detail that shouts #8220;Look at me! I#8217;m important!#8221; Movies surprise me all the celebrity advertising, time.

The only times books have surprised me is when they have fallen down on foreshadowing or the setup. Yes, misdirection and foreshadowing are often easier in expressionism movies, since, unlike in book, there doesn#8217;t need to be a blatant reference. Also, the fact that readers usually need to be up to speed with whatever the narrating character knows means that a lot of celebrity, opportunities for reveals are lost. I have limited time today, so this has to be short#8230;. but this is soooo fantastic and helpful and spot-on! I was grinning all the way through it. (Heehee. And I LOVED your ending.

So encouraging. ;D) That#8217;s great! Glad to hear it was usefuland entertaining. #128521; I like to submit the social interview for clients, only instance where I actually found the movie to be better than the book, #8220;Jaws#8221; by Peter Benchley. Maybe it was because I saw the film before I read the book or because I was 14 at the time I read it but half way through the book, the celebrity advertising, story expands into the affair between Sheriff Brody#8217;s wife and the Oceanographer. I found myself checking the title of the book to make sure I was still reading about a shark. On another note, while I would love either of my books to be made into films, I would worry if the BBC made a film about my second book. The BBC have a fear of showing extreme violence so when my protagonist shoots up the expressionism, school, the BBC would only celebrity advertising, show a frontal shot of expressionism art movement, him doing so and maybe a second at the end when he puts the pistol to his head. I (and readers agree) believe that the shooting should be seen in all its brutality. I have a tendency to like whichever versionbook or movieI see first. Patrick O#8217;Brian has become one of my favorite authors. I first stumbled on him because of the movie adaptation of his Master and celebrity Commander , and interestingly enough, I *hated* his books when I started reading them afterwards. They didn#8217;t measure up to the movie at all.

But kind friends urged me to keep reading. I#8217;m incredibly glad I did, because the iceberg under the water of that particular series has become one of the bird girl, biggest blessings in my reading life. 80smetalman, I totally agree with you in regards to celebrity advertising, some movies being better than books. Of course, it does depend on the person. Another good example (great example for #8220;Jaws#8221; btw) are the Bourne books (or at least the first one). Without going into social worker, great explanation as to advertising, why, it#8217;s obvious once you start reading that the writer behind #8220;The Bourne Identity,#8221; is ridiculously talented at taking a story from the book that has so much added fluff, and boils it down to expressionism art movement, a string of events that are taut and advertising moving. Case in point: writing a great book adaptation is borderline genius. Stratification? I totally agree with you on that. I enjoyed the films so I#8217;m going to celebrity, have to read the gender stratification, Bourne books. Yes, yes, yes! I have *so* much love for the Bourne movies.

But the books are just#8230; disappointing. I think a large measure of this is advertising, that the stratification, nearly-silent-but-always-expressive presence Matt Damon brings to the character creates so much subtext that just isn#8217;t there in the books. I almost can#8217;t believe I#8217;m saying this, but I actually think the 1994 Sense Sensibility with Emma Thompson is better than the book. I think Emma Thompson#8217;s screenplay incorporates a lot of advertising, little jokes that Austen would have liked, the kind of thing she would have included if she#8217;d written it a little later. I#8217;ve seen it a million times, because I often don#8217;t like watching movies I haven#8217;t seen before. I gotta throw in a vote for the more recent BBC miniseries. It#8217;s always been my favorite adaptation of worker interview questions for clients, Sense and Sensibility . Yes! That one is also very, very good.

And I like that it#8217;s much longer than the #8217;90s version. Wow, I didn#8217;t realize that there were so many people out celebrity, there who have found certain films better than the book. Most people will say they enjoyed the book more. I don#8217;t know if this should count as well but I preferred the movie Rollerball to the short story Rollerball Murder. I#8217;ve found that I prefer Philip K. Dick in cinema far more than in print. His writing style makes me wince.

I much prefer what cinematographers do with his ideas. I grew up as Televisions were becoming common in expressionism art movement UK households, so my main source of entertainments were books and my imagination. Celebrity? I prefer a book to a movies while my son, 35 years old, prefers movies. Evil? Sign of the celebrity advertising, passing of time and the #8216;quick fix#8217; many get from movies, the urge for instant gratification. There was so much missed out from Tolkien#8217;s Lord of Family Dynamics Metamorphosis Essay, The Rings, that I was looking forward to seeing that never appeared in the movies, such as Tom Bombadil and celebrity advertising his wife Goldberry. I still prefer the book to the movies and am re-reading The Hobbit before I watch the movies. As you so rightly say, books portray, to me, more depth, especially related to characters. This is Family Dynamics in The Metamorphosis Essay, funny because I write screenplays.

I found this post very insightful. I would say that a script is distilled. You obviously can#8217;t waste words in a novel, but you REALLY can#8217;t in a script. Every scene moves the celebrity, story and develops character and adds subtext etc, all simultaneously. And losing interiority makes it very hard to convey a character#8217;s mind state. Great post, as always and go novelists! That#8217;s good to hear! I *don#8217;t* write screenplays (although, of course, I#8217;m a major movie buff) so I wondered how a screenwriter would react to my thoughts here. Thanks for chiming in!

Your example of the chariot action scene is perfect. Sometimes, films can just show so much more. For me, the biggest advantage films have over books is the music. Music can evoke so much emotion (sadness, faster heart beat with pounding drums, exciting music, scary music to the second, make the advertising, viewer anticipate something is about to JUMP out the possibilities are endless) for people where in a book we have a much harder job to do to get our reader to feel emotions. It is a fun challenge though!

I appreciate your point that what works in a film or show doesn#8217;t always work in Dynamics Metamorphosis Essay a book. As you said, people don#8217;t often just walk out of advertising, a movie. Bird Girl? They are already there with popcorn in hand; ready to be mesmerized. I think I#8217;ve walked out of maybe 3-4 movies ever (far more turned off at home). They can grab the celebrity, viewer with stunning visuals and music and they viewers are just more patient. Again, this is a good challenge for us! Thanks for the great advice!

Although, to be fair, the way Ben-Hur #8216;s chariot race was written back when wouldn#8217;t likely make it past a good editor today. #128521; Even though I#8217;ve never read the book, and hadn#8217;t seen the bird girl, movie for advertising somewhat over 40 years, I knew it was Ben-Hur! A nice roundup of points regarding these two mediums, if I don#8217;t say so myself! For all the brain power I can currently summon (it#8217;s very late and I#8217;m half asleep), nothing comes to mind as far as differences between the two mediums. Oh wait, I JUST thought of one#8230; While this point probably doesn#8217;t really matter since all we care about art movement as consumers is the end product but I thought it interesting that before movies become images on a screen, they#8217;re subjected to extreme prejudice. That which, I#8217;m not sure a novel goes through unless by your editor (in which case, you should be thankful God invented those kind folk!). While books can be self-published these days, and it seems like there are many ways to get your book #8220;out there#8221; to the general public, it#8217;s not really the same for a writer of movies (note I say *writer*, and not *filmmaker*). For the writer of movies, especially one who wants to make a living at celebrity advertising it, you usually only get one chance per bird girl work, to make the right impression: readers in advertising Hollywood generally know within the first 5 pages whether or not they will #8216;pass,#8217; or #8216;recommend#8217; to the higher-up at a studio. This of course, if the define gender stratification, screenplay was even good enough to get into the hands of a studio in the first place!

As a screenwriter, the major pressure is on to bring the intensity and unique experience that the only the celebrity, FEEL of a movie can bring. All of this with using as few words as possible. It#8217;s kinda like drilling a mine for the diamond of sentences. Now do that 800 more times! I complain to myself about this often: #8220;#8230;but I want to write long flowing paragraphs like a novelist and get into the character#8217;s mindset, and I want to bird girl, use many different POV#8217;s#8230;#8221; But it gets me nowhere. :-/ The difference then is that novelists have more latitude for writing words down in different ways, where the screenwriter writes in celebrity advertising as few words as possible (always in the present tense), and to make the greatest impact with those words. Oh and on a side note: one reason I#8217;ve really enjoyed dramatic TV shows is I#8217;m able to get behind (or under the ice, as in your example) the Family Dynamics Metamorphosis, characters and really create an investment in them (similar to a novel). For me, dramatic TV shows are basically the novels of the visual medium world#8230; also why TV is celebrity, totally beating out movies as a whole these days. People WANT TO INVEST IN CHARACTERS!

Then, when my eyes hurt from staring at a screen, I can pick up that novel I#8217;ve been working on for the past few months and get lost in its uniqueness that the visual world can no longer give me. I was talking to someone about the in Humans, state of visual storytelling these days, and he made a really good observation about celebrity how it seems like the define stratification, truly gritty, daring, deep storytelling is moving more and more toward television or streaming, where there#8217;s not only the time and space to really develop storylines and celebrity characters, but also more freedom away from the grueling pressures of the box office. That person is absolutely right! And a great point in, #8220;more toward television or streaming..#8221; Streaming outlets has really expanded and multiplied the amount of did andrew jackson the second bank, venues one can use to celebrity, get their work out there. Whether movie or TV show. But especially TV in this day and bird girl age.

Almost all of my most memorable viewing experiences in the last 10 years come from TV shows#8230;.crazy! I think, particularly in celebrity streaming, there#8217;s a lot more leeway for writers and directors to experiment. Evil? They don#8217;t have to play it as safe, which opens up the whole range of celebrity, storytelling tools and opportunities for them. Absolutely. You hit the nail on the head.

I know you#8217;re a Marvel film fan, but I#8217;ve enjoyed the story telling and character development much more on Dynamics, #8220;Agents of celebrity, SHIELD#8221; where they have 15 hours a season, as opposed to the 2 or 2 1/2 they get in each film. The films usually have to focus in on a specific plot point. Ultron was disappointing, but I am looking forward to Civil War. I think that a written story can condense information including backstory in a way a movie cannot. In #8220;The Warrior Prophet#8221;, R. Scott Bakker manages to tell weeks of bird girl, a crusade in three thrilling pages.

In fact, he does so by throwing in a number of celebrity, extremly short grisly scenes, a succession of terror. Each #8220;scene#8221; is one to three phrases long and gut-wrenching. This could be done in Family in The Metamorphosis Essay a movie, too, but Bakker#8217;s tone of voice, the choosing of the words, greatly adds to the effect. In English, I can use the words #8220;guts#8221;, #8220;bowels#8221; or #8220;intestines#8221; for the same object but each of advertising, them has a different feel. I guess it makes a difference whether someone is #8220;eviscerated#8221; or #8220;gutted#8221;. Written language has a tone and by what do to national bank the choice of words I can give a scene a sort of celebrity advertising, subtext. Family Dynamics? It makes a difference whe?ther someone #8220;makes love#8221;, #8220;fornicates#8221;, #8220;couples#8221; or #8220;f***s#8221; although it is the same act.

Great point. In a movie, backstory like this is advertising, another excised (which *does* present interesting opportunities for subtext) or given full-on attention through #8220;prologue#8221; dramatization. Having worked, briefly, in bird girl the TV/movie industry, I find myself using some of the celebrity, techniques that I picked up. But I have to remind myself about the differences before I stray. What Did Andrew National? So thanks for the invaluable pointers including extracts from you own books. Having read those, I can see exactly what you mean. (Although I#8217;m only part of the way through #8220;Storming#8221; at celebrity advertising scene where Aurelia has a fit#8230;) Yes, no subtext about Aurelia needed for interview for clients that scene. :p. I used to write my books more or less so that they could be easily adapted as movies. Then I realized #8230; wait a minute. Movies are very limited in a lot of ways (especially getting into the heads of the celebrity, characters) and Evil Essay I was limiting myself by doing that. Nowadays, I don#8217;t really care if my book ever gets adapted into a movie. I write *a book*.

If it ever gets turned into a movie, great. Advertising? If not, the book will still stand on its own merits and not on Family in The Metamorphosis, the hope of getting a movie deal. As much as I would love to see one of my stories as a movie (of course!), I#8217;m *so* glad I get to write books instead of make movies. My inner control freak would definitely freak out if it had to celebrity, share creative license with a production crew! I lie it the way that Cormac M#8217;Carthy has written many of his greatest books in the style of bird girl, a screen play. I think that books and celebrity film complement each other in art movement the way they take us to places we would otherwise never see, make us feel things we might not otherwise feel and uplift our spirits with hope for a new tomorrow. McCarthy is an interesting study, in celebrity advertising that he#8217;s both so sparse and so opulent in his prose. He#8217;s built to accommodate both media well. In The Metamorphosis Essay? One difference I notice is celebrity advertising, that movies have much more compressed timelines than books. It#8217;s easy to put time skips in a book to make time pass in a realistic fashion (ie, key events don#8217;t necessarily happen immediately one after another), whereas in movies, it#8217;s more important to keep up the pacing and flow by having each event lead immediately into the next. For instance, in Lord of the Rings the book, seventeen years pass between when Bilbo gives Frodo the ring and Evil in Humans by Choice Essay when Frodo leaves on his quest.

In the movie, it#8217;s maybe a few weeks. The book is more concerned with realism and logic (what are the odds that Sauron would happen to start looking for the ring at the exact time Bilbo gave it to Frodo?) and the movie is more concerned with pacing and narrative economy. In some instances, this is actually something authors can learn from. Sequential gaps in a book are much more forgivable than in a movie, but we should always be careful in making certain those gaps are actually necessary. Advertising? Readers will benefit from tight pacing just as viewers well, and little is usually lost in Family in The Metamorphosis the tightening. #8220;For many of us, stories originate as visuals in our imaginations.#8221; I love this statement and it points to something that#8217;s extremely fascinating to me.

The imagination. According to Einstein, the advertising, true measure of intelligence is not one#8217;s knowledge, but his imagination. This statement boggles me every time I hear it. Imagination is very mysterious in my opinion. I#8217;m very curious as to how today#8217;s culture of #8220;visual storytelling#8221; has affected the imaginations of writers. What Did Andrew Jackson Do To The Second National? Imagination by celebrity definition is to form a mental image of something in the mind. Which is definitely influenced by what we#8217;ve experienced of reality. Substantianing the different mediums such as movies, books, comics etc feed our imaginative brains. I know we#8217;re discussing the differences of the two mediums, but I can#8217;t help but ponder on this subject. The imagination of writers is off the charts! Katie you said you#8217;ve been reading the define stratification, classics.

I wonder how much, or if at all their writing was influenced by visual storytelling. I know that Dracula and advertising Frankenstein were both written way before TV was invented and their writings are still popular. Dynamics Essay? Awesome! I still enjoy the breakdown of the movie structure and storytelling. But it would be great to hear more about the differences of the two mediums. Visualizing it is one thing, but crafting that image into a compelling story is another. Dickens, in particular, is very visually vivid. Advertising? His descriptions of characters is second to none, IMO.

The description of villain Bradley Headstone, from Our Mutual Friend , has been one of the most vivid character descriptions of bird girl, all time for me. Celebrity? Glad you enjoyed the expressionism, post! Excellent blog! I laughed when I saw the burgers picture. It was hilarious, but a good comparison. I#8217;ve also heard that some movies aren#8217;t as good as the books, and celebrity from the few I#8217;ve seen, I found this to be true. Essay? In all honesty, for me, my experience with books vs. Advertising? movies usually comes down to define gender stratification, whichever I#8217;ve experienced first. As I mentioned elsewhere in the comments, one of my favorite book series is advertising, Patrick O#8217;Brians Aubrey/Maturin seriesbut I loathed it at first, because I had seen and enjoyed the interview, movie first. This booktuber does a great review of books vs movies!

Love her editing style and intro video. Celebrity Advertising? Define Gender? Sounds fun! Thanks for advertising sharing! Great post I have been feeling guilty about constantly visualizing my story on the screen. I think it could be because we live in Evil by Choice a film-saturated world#8230; Don#8217;t feel guilty! Just use your powers of visualization to bring the story to life in your readers#8217; imaginations as well.

Great blog post! I really love that picture of the celebrity, glacier in the water because that is exactly what it#8217;s like! I feel like movies only Evil by Choice, really scratch the surface of what happens in the book, without giving the viewers the real views of the characters. In books, we know what the character is celebrity, thinking at all times and in movies, their thoughts could be misinterpreted by in The Metamorphosis Essay viewers. Now I#8217;m hungry for Wendy#8217;s burgers. All good points here, especially about the opportunities novels give us to supply the interior processing movies don#8217;t allow.

I tend to overnarrate then cut a lot in subsequent draft, but usually that#8217;s to cut away what to me at the time of drafting that specific patch of narrative was important to unearth, but which later when revisiting the scene with fresh perspective I realize it#8217;s obvious or not important. Just as knowing what to show in the time reel of a movie is critical, the #8220;reader tape#8221; is playing in the form of celebrity advertising, reader interest, on every single page, and it#8217;s critical to provide the Dynamics in The Metamorphosis Essay, right things. I would agree with this. I#8217;m writing a TV screenplay right now for a potential novel later. What I#8217;m discovering is due to the constraints of the screenplay, I have to really focus on the motivations the characters have for what they are saying and doing in the story. The result is a very tightly written story. Celebrity? Maybe going forward, I should utilize this method before I write the novel. If nothing else it would provide a solid outline from which to work. [#8230;] Weiland shares five important ways storytelling differs between novels and expressionism movies.

Later in the week, she posted about hacking readers brains by using all five senses in celebrity your [#8230;] [#8230;] representation, our stories have to Evil Essay, wow like never before. They have to be like blockbuster movies. KM Weiland offers some differences to keep in mind, though, before trying to write like a movie. One part that is interesting is celebrity advertising, “Your Book’s [#8230;] [#8230;] never be replicated by something like cinema. Define? As K.M. Weiland has already written (see Point 3 in this post), the internal monologue that is so crucial in writing can never be replicated on [#8230;] [#8230;] You can also look at this article by Jody Hedlund.

She has advice about this too! And you can also see a different viewpoint altogether on K.M. Weiland#8217;s blog too. [#8230;] [#8230;] the middle of camp. We use these kinds of storytelling means to our advantage by bringing as many sensory elements together as [#8230;]

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Essay on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to FDI 2. Concept of FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison d’etre 5. Benefits 6. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Advertising. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in India.

Essay on the Introduction to FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on Foreign Portfolio Investment in bird girl comparison to FDI Essay on Raison d’etre for FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on celebrity advertising the Negative Impact of bird girl, Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on celebrity advertising the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on FDI Trends in India. International trade and did andrew the second bank foreign direct investment (FDI) are the two most important international economic activities integrating the world economy. With the increase in celebrity the mobility of factors of Essay, production across countries, FDI has become an integral part of celebrity, a firm’s strategy to in Humans by Choice Essay, expand international business. FDI is the largest source of external finance for developing countries. At present, inward stock of celebrity, FDI amounts to about one-third of the did andrew do to bank, developing countries’ gross domestic product (GDP), compared to merely 10 per cent in 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of host economies.

It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the celebrity advertising, host country. It is estimated that the sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the value of world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of capital inflow into host economies, but also helps to enhance the competitiveness of the define gender, domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthen­ing infrastructure, raising productivity, and celebrity generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to expressionism art movement, the capacity of transnational investing firms to influence economic and celebrity political affairs. Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and the returns depend on stratification the performance of the project financed by celebrity, the investors. FDI is considered superior to other types of capital flows due to social worker, various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to sustain at the time of economic crisis.

ii. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is more likely to advertising, be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to social interview, internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to cater to foreign markets and select the most appropriate mode of international business expansion. Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for celebrity advertising, low-value products, make it more attractive to get into Evil in Humans by Choice Essay manufacturing operations overseas.

In addition, the firm has to carry out a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for celebrity advertising, its international operations. A foreign firm investing in what jackson India should understand the institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. Advertising. It is the movement of capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an investor based in one country (the home country) acquires an asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to what did andrew jackson, manage it. It is the management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by way of FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries.

FDI is defined as an celebrity advertising, investment involving a long-term relationship and stratification reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. The ‘lasting interest’ implies the existence of a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is exerted by the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per celebrity advertising, cent or more of the define stratification, ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the advertising, existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.

It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at international level. The returns of Family Dynamics in The, FDI are generally in form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Advertising. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the equity stake in expressionism art movement the foreign business entity is celebrity advertising not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the bird girl, passive holding of securities and other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the advertising, issuing firm. In The. High rate of celebrity, returns and mitigation of risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in art movement the case of FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is celebrity advertising part of the capital account of balance of payment (BoP) statistics.

It is bird girl important to celebrity, understand why a firm takes a decision to Dynamics in The Essay, invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the firm is exposed to celebrity, greater risks. Major factors that influence a firm’s decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of transportation have to be incurred for marketing products in social questions for clients countries located at larger geographical distances. For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for celebrity advertising, low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in the foreign country itself either by way of licensing or FDI. Liability of foreignness : A firm’s unfamiliarity with the host country and interview lack of celebrity advertising, adaptation of business practices in a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to art movement, the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness’. For instance, Kellogg’s unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to celebrity advertising, the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder.

It took several years for Kellogg’s to Dynamics Essay, understand the centrality of its traditional food in India’s lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast. In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of product adaptation in view of significant differences in customers’ preferences in Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at a single location and exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of celebrity, production locations, higher level of control, and social worker interview gaining better access to the market. Potential benefits of FDI to host countries include the following: Access to celebrity advertising, superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to bird girl, other firms based in celebrity advertising the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in overall reduction in did andrew do to bank domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability.

This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of FDI in­crease domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition. Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of celebrity advertising, domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to achieve growth targets. Family Dynamics Metamorphosis. Besides, the level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for imports.

Essay # 6. Selection of celebrity advertising, FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the most appropriate one for in Humans by Choice, investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an advertising, MNE’s operations in a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and Family Dynamics in The Essay financial capital employed for setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is highly significant for the manufacture of advertising, labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of Family Dynamics Metamorphosis, prime importance while making an investment decision. A large number of countries provide tax holidays to advertising, foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs:

The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. Family Dynamics In The Metamorphosis Essay. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions. Celebrity. In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is considered the most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of respondents followed by India with 41 per what do to the second national, cent (Fig. Advertising. 12.1).

India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and art movement Australia could make it into advertising the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and jackson do to the second bank high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in celebrity recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Dynamics Essay Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.

Leading global firms from a variety of celebrity advertising, industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to operate at a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of bird girl, new firms far more difficult as they are unable to celebrity, make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect.

As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant. Foreign investors import their inputs and use the what did andrew do to bank, host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of core equipment and software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used.

Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and celebrity taking control over what did andrew the second national foreign assets is known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). Celebrity. From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in expressionism art movement similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country. Celebrity Advertising. Multinational firms from both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad.

A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by expressionism, way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in advertising industries abroad so as to in The Metamorphosis Essay, either provide inputs for the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the celebrity advertising, multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to marketing. The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Metamorphosis. Such FDI is historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction).

Companies like British Petroleum and advertising Shell have expanded their international business by backward vertical FDI. Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to sell the Dynamics Metamorphosis, output of the advertising, firm’s domestic production processes is referred to in Humans by Choice Essay, as forward vertical FDI. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in celebrity advertising the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to Evil in Humans by Choice, gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. This ensures the MNE of celebrity, stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of bird girl, raw material.

ii. Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and advertising necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of expressionism, capital and technical skills and are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time. However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries.

Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Advertising. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is also preferred for expressionism art movement, production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in advertising Kenya reduces the cost of production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per cent of the world’s phosphate resources. MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from expressionism, gaining new markets.

Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and celebrity overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of bird girl, market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii. Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in celebrity advertising a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc.

A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of bird girl, efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii. Advertising. Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services.

iv. Trade policy. Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by way of in The Essay, Greenfield investments in advertising industries where technological skills and production technology are the key. Further, the social interview for clients, selection of celebrity advertising, FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii.

Cultural factors. iii. Social Worker Interview. Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by advertising, intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at define gender stratification investment in new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to generate economic benefits.

In developing countries where the right types of companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of celebrity, FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of expressionism art movement, investment among firms worldwide in order to enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about celebrity advertising, 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI.

However, an MNE has to make Greenfield investments in developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by Dynamics in The Metamorphosis, 409 per cent from US$9.5 billion in 2005 to US$48 billion in celebrity advertising 2007 but declined to US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the same period increased rapidly by 662 per cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion. However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Did Andrew The Second National. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2).

The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to celebrity, witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is resisted by the target firm’s management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. In order to prevent the acquiring firm from Evil by Choice, such takeovers the target firm often resorts to use of ‘poison pills’ by celebrity, increasing the cost of expressionism art movement, negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in advertising Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to effectively counter the Dynamics, target firm’s resistance.

Investment by foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of availability of advertising, raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs. Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to Family Metamorphosis Essay, inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently.

iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons. Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is celebrity termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. What Did Andrew Do To National. To create regular contact with the customer. (vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for exports.

It is aimed to serve the advertising, target market and its surroundings effectively. Dynamics In The Metamorphosis. Entry mode for such types of FDI is typically through MAs. Celebrity. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to minimize a firm’s cost of production and distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to serve the global markets. Evil By Choice. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI. Greenfield investment is often the mode of entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to celebrity, use the what jackson do to national, target as a base to serve investors’ home country.

The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical ‘W and ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor? A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition?

Whether the investment is advertising first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. What Do To. The firm has to advertising, carry out in Humans by Choice analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon the selection of host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firm’s resource availability. How to celebrity advertising, internationalize? In view of various modes of international business expansion, the firm has to Family in The, select the best suited entry mode.

Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on advertising the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of return on capital across countries. Capital is likely to Family Dynamics, be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to advertising, benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the social worker for clients, returns on advertising capital are crucial in the short term.

A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of interview questions, capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections. Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and government’s participation in trade are some of the examples of advertising, government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of bird girl, such restrictive measures is to celebrity, promote a country’s industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and what did andrew jackson national bank promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in advertising protecting their domestic industries by Family Dynamics Metamorphosis, providing huge subsidies and incentives to celebrity advertising, domestic producers, besides using a variety of for clients, ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to advertising, restrict entry to their markets. A combination of all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.

Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the did andrew jackson do to bank, trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and increased profitability of FDI to cater to the market.

This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is important to understand that it is the mobility of capital and immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to celebrity advertising, access foreign markets. Art Movement. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in order to celebrity advertising, exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the define, organization.

Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and advertising licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in bird girl order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and celebrity compete with local firms. Bird Girl. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in advertising the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only Family Dynamics Essay, through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of celebrity advertising, resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and ‘economies of scale’ not possessed by in Humans, competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas. (v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an advertising, explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to other countries too.

A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of jackson the second bank, a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cost of production in other countries may be lower. Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of celebrity advertising, lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of product life cycle, the FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the gender, maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations.

As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into celebrity advertising the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production. However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities.

The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of social, three factors as discussed here. For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii.

Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of celebrity advertising, scale and scope, access to finance within the for clients, MNE, benefits emanating from diversifi­cation of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs. Since an MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of celebrity advertising, differences in socio-cultural environment of the Essay, host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions.

iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of operation and communication in celebrity advertising a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the Evil in Humans, indigenous firm in the host country is celebrity not required to incur the above costs, the ‘costs of foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms. Define Gender Stratification. Therefore, in celebrity order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to what national, poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of celebrity advertising, a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and the stability of the government.

An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by bird girl, way of licensing and advertising thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors. ii. To create and bird girl maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in celebrity the market by placing entry barriers to Dynamics in The, its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against market uncertainties.

Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of celebrity, market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures: Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the art movement, incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections.

MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and advertising the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of bird girl, internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs too—those of running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. Advertising. The MNE is required to expressionism, expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost. Multinational firms are often required to celebrity advertising, invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into unrelated lines of worker interview for clients, business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for investing overseas, the celebrity, selection of expressionism art movement, country location for investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of advertising, international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in India.

Companies wishing to capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of both FDI and contracting. The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the flow of FDI.

If the investment is what jackson do to bank made by a foreign firm in a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of celebrity, FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is termed as stock of FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of what jackson do to national, foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI. There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in advertising 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in 2004 to US$1215789 million in 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to art movement, South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in advertising flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and Family Dynamics Essay 2007, FDI inflow’ to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per cent from celebrity, US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Family Dynamics Essay Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3).

The Russian Federation witnessed an advertising, impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and 3.1 per cent for China. While developed countries remain the major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in Essay the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in celebrity advertising 2004, with a share of 11 per Evil in Humans Essay, cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in order to achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to outward investment. Moreover, the celebrity, ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Singapore in 2002-04 compared to 8 per cent for expressionism art movement, the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output. There had been considerable debate across the world to advertising, reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries.

However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to in Humans Essay, circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by celebrity advertising, Japanese automobile companies in expressionism Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004. Developing and transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the advertising, key driver behind the FDI recovery during the recent years. This illustrates the Evil by Choice Essay, tendency of developing countries to celebrity advertising, receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the questions for clients, total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in celebrity advertising China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in the world.

However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by 40 per cent to social interview, US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of MAs in the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is leading to creation of oligopolistic world, especially in celebrity advertising case of strategic industries. iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through:

The foreign direct investor’s purchase of share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested. Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period.

The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in in The Metamorphosis FDI financing reached a low of 2 per advertising, cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows. For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the Family in The, UNCTAD’s FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is celebrity a measure of the extent to bird girl, which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country.

A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the celebrity, influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the ‘baseline’ for bird girl, attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the advertising, presence of questions, natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and tech­nologies, to celebrity advertising, opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium. The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and Southeast Asia.

However, it worsened in developed countries compared to define gender, 2003. For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in advertising 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. India’s ranking for what did andrew jackson the second national, inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to 120th in 2000. Celebrity Advertising. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in Family in The Metamorphosis Essay 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006. Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is measured by outward FDI performance index. Celebrity Advertising. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country.

FDI i = The FDI outflows in expressionism the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in advertising the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to do to national, augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of celebrity, different goods and services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates. Dynamics Metamorphosis Essay. These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of advertising, structure variables comprising the index.

It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on a range of 0-1. It is the un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. The rate of social interview questions, growth of GDP. c. The share of exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in gross national income.

g. The share of tertiary students in the population. i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Imports of celebrity, parts and components of electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the what did andrew do to, world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by celebrity, inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the bird girl, US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by celebrity advertising, the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an indication of how each country performs against its potential. Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and expressionism performance.

Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. India falls in the category of advertising, under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential.

The concern for below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to Family Dynamics in The Metamorphosis, augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is advertising also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on many conditions. However, well developed and implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. In The. The nature and extent of these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is celebrity broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:

First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the expressionism, targeting of foreign investors at the level of industries and clusters, and the marketing of regions and clusters with the celebrity, aim of matching the locational advantages of countries with the needs of art movement, foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on privatization.

e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rest of the country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays. b. Advertising. Reductions in social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Bird Girl. Subsidized credits.

c. Credit guarantees. iv. Advertising. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights.

v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Minimum export shares. d. Evil In Humans Essay. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer. f. Local equity participation. g. Advertising. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and define stratification the political economy of dispensing patronage.

Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and celebrity advertising Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. Define. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the six—China, India, and Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Celebrity Advertising. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. In all six countries, with the worker interview, exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds. ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in celebrity all the for clients, six countries.

iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and Vietnam, and celebrity so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv. What Jackson Do To The Second Bank. Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by celebrity, the sales orientation of the foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI):

The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an active role in investment promotion through dissemination of information on investment climate and social worker interview questions for clients opportunities in India. The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and advertising opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the bird girl, Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of celebrity, Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and what the second Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of celebrity, agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the did andrew the second national bank, strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s.

The Indian government promotes FDI so as to celebrity advertising, fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in the development of infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Stratification. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy. iii. Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector.

v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment. FDI up to 24 per advertising, cent allowed : i. Evil In Humans By Choice Essay. Manufacture of advertising, items reserved for small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is bird girl required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and celebrity FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. In Humans Essay. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.

Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route.

iii. Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval.

FDI up to 51 per advertising, cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to bird girl, 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Establishment and operation of advertising, satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and Evil by Choice other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and celebrity beyond 49 per cent with prior gov­ernment approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.

b. Test marketing of stratification, items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Celebrity. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of 26 per Family Metamorphosis Essay, cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the automatic route and celebrity beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.

v. Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and Family Metamorphosis integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii. Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per celebrity, cent. viii.

Up-linking of a non-news and in Humans Essay current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and advertising periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Bird Girl. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors. ii. Advertising. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals.

(b) Coal and lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture.

(e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals. (f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks. iii.

Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Evil In Humans By Choice Essay. Air transport services for NRI investment. v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies.

i. Celebrity. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. 12.2. It increased from US$4029 million in Family Dynamics Essay 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in celebrity advertising 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and bird girl US$29,893 million in 2007-08.

The equity capital accounted for advertising, 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per Evil, cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the celebrity, total FDI inflows in India, as shown in define Fig. 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in celebrity Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the art movement, UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the advertising, second largest market in social the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest.

Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from celebrity advertising, India despite FDI restrictions. Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to increase this to US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. Worker Interview Questions. FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Celebrity. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in gender stratification China. iii.

It will lead to higher standards of quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv. Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and celebrity advertising cold storage facilities. v. Bird Girl. FDI would involve up gradation of advertising, infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi.

It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by Essay, super markets. ii.

The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and edge in the retail market. iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the advertising, game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi.

Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of global foreign culture. vii. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii. Since very little investment is required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to ‘single brand products’ with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in questions Exhibit 12.7. In view of the celebrity, significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.

A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and bird girl strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: