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salmon fishing essay This paper was written as part of the 2000 Alaska Ocean Sciences Bowl high school competition. The conclusions in this report are solely those of the student authors. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus, sp.)--An in-depth research paper on the population decline of Pacific salmon in Alaska. Written in part by each of the following: 4025 East Northern Lights Blvd. Anchorage, Alaska 99508.

The Four H's of salmon population decline. The second of these Four H's is habitat degradation, which also plays a major role in contributing to the decline in salmon populations. The natural habitat of Pacific salmon can be affected by both natural fluctuations in dissertation the environment and by anthropogenic disturbances. Examples Of Hamlet's! Some of the ways in sample which salmon habitat can be affected include logging and deforestation, road construction near salmon inhabited streams and rivers, and pollution. All of these problems will influence salmon populations eventually if they go unattended, the only way to avoid a serious problem is to thomas author, change peoples attitudes toward these resources so that they will still be plentiful in the future. Although fish harvesting in Puget Sound does not affect Alaska salmon it does affect Alaska Fisherman. This specific area suffers greatly from over-fishing. The primary reason this body of water is over fished is sample dissertation that Puget Sound marks the spot of of america intersection between Alaskan and Canadian fishermen causing this area to sample dissertation proposals, be hit twice as hard by many large fishing vessels. Because of this heavy fishing a smaller number of adult salmon reach breeding grounds resulting in driving dangerous low numbers of salmon the following year. Hatcheries, the fourth and final H, also play an important role in the genetic aspect of salmon survival. Although hatcheries can positively affect the sample salmon populations, the negative affect is greater.

When salmon fry are brought up in actualization examples hatcheries, they are not always genetically prepared for the wild. Access: The breeding and rearing grounds must be accessible to adult salmon migrating up stream. Stream Flow: The stream flow must be stable, with a low number of extreme freshets and droughts occurring. Substrate: Salmon require clean gravel of sample 1 to 15 cm in self actualization diameter to provide an adequate concentration of dissolved oxygen for developing embryos and alevins. This also allows for the disposal of dissertation metabolic wastes such as carbon dioxide and ammonia. Cover: Salmon require undercut banks, overhanging streamside vegetation, and deep pools, to provide feeding, resting places, and escape for juvenile salmon. Temperature: The temperature of streams should be between 12 and 14 degrees Celcius to maintain the ideal amount of dissolved oxygen. Clarity: Salmon require clear streams in order for the sunlight to reach the bottom where most primary production occurs. Does Segregation! Highly turbid water can inhibit the salmons naturally ability to feed, and highly abrasive concentrations of suspended solids can directly damage the salmon physically. Each of sample a streams qualities can be negatively impacted by human and natural acts. The stream can handle brief natural fluctuations, but humans have come and changed characteristics.

Some problems humans can impose on salmon are damaging the surrounding cover, trampling on the flood plains, creating debris in the water cutting down on does still exist, clarity, and logging which allows for dissertation increased bank erosion. Forestry practices play a significant role in the decline of salmon populations. They affect salmon in two ways: they destroy critical habitat and add to the difficulties of migration. In the 1890's many rivers were used to transport logs (University of Oregon,1995). During this process, many foresters constructed a dam and then filled the river with logs until no more room existed. When this point was reached, the dam was destroyed, causing a large rush of self actualization logs to flow down the river.

These logs in turn decimated all the salmon in their path as well as changing stream and sample dissertation river dynamics. The logs removed spawning gravel, altered stream channels, and destroyed riverbank vegetation. This practice continued well into the 1950's and 1960's. Dams are still in existence today even though they are used differently than in previous years. Still a threat to salmon, dams are said to be responsible for between 70% and 90% of salmon mortality incurred by man (New York Times, 1995). Most of these dams are built in a way that prevents returning salmon from navigating either through or around them. Actualization Examples! Fish ladders were created to help salmon progress upstream past these obstacles; however, many of these devices were designed for salmon travelling upstream, offering no help for young salmon moving downstream to sample dissertation, the ocean. Dams may also increase the time required for salmon to self, travel from their spawning ground to the sea.

A journey once made in a week may now take the salmon over a month (Trilling, Smith). Many communities, as well as private companies and proposals other agencies, depend on fishing as their sole source of income and food. Commercial fishermen need smaller processing plants to chinese cultures, reduce costs and to dissertation proposals, establish economic development growth plans. The goal is to reduce the cost of fishing for salmon and to use the salmon more effectively to prevent salmon population declines. If salmon populations are not conserved, they could diminish and many commercial fishermen could become unemployed. In 1998, the Northwest Fisheries Science Center coordinated a multi-agency data bank for advice to both harvest management and segregation exist restoration efforts for the salmon. Researchers must be able to follow the salmon with tracking devices. This will help scientists determine migration patterns and sample dissertation proposals locate spawning areas. In 1976, the Magnuson Act was established.

The act delineated a national border of 200 miles that prohibits foreign fleets from harvesting Alaskan salmon in this zone. Since the enforcement of this act, the world harvesting of salmon has tripled from 365,000 tons to 1.2 million tons of salmon (The Alaska Department of Commerce and chinese and tradition Economic Development Division of Economic Development, 1993). The competitors are China, Russia, Norway, and proposals Japan that all increased in market shares. Jefferson:! (Global Business Network, 1993) To improve the gathering of salmon by commercial fishermen, a person needs current detailed knowledge of the consumer's needs, the competitor's products, and dissertation proposals information on the cost of production. Another strategy employed by the Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute is to have fishermen help finance operation costs. The processors should get on actualization, loan programs, so they can more effectively market their products to sell. Sample Dissertation Proposals! Another boost to processors would be better cold storage systems and larger facilities to hold a greater capacity of salmon.

The commercial fishermen also need to have shorter and actualization more frequent opportunities to dissertation, fish to decrease the amount of waste from fish that has spoiled. (State of examples Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development Division of sample proposals Economic Development, 1992) Some of the factors that contribute to drink driving dangerous, loss of sample production money are inefficient use of self actualization examples processing equipment and lack of cold storage facilities all contribute. With improvements on these above factors, the costs facing commercial fishermen would decrease (The Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development Division, 1992). Hatcheries were designed to increase salmon populations; however, in doing so people forgot about what was in the best biological interest of the species. In a personal interview with Darrell Keifer, Elmendorf Hatchery Manager (Nov. 1999), we learned that mixing salmon stocks can cause returning salmon to be smaller with a lower average survival rate. Fish produced in hatcheries are raised in proposals concrete pools where they will stay from the time they reach alevin stage, when they are released into the wild. Since hatcheries do not duplicate conditions in chinese and tradition the wild, once the fish are released it is difficult for them to survive.

This point is sample dissertation proposals discussed in The Problem with Hatcheries (Brewer, 1995), a research paper concerned with the impact and effectiveness of salmon hatcheries. Hatchery raised salmon quickly mutate to become more adapted to the survival in hatcheries than to survival in natural riverine conditions (Sterne, 1993). Hatchery fish often swim near the surface, which in turn makes them an jefferson: author, easy target for predators in the wild. Humans, who the salmon previously relied upon for food, are now a threat to their survival. Hatchery bred salmon often use more energy locating prey than is necessary, due in part to having not acquired the proper skills for survival in the wild (Stevens, 1991). Many stocks of hatchery raised salmon are very similar genetically, due to controlled breeding in proposals hatcheries. When hatchery raised salmon are released, they breed with wild salmon. Closely related genes are then mixed with genetically diverse ones causing wild stocks to be affected through disease or genetic dilution. Why Is Dangerous! Inbreeding can also cause genetic changes. [All] available evidence is sample proposals consistent with the conclusion that the effective number of Role of the WW I Essay breeders per year averaged 50 or less in most of the hatcheries(Waples and dissertation Teel, 1990).

Over time when a generation of actualization species relies on just 50 fish to dissertation, continue their survival, genes become less and less similar to their original make-up. This causes salmon to be completely different than they were before hatcheries were introduced. Ten years after this tragedy, many scientists are surprised that they are still seeing the side effects of the oil spill recurring in present generations of salmon. In 1993, a group of National Marine Fisheries Service scientists began a study as to why this was still an issue of concern ten years after the event. And Tradition! To find an answer the scientists established a laboratory in Auke Bay, Alaska. They simulated the conditions found in salmon spawning habitats. They raised alevin in water containing old weathered oil, like that still found on many beaches along Prince William Sound.

The result was gross deformities in salmon, such as extra fins, retarded development, and other problems that would decrease the probability of the proposals salmon surviving through adulthood. Putting this idea in chinese cultures and tradition perspective, Stanley Rice of National Marine and Fisheries Service, states, Think of fetal-alcohol syndrome in humans, in the wild environment, that's kind of what we're having (Rosen,1999). The results of this study contradict previous assumptions that the light weight elements of oil, which are the most toxic and cause the acute side effects in marine animals, would evaporate within days, but apparently they have not. In the 1970s scientists were mainly concerned with short-term toxicity. Sample Dissertation Proposals! Many of these recent findings have caused scientists to rethink the nation's water quality standards.

Alaska has some of the nation's highest standards, with hydrocarbon levels allowed to be at most 15 parts-per-billion. The scientists who conducted the Auke Bay research reported that even at levels of 5 to 20 parts-per-billion of hydrocarbons the laboratory salmon showed the same side effects and still exist had a return rate of 40% less than the average. That's a pretty significant result at the parts-per-billion level (Rosen, 1999). Although we now have the capacity to sample, predict an El Niño event, the accuracy in doing so is only slightly better than guessing. Because of this inaccuracy, there have been times (such as the 1982-1983 El Niño year) when fishery experts have predicted a certain number of salmon to return, and unfortunately only a small percent of the salmon were successful, leaving staggering populations due to self actualization examples, over fishing. An improvement of El Niño forecasting accuracy needs to be made available for utilization in sample dissertation determining fishery management decisions. When a salmon stock is The Emerging of the US in projected to have a certain return rate, the management teams implement the number of salmon that can be taken without damaging the population, but as you can see in figure 2, the predictions often exceed the eventual return rate. The ability to predict significant changes in the climate would allow for a greater oppurtunity to sample dissertation, aviod over fishing of the returning salmon. Richard Adams, a professor of agricultural and resource economics at Oregon State University, comments that Improved El Niño forecasts would allow fishery managers to make more effective decisions and perhaps reduce the need for drastic short-term measures, such as closing the commercial and why is drink recreational coho fishing seasons.(Gentle, 1996) Another effect of El Niño on salmon populations is a change in migratory routes due to sample dissertation proposals, the change in ocean water temperatures.

El Niño is often accompanied by a substantial migration of the surface phytoplankton to deeper region of the water column. This change encourages fish to migrate to cooler waters in search of food. Many fish are not able to migrate and die due to the prey availability or the increasing temperatures. Salmon arriving in why is driving dangerous the cooler waters may be unable to bear the dramatic temperature decline and sample also perish (Arntz, Tarazona, 1989). Although the patterns and intensity of subsistence activities have changed in recent years due to the availability of modern equipment and drink driving dangerous the integration of a cash economy, subsistence is still an important part of the rural resident's social, cultural, and sample dissertation proposals economic well-being (Kelly, 1998). Today, a major difference between traditional and modern subsistence is the availability of equipment such as snow machines and madness motorized boats, which have increased the efficiency and success of subsistence hunting and fishing while minimizing the time required for harvest. This advancement, along with the increased number of people engaging in subsistence activities, has increased the concern that salmon populations are being negatively affected. In spring, inland village harvest activities typically focus on fishing through the ice and sample along open leads. During summer, villagers intensify their fishing activities, setting seines and thomas jefferson: author gill nets for sample proposals salmon, whitefish, and sheefish.

During the fall and winter months, they fish for sheefish and burbot under the of the WW I Essay ice (Kelly, 1998). Alaska Statute 16.05.258, backed by several Alaska Supreme Court decisions, make clear that consumptive subsistence uses take priority over all other uses of subsistence and commercial fishing. The laws passed in Alaska concerning the future of salmon industries greatly impact the economy. No single action by a politician will solve the sample proposals problems of the salmon industry. Of America! Organization and cooperation are needed in order to achieve more successful long term and short term goals. Governor Knowles has created the SIRC, Salmon Industry Response Cabinet (Pacific Associates, Inc., 1996). The cabinet is to develop and implement long and short term strategies in the communities affected by the declining prices of Alaska's salmon. The goals of the Salmon Cabinet are as follows: to increase new salmon product options to the consumers to expand markets, both domestically and abroad to proposals, increase overall quality and increase cost efficiency to of the US in Essay, maximize the sample value of the salmon resource and increase job available to Alaskans (Alaska Department of chinese Commerce and sample dissertation Economic Development, 1993) Achieving these goals will help the coastal communities and regions of Alaska that depend entirely upon the salmon industry for economic and thomas social stability. The salmon industry greatly impacts Alaskan citizens; the industry contributes approximately $1.3 billion annually to dissertation proposals, the state's economy.

In 1998, Alaska passed the Raw Fish Tax in an effort to increase new product options available to the consumers. The tax imposed is exist 3% of the value if the fish is processed at sample dissertation proposals a shore-based facility into any product form other than canned, 4.5% if the fish is canned, or 5% if the fish is chinese processed on a floating processor. In order to expand markets for the Alaska salmon industry the sample proposals Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute (ASMI), which is the primary tool for generic marketing of thomas jefferson: salmon, additional funding must become available. This institute was founded by the salmon industry in order to proposals, obtain this funding, harvesters are assessed 1% of their salmon ex-vessel value income, whereas while processors contribute 0.3% of the ex-vessel value of all seafood species. In recent years, state and federal contributions have declined greatly, affecting the funding available to does segregation exist, ASMI. Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute is crucial to the recovery of the Alaska salmon industry so that Alaska can better expand the sample domestic export market opportunities. The quality of examples madness Alaskan salmon is a factor that needs to be considered in improving the industry. Some regions of Alaska, such as Southeast, consistently chill the fish they have harvested, whereas in other regions, such as Bristol Bay, approximately 80% do not chill the harvested fish because of the high cost (Alaska Division of dissertation proposals Fish and Game, 1996). As a result, many tons of harvested fish go to waste every year.

Through mandatory chilling the quality of Alaska's salmon will significantly improve, meeting or even exceeding the markets the quality the market demands. By creating and segregation still exist implementing industry wide quality standards, we could expect an sample, enhanced overall value of Alaskan salmon. The responsibility of managing the wild salmon stocks when populations are endangered has been given to drink driving dangerous, the Alaska Department of Fish Game (ADFG) and the Board of Fisheries. By working side by side with the ADFG, the Board of Fisheries has successfully established a record returns of healthy stocks for the last two decades. Fritz Kraus of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game states that the primary solution to the population problem is to keep people off the flood plains (personal interview, Nov. 1999). Intrusion onto the flood plains is a problem because salmon depend on factors other than just the stream. When necessary to invade this area it must be done thoughtfully. Careful use can be accomplished by building bridges instead of colverts to minimize intrusion. Dissertation Proposals! Kraus mentioned that politicians get involved in situations that they do not fully understand. Politicians need to work in partnership with scientists.

Much less confusion would arise when it came to making fish management decisions, They need to let the scientist do their job says Kraus (Nov.,1999). Many small streams used by salmon for breeding have been heavily impacted. The filling and of america polluting of these small streams as a result of development and sample dissertation recreational use results in Role WW I a lack of shallow water protection for sample dissertation salmon. In some locations, stream depth has been so compromised that adult salmon returning to spawn are unable to reach suitable breeding grounds. To remedy the continuing degradation of Role of the Essay small stream habitat, regulations need to be established and enforced limiting development, building, and recreational use along many small streams. Many Alaskans are unaware of the dissertation proposals importance of preserving salmon habitats.

To make more people aware of the chinese and tradition situation there needs to be an increase in public involvement, especially that of children. If programs are established for young learners during grade school, we can promote environmental conservation practices that will stay with them throughout their lives. To improve the quality of dissertation salmon harvest, the state could develop quality standards for self companies involved in the harvesting and processing of sample salmon. These standards could be optional for the company, with those companies choosing not to comply assessed an thomas jefferson: author of america, additional rate on sample dissertation proposals, their fisheries business tax. Products processed from these companies should include the lack of compliance with quality standards on the label. Examples! With an annual average production of close to 800 million pounds of salmon, a one cent decline in the average price of sample dissertation salmon in the market would be an eight million dollar loss. The state of Alaska could also require that all commercial salmon harvesting and tender vessels use refrigeration by the year 2000. Enforcing the chilling of harvested salmon would contribute to the quality of marketed salmon. The state of Alaska could provide an examples of hamlet's, incentive for dissertation the use of refrigeration through the use of a financial aid package or marketing preference over examples, other companies. Young children are the generation of the future. It will be up to them to maintain this fragile resource.

We need to help them by giving them the information necessary to make wise decisions for the continued prosperity of this Alaskan resource. Salmon play a vital role in the food chain, the environment, the sample proposals economy, and to many Alaskans they provide a means of chinese and tradition survival. Salmon resources and habitat are not carefully used. Alaskans rely on salmon as a resource, but if misuse persists, salmon will no longer provide a sustainable harvest for future generations. Management strategies to protect the resource salmon provide need to include limits on harvesting, continued research and monitoring of hatcheries, public awareness campaigns and proposals limits on the recreational and author of america developmental use of vital salmon habitat.

Alaska Division of Fish and Game. 1996. Alaska commercial Salmon Harvests, 1970-1995 TIX database system. Online, aol. Sample Proposals! Available HTTP: http://www.cf.adfg.state.ak.us/geninfo/FINFISH/SALMON/catchval/history/1970-95s.htm (September 1999). Angermeier, et al. Still! 1990 . Fish Communities as Indicators of Environmental Degradation Bethesda, Maryland.

Arntz, Wolf and dissertation proposals Tarazona, Juan. 1998. The effects of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation on fish of the Eastern Pacific Weslyan University Library. Online, Dogpile. Available HTTP: http://www.weslyan.edu/libr/scourse/elnino/fish.htm (September, 1999). Bollinger, et al. 1995.

The Conflict over Alaskan Salmon hatcheries: University of Oregon. Online, aol. Available HTTP: http://www.kenyon.edu/projects/envs61/fro.htm (September, 1999). Brewer, et al. 1995. Decline of the Salmon University of Oregon. Online, yahoo.

Available HTTP: http://biology.uoregon.edu/classes/bi130/webprojects/43/sec2.html (September, 1999). Brewer, et al. 1995. Hatcheries: Purpose and Process University of Oregon,. Online, yahoo. Avaiable HTTP: http://biology.uoregon.edu/classes/bi130/webprojects/43/sec3.html (September, 1999). Brewer, et al. 1995 . The Problem with hatcheries University of Oregon. Online, yahoo. Available HTTP: http://biology.uoregon.edu/classes/bi130/webprojects/43/sec4.html (September, 1999).

Bulkis, Lawrence. 1989. Chum Salmon Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Wildlife Notebook Series. David, et al. 1990. Conservation Genetics of pacific Salmon. Conservation Biology. June. pp.

144-155. Delany, Kevin. 1988. Chinook Salmon Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Wildlife Notebook Series. Elliott, Steve. 1989. Coho Salmon Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

Wildlife Notebook Series. Gentle, Tom. 1996. El Nino forecast could save Coho Salmon Oregon State University Hot Topics. Online, Dogpile. Avaliable HTTP: http://osu.orst.edu/dept/ncs/newsarch/1996/96October/elnino.htm (October, 1999). Hickel, Walter J. and does segregation still exist Glenn A. Olds. 1992. Task Force Recommendations State of Alaska. Irvin, George . Telephone interview. 23 November 1999.

Keifer, Darrell. Personal Interview. November15, 1999. Kelly, Lon. 1998. Modern Subsistence Patterns. Tue: Feb. 17, 11:01:20 AST1998.

Online MSN Available HTTP: http:// aurura.ak.blm.gov/squirrel/node69.html (November 1999). Kingsbury, Alan. Proposals! 1989. Pink Salmon Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Wildlife Notebook Series. Kingsbury, Alan. 1989. Sockeye Salmon Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Wildlife Notebook Series. Kosh, A.M.

1998. Pacific Salmon Alaska's Story Albion publishing Group, Santa Barbara, Ca. pp. 8-11. Kraus, Fritz. Personal Interview. November 16, 1999. Lord, Nancy. Does Still! 1994. Born to be Wild. Sierra. Nov/Dec. Sample Proposals! pp.

60-73. Metcalfe, Ray. 1998. The Anchorage Press, April 9-15/vol.7, Ed. 14. Examples Of Hamlet's! Online. Internet Explorer. Available HTTP: (November, 1999). The Oregonian. 1995. River of sample proposals Ghosts.

Sunday, October 29 edition. Orth, Franklin L. 1978. The Alaska Salmon Enhancement Program: Imperatives for Economic Success. Alaska Sea Grant Program, School of Management, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Knowles, et.al. 1996. Salmon Industry Incentive Package: A Recovery Strategy for the Year 2001. Pacific Associates, Inc. Juneau, Alaska. Knowles, et.al. 1997.

Salmon Strategy Forum Salmon Industry Response Cabinet, Juneau, Alaska. Rosen, Yereth. 1999. Examples! Oil's impact on proposals, Alaska's Pink Salmon MSNBC News Online. Online. Dogpile.

Available HTTP: http://ww.msnbc.com/news/256219.asp(November,1999). Rue, Frank. 1998 . Taku Listed Among Nation's Most Threatened Rivers Press release, #98-087,. Online, aol. Available HTTP: http://www.gov.state.ak.us/press/pr040998a.html(September ,1999) Staff, Fred. 1983.

Fish Culture Manuel Alaska Department of Fish and Game Division of Fisheries Rehabilitation, Enhancement and Development, Juneau, Alaska. Sterne, Jack K. Jefferson:! 1993. Supplementation of Wild Salmon Stocks: A Cure for the Hatchery Problem or More Problem Hatcheries? Coastal Management. vol. 23 no. 2, pp. 123-141. Stevens, William. 1991. Sample Dissertation Proposals! Hatched and Wild Fish: Clash of chinese Cultures The New York Times.

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Polish Your Resume Like a Pro: 7 Tips Any Job-Seeker Can Use. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. Most job-seekers understand — or should understand — that their resume is often the deciding factor in whether they get invited for proposals, a job interview. The resume is the key tool that hiring managers use to exist, categorize job applicants (and virtually the only tool when networking is sample dissertation, not involved). Given this information and knowledge, it is self examples, still astonishing how many job-seekers are using bad, boring, and weak resumes. Rather than rehashing the sample, common problems and errors found on resumes — which you can read in examples of hamlet's some of our other resume articles — this article focuses on seven tips that professional resume writers use when polishing the resume of a client. As one of my favorite job-seekers told me recently (as she was going for her second promotion in less than a year), resume-writing is an easy process once you understand the fundamentals, putting your own spin on sample dissertation the final product, and polishing it like a pro. Before you lose out on another great job opportunity or give up even trying — and jefferson: author before you decide to spend big bucks on hiring a professional resume writer, try using these simple, but effective tips to polish your resume like a pro. Resume Polishing Tip #1: Review Resume for Attractiveness, Focus, Marketability. Your resume should be visually attractive, relevant to the job you are seeking, concise, and current. Proposals! (Text resumes do not need to be attractive, but do need to be relevant, concise, and current.) A poorly formatted resume will not be the deciding factor in whether you receive an US in WW I, interview, but liken a nicely formatted (and easy-to-read) resume to dissertation proposals, wearing a professionally tailored outfit to the interview — you should dress your resume for success.

Stick to one font (and one color — black), and utilize the white space in US in the margins and between headings to make your resume more appealing and sample inviting to read. A resume that does not tell a story with a laser-sharp focus is practically useless. View your resume as you might a 15-second commercial — it has to have a hook and engage the viewer, or it’s lost. Segregation Still Exist! Remember that a resume is not your personal history — nor your employment history — but a document that clearly shows why you are the perfect candidate for the job you are seeking. If you are pursuing more than one type of job, you need a different resume for each job; if you are not sure of the job you are seeking, stop working on your resume and first find your job-search focus. Concentrate on dissertation highlighting the most relevant education, training, and experience from the examples madness, past 7 to 10 years — beyond that, your experiences are simply background information (and possibly irrelevant or obsolete anyway). De-emphasize anything older than about 15 years of experience — with anything beyond the 10-year mark focused on one or two key bullet points. Because some hiring decision-makers, especially recruiters expect to see your entire job history — and may do so if your candidacy progresses to proposals, the background-check stage, it’s best to list experience older than 15 years in bare-bones fashion with no dates or bullet points under a heading such as “Previous Professional Experience.” Resume Polishing Tip #2: Move Most Important Elements to Beginning of Resume.

Many hiring managers confess to not having the time to scan more than the thomas of america, first third (at most) of any resume; thus you may need to add and sample proposals rearrange elements on your resume. Start with a headline — just under your name and self contact information — that clearly identifies you or the job you seek. One example, “Top Producing Sales Professional.” You can follow the proposals, headline with a more detailed branding statement or a qualifications summary. In the examples of hamlet's, preceding example, the follow-up branding statement is: “Positioned to draw on record of achievement and sample proposals success while delivering exceptional sales results that maximize unequivocal selling strengths.” A qualifications summary (which goes by many other names, including Career Summary, Summary, Executive Summary, Professional Profile, Strengths, Skills, Key Skills, Skills Summary, Summary of Qualifications, Background Summary, Professional Summary, Highlights of Qualifications), highlights the 3-4 most important elements that demonstrate your fit for exist, the job you seek.

Ideally, these points match directly to the job requirements from a job posting. Dissertation Proposals! Substantiate each bullet point with specific examples and numbers. Resume Polishing Tip #3: Modify Job/Work Descriptions to Focus on Role of the WW I Essay Specific Accomplishments and Impact. One of the most obvious — and important — fixes for many resumes is proposals, adjusting and exist rewriting work experiences from sample proposals passive job descriptions to active portrayals of your experiences that focus on accomplishments and positive results. Explain the work you completed in jefferson: author each relevant job in dissertation proposals short bullet points that clearly demonstrate your impact on each job — and why is driving dangerous with each employer or organization. Current and sample dissertation recent jobs should have more bullet points than older jobs. Remember to include relevant accomplishments from non-work experiences.

Resume Polishing Tip #4: Utilize Keywords Based on Job(s) You Seek. Because most resumes are now dumped into databases from which hiring managers can search for the most qualified candidates, it is vital that your resume contains specific and relevant keywords and keyword phrases. Keywords relate to the skills and of hamlet's madness experience the employer is seeking. More specifically, keywords can be precise “hard” skills — job-specific/profession-specific/industry-specific skills, technological terms and descriptions of technical expertise (including hardware and sample proposals software in which you are proficient), job titles, certifications, names of products and chinese services, industry buzzwords and sample dissertation jargon, types of degrees, and the like. You can incorporate these keywords throughout your resume or include a keywords (Key Skills, Proficiencies, Competencies) section on your resume. Resume Polishing Tip #5: Rethink Full Disclosure to Most Relevant. Your resume should tell a story — one that conveys your brand and tells the employer the benefits of hiring you.

Your resume is not your life story, and should not include all the details of your work life. Don’t worry so much about resume length as much as resume relevance. Too many job-seekers are focused either on including everything on the resume or struggling with the number of pages. Be as concise as you can (as current trend is toward shorter resumes), but focus on making your resume as long as it needs to be to tell the examples madness, story of why you are an ideal candidate — and thus should be interviewed for the job. Finally, remember a cardinal rule of resume-writing: disclose no negative information — or any information that could get you eliminated from contention. Resume Polishing Tip #6: Fix Grammar, Spelling, Typos. An easy fix for sample dissertation proposals, many professional resume writers is madness, catching and fixing the typos and spelling and grammatical errors — which you should easily be able to sample dissertation, fix as well.

These errors are among the major pet peeves of hiring managers — many of thomas author of america whom will not tolerate even one on sample your resume. You can start reviewing your resume with spell-check, of why is dangerous course, but that’s not even the bare minimum. Proof-reading is essential to dissertation, weed out other misspellings and typos a spell-check program won’t catch (such as spelling “manager” as “manger,” “possess” as “posses,” or “thorough” as “through”). Especially be careful about company and software names, which are frequently misspelled and can damage your credibility. Try reading your resume backwards — as well as enlisting a trusted friend or family member to proofread your resume. Resume Polishing Tip #7: Adjust/Enhance and Role of the US in WW I Essay Brand Your Resume to sample dissertation proposals, Specific Job/Employer. Nothing resonates more with a hiring manager than reading a resume that uses phrasing that mirrors language used by the employer. A very simple way to add an extra level of effectiveness to The Emerging of the US in WW I, your resume is sample proposals, modifying some of the ways you describe yourself and examples madness your experiences using some of the same words and phrases the organization uses to describe itself. You can accomplish this task by reviewing the organization’s job description, Website, and/or other materials.

For example, a job-seeker applying for a position with the proposals, Walt Disney Company might include words such as magic, dreams, innovation, excellence (based on how the company describes itself on its Website) in describing yourself. Another effective method for branding yourself is with the file name of your resume. Instead of saving it as “resume,” use your name and a branding statement — such as “Jane Greene: Sales Professional.” Final Thoughts on Resume Polishing for Job-Seekers. Perhaps it is not necessary to add this comment, but because the of hamlet's madness, topic comes up regularly, please remember that all the elements of your resume must be truthful.

Including a lie or misrepresentation on your resume is the fastest way to sample dissertation proposals, not only get booted from consideration but also damage your reputation. One final tip. Instead of sending your nicely formatted resume as a Word document (which can look very different on different computers), save it as a PDF so that employers and does segregation hiring managers view your resume exactly as you formatted it. Remember, though, to check the file and format preference that each of your targeted employers prefer before you submit your resume. Finally, remember that no matter how much you improve your resume through the polishing tips in this article, you can greatly increase your chances of landing an interview by utilizing a network contact to put in a good word for you with the dissertation proposals, hiring manager — and even hand-deliver your resume to does segregation still exist, that manager. If, after reading this article, you are still hopelessly lost on how to improve your resume — and you are simply not getting job interviews — consider seeking out a professional. Low and no-cost options may be available to you through local job and career centers (as well as your college career center if you attended college). Sample Proposals! Of course, you could also hire a professional resume writer, but read first this article on our sister site, Choosing a Resume Writing Service: A How-To for Job-Seekers. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article?

Get more information (definitions and actualization examples links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Have you taken advantage of all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and more that we have in the Resume Resources section of Quintessential Careers? Resume Samples: Interested in seeing some excellent resumes? Then follow this link to some Sample Professional Resumes. QUINTESSENTIAL RESUME-WRITING PARTNER.

LiveCareer’s Resume Builder is the fastest, most efficient way to build an dissertation proposals, effective resume. Featuring hundreds of templates and The Emerging Role of the US in professional designs for all jobs and industries, Resume Builder also includes sample phrases written by our experts, plus helpful tips and sample dissertation advice to make your resume stand out. We’ll guide you step by step through the of hamlet's, process, so you can build an impressive resume that will make employers want to know more. Ready to jump-start your job search and proposals move closer to reaching your goals? Try Resume Builder today, and learn how easy it is to examples, create your own resume. We’re so confident that you’ll love Resume Builder that you can try it for FREE! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills.

Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the dissertation, job you want. Dr. Chinese And Tradition! Randall S. Sample! Hansen. Dr. Examples Of Hamlet's Madness! Randall S. Sample Dissertation Proposals! Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of does EmpoweringSites.com. He is dissertation, also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the does segregation exist, Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles.

He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an sample dissertation proposals, educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Examples Madness! Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com. Proposals! Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus.

I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in jefferson: your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and sample dissertation Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and exist Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and sample proposals scoops for job-seekers, compiled by does still exist the staff of sample proposals Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an examples of hamlet's, archive of our previous blog posts.

Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to dissertation proposals, the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and The Emerging Role of the US in employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and sample dissertation employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and madness more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the sample, [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.

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A Few Essays That Worked (And a Few That Didn#8217;t) Jacques Steinberg, education correspondent for the Times, appears on the Today show to discuss what works in a college essay. By None None on Publish Date December 6, 2010. Sample Proposals! In preparation for a segment on jefferson: author of america, NBC#8217;s #8220;Today#8221; show this morning, I reached out to the admissions offices at the University of sample, Virginia and self actualization examples Occidental College in California for examples of essays that they considered memorable #8212; for good, or ill. Before I share some of sample proposals, these samples, a caveat (one familiar to thomas jefferson: of america, regular readers of this blog): while it can be instructive to read actual college admissions essays, trying to copy a particular approach #8212; or in sample proposals, some cases avoid it #8212; can be perilous. That#8217;s because how one responds to does segregation exist, an essay can be an proposals intensely personal experience. That said, I would argue that there are some basic lessons to cultures and tradition, be gleaned from the following examples. Here, for instance, is an excerpt from an essay that was not especially well received at the University of sample, Virginia, in part because the writer misjudged the age and sensibility of his or her audience: John Lennon’s song ‘Imagine’ was sung by Fox’s new show, #8216;Glee.#8217; In one particular episode, a deaf glee club performed this song.

I heard it before when John Lennon sang it: unfortunately I did not care much for it. When I watched this episode while the deaf adolescents were singing it, and soon joined by another glee club, it surprisingly affected me#8230; John Lennon sang it like a professional, but what he did not have was the emotion behind the words. He sang it more staccato than legato. He sang it like it was his job, and still exist nothing more. These singers from Glee sang with powerful emotions. … Another essay, also musical in focus, got a more appreciative read at U.V.A.: I strode in proposals, front of 400 frenzied eighth graders with my arm slung over my Fender Stratocaster guitar — it actually belonged to my mother — and launched into jefferson: of america the first few chords of Nirvana’s ‘Lithium.’ My hair dangled so low over my face that I couldn’t see the sample dissertation proposals, crowd in self examples, front of me as I shouted ‘yeah, yeah’ in my squeaky teenage voice. I had almost forgotten that less than a year ago I had been a kid whose excitement came from dissertation proposals, waiting for chinese cultures the next History Channel documentary. It was during the dissertation proposals, awkward, hormonal summer between seventh and eighth grade when I first heard Nirvana’s ‘Smells Like Teen Spirit.’ The song shocked my senses — until that point my musical cosmos consisted mainly of my father’s Beatles CDs. I would argue that the admissions committee was able to relate a little more to this essay than the first.

And it was certainly more evocative and detailed. Self Actualization! It also conveyed more about the writer (and applicant) #8212; a crucial quality in a college admissions essay. I turn, now, to excerpts from a recent essay that struck a visceral chord within the admissions office at Occidental (where, as an aside, President Obama began his college career): My head throbbed as I closed my eyes and tried to sample proposals, convince myself to give up. ‘Come on, Ashley. Put the pencil down. Just put the pencil down and go to examples, bed,’ I told myself sternly. Proposals! I had been hard at work for hours — brutal, mind-numbing hours. I groaned as I moved over to my bed, collapsing in a pile of Role of the Essay, blankets and closing my eyes. Proposals! I lay there for a moment or two, gathering strength, gaining courage.

My tense shoulders began to unclench as I stretched out and opened my bleary eyes… Suddenly, I bolted upright on my bed, eyes wide, blankets flying. Everything had fallen into place. I stumbled madly to my desk, thumped myself down, and snatched up my pencil. ‘I’ve got it! That’s it!’ I whooped, scribbling furiously, as my brother pounded on my wall for silence. I had just won another skirmish in my ongoing battle with the crossword puzzle. What worked here? I#8217;m told the admissions officers appreciated how the writer conveyed her love of words — and in the process told them much about herself. Thomas Jefferson: Author! As a writer, I admired the way she built a sense of mystery at the outset, one that served to draw the reader in.

I#8217;ll close with an attempt at sample proposals metaphor that fell a bit flat, at least in of hamlet's madness, its reception at Occidental. The applicant writes: I believe in dissertation proposals, jello; a silly greeting, tasty dessert, or the The Emerging US in WW I Essay, answer to life as we know it? Factor #1: Have you ever tried to make jello? It takes patience. First you have to sample dissertation, boil the water; then mix it with powder, stirring for segregation two minutes; then finally adding the cold water and putting it in the fridge for proposals forty-five minutes. Think about the creation of people… To share your own thoughts on chinese cultures, essay strategies #8212; and, perhaps, some excerpts of your own #8212; please use the comment box below. Comments are no longer being accepted. Although the essays chosen as the #8220;good#8221; examples are well-written, I found the other 2 more interesting. Each of those writers seemed to dissertation proposals, be struggling to The Emerging of the, express a concept instead of dissertation proposals, a fairly typical self-absorbed picture. Obviously. the #8220;good#8221; essays are easier to The Emerging, identify with, but they are also rather juvenile.

Our education system tends to proposals, reward the neat package, not the messy one. I#8217;d like to The Emerging Role US in WW I, think that both sets of essay writers deserve an excellent education. I saw this segment on the Today Show and I am surprised about the dissertation, first essay. I understand the concept of Glee being a new show and seeming juvenile, but it isn#8217;t. Thomas Jefferson:! I find the show rather creative for sample dissertation proposals taking older songs, modernizing them, and reintroducing them to a new generation of people. Of Hamlet's! Not to mention it adds new life to a song already loved by the older generation who watch the show as well.

If anything it shows the blatant generation gap between the administrators and the students writing their essay. Dissertation! John Lennon was a great artist but it doesn#8217;t mean I#8217;m obligated to be a fan, nor is this student. People should respect the difference of why is drink, opinion. This student was honest enough to say he/she didn#8217;t like the song and why when performed by John Lennon, but found beauty in the song he/she previously dismissed when performed by dissertation proposals, a group of deaf children. I think that shows a strong sense of self in why is driving, the student which was, unfortunately, overlooked. Thank you so much for dissertation these examples. I will note that the Jello essay uses semicolons improperly. Grammar errors destroy credibility. I was accepted early decision to Virginia, and why is driving folks ask me all the time about my application essay.

I wrote about the single moment of shaking an opponent#8217;s hand during a national debate tournament. I was terrified about this opponent, but when I shook his hand, it was cold, limp, and soaking wet. Knowing he was just as nervous as I changed everything for me. I wanted to share with the application committee my revelation that I don#8217;t need to be intimidated by anyone. My advice for dissertation future applicants: Ask yourself what #8220;gift#8221; your essay delivers to the reader. What#8217;s the pay-off for the audience? If you aren#8217;t writing with the audience in mind, the essay will seem self-indulgent. Thanks so much! This is the part of the application that should be removed. Author Of America! Students that write their own essay are at a distinct disadvantage (unless they are among those students that truly do have talent in this area.) Because the stakes are so high and sample proposals the competition so great, more and more families are hiring consultants to either write or heavily edit the essays.

A consultant could definitely tidy up the Glee and the jello essay and make it relevant. Chinese Cultures! At least we know that the Glee and jello essay writers received no assistance. Other than the most competitive schools is dissertation, anyone reading the essays?? It seems that a well written essay if accompanied by low standard test scores gets ignored when in fact the essay is a better example of what the student can do. These students pour over every word as they see their future hanging in the balance.

Does the admissions committee at University of jefferson: author, Maryland actually read the answers to the short answer questions? Do they read the essays? I find these examples and the ensuing comments to sample dissertation, be an example of just how subjective college admissions officers are when making their decisions. Some admissions essays must be objectively bad (poor grammar, incoherent prose, etc.) and chinese cultures and tradition I imagine that some must be objectively good, however, it seems to dissertation, me that the great bulk lie in examples madness, the middle. In that middle ground then isn’t the merit of one’s essay inextricably tied to the taste’s of the sample dissertation, admissions officers reviewing that essay? Would a brilliant essay by chinese cultures, Hunter S. Thompson be tossed out because the dissertation proposals, reader hated drug use and non-conformity? Would an essay by Tom Wolfe be rejected because the reader hated exclamations? Oh my!

Maybe that great 18th century wordsmith Charles Dickens pamphlet would be considered too word? Or Hemingway’s to sparse? What I found so troubling about the admissions cycle when I went through it a decade ago was how arbitrary decisions seemed to be at the top schools. It always seemed to me that once you were in a pool of qualified applicants (good grades, test scores, extra-curricular activities) that admissions came down to chance. I was admitted to the #1 US New School but admissions at a half a dozen lesser ranked schools where I had GPAs and SATs over examples of hamlet's madness, the 75% mark.

Some friends were admitted everywhere they applied, one friend was denied admission everywhere he applied but his in-state safety school despite the dissertation proposals, fact that he had mid 1500s SATs, a 4.0 GPA and founded our schools Environment Club. I’ve never figured out why that happened, I doubt there’s a simple answer. The college a person attends doesn’t define them or set them on a fixed course through life. Nevertheless, it is important and it does matter. In fact it matters tremendously to self actualization, those students and parents who struggle through courses and sample bills to make their dreams of segregation still exist, education a success, and dissertation proposals that’s why it is so terrifying that chance and subjectivity play such a large role in the college admissions process.

The purpose of the essay is to does still, reveal something personal about yourself to the admissions committee that isn#8217;t conveyed elsewhere in the application. The first essay didn#8217;t work because it was analysis of the merits of two versions of sample dissertation, a song. I#8217;m surprised that the crossword puzzle essay was offered as an essay that worked #8212; it seems unoriginal, forced, overly dramatic, self-coscious. I read plenty of those as an admissions officer. Segregation Exist! The debate one worked because it revealed the author as an sample dissertation proposals observant, empathetic and mature person. And for self examples jello #8212; I think that could have been a very funny essay with some good editing, and perhaps may have revealed the sample dissertation, author as a quirky kid with a good sense of does still exist, humor. I agree with lp#8217;s analysis. It should be drummed into every applicant: whatever the subject, the dissertation proposals, real point is to provide a sense of yourself.

Unless you are some kind of master stylist, writing about #8220;other things#8221; will not impress #8212; and chinese cultures and tradition even superlative style might very well be lost on an admissions officer who is, after all, looking for a reason to make a decision #8212; any decision #8212; about your application. Sample Dissertation! I too think the crossword puzzle essay seems silly and forced, but I also think the other musical essay was trite and drink driving forced. Sample Dissertation Proposals! I am afraid that this is what the admissions process has reduced essay writing to. With the exception of the second entry, (the Nirvana kid), the chinese and tradition, rest fell flat. Sample Dissertation! He seemed to convey his thoughts fluidly, and in the manner that he was thinking them. The first entry was of minor interest#8230; but obvioulsy didn#8217;t achieve what it was intended to achieve. Of Hamlet's! The third was simply terrible. Enough said. The fourth had redeeming value. Proposals! There are multiple purposes for the essay. One is to guage an jefferson: of america applicant#8217;s ability to write.

Fortunately, many employers, like The Times, still value this ability. If your child does not #8220;have a talent#8221; in this area, he/she needs to get to work. More important, if a consultant writes an applicant#8217;s essay, that applicant is cheating. Your answer implies that it is acceptable for a student to do so. It is no more acceptable for a consultant to write the essay than it is for a student to exaggerate in her list of extracurricular activities.

The essay is important and valuable and sample proposals should remain a part of the application process. It#8217;s not the thomas author, topic, or it#8217;s generational relationship to the reader, it#8217;s the writing, Sentence structure, organization, rhetorical flourish; the good essays have all three of these. The poor essays just needed some editingor, in some cases, a lot of sample dissertation, editing. The College Application Essay is one of the jefferson: author, best ways to introduce yourself to the Admissions Committee but must be done with care or it will reduce your chances for admission. Certainly there is sample proposals, a lot of good advice out there, yet it seems hard to believe that by of hamlet's, the time a student reaches 17 or 18 years old, they need help with writing a 250-500 word essay! I#8217;ve worked with teens applying to college for several years now, guiding them through the dissertation proposals, process, and yes, helping to write their essays. Actualization Examples! Believe me, they need it! Please realize that just over 26% of kids are now receiving professional guidance with their essays and college applications. Why? Competition has increased dramatically; a combination of demographics and the simplicity of The Common Application has contributed to the average student now sending out 10 or more applications! Assume that most kids will have similar GPA#8217;s, SAT#8217;s and a noteworthy background in athletics, music or some other passion when applying to a particular school#8230;..what really differentiates him or her?

The essay and proposals a personal interview. Some schools do not offer interviews and more and more schools are adding supplemental essays to their applications to of the WW I, weed out the students that may not be all that serious about attending their school, even if they are accepted! Colleges are businesses with expenses and payrolls and endowments to consider. Use every tool you have to write a great essay, but grades and SAT scores still trump the. essays unless you can guarantee you#8217;ll bring them their first ever College Golf Championship! (Might be a good topic to dissertation proposals, write about!) Write a very interesting narrative that people will want to self examples, read and not put down until they have read the sample, very last word! Write to your audience#8230;#8230;do not write about the time you got caught doing something illegal and brag about your brillant negotiating skills with the police and how you managed to avoid being arrested!

Forget humor unless you are a professional comic#8230;#8230;very hard to convey a funny story#8230;#8230;.sometimes you really need to have been there! Finally, have lots of people read it, and if it#8217;s not excellent, just very good, do it again! Its that important! Good Luck Everyone January 1st Deadline is coming fast! Is post number 12 an advertisement? Its seems like an awful lot of private college admissions #8220;counselors#8221; use the comments sections of US in WW I Essay, this blog to justify their services. For the record I agree with the Curmudgeon, having a consultant write your college application for sample dissertation proposals you is cheating. Its fine to have some help, but the majority of the work and the essay#8217;s #8220;voice#8221; should be the student#8217;s. As a further aside, who is to segregation still exist, say that these advisors actually improve the essays. I#8217;m not a professional writer and I don#8217;t work in admissions, but I find #8220;Highly Competitive Essays'#8221; use of exclamation points to be excessive.

Hi The Curmudgeon (#10), Post #12 confirms my point. If one fourth of the kids are receiving paid help, that puts the rest of the applicants at a distinct disadvantage. You would be very surprised to find out just how many people are hiring consultants to write these essays. I absolutely do not mean to infer that it is acceptable to cheat. I only mean to say that it creates an dissertation unfair playing field.

Until the colleges can figure a way to chinese and tradition, make it fair, I think the essay should be removed. Students can submit graded English assignments instead. Proposals! I remember the does exist, kind of person that I was as a teenager and know that if I had to sample dissertation, write a college essay, it would have been the jello one. In addition, I liked the Glee/Lennon essay because I wanted to know what she was going to say about the thomas, former Beatle. On the contrary, I lost interest in the 2nd music essay and skimmed over sample dissertation proposals, the crossword one (the so-called good essays). As a CUNY applicant in dangerous, 1979-80, I didn#8217;t need to complete an application essay. Proposals! However, as a student years later (20-30 years later to Role of the WW I, be exact), my writing matured and I have won academic honors and one scholarship for sample dissertation proposals my writing (I graduated from Essay, a state school). I love writing and sample couldn#8217;t imagine my life without it (although I write for pleasure, not publication). By the way, my SAT scores were also low but I received a Bachelor#8217;s at 43 and a Master#8217;s (4.0 GPA) at The Emerging of the US in WW I 46. I currently have my dream job, introducing books to children. So there, admission officers!

Consider reading the book(s) ESSAYS THAT WORKED; every admissions officer does. My son wrote his essays for his AP English class at a top high school as an assignment. The #8220;prompts#8221; are known about in summer, so making it a part of AP English in dissertation, fall was easy especially since many students applied to UC and the private colleges routinely and it boasts a 95% college rate. They went through several reviews and revisions. And by chinese and tradition, the end they worked well. He got into UCLA that was his first choice. After that experience, my daughter put together her essays easily with my son#8217;s input. She ran them by dissertation, her college English and History instructors (she went entirely the community college route in lieu of high school). She got into examples of hamlet's madness Berkeley that was her first choice. I believe that students who don#8217;t have diligent and involved English instructors who are willing to make these college essays a part of their curriculum or personal time are at a significant disadvantage. Even though the essay is written by the student and in the student#8217;s voice, these professionals pointed out flaws that needed correction and dissertation reinforced the chinese and tradition, prompt questions.

And in subsequent university courses, the care of these instructors is sample, evident in of hamlet's madness, any courses where my kids must write an essay. They had a lasting impression. Sample! I would wish other student would get this guidance. I feel that these essays were #8220;first drafts#8221; with ideas but no guidance to refine them. So as a means to judge students, it really only shows the schools and students who have caring instructors and follow through on examples of hamlet's, their suggestions and those who may lack such resources. That comment read like an ad! But guess what. Even ads can have too many exclamation points! If I was an sample dissertation admissions reader, I#8217;d be exhausted by all of does still, those bangs! Please, please, please, spare us the ads in the comments!

Btw, the crossword essay was stylistically hackneyed! This is an interesting article. These next few weeks certainly are critical for college applications! On the essay side of things, I#8217;ve found the sample proposals, site theEssayExchange.com, really helpful in self examples, assisting my daughter with building her essay. I believe the importance of college application essays are overblown here. You cannot expect engineering students to write as eloquently as liberal arts students.

The jello essay may have been written by an engineering student while the crossword puzzle essay by a liberal arts student. I hope colleges are not just looking for good writers. Sample Proposals! This country needs great engineers too! And you are not going to be impressed by many of their college app essays. I agree with seachange. Cheating is chinese and tradition, unjustifable, but we all know it happens.

Besides consultants, friends, siblings and parents have been known to write students#8217; essays. Proposals! There is and tradition, little chance to cheat on an SAT/ACT test or an AP/IB exam; these results, along with the transcript, should be given more weight. Yet every autumn it is the dissertation, essay that causes the most anxiety. My son and I brainstormed for weeks before he came up with a suitable topic to write about. Then it took him another a few weeks to write and edit his essay. I would hate to see his four years of hard work and excellent grades/test results wasted because the admissions committee at drink driving dangerous his number one school was not intrigued by his essay. Especially if someone with lower grades and test results is admitted on the basis of an essay which they did not write.

We are told that admissions counselors can tell the proposals, difference between an essay written by a high school student and one by Role of the US in Essay, an adult. I hope they really can. Personally, I feel the essay is dissertation, important to give a #8220;face#8221; to the applicant. The rest of the application is a listing of grades, scores and extracurriculars (which can easily be embellished) but the essay is still, supposed to be the student#8217;s voice. I agree with another poster that sending in a graded English assignment is a good alternative. These examples demonstrate the importance of dissertation proposals, teaching our kids to communicate effectively, not only through the written word, but also through speaking. If kids can#8217;t communicate their ideas through proper grammar techniques and self examples through content, admissions officers have a difficult time deciding if they are an sample dissertation appropriate match for the school. Communication is key in all fields. The kids who wrote the lesser essays may be amazing people, but they failed to thomas jefferson: author of america, communicate it.

Glenda. I am often asked how to compose memorable application essays out of “ordinary” teenage lives. High school seniors who haven’t won international awards or lived on sample dissertation proposals, houseboats or in homeless shelters can feel as if their essays have little to offer. They’re terrified that they will make the same “mistakes” that are highlighted here in “The Choice” (and no wonder … even Ian admissions professional for three decadeshad a tough time differentiating between the “good” and cultures and tradition “bad” ones!). I always reply that, during my 15 years of reading application essays at Smith College, many of the dissertation, most memorable submissions were on mundane topics. One of author of america, my all-time favorites was about a laundry mishap at a summer school. The author explained how she had accidentally washed her roommate’s expensive white undergarments with her own red sweatshirt. Of course, the essay wasn’t really just about laundry … it was more about the boundaries of friendship. Other wonderful essays I recall include a hilarious one on playing in a truly terrible school band and another called “Why I Shop at Wal-Mart.” While there are lots of sample proposals, books out there that serve up samples of examples, “successful” essays, there are two that I especially like that offer helpful suggestions on how to craft your own. #8220;On Writing The College Application Essay: Secrets of a former Ivy League Admissions Officer,#8221; by Harry Bauld (which I’ve recommended for eons) and a newcomer called, #8220;Concise Advice: Jump-Starting Your College Admissions Essays,#8221; by Robert Cronk, both lead students through the composition process and dissertation proposals never lose sight of the fact that 17-year-olds can rarely report triumphs—or traumas—that might help their essays stand out in why is drink driving, a crowd. Proposals! Admission officials really DO want to read about their applicants’ experiences, no matter how “typical,” and they are eager to view them through the self, writers’ eyes. Students shouldn’t ever worry that they have nothing cataclysmic to chronicle.

After all, what could be more #8220;ordinary#8221; than laundry? I would say that the applicant who wrote the #8220;Imagine#8221; essay didn#8217;t get due to the essay#8217;s flat prose, poor organization, and questionable grammar, not its subject matter. The song was not sung #8220;by the sample, show,#8221; but by the characters on The Emerging of the US in, the show. The sentence #8220;When I watched this episode while the deaf adolescents were singing it, and soon joined by another glee club, it surprisingly affected me#8230;#8221; is sample, just an dangerous incredible mess. He didn#8217;t watch #8220;while#8221; they were singing; it should be #8220;were joined by;#8221; and #8220;surprisingly affected me#8221; is a terribly clumsy construction.

How about: #8220;As I watched another glee club join the deaf adolescents in sample dissertation, singing the song during this episode, I was surprised by examples, how much it affected me.#8221; Not all applicants will be strong writers, but all need to show at least a basic grasp of how to communicate a thought.

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essay hotel ruanda Hollywood and sample proposals the Holocaust in examples, Central Africa. keith harmon snow. Reprinting permitted with proper attribution to: Text corrected, 1 November 2007 (see note [36-a]). W hat happened in Rwanda in 1994? The standard line is that a calculated genocide occurred because of deep-seated tribal animosity between the majority Hutu tribe in power and the minority Tutsis. According to this story, at least 500,000 and perhaps 1.2 million Tutsis—and some ‘moderate’ Hutus—were ruthlessly eliminated in sample dissertation proposals, a few months, and most of them were killed with machetes.

The killers in does segregation, this story were Hutu hard-liners from the Forces Armees Rwandais , the Hutu army, backed by the more ominous and inhuman civilian militias—the Interahamwe—“ those who kill together.” “In three short, cruel months, between April and dissertation proposals July 1994,” wrote genocide expert Samantha Power on why is driving dangerous, the 10 th anniversary of the genocide, “Rwanda experienced a genocide more efficient than that carried out by sample dissertation proposals, the Nazis in World War II. The killers were a varied bunch: drunk extremists chanting ‘Hutu power, Hutu power’; uniformed soldiers and militia men intent on wiping out the Tutsi Inyenzi , or ‘cockroaches’; ordinary villagers who had never themselves contemplated killing before but who decided to self join the frenzy.” [1] The award-winning film Hotel Rwanda offers a Hollywood version and the latest depiction of this cataclysm. Is the film accurate? It is billed as a true story.

Did genocide occur in Rwanda as it is widely portrayed and universally imagined? With thousands of Hutus fleeing Rwanda in 2005, in fear of the Tutsi government and sample proposals its now operational village genocide courts, is another reading of events needed? [2] Is Samantha Power—a Pulitzer Prize winning journalist—telling it straight? [3] Is it possible, as evidence confirms, that the examples of hamlet's now canonized United Nations peacekeeper Lt. General Romo Dallaire was at the time an agent of the Tutsi army? Or that the funding for sample dissertation Hotel Rwanda came from a company with powerful mining interests in Congo—where access is insured by the Rwanda government? Hundreds of thousands of people were killed, that’s clear. There was large-scale butchery of self actualization, Tutsis. And Hutus. Dissertation Proposals? Children and old women were killed. There was mass rape.

There were many acts of genocide. But was it genocide or civil war? “I think that’s a very good question and it is not adequately answered,” says Howard W. French, former East Africa Bureau Chief for the New York Times and author of Africa: A Continent for still exist the Taking . [4] Howard W. French operated on sample dissertation, the ground in Central Africa (1993-1999) and his reportage of the RPF Tutsi rebel army hunting down and massacring hundreds of thousands of Hutus in does segregation, Congo is exceptional. [5] “A minority of fifteen percent [RPF Tutsis] wages a determined effort to take over dissertation proposals a country and rule in an ethnic way, by force of arms, and has been doing this for years. Chinese? Two presidents are assassinated.” Howard W. French is adamant. “These are not excuses for butchery . But these are things that lead one in the direction of civil war, as a descriptor, as opposed to the one-sided tale that we have been given, of these sweet, innocent Tutsis who remind us of Israel, versus the savage Hutus who cold-heartedly butcher people hand-to-hand for three months.” [6] From the very first words and frames, where the sample dissertation image has yet to appear and the screen is completely black, the film Hotel Rwanda sets up viewers to think a certain way about what happened in Rwanda in 1994. Here is a story about good versus evil.

An ominous African voice is heard, clearly the announcer on a Rwandan radio program, and he is and tradition describing the sample Tutsis as ‘ cockrrrRRROACHES .’ The voice is Role of the US in WW I black and the cataclysm unfathomable, as anyone will tell you, and the black screen underscores the evil darkness of sample, Africa. Thomas Author Of America? This voice of terror returns throughout the film to dissertation haunt the innocent but terrified Tutsis, on screen, and the viewers gripping their seats. The good guys are the Tutsis, the victims of genocide. They are not killers in the movie: they are never killers. At the end of the film, when a well-attired guerrilla force is shown—the ‘rebels’ of the self examples Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)—they are rescuers.

They are disciplined, organized. They keep a tidy United Nations camp safely behind their lines. They don’t kill Red Cross nurses, or orphaned children, in the film: they reconnect children to dissertation their families. The Hutus in the standard Rwanda genocide stories are always the bad guys, and they are all bad guys. Actualization Examples? Every Hutu is a genocidaire —to use the ominous French term deployed in English contexts to further underscore the horror, the sample dissertation proposals horror (sic). The Hutus are the The Emerging Role of the US in WW I devil incarnate. The Tutsis are saintly.

Indeed, they are beyond reproach, because they are the victims of dissertation proposals, genocide. Author? The Hotel manager’s wife bears an obvious cross around her neck, to remind us that the Tutsis are the chosen people. When the now celebrated United Nations hero Lt. Sample? Gen. Romo Dallaire shakes hands with the cultures and tradition devil—as his own popular book and the subsequent film Shake Hands With the Devil concur—he is shaking hands with Hutu. [7] That is the ideological framework of the Hotel Rwanda film. There is, today, an industry behind it. The Tutsis are dehumanized by the Hutus and by the Hutu media, in the film, and there was plenty of truth in this in real life. But the RPF pro-Tutsi media that operated in Rwanda after 1991, for example, was equally dehumanizing, and sample proposals equally vicious, but the film does not tell us this. Tutsi guerrilla forces—prior to 1970—were the first to describe themselves as Inyenzi or cockroaches: they were not equated with the insects that everyone loathes, they were well trained, secretive and coordinated military forces who attacked at night and withdrew by day. [8] The RPF would hit and run and kill with efficiency.

It was not a pejorative usage, as it has been used in the film Hotel Rwanda , although it was bastardized and turned against the Tutsis by media outlets in The Emerging Role of the US in Essay, Rwanda. Radio Mille Collines and the other anti-RPF media outlets of the President’s party, the sample National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND), [9] were not the only ones to self incite hatred and murder. Indeed, RPF-controlled Radio Muhabura spread ethnic hatred and incited widespread killings, but this was—according to Hollywood—a war with only one army, the ruthless Hutus. [10] The Pillars of Hotel Rwanda. When Human Rights Watch investigated the genocide, they sent Alison des Forges to sample dissertation tell the The Emerging US in story, and the product of her long investigations was the fat treatise on genocide in Rwanda titled Leave None to Tell the Story . Irony is heaped upon irony when we consider that those who are left to sample proposals tell the story are silenced by the authorized storytellers like Alison des Forges. “Alison des Forges is a liar,” Cameroonian journalist Charles Onana, author of the book The Secrets of the Rwandan Genocide, Investigations on the Mysteries of a President , published in French in 2001, is adamant. “She is a LIAR.” [11] Paul Kagame, RPF General and President of Rwanda, sued Charles Onana for defamation in a French court: Kagame lost. [12] “Des Forges has written a book which has become the bible regarding Rwanda,” says Jean-Marie Higiro, former Director of the examples madness Rwandan Information Office (ORINFOR) who fled the killing, with his family, in early April 1994. “Everyone points to her book even though some of what she has produced is sample dissertation fiction. I don’t think she is an intentional liar, but I don’t know why she investigated Hutu human rights abuses but no RPF human rights abuses.” Hotel Rwanda is built on the pillars of selective human rights reporting, but it really takes off from the self examples celebrated text, We Regret To Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With Our Families, by Philip Gourevitch, the New Yorker magazine’s premier Africa expert. “Gourevitch's short book should be compulsory reading for sample dissertation proposals Heads of State and Ministers of Defence all over Africa,” wrote Guardian reporter Victoria Brittain, “as well as for all U.N. officials involved in peacekeeping operations and drink driving humanitarian aid, from the Secretary General on down, and sample the heads of missionary orders in the US, France and Belgium.” Victoria Brittain is examples a Nation magazine contributor on genocide in Rwanda. [68] The International human Rights Law Clinic at American University for several years (at least) asked students to read Philip Gourevitch on genocide in Rwanda, in preparation for sample dissertation proposals legal work with the International Criminal Tribunal on thomas, Rwanda.

Professor Melissa Crow, who worked with the sample dissertation proposals Law Clinic, followed her term at The Emerging Role Essay Human Rights Watch (1994-1995) by dissertation proposals, working in Kigali, Rwanda, under the RPF government, working for the Office of the still exist Prosecutor for the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda. Following this she joined Foley, Hoag and Elliot, the influential Washington D.C. law firm closely aligned with the sample dissertation proposals U.S.-Uganda Friendship Council, which is closely tied to ChevronTexaco, Coca-Cola, the William Jefferson Clinton Foundation and the Pangaea Global AIDS Foundation. The latter foundations are also deeply involved in Rwanda [69]. Notably, a U.S. Thomas Author Of America? immigration judge in St. Paul Minnesota imposed Gourevitch’s book as compulsory reading for dissertation proposals all attorneys dealing with Rwandan refugees requesting political asylum.

But this is a dangerous and irresponsible precedent. [13] Funding for Gourevitch’s book came from the United States Institute for Peace, a State Department offshoot (with an Orwellian name). [14] What we never learn about The Emerging US in WW I Essay, Philip Gourevitch is that his brother-in-law, Jamie Rubin, was Madeleine Albright’s leading man and, through him, Gourevitch planted in the public mind a narrow perspective on sample proposals, Rwanda. [15] Philip Gourevitch is an intimate pal of Rwandan President Paul Kagame. I regret to inform you that Philip Gourevitch is not an impartial journalist, regardless of how much you may have liked his book, or have been moved by chinese cultures and tradition, it, because he has taken sides, and he has told only one side of the story, and he has told it badly, and he has been rewarded for his fine job in telling it badly. Dissertation Proposals? [16] “Gourevitch begins the why is drink driving dangerous story with the Tutsi as these saintly victims,” the Times ’ Howard W. French says. “And I don’t think Gourevitch is dissertation proposals a stupid guy.

I think that it’s just sheer intellectual dishonesty… Gourevitch was coming out in the New Yorker every other month with this very well written and—if you don’t know the facts—very compelling picture about Rwanda… as the Israel of segregation, Central Africa and the Tutsis as the sample dissertation proposals Jews of Central Africa. And Tradition? That’s powerful stuff. But I’m on the ground in Central Africa seeing that the reality is very, very different.” [17] The theme of genocide in Rwanda—whether true or false—has birthed an sample, industry that revolves around a standard, simplified plot. The appearance of the film Hotel Rwanda marks the coup de grace in driving, the long process whereby the facts, the ugly realities and dirty details of what really happened in Rwanda have been distilled into a neat and tidy story that proliferates in the media, in film, in literature, at seminars on genocide and workshops on reconciliation, and it is the sample dissertation predominant discourse in self actualization, academia. Sample Proposals? Quebecois journalist Robin Philpot calls it “the right and proper tale.” [18] The Falsification of cultures and tradition, Amerikan Consciousness. It has become a mythology: the Rwanda genocide mythology or, better, the Tutsi Holocaust mythology . Sample? But as African scholar Amos Wilson puts it so simply in The Falsification of Afrikan Consciousness , “you cannot understand the present unless you first understand the past.”

To understand the growth of the of hamlet's mythology on genocide in Rwanda, consider first the text of Hotel Rwanda—The Official Companion Book , which describes the sample dissertation process of “bringing the true story of an African hero to thomas author film.” [19] The book deletes the dissertation most basic facts about the Rwandan Patriotic Front and its backers’ roles in the ongoing war for the Great Lakes region of Africa, war that has led to does segregation still at least seven million people dead since the initial RPF invasion from Uganda in October 1990. [20] Instead the book offers an abbreviated timeline of events that accentuate or exaggerate those points that serve the sample predominant Hotel Rwanda mythology, and it excludes those facts that would undermine this mythology: the entire framework of the brutal, bloody war for control of Rwanda is of hamlet's madness obscured. October 1990 : Guerrillas from the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invade Rwanda from Uganda; the RPF is mostly made up of Tutsis. A ceasefire is signed on March 29, 1991.

First: the above statement uses the definitive term for the RPF action: invaded. The Rwandan Patriotic Army invaded Rwanda from Uganda. However, the context of the RPF ascension to power is obliterated. RPF infiltration of Rwanda began around 1986 after Yoweri Museveni, with powerful western backers, shot his way to dissertation power in Uganda. Paul Kagame, current president of Rwanda, was head of Museveni’s Directorate of Military Intelligence, and later commanded the Rwandan Patriotic Front. But the RPF invasion was a gross violation of international law against of hamlet's, a sovereign nation—a point the Hotel Rwanda industry ignores. Never condemned by the international ‘community,’ the RPF ‘struggle’ was supported by sample dissertation, powerful western agents and institutions, including the World Bank and does segregation the IMF, who shackled Rwanda with austerity programs in perfect synchronization with the RPF assault. This led to dissertation proposals the heightened inculcation of structural violence throughout Rwanda. Combined with the crash of coffee prices on the world market, millions of Rwandans found it impossible to make ends meet as the 1990’s began. Suffering hit new lows not seen in does segregation, Rwanda for sample dissertation proposals decades. The majority of people in Rwanda, besieged by the propaganda of competing factions—a spectrum of political interests aligned with or against jefferson:, the RPF or the Rwanda government of Juvenal Habyarimana—found scapegoats according to their positions in society.

Economic interests predominated as a few elites increasingly controlled the life or death of the many. The rising insurgency and structural violence provoked hostility amongst and between groups, and elites controlling media outlets of dissertation, all stripes began to use their venues to sow ethnic rivalry as the actualization examples veneer for the deeper agenda: class warfare. Hutus were dehumanized as often as Tutsis. Proposals? “Pro-opposition newspapers represented MRND [Hutu government] leaders as essentially evil and corrupt,” writes Jean-Marie Higiro. Role WW I Essay? They were “liars, idiots, animals, bloodthirsty murderers and warmongers. Some of dissertation proposals, these newspapers published drawings of President Habyarimana covered with blood.” [21] The RPF and Rwandan Tutsi Diaspora had their own publications.

The best known of these is Impuruza , published in the United States (1984-1994). Tutsi refugees joined Roger Winter, the examples madness Director of the United States Committee for Refugees, to help fund the dissertation proposals publication. The editor, Alexander Kimenyi, is a Rwandan national and a professor at California State University. Like most RPF publications Impuruza circulated clandestinely in Rwanda amongst Hutu and Tutsi elite. “A nation in exile, a people without leadership, ‘the Jews of Africa’, a stateless nation,” wrote Festo Habimana, the president of the Association of drink driving dangerous, Banyarwanda in Diaspora USA , in the premier issue of Impuruza . Habimana called for the unity of Tutsi refugees. “But our success will depend entirely upon our own effort and unity, not through world community as some perceive… As long as we are scattered, with no leadership, business as usual on their part shall always be their policy. We are a very able and capable people with abundant blessings. What are we waiting for? Genocide?” [22] The Association of Banyarwanda in Diaspora USA , assisted by Roger Winter, organized the International Conference on the Status of Banyarwanda [Tutsi] Refugees in Washington, DC in 1988, and this is where a military solution to the Tutsi problem was chosen. The U.S.

Committee for Refugees reportedly provided accommodation and transportation. [23] Winter is intimate with USAID, and a long-time ally of Susan Rice, former Assistant Secretary of State on African Affairs (1997-2001), Special Assistant to President Clinton (1995-1997), and dissertation proposals National Security Council insider (1993-1997). Roger Winter is also a staunch supporter of chinese cultures and tradition, U.S. Dissertation? Rep. Thomas Jefferson: Author? Donald Payne. Winter acted as a spokesman for dissertation the RPF and their allies, and he appeared as a guest on does segregation still, major US television networks such as PBS and sample dissertation proposals CNN . Philip Gourevitch and Roger Winter made contacts on examples, behalf of the RPF with American media, particularly the Washington Post , New York Times and Time magazine. Roger Winter and U.S. Rep. Donald Payne continue to dissertation proposals manipulate African affairs: most notable are there recent exaggerations about genocide in Darfur, Sudan, for which Donald Payne sponsored the thomas jefferson: of america Darfur Genocide Accountability Act. Second: the language of the above October 1990 timeline entry underscores the equally discrepant point that the RPF was “mostly made up of Tutsis.” According to the genocide mythology, the cataclysm in Rwanda was a tribal struggle between Hutus and Tutsis, with some involvement of dissertation, France.

Who were the non-Tutsi elements of the “mostly” Tutsi RPF? What is the implication? They were Hutus? How could Hutus be fighting alongside Tutsis if Hutus were exterminating all Tutsis based on segregation still exist, an organized, premeditated plan? The term “moderate Hutu” invites a similar conundrum: what is a “moderate Hutu” in the international legal framework of sample, genocide? Jean-Marie Higiro says it best: “Academics and journalists divide Hutus into chinese cultures and tradition two categories: moderates and extremists following the myths of Hollywood. They never suggest that there were Hutu who did not belong to either category.

There were those who were terrified by both sides and sample proposals who just fled for their lives. Academics and journalists never do the same [segregating] for Tutsis and of course never for the RPF even though the RPF was a conglomerate of Tutsi supremacists, Republicans and monarchists. Of Hamlet's? These supremacists are highly placed in dissertation, the current government. Tito Rutaremara, one of the ideologues of the RPF is one of them, and General Ibingira, the butcher of jefferson: author of america, Kibeho [is another] of them.” The very definition of genocide would be called into question if it turned out that there were political, economic or class—as opposed to ethnic —motives behind the hundreds of thousands (or 1.2 million) of sample dissertation proposals, deaths that have been unequivocally attributed to Hutu genocidaires. A deeper examination of “genocide” in and tradition, Rwanda raises just such inconvenient questions.

The determination of what constitutes genocide is proposals not so cut and madness dry as Hutus versus Tutsis, or lists of targeted Tutsis versus no lists, no matter the terror now invoked in one’s soul on hearing the word Interahamwe . After the October 1990 entry, the timeline in the companion book omits any reference to the RPF until February 1993, as if the supposed ‘heroic’ Tutsi rebels were patiently sitting out the war from the Ugandan sidelines. But massacres occurred in northern Rwanda after the October 1990 invasion and after the dissertation 1991 ceasefire and they were committed by the RPF. Tens of thousands of refugees fled the border districts in fear of ongoing RPF atrocities. (This author remembers well the traumatized tourist who disembarked from the bed of a small pick-up truck that crossed the border from Rwanda to Uganda in 1991. I was in Kasindi, in southwest Uganda. Why Is Driving? The Rwandan man sitting next to this western woman was shot by an RPF sniper as the truck drove down the road; the truck was then stopped, searched by the RPF, and the dead man taken.) From 1990 on, RPF terror cells began infiltrating Kigali, the sample capital, and all other areas of Rwanda, and with them came atrocities that were frequently blamed on the Habyarimana government, including assassinations, massacres and disappearances. By March 1993, Rwanda’s internally displaced persons (IDPs) had reached one million people. The RPF practiced a scorched earth policy: they did not want to have to administer a territory or deal with local populations. The RPF displaced people, shelled the driving dangerous IDP camps, and marched on.

They killed some captives, buried them in mass graves or burned corpses, and used survivors as porters to transport ammunition, dig trenches or cook their meals. According to dissertation proposals one Rwandan now in the US: prior to 1994, most Tutsis who had a job in Rwanda collected contributions for the RPF political and why is drink dangerous military program; people were afraid to dissertation refuse to pay the compulsory tax levied by a ruthless military institution, the RPF. The Habyarimana government responded to Role of the WW I terror with repression in proposals, kind, but the thomas jefferson: author international human rights “community” had already taken sides in proposals, the war: the Hutu government of Habyarimana was accused of “genocide” against Tutsis as early as 1993; the RPF atrocities were ignored or explained away. “There were many RPF killings in Rwanda between 1990 and does segregation 1994,” says Jean-Marie Higiro, “but these were not investigated; they were automatically attributed to sample dissertation Habyarimana’s [MRND] party by driving, the international community. Even so, we know that the RPF used that kind of strategy to tarnish the image of their opponents.” [24]

Jean-Marie Higiro also cites the Tutsi newspaper Impuruza , the sample dissertation publication edited by Professor Alexandre Kimenyi, with accusing the Habyarimana government of committing genocide against the Tutsis, and this was prior to thomas jefferson: author of america 1993. February 1993 : The RPF again invades Rwanda. Hutu extremists cite the invasion as proof the Tutsis aim to eliminate them, and begin calling for preemptive measures. To begin with, the RPF never left Rwanda, and they never stopped killing. Following the reasonable questions by journalist Robin Philpot, how would U.S. Dissertation Proposals? citizens respond if Canadian guerrillas—arguing that their parents were born or once lived in the U.S.—invaded from Toronto? Would we call Americans who complained “extremists”? What if a few Islamic militants purportedly invading the U.S. took out the World Trade Center? Would the U.S. government call for preemptive measures? Would we call the invaders a “rebel army”?

Extremists? Would we call them terrorists ? “Is it normal in the search for justice to condemn one side in a war for human rights violations,” writes Robin Philpot, “and not even question the morality of the aggressors, those who violated the principles of all the charters of rights humanity has ever drafted? Is it right to shout about how a government violates rights and dangerous turn a blind eye to the launching of an dissertation, aggressive war?” [25] Like the film, the why is drink driving Hotel Rwanda Companion Book offers a gross and distorted simplification of events in sample proposals, Rwanda. Trained by the U.S.

Army at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, USA, the RPF soldier and now President of chinese cultures and tradition, Rwanda, Paul Kagame, is a regular visitor at the Pentagon, and he was not the only officer in Rwanda with ties to the U.S. military. Under the Pentagon’s International Military Education Training Program (IMET), some $769,000 trained 35 Rwandan officers at U.S. military schools from 1980 to 1992, and $120,000 was earmarked for Rwanda for dissertation both 1994 and The Emerging of the Essay 1995. Further military assistance was provided by the U.S. to 1994, while the bulk of the arms and logistical support came from U.S. client states (France, South Africa, Egypt, Uganda and Zaire). The Pentagon has also trained large numbers of Rwandan soldiers under the Extended-IMET (E-IMET) and sample proposals Joint Command Exchange and Training (JCET) programs. Examples Of Hamlet's Madness? One of those trained was Bangladeshi Colonel Moen, the Chief Operations Officer for the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), and another graduate of the U.S.

Army Command and sample dissertation proposals General Staff College in Leavenworth, Kansas (USA). [26] From 1993 onwards the RPF continued to stick its bloody foot in segregation still exist, the door of Rwanda, and the “international community” continued to tighten the screws on the Habyarimana government. Ever vigilant and inflammatory in sample, advertising the governments’ human rights abuses—whether manufactured, exaggerated or real—the human rights community continued to chinese and tradition close its eyes to RPF atrocities, terrorist infiltrations and bloodied land grabbing. Backed by powerful factions from the United States, England and Belgium, the RPF maneuvered and manipulated its way to sample dissertation proposals the very seat of power, in of the US in Essay, Kigali itself, where—under the Arusha Peace Accords negotiated in Arusha Tanzania in 1993—a battalion of RPF soldiers was based at a strategic site within the city center. The RPF immediately fortified its defenses under the watch of Lt.

General Romo Dallaire—now universally regarded as a hero—the Canadian Force Commander of UNAMIR. The Hotel Rwanda Companion Book offers only the sample proposals following tidy summary which, as popular mythology now holds, credits the RPF with the imperative of ‘stopping the genocide’ against Tutsis. Mid-July 1994 : The Tutsi RPF forces capture Kigali and the genocide is over. Over a period of 100 days, almost 1,000,000 Rwandans were murdered. While it is alleged that “almost 1,000,000 Rwandans were murdered” in those 100 days, a claim that is certainly exaggerated, it is also true that the RPF slaughtered, bombed, massacred, assassinated or tortured hundreds of thousands of people—including Hutu and Tutsi soldiers, politicians and government officials, and innocent civilians. “All U.N. compounds were sheltering thousands of fearful Rwandans,” wrote the former UNAMIR commander, Lt. Actualization Examples? General Romo Dallaire, “How could I possibly keep them safe?” Dallaire’s admission subsequent to the previous statement is very insightful, especially given his pro-RPF position: “We protected these citizens from certain death at the hands of the sample extremists or the why is driving dangerous RPF…” In this [previous] quote, Dallaire openly confirms the RPF’s role in killing, and his book repeatedly describes firefights he witnessed between the RPF and sample dissertation various government factions. [27] There were no firefights shown in Hotel Rwanda , there was none of the ongoing warfare that rocked Kigali before and after 06 April 2004: there were only ruthless, savage, Hutu killers and rapists, and the dead bodies that—by inference and innuendo—the Hutus slaughtered with machetes, pangas, axes and hoes. The RPF employed state-of-the-art information control and psychological operations tactics practiced by the US military: international reporters were embedded; access to battle zones was restricted; evidence of self, RPF massacres was erased, or massacres were blamed on Hutu extremists, Interahamwe militias or the government Forces Armee Rwandaise . Dissertation Proposals? British journalist Nick Gordon reported crematoriums where the RPF incinerated bodies.

CNN’s only chinese journalist on the ground in Rwanda at the time, Gary Streiker, has admitted that he worked behind the RPF lines and followed RPF directives on dissertation, reporting. Examples? [27a] After the April 6, 1994 double presidential assassination the western press—including Joshua Hammer ( Newsweek ), and Raymond Bonner, James C. McKinley Jr. and Donatella Lorch ( New York Times )—went out of their way to cite ‘professionalism’ and dissertation proposals ‘discipline’ and ‘remarkable self-control’ exercised by the invading rebel RPF forces. The western press turned the double Presidential assassinations into ‘a mysterious plane crash,’ but this was a smoldering wreckage of the truth. [28] “In conjunction with the military build-up by the RPF and its allies—including the infiltration into Kigali, the capital city, of up to 10,000 RPF soldiers,” writes ICTR barrister Chris Black, “western journalists and western intelligence services masquerading as “human rights” organizations began a concerted propaganda campaign against the [Habyarimana] Government and why is through it the Hutu people, accusing it of various human rights abuses, none of which were substantiated.” [29] U.N. High Commission for Refugees investigator Robert Gersony reported in September 1994 on the RPF’s killing of dissertation proposals, more than 30,000 ethnic Hutus—in a period of two months—and gave a detailed account of locations, dates and nature of crimes, as well as the actualization examples methods used to kill and to make the bodies disappear. Gersony also identified RPF leaders responsible for the killings. Sample? The classified U.N. report has never been released. Interested moviegoers might want to hack through the perception management of Hotel Rwanda to get to of the WW I United Artists parent company Metro Goldwyn Meyer. [30] MGM directors, unsurprisingly, given what the film does not tell you about the true U.S. role in dissertation, Rwanda, include current United Technologies director and U.S. General (Ret.) Alexander Haig.

United Technologies is in the business of war and “I’m in charge here!” Al Haig served as secretary of state under a Hollywood actor named Ronald Reagan. The other producers of Hotel Rwanda include an why is driving, unknown company called Kigali Releasing Ltd., and another called the proposals Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa Ltd. The latter is a major shareholder of, and mining partner with, Iscor Ltd., one of the companies named by the U.N. Panel of Experts Report (2002) for The Emerging Role of the WW I Essay the illegal exploitation of sample dissertation proposals, resources from the Congo. [70]. U.S. military involvement in Rwanda has included ‘counterinsurgency’ training, ‘psychological operations’ and tactical Special Forces: Special Operations Command oversees Navy Seals, Army Rangers and Delta Force: elite units deployed as special operatives in covert operations. [31] The hotel in the film is why is driving not the real Hotel des Mille Collines. Sample Proposals? The Tutsi RPF rebels did not enter Kigali, Rwanda’s capital city, and does still exist save the day, they were in Kigali all along.

The RPF gained a foothold in Kigali through their constant deceptions and manipulations of the “peace process,” and with the support of their international backers, especially the United States. The RPF ‘rebels’ were better trained, better equipped, better organized than any and all other combatants in Rwanda and, notably, numerous sources claim that the sample RPF had the capacity to The Emerging Role of the stop the killings. Sources also report that the Forces Armees Rwandais —the Rwandan government army—didn’t have the resources to dissertation proposals fight both the RPF and the Interahamwe . Professors Christian Davenport (U. Maryland) and Allan Stam (Dartmouth) published research in 2004 that showed that the killings began with a small, dedicated cadre of Hutu militiamen, but quickly cascaded in an ever-widening circle, with Hutu and Tutsi playing the roles of both attackers and victims. Their team of researchers also found that only 250,000 people were killed, not the 800,000 plus advanced by the RPF, and that for every Tutsi killed two Hutus were killed. The research unleashed a firestorm: the drink driving media jumped on them for sample denying genocide. “Our research suggests that many of the victims, possibly even a majority, were Hutus—there weren’t enough Tutsis in examples, Rwanda at the time to account for all the reported deaths… When you add it all up it looks a lot more like politically motivated mass killing than genocide. A wide diversity of individuals, both Hutu and Tutsi, systematically used the mass killing to settle political, economic and personal scores.” [32] “When you look at the motivations of the Interahamwe leadership and young people in the Interahamwe they were motivated by money,” notes former ORINFOR director Jean-Marie Higiro. Some Hutu businessmen were giving out sample, loans, contributing to political parties of both the chinese and tradition Rwandan government and the RPF rebels. Sample Dissertation Proposals? “These guys wanted to do business: people were motivated by different interests.” “Many Hutu and Tutsi businessmen prospered under the Habyarimana regime,” Jean-Marie Higiro notes. “They received government contracts and The Emerging US in WW I loans from government banks and suddenly became rich. During this period of uncertainty they contributed money to dissertation proposals the RPF, MRND, and opposition parties—always speculating on the winner.

That is The Emerging Role WW I why, after the dissertation proposals war, very few Hutu businessmen who had contributed to the RPF reopened their business immediately. That is why some Tutsi businessmen who contributed to the RPF made an excellent calculation. After the war they reaped off the benefits.” [33] Some facts in the film are true. To begin with, in The Emerging Role of the WW I, every sense of the terms “human rights” and “humanitarianism,” the western powers betrayed the people of Rwanda. The whites were rapidly evacuated, the blacks abandoned, including the dissertation proposals many African staffers of international agencies. Madness? The French armed the Hutu side, and they evacuated key Hutu elite at the first opportunity, but the United States, U.K. and Belgium armed the Tutsis. There was a Rwandan man named Paul Rusesabagina and he would, one day, be working at the Hotel des Mille Collines, but he was the manager of the Hotel des Diplomats. Sample Proposals? The Tutsi rebels were blamed with the assassination of the thomas author presidents of Rwanda and Burundi, but the film convinces us they didn’t do it, when everything suggests they did.

And it is certainly true that hundreds of thousands of Rwandans died. Hotel Rwanda is a work of fiction. Sample Proposals? As a cultural artifact produced by an affluent entertainment industry in the West, and for affluent western consumers, but focused on a distant and exoticized culture about which the why is drink affluent western consumers know very little, or nothing at all, it serves to consolidate the ideological pillars of dissertation, disinformation that came before it, and upon which it was built. According to many and varied knowledgeable sources, including hotel insiders: Rwanda was not abandoned by examples, the western powers: Belgium, France, Canada, England and the United States were all militarily involved in the 1994 conflict. Because there are Israeli connections to the current government, it is likely that Israeli military agents were also involved. Sample Proposals? These were no bystanders to genocide, as Samantha Power and The Emerging of the the Atlantic Monthly and others would like us to think, but active participants in sample, a ruthless international military conflagration. Note that amongst Atlantic Monthly’s primary advertisers [read: sponsors] is Lockheed Martin [aerospace and defense] Corporation. The hotel was not under a state of siege early on as the self actualization examples movie suggests—an elegant wedding took place there during the fray, and it married the sister of the Tutsi businessman Kamana Claver, who had contracts with the Hutu government. According to one guest, powerful Hutus and Tutsis regularly came and went. When the water to dissertation proposals the hotel was shut off, forcing the ‘refugees’ to drink the water from the swimming pool, it was not shut off by examples of hamlet's madness, the Hutu genocidaires , as implied in the film, but by the Tutsi RPF army, who cut power to sample the city.

General Bizimungu appears in Role US in WW I Essay, the very first scenes of the film, prior to the double presidential assassination: yet when the plane was shot down on April 6, 1994, General Bizimungu was still a Colonel, and sample dissertation he was far from chinese cultures and tradition Kigali. According to one hotel guest, who remains unnamed for fear of sample dissertation, retribution, Paul Rusesabagina, the examples of hamlet's film’s hero, in no way wielded the kind of influence as depicted throughout the film: “Paul was a very simple man like me in front of the Interahamwe . If he succeeded to save some Tutsi from his home he was most probably helped by some influential Interahamwe friend, say Georges Rutaganda. He was as vulnerable as I was and could not oppose any action against the will of the militia and sample dissertation proposals much less of the army. He lies when he feints to call General Bizimungu for help, because the Hotel des Mille Collines was under the jurisdiction of Colonel Renzaho. Bizimungu lived at the northern war front lines, and he only came to Kigali four days after the plane was shot down and I never saw him at the hotel.” [34] “There is overwhelming evidence,” wrote Rutigita Macumu, in an opinion piece titled “Paul Rusesabagina Not a Hero!” that appeared in Rwanda’s The New Times state-owned newspaper on November 5, 2005, “that Paul Rusesabagina did not particularly go out of his way to bring the people, who were being hunted, to drink driving the Mille Collines Hotel haven, to protect them once they were in the hotel, to procure them food or even water when they were unable to pay for them, or to sample dissertation devise any uncommon means to The Emerging Role WW I fend off the killer gangs outside the proposals hotel. It is highly apparent that he only fulfilled his duty, as directed by his Sabena bosses, to run the hotel well and cater for all its occupants.” [35] Georges Rutaganda, the Rwandan man misportrayed as the devil beer salesman and erstwhile murderer of Tutsis in Hotel Rwanda , writes that Paul Rusesabagina was no disinterested, apolitical hotel manager, but an important activist member of why is drink driving, a national political party. On 12 April 1994, Rusesabagina shifted to the Htel des Mille Collines where he acted as its new director because the other, the dissertation Htel des Diplomats where Rusesabagina was working, had been evacuated by foreign troops. Hotel Rwanda depicts Rusesabagina at the Htel des Mille Collines prior to the double presidential assassinations of 6 April 2004. Rutaganda claims to have visited the hotel and seen guests from both Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups, including: Rubangura Vedaste; Mutalikanwa Flicien; Dr. Of Hamlet's Madness? Gasasira Jean Baptiste; Kamana Claver; Kajuga Wicklif; Rwigema Celestin; Kamilindi Thomas; and others.

Rutaganda claims that very few UNAMIR soldiers were around, and they were incidental to security: the Hutu Gendarmes of the FAR army were manning a roadblock at the main entrance. Dissertation? He also claims that the “refugees” in the U.N. convoy that were turned back at of hamlet's a roadblock “were the real elite cream of Tutsi ethnic tribe. Had one been really spurred by dissertation, bad intentions this would have been a great occasion to decapitate the Tutsi ethnic group. Families of former ministers, of doctors, of cultures, lawyers, of big business men, of highly educated men, of professors, etc, were among them.” If the ‘genocide’ were so organized and calculated, and quick to strike, then Rutaganda has a very interesting point: how did it happen that the elite of the Tutsi tribe were protected and evacuated by UNAMIR troops and Hutu Gendarmes? Of course, all Hutus are killers, and no one will believe a genocidaire : Georges Rutaganda was sentenced to life in prison by proposals, the ICTR.

Can George Rutaganda’s claims be corroborated? “Georges Rutaganda cooperated with the U.N. to save all those people.” ICTR investigator Phil Taylor offers a compelling portrait of the Hotel Rwanda ’s supposed devil himself: Rutaganda didn’t incite hate crimes, he called for calm and author of america respect for the Red Cross; Rutaganda was never accused of the rape and sexual slavery depicted in sample dissertation, the film; and Rutaganda never traded in machetes. Indeed, Human Rights Watch in January 1994 identified an English businessman who had imported tens of thousands of machetes into actualization Rwanda.[36] More importantly, virtually everyone in Rwanda (and Congo) owns a machete and they use it for farming; what would be unusual is if someone did not have a machete. Anyways, it was not machetes that did the most killing. Rape was off the agenda at the ICTR until Hillary Clinton showed up in Arusha and proposals pledged $600,000 to be paid after the drink dangerous first ICTR rape conviction, and that’s where the Tutsi women collected in the fictitious Rutaganda compound in Hotel Rwanda come from. Hillary Clinton visited the ICTR and bribed the court, and the issue of sample dissertation, rape was immediately elevated and a perpetrator needed to be found to satisfy the court, no matter their innocence or guilt, and meet Hillary Clinton’s conditions for $600,000 bribe. “I was Georges Anderson Nderubumwe Rutaganda's lead trial counsel,” said Attorney Tiphaine Dickson, “and [I] was present in Arusha, in the courtroom, in fact, the jefferson: author very day Hillary Clinton paid her visit. There were no ‘pinning’ charges of sample dissertation proposals, rape against my client.

No such allegation ever appeared on any indictment against him, so naturally, he was not convicted of examples, any such offense. Dissertation Proposals? Jean-Paul Akayesu, however, also on trial at that time (the trials were heard concurrently, and by the same panel of jefferson: author, judges) did see his indictment amended, after the Prosecution had rested, to include rape, and he was convicted in what the sample dissertation proposals ICTR trumpeted was a ‘landmark’ decision on September 2nd, 1998.” [36-a] The Hollywood Rwanda film offers a fictitious U.N. Colonel Oliver (Nick Nolte) as a substitute for the Canadian Lt. Gen. The Emerging Role Of The WW I? Romo Dallaire, who is absent from the film. (It is sample dissertation believed that Dallaire asked too much money from the filmmakers for the use of his name or character.) Romo Dallaire allegedly worked not as an impartial United Nations commander, but as an agent for the invading RPF army. Dallaire reportedly approached Hutu military commanders to convince them to does segregation exist follow the winds of change and embrace the RPF program. Dallaire was rarely present at sample the hotel, according to does exist witnesses, but his substitute (Nick Nolte) is always there, and he is painted as a sympathetic and neutral humanitarian. Dallaire mentions in his book how he passed by dissertation proposals, the Htel des Mille Collines, but in his own meticulously detailed recounting of the daily events and travels around Kigali from 06 April to 10 April, 1994, for example, Dallaire stops at the Htel des Mille Collines only once. [37]

According to Chris Black, a lead counsel at segregation still the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda (ICTR) since 2000, U.N. Sample Dissertation Proposals? documents brought into testimony at the ICTR in October 2005 clearly establish that UNAMIR’s Lt. Gen. Romo Dallaire: was an agent of the RPF; helped shoot down the plane in the double presidential assassination; covered up the preparation of the final RPF offensive assisted by Uganda, the U.S. and U.K.; lied to his United Nations boss Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh about it. Contrary to the caring, humanitarian character of Colonel Oliver—as presented by Nick Nolte in the film—in real-life General Dallaire allegedly arranged for the closure of the western approach to the Kigali runway at the request of the RPF. This made it easier for the RPF and cultures others to sample track the The Emerging Role of the US in WW I Essay presidential plane as it came in from the east. The Belgian contingent of the U.N. force was in control of the airport area and the area from which the missiles were fired, and proposals a Belgian military unit (the “peacekeepers” killed later) were the only people caught by does segregation, the Hutu army coming out proposals, of the firing area after the plane was shot down, after the army threw up a cordon to try to catch the culprits. “All of Dallaire’s actions only make sense in of hamlet's, this light,” lawyer Chris Black explains. “Dallaire admits in his book that he was close to Paul Kagame and admired him. Sample? He helped Kagame by covering up the RPF build-up for an offensive in violation of the Arusha Accords, while at the same time helping with the anti-government propaganda of the self actualization RPF. The Belgian’s actively engaged on sample proposals, the side of the RPF and once the plane was shot down they attacked FAR army and gendarme positions alongside the RPF. We have radio intercepts of the RPF talking about why is driving, their help from the sample dissertation proposals Belgians and others.

By saying Dallaire was an chinese cultures, RPF agent I am of course really saying he worked for the Americans under the orders of Ottawa.” [38] Lt. General Romo Dallaire was no peacekeeper: he was an active military strategist—a war-maker. The Political Economy of Genocide. Prior to the cataclysm of dissertation, 1994, the RPF set up its political base in Belgium. When Belgian “peacekeepers” are murdered by “Hutus” in Hotel Rwanda —the blue helmets are scattered on examples madness, the ground in proposals, front of our horrified U.N. Self Actualization? hero, Colonel Oliver (Nick Nolte)—the false inference is that the genocidaires’ calculated killing of the Belgians would provoke a UNAMIR withdrawal from Rwanda. This is a central pillar of the genocide theory: with the Belgian ‘peacekeepers’ out of the way, the sample proposals Hutu killing machine had free reign to shift into high gear. Jefferson: Author? I n reality, the Belgians were immediately killed because they were the political accomplices of a ruthless bunch of terrorists, the invading RPF army. Substantial evidence entered into public record in the ICTR’s so-called ‘Military I’ and dissertation ‘Military II’ trials (both began in 2005) contradicts the fundamental premise above—and the central theory of the ICTR prosecution—by showing that Hutu officers charged by the ICTR with complicity in the Belgians’ murder actually risked their lives trying to save the Belgian soldiers.

The U.N. Force Commission—set up immediately after the attack on the Belgians by U.N. Force Commander General Dallaire—concluded the same. Madness? Eyewitness testimony by a U.N. Military Observer also states that there were not ten Belgian soldiers killed, but thirteen. Sample Dissertation? “This is a point of of hamlet's madness, some interest in Belgium,” writes Chris Black, “where the government claims to have lost only ten men.” [39] So who were those three Belgian soldiers and what was their mission? Hotel Rwanda dares not introduce such questions: to do so would be heresy. But the sample United States knows, and the RPF knows and the legal ‘experts’ at the ICTR all know that the genocide theory would crumble under the admission of the truth. According to madness ICTR lawyers, U.N. documents show that Lt. General Romo Dallaire was aware, at least from December 1993, and probably before, that the RPF, with the support of the Ugandan Army, was daily violating the Arusha Accords by sending into dissertation Rwanda men, materiel, and light and self actualization examples heavy weapons.

That is how the U.S., Belgians and Canadians assisted the RPF/A in preparing for sample dissertation the final solution in Rwanda—total military victory over the Hutus. [40] “The RPF engaged in assassinations of officials, politicians and civilians, and attempted to cast the blame on the government,” writes Chris Black. Why Is Drink Driving Dangerous? “Dallaire assisted in dissertation proposals, this campaign by suppressing facts concerning these crimes and openly siding with the RPF propaganda statements.” [41] It was not UNAMIR soldiers who guarded the H otel but Gendarmes (paramilitary police) dispatched by the Hutu government. This fact flies in the face of the “genocide” mythology. If the hotel was full of Tutsis targeted by genocide, why was it being protected by the very same architects of that supposed genocide? The Hotel was not filled only with Tutsis (refugees from genocide): it was full of powerful Tutsis and Hutus (with Tutsis in the majority) with political and economic connections to powerful factions both inside and outside of Rwanda. Questions about the composition of the ‘mostly Tutsi’ RPF invaders provoke questions about the ethnic composition of the Interahamwe militias and commercial relationships that transcended ethnicity. Cultures And Tradition? Such details are overlooked in the western reductionism on Rwanda—because they contradict the official and sample dissertation burgeoning Rwanda holocaust industry and the U.S.

State Department fictions. The following ethnic inconsistencies are very revealing: Robert Kajuga, was the Tutsi President of the notorious “genocidal” Rwandan Interahamwe ; Kamana Claver was a Tutsi businessman and examples of hamlet's frequent recipient of proposals, large government-awarded contracts from the “genocidal” Hutu government; Celestin Sebulikoko was a Tutsi businessman and strong supporter of the and tradition main Hutu political party (MRND); he is believed disappeared by the RPF; A Tutsi named Mpangaza, who worked for the Rwandan government firm TRANSINTRA, reportedly manned a powerful machine gun at an Interahamwe roadblock in downtown Kigali in 1994; he was a well-known Interahamwe ; he lives peacefully in Rwanda today; The son of Juvenal Gatorano, a Tutsi customs agent with the Habyarimana government’s Ministry of Finance, was always seen at Interahamwe rallies. These facts, if true, provide compelling evidence that it was not a coordinated genocide that occurred in Rwanda in sample dissertation proposals, 1994, but a civil war, and a western proxy war, with deep political, economic and military motivations behind the atrocities. Acts of genocide certainly occurred, as did crimes against humanity, but “acts” of genocide do not constitute genocide as defined by the international legal frameworks on genocide. An entire ethnic group could be wiped out, say the last 100 Penan nomads in chinese cultures and tradition, Sarawak, for example, but if they are incidentally eliminated in the calculated and racist process of logging their forests—which is exactly what has happened to sample dissertation proposals the Penan—it is not necessarily “genocide” according to the narrow international legal frameworks of the Genocide Convention. Role Of The US In? Equally troublesome, the sample U.S. might have annihilated every last Japanese citizen in 1945, but few today would characterize the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki as genocidal in nature or intent. The calculated nature upheld as the basis for genocide in Rwanda has always revolved around the supposed “lists” created by Hutu genocidaires : lists of examples, Tutsis who were subsequently eliminated because, first and foremost, they were Tutsis; such “lists” were purportedly created by the Hutu genocide machine. “Any army would have lists of their political enemies,” notes ICTR investigator Phil Taylor. “This is not unusual.” The Rwandan government likely had its lists, the RPF had their own lists, and both went about dissertation proposals, assassinating their enemies. Phil Taylor notes that the prosecution at the ICTR has not produced any lists—of any kind—as evidence subsequently used for Rwanda genocide convictions.

In the aftermath of the World Trade towers attack the intelligence armies of the United States generated an why is driving, extensive list of “enemies of the state”—a list they maintain today—most of whom were/are of Islamic ethnicity. Do the existence of these lists constitute genocidal intent? “There is a stunning lack of documentary evidence of sample dissertation proposals, a government plan to commit genocide,” write lawyer Chris Black. Madness? “There are no orders, minutes of meetings, notes, cables, faxes, radio intercepts or any other type of documentation that such a plan ever existed. In fact, the documentary evidence establishes just the sample dissertation opposite.” [42] U.S.

Pentagon lawyers imported to the ICTR from the Judge Advocacy General (JAG) Corps have heavily skewed the ICTR in of the, favor of the dissertation proposals U.S.-supported RPF. Also, the ICTR has not returned a single verdict against RPF Tutsi soldiers or Tutsi leadership; former ICTR prosecutor Carla Del Ponte was removed for her attempts to prosecute Tutsis. [43] “The ICTR risks being a part of the problem rather than the solution,” wrote Filip Reyntjens, Belgian historian and expert witness on genocide in Rwanda, in 2004. “I cannot any longer be involved in examples, this process.” [44] The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), the dissertation proposals sister of the Hague Tribunal, consolidates the popular mythology on genocide in self actualization examples, Rwanda by sample dissertation proposals, playing its role as an international judicial body which, by default, must be beyond reproach or bias. While demonizing the Hutu leadership and justifying the RPF dictatorship now in control of drink dangerous, Rwanda, writes Chris Black, it also serves as a means of presenting a completely false history of the events in Rwanda, and covering up the murder of the two Hutu heads of state and sample proposals the massacres of exist, hundreds of thousands of innocent people by the RPF and its allies. [45] In Hotel Rwanda , the genocidal Hutus blame the Tutsi RPF rebels for shooting down the proposals plane that killed the two presidents, and because the examples madness film demonizes every Hutu, the viewer is convinced that the Hutu’s are lying, deflecting attention from sample their own nasty deeds. However, evidence suggests that an RPF terror cell in Kigali shot down the Presidential airplane. Also on the plane was a Forces Armee Rwandais general, a pivotal target for the RPF. Former U.N. Why Is Drink? Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali offered journalist Robin Philpot the claim that the Central Intelligence Agency was almost certainly involved. “As early as 1997,” writes a Spanish legal team that in 2005 filed suit against Paul Kagame and his RPF cadre, “a team of investigators appointed by the ICTR—Michael Hourigan, Alphonse Breau and James Lyons—released reports, then held as classified, which revealed that the attack was masterminded by sample, high-ranking RPF military and not by Hutu extremists as had been believed until then. These disclosures were corroborated in 2004 by the remarkable testimony of Abdul Ruzibiza, a member of the RPF commando unit which perpetrated the attack on thomas jefferson: of america, the presidential plane.”[46]

I am an eye witness to what took place when the SA-16 was fired because I was present, writes Ruzibiza in his recently released book, Rwanda: L'histoire Secrete ( The Secret History of Rwanda ). Ruzibiza alleges that after the missile attack on the plane, soldiers of the RPF who had been readied in proposals, advance were assembled to immediately launch attacks that culminated in the fall of Kigali on July 4, 1994. [47] There is also the definitive statement by Paul Mugabe, a Former Intelligence Officer of the examples of hamlet's RPA, titled: Declaration on the Shooting Down of the Aircraft Carrying Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana and Burundi President Cyprien Ntaryamira on April 6, 1994 . Paul Mugabe alleges that two weeks before the crash of the Presidential aircraft, [then] Major General Kagame sent [then] Lt. Colonel James Kabarebe to bring the SA-7 surface-to-air missiles to sample the RPA detachment in Kigali, and to give final instructions for attacking Rwandese Army forces (FAR) and cultures and tradition shooting down the plane. Two RPF leaders, Colonels Kanyarengwe Alexis and Lizinde Theoneste, who had earlier served in the Habyarimana Government, gave information and instructions as to where the missiles should be placed. (Col. Lizinde Theoneste, who later defected, was subsequently assassinated in 1998 by RPF operatives in Nairobi, Kenya, in order to ensure the secrecy of the dissertation proposals missile operation.) Two weeks before the double presidential assassination, 12 artillery systems were brought from Uganda, and arrived at RPA headquarters. Other RPF defectors also credit the RPF with shooting down the plane carrying the examples of hamlet's Rwandan and dissertation proposals Burundian leadership. Long-time RPF officer Lt.

Aloys Ruyenzi claims that the assassination plan was hatched at self an RPF meeting on 31 March 1994: “The Chairman of the meeting was Major General Paul Kagame, and the following officers were present: Colonel Kayumba Nyamwasa; Colonel Thoneste Lizinde; Lt. Colonel James Kabarebe; Major Jacob Tumwine; and Captain Charles Karamba. I heard Paul Kagame asking Colonel Lizinde to report about proposals, his investigations and why is drink I have seen Colonel Lizinde giving to Paul Kagame a map of the selected place for the plane shooting etc.” [48] Lt. Dissertation Proposals? Aloys Ruyenzi also accuses General Paul Kagame and (now) General James Kabarebe of overseeing the dangerous massacres of Hutu and Tutsi civilians, both in the field and at crematoriums set up to dispose of the evidence. Ruyenzi is just one defector with a compelling story. He claims he has witnessed helicopter gunships shelling villages, and massacres, tortures and summary executions as policy. Many of the proposals human rights atrocities committed by the Kagame regime have been documented by human rights organizations. “Gen. James Kabarebe was the commander of the reverse-genocide army,” says Howard W. French, referring to the military campaign where hundreds of exist, thousands of Hutu refugees were hunted down and slaughtered by the Tutsi RPA and sample their western allies in Congo. [49] Eighty percent of these Rwandan refugees were women and children; 50% were under 15 years old. [50]

This genocidal reign of terror to hunt down and massacre non-combatant Hutu men, women and children was spearheaded by the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and Ugandan People’s Defense Forces (UPDF), who were running the self show for sample dissertation proposals Laurent Kabila’s Allied Front for the Democratic Liberation of Congo (AFDL)—and it was backed by government and private factions from the United States, the U.K., Canada and Belgium. One eyewitness to the skeletons piling up pinpoints mass graves that were later sanitized in advance of the United Nations mission to investigate the RPF/UPDF/AFDL massacres of hundreds of thousands of unarmed Hutu civilians. [51] The contra- genocide against Hutus continues today: at Essay this writing the forces are aligned to exterminate the remaining 40,000 Hutus in Congo: they are all written off as genocidaires who fled Rwanda in 1994, even though most surviving FDLR were too young to have participated in sample, genocide. [52] Sabena officials were not surprised and horrified to be getting a call from some hotel manager in Rwanda, as depicted in the film: one week prior to the October 1990 invasion of chinese and tradition, Rwanda by the RPF, Sabena Airlines rerouted its airline crews (pilots, hostesses) away from the Hotel des Mille Collines and off to Burundi for proposals their overnights. This was no random decision: it was a calculated policy action meant to insure the safety of company employees in self, the face of a coming war. Sabena was well informed. A Belgian firm born out of the post-Leopold aviation era in Congo, Sabena was later used to sample ship diamonds, and probably coltan (columbium-tantalite), out of Kigali by the RPF elites, whose base, again, was in Brussels. It is believed that Sabena’s eventual “bankruptcy” was intended to cover their tracks and shield principals from any possible future legal actions stemming from their pillage in the Congo.

What about the elusive American diamond magnate Maurice Tempelsman and his connection to Bill and Hillary Clinton and the diamonds coming out of Kigali? “I don’t think that’s ever been written about in the New York Times ,” said Howard W. French. [53] Howard W. French conferred that Maurice Tempelsman employed Lawrence Devlin, former CIA station chief from Mobutu’s Zaire, and that he maintains close ties with the CIA. Tempelsman is also on the board of directors of the Harvard AIDS Institute and The Emerging the Africa-America Institute (Donald Payne is proposals also deeply involved, as is Gayle Smith, formerly Bill Clinton’s National Security Council advisor on and tradition, African Affairs). Maurice Tempelsman was Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis’s lover, he was reported to be Madeleine Albright’s lover, and he was one of the 99 people who accompanied Bill Clinton on his 1998 Africa victory tour. Tempelsman is one of the many untouchables behind the quagmire in proposals, Central Africa. [54] Why has the United States blocked all attempts to investigate the shooting down of the plane and thomas jefferson: author of america the double presidential assassination that sparked the sample cataclysm on April 6, 1994? Why hasn’t the United Nations pursued an inquiry? It is chinese cultures a very mysterious scandal,” wrote author Robin Philpot. Proposals? “Four reports have been made on Rwanda: the French Parliament Report, the Belgian Senate Report, Kofi Annan's U.N. report, and the Organization of African Unity report. All four say absolutely nothing about the thomas shooting down of the Rwandan President's plane. That just goes to show the power of the dissertation proposals intelligence services that can force people to be quiet.”

Philpot continues: “The only partial exception is the seven year investigation conducted by cultures and tradition, the French anti-terrorist judge Jean-Louis Bruguire. That investigation has implicated current Rwandan President Paul Kagame and sample proposals the Rwandan Patriotic Front for having planned, ordered and author of america carried out the April 6 assassination.” [55] Says ICTR lawyer Chris Black: “President Mobutu’s chief of intelligence, Honore Ngambo, in dissertation, his book published in France a few months ago [ Western Crimes in Central Africa , 2005] relates the meeting between Habyarimana and Mobutu two days before Habyaramana was murdered. The Hutu President told Mobutu that he had been warned by Herman Cohen—the U.S. African Affairs man—that unless he ceded all power to the RPF his body would be dragged through the streets and his government tried before an international tribunal. Habyarimana received the cultures and tradition same threats from the Belgians, and the Canadian General Dallaire was involved. Dissertation? Habyarimana was informed by his agents in the RPF camp at Mulindi that his plane would be shot down. He didn’t know the chinese cultures exact date.” [56] The RPF opposed any military intervention in Rwanda after 6 April 1994.

The RPF knew the military situation of the Rwandan army (morale and ammunition) and dissertation it did not want any military intervention to examples madness snatch its victory from it. The RPF’s official sponsors in dissertation, Washington, London and Brussels told whoever would listen that any international force would be met with RPF military resistance. Chinese? The RPF was the only force that had the capacity to stop the killing, but they didn’t. ICTR lawyer Chris Black verifies that U.N. Sample Proposals? documents entered in the ICTR record establish that the Gendarmerie did all it could with the resources it had to restore calm, but could not, and that the FAR army could not both fight the chinese cultures and tradition RPF and restore calm among the dissertation proposals civilians. This following statement comes from an WW I Essay, unnamed survivor who was in Kigali in dissertation, April, 1994, where he lost his entire family to the killings: some of his family were Hutus, some Tutsis, and he began by self actualization examples, stating he does not support the ideologies that align themselves along ethnic fault lines. Sample Dissertation? The interview took place in Bukavu, DRC, in August 2005: “Many Hutus lost family members on author of america, the border with Uganda after the RPA invaded in 1990. This is where Hutu hatred of Tutsis started. Dissertation Proposals? The Tutsi continued to examples of hamlet's madness perpetrate crimes to sample dissertation proposals weaken the government of Habyarimana even while the jefferson: of america government was being forced to negotiate with the dissertation proposals RPF.

Each Tutsi family had sent one or two boys to the RPF army in Uganda. We knew these boys – they used to say, ‘O.K. Examples Of Hamlet's Madness? goodbye. We are going to sample dissertation proposals Uganda.’ “ “Hutus saw this. The Tutsis [RPF] were pushing the hatred higher and higher every day. Madness? Even Hutus knew that all Tutsis had to attend meetings at the end of the sample month to actualization raise money for the RPF. Sample Dissertation? I heard Habyarimana every day saying on the radio, ‘Don’t kill Tutsis: if you do you will lose everything.’ Even as the Arusha Peace Accords were going on [1993] the RPF were starting to drink driving kill the intellectuals, the Hutu leaders, in Rwanda.” “They [RPF] were putting bombs in dissertation, public places, in markets and gare routieres [roundabouts], and in night clubs—I almost died in examples, one night club attack.

The Tutsis [RPF] knew what they were doing but the Hutus didn’t know what was happening. The RPF waited until the fruit was really ripe—when there was deep hatred of Tutsis by Hutus—and then they [RPA] killed President Habyarimana.” “They killed Habyarimana because they knew he was the only one who could stop the Hutus from killing Tutsis. That is why, every day, I say that: the genocide was not planned by Hutus, it was planned by Tutsis: it was planned by the RPF . Even after the Interahamwe killed my wife, even after all the horrible things that have happened to me, I believe the Tutsis created the genocide. And for me it was a war between brothers: the Hutus had an sample, army and the Tutsis had an army and there was fighting at every level.” [57] Notably, the of hamlet's madness source for the Hotel Rwanda Companion Book timeline chapter is the Central Intelligence Agency World Factbook 2004 (the previous chapter is filled with the standard deceptions, and it appears without attribution). [58]

It is not surprising then that the roles of the U.S. and other outside Western powers and multinational corporations are hidden. The most egregious omissions revolve around the Democratic Republic of Congo: the sample proposals ongoing destruction and depopulation of Congo receives remarkably little press coverage in contrast to the Darfur region of neighboring Sudan, despite the obvious evidence that the scale and nature of author of america, atrocities against innocent civilians in Congo has been far worse, over a longer period of time, and with profound but unnecessary human suffering. After consolidating power in Rwanda in 1994, and following on massive crimes against humanity there, the RPF shelled and dismantled refugee camps in eastern Congo (then Zaire) in the summer of 1996, in further massive and sample proposals egregious violations of international law and the Geneva Convention. The new RPF government has never wavered in its efficacious crusade of calling attention to an ongoing genocide against the Tutsis —the Jews of Africa—who were “abandoned by the United States and Europe” to ostensibly suffer the fate of genocide, but this is an affront to the Jewish people and, in particular, to the Holocaust victims and survivors of World War II. The pretext of segregation still, ongoing ‘genocide’ against the Tutsis has been used by the RPF over and over to justify the most egregious and hostile violations of international law and human rights. Continuing to sample dissertation proposals implement what is now clearly a well-coordinated and of the US in WW I Essay premeditated plan, and with complete logistical and tactical military support from the sample dissertation proposals Pentagon and its outsourced private military companies—including Halliburton, Ronco, and Military Professional Resources Incorporated—the RPF followed its Rwanda victory by Role of the US in WW I, invading the sample dissertation proposals sovereign territory of Congo (Zaire), its huge western neighbor. [59]

Drawing on its previous military alliance, training and rear bases in Uganda, the RPF allied with Yoweri Museveni and the Ugandan Peoples Defense Forces (UPDF) to march across the jefferson: author of america Congo, unseat Habyarimana’s close friend, Congo’s (Zaire’s) President Mobutu Sese Seko, and conquer the vast, mineral rich Congo. “The international community has refused to bring effective pressure to bear on Rwanda to create conditions of security,” wrote Rwanda scholar David Newbury, in 1996. Sample Dissertation Proposals? [60] Marginalized groups like the Rally for the Return of Refugees and Democracy in Rwanda have repeatedly echoed this obvious truth. “The continuous prevalence of of hamlet's, impunity has encouraged the sample proposals leaders of the RPF/RPA to perpetrate crimes against humanity, war crimes and The Emerging US in WW I acts of sample dissertation, genocide in Rwanda and DRC without fear of prosecution. It has consolidated the power and US in Essay the wealth of criminal elements within the RPF-led dictatorial regime.” [61] And so it continues today. Paul Kagame and dissertation proposals James Kabarebe and the Tutsi RPF-dominated government of Rwanda continue to destabilize the Role WW I Great Lakes Region of Africa, with infiltration of terror cells throughout the neighboring Congo, just as they did in Rwanda (1985-1994). They are appeased or courted, the saintly victims of genocide, and they enjoy total impunity and all the sample dissertation proposals benefits of an elite club. Similarly, the Human Rights Watch press alert of July 1, 2005, for example, targeting the Congolese government, is a veiled defense of Rwandan-US interests in DRC: it is written by Alison Des Forges, from thomas Kigali. Proposals? [62] Both the Hotel Rwanda film and companion book neatly encapsulate the entire mythology of genocide in Rwanda and the invented heroism of US in WW I, now president Paul Kagame and the Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF). The true and deeper facts that receive little attention, if any at all, are: the RPF’s illegal invasion of Rwanda from Uganda in 1990; its record of sample, war crimes committed from 1990-1994; the RPF double assassination of the Hutu presidents of Burundi and Rwanda on April 6, 1994; the does segregation RPF’s massive contre -genocide of hundreds of thousands of Hutu refugees in Congo (Zaire), of refugees returning to Rwanda from Congo, and dissertation of Hutus in Rwanda itself; 5 the RPF’s repeated invasions and continuing looting and devastation of the Congo, with the involvement and sanction of RPF officials at the highest level, that continues today; and chinese cultures and tradition the collaborating roles of Western institutions, individuals and corporations, and the economic and political benefits that accrue to them, at the expense of dissertation, Africa and The Emerging of the US in WW I her people. What has motivated Paul Rusesabagina?

It is interesting to note that Rusesabagina has been widely lauded and financially rewarded for his story, the dissertation proposals rights to his story, and for his alignment with U.S. Thomas? government and military officials in service to various political and dissertation proposals military agendas. In 2000 he was awarded the Immortal Chaplain’s prize, and thomas of america received the award with a handshake from U.S. Republican Senator Bob Dole. [63] “As for Paul Rusesabagina,” wrote Rutigita Macumu, in Rwanda’s The New Times newspaper, “he will go down in the annals of history as a man who sold the soul of the Rwandan Genocide to amass medals, including, among others, the Amnesty International's Enduring Spirit, the Immortal Chaplain Foundation's Prize for Humanity, the dissertation Tigar Center's Human Rights Award, the National Civil Rights Museum's Freedom Award, and now the prestigious Presidential Model of self examples, Freedom Award from the sitting American president, George W. Dissertation Proposals? Bush.” [64] In 2004, Paul Rusesabagina traveled with a Pentagon escort and his namesake actor Don Cheadle to Darfur, Sudan, to draw attention to the popularized, officially accredited ‘genocide’ occurring there. [65] This author had a chance to interview Paul Rusesabagina in 2007. Jefferson: Author? The interview, and this story, both stand uniquely alone, developed as they were in a certain chronological order. (See: THE GRINDING MACHINE: TERROR AND GENOCIDE IN RWANDA , interview with Paul Rusesabagina, April 15, 2007 http://www.allthingspass.com/journalism.php?catid=47). Rwandan Defense Forces were dispatched to Darfur where, along with the African Union and some U.S. military, they serve as U.S. proxy warriors: these are troops responsible for some of the most egregious acts of genocide and crimes against humanity committed in Rwanda and Congo. Sample Proposals? [66] Hotel Rwanda is why is drink driving merely the latest production in a protracted campaign of psychological warfare. It is proposals a dangerous work of agitation propaganda because it wets the wide and self actualization examples naive eyes and touches the open and caring hearts of Western viewers. It is dissertation deceptive and when viewers depart the cinema with popcorn and chocolate stuck between their teeth they leave thinking they know something about what happened in Rwanda.

We as viewers enjoy the idea that we are being educated, when instead we are being indoctrinated, and the insidious effects of the indoctrination are unappreciated. Segregation Still Exist? Hotel Rwanda exemplifies the sample dissertation careless, simplistic reductionism that is universally manifest in the West’s representations of Africa. Phil Taylor, former investigator for the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda (ICTR) says it aptly. “For anyone who followed closely the 1994 crisis in Rwanda the highly touted film Hotel Rwanda is merely propaganda statements interrupted by bouts of acting.” [67] The racism and segregation that played out in the Rwanda cataclysm of 1994, where there were very different conditions and outcomes between whites and blacks, continues to be played out today. The telling and re-telling of the Rwanda ‘genocide’ story by drink driving, its very nature revolves around a system of institutionalized segregation. Powerful whites in powerful ‘gatekeeper’ positions in the West hold a virtual monopoly over the information. Alongside of them are the select voices of non-whites who validate the predominant discourse.

These ‘experts’ include Alison des Forges; Romo Dallaire; Philip Gourevitch; Victoria Brittain; Samantha Power; Mahmood Mamdani; and many, many others. “They believe Alison des Forges because she is white and they don’t believe me because I am black and I don’t speak English so well,” says Jean-Marie Higiro. Sample Dissertation? “She is the expert, even though she was an observer and I was a participant.” We can’t intimately know the hardships of Paul Rusesabagina, or the dangerous trauma of Romo Dallaire, or the sorrows of Jean-Marie Higiro, or the suffering of the other survivors of the cataclysm in Rwanda, and sample dissertation proposals we must search our own souls on their behalf: the struggle of good versus evil reigns within us all. Why Is Drink Driving? Indeed, there is dissertation a certain arrogance behind this writing, because neither was I a participant in Rwanda. But any hesitation I have in challenging the ‘right and proper tale’ is overwhelmed by Role US in WW I, the obscenity of the sample dissertation proposals obvious injustice and the machinations of empire behind it. If truth is the first casualty in war, then those of us who are lucky observers must endlessly work to resurrect it. In Central Africa, today, truth mingles with the of the US in Essay souls of the dissertation dead, forsaken amidst the unheard cries of some seven million—mostly innocent people—whose life on this earth ground to a gruesome, meaningless conclusion. keith harmon snow. First published: 04 July 2005; Text Modified: 05 November 2005;

Final Version: 04 December 2005; Updated Final: 10 January 2006. Corrected: 18 July 2007. Corrected: 1 November 2007. [1] Samantha Power, “Remember the examples Blood Frenzy of Rwanda,” Los Angeles Times , April 4, 2004. [2] Village genocide courts, or Gacaca tribunals, began operating in Rwanda in sample proposals, March 2005.

See: Edras Ndikumana, “Rwanda’s Hutus Flee Genocide Courts,” 19 April 2005; and “Rwandan President asks Fleeing Residents to Return,” Reuters , June 3, 2005. [3] Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America in the Age of Genocide , HarperCollins, 2002. [4] Private interview: Howard W. Segregation Exist? French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005. [5] Howard W. Sample Dissertation? French, “In Zaire Forest Hutu Refugees Near the End of the Road,” New York Times , March 13, 1997; see also Howard W. French, Africa: A Continent for the Taking: The Tragedy and Hope of Africa . [6] Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005. [7] Lt. General Romo A. Dallaire, Shake Hands with the segregation still Devil: The Failure of Humanity in sample, Rwanda , Arrow Books, 2003. [8] Rene ¢ Lemarchand noted in his authoritative text Rwanda and Burundi (Pall Mall Press, 1970) that “the term Inyenzi is currently used within and outside Rwanda to thomas of america refer to small-scale Tutsi-led guerilla units trained and organized outside Rwanda and varying in dissertation, size from about six to ten men.” [9] Mouvement Republicain National pour la Dmocratie et le Dveloppement or National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND).

[10] The Iceberg of the Conflict in Africa of the Great Lakes Region: Lawsuit Against Those Responsible for the Concealed Crimes Against Humanity, International Forum for Truth and Justice in WW I, the Great Lakes Region of Africa , www.veritasrwanaforum.org. [11] Private communication: Charles Onana, Paris, France, February 2004. [12] The Book published in November 2001 entitled, Les Secrets Du Gnocide Rwandais, Enqute Sur les Mystres D’un Prsident [ The Secrets of the dissertation Rwandan Genocide, Investigations on the Mysteries of Role of the US in WW I, a President ], was the subject of President Kagame’s initial law suit that was heard in the 17th chamber of the French High court against sample dissertation proposals, Cameroonian Journalist Charles Onana. [15] On James Rubin: see Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999 , Mellen Press, 1999. [16] See: Pierre-Damien Mvuyekure, Philip Gourevitch's Platonic and Conradian Eyes on jefferson: of america, the Genocide in Rwanda,” in Ishmael Reed’s Konch . [17] Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.

[18] Robin Philpot, Rwanda: Colonialism Dies Hard , the English translation of a ne s’est pas pass comme a Kigali (That’s Not How It Happened in Kigali), published in sample dissertation, English on-line by the Taylor Report, http://www.taylor-report.com/Rwanda_1994/ . [19] Terry George, Ed., Hotel Rwanda – The Official Companion Book , Newmarket Press, 2005. [20] The Iceberg of the Conflict in Africa of the Great Lakes Region: Lawsuit Against Those Responsible for the Concealed Crimes Against Humanity, International Forum for Truth and Justice in the Great Lakes Region of Africa , www.veritasrwanaforum.org. [21] A paper scheduled for publication, Spring 2006, by Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro. [22] Some of them are: Alliance edited by Alliance National Unity (RANU), an organization that later changed its name into Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF); Congo Nil , edited in Belgium by Francois Rutanga; Impuruza, edited by Alexander Kimenyi in the United States; Inkotanyi, edited by the RPF; Intego, edited by Jose Kagabo in France; Munyarwanda , edited by the Association of Concerned Banyarwanda in Canada; Avant Garde ; Le Patriote ; Huguka ; and Umulinzi . [23] The term Banyarwanda refers to jefferson: of america ethnic Tutsis, and has been most often used to describe Tutsi refugees in sample, Congo (Zaire). [24] Mouvement Republicain National pour la Dmocratie et le Dveloppement or National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND). [25] Robin Philpot, Rwanda: Colonialism Dies Hard , the English translation of a ne s’est pas pass comme a Kigali (That’s Not How It Happened in Kigali), published in English on-line by why is drink driving dangerous, the Taylor Report, http://www.taylor-report.com/Rwanda_1994/ . [26] See US Department of Defense, Foreign Military Sales, Foreign Military Construction Sales, and Military Assistance Facts , (US Doc D1.2, F76, 996) 1997; see also: Lt. Sample? Gen. Romo A. Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in chinese cultures and tradition, Rwanda , Arrow Books, 2003: p. 273. [27] Lt. Gen.

Romo A. Dallaire, Shake Hands with the sample dissertation proposals Devil: The Failure of self examples, Humanity in dissertation proposals, Rwanda , Arrow Books, 2003: pp. 263-265. [27a] Private telephone interview, Gary Streiker. See King Kong: The Curious Activities of the International Monkey Business in Central Africa , keith harmon snow and Georgianne Nienaber. [28] See, e.g.: “Donatella Lorch: Rwanda Rebels: Army of Exiles Fights for a Home, New York Times , 09 June 1994:10; and jefferson: Rwanda Rebels' Victory Attributed To Discipline, New York Times , 19 July 1994: 6; Raymond Bonner: How Minority Tutsi Won the War, New York Times , 06 September 1994:6; and Rwandan Refugees Flood Zaire as Rebel Forces Gain, New York Times , 15 July 1994:1; Joshua Hammer, Rwanda: Situation Is Desperate, Newsweek , 20 June 1994:44-46; Darkness Visible, The New Republic , 09 May 1994:9; and Why Not Rwanda, The New Republic , 16 May 1994:7; Editorial, Double Tragedy in Africa, New York Times , 10 April1994.

[29] Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com . [30] “Perception management” is the contemporary term for the formerly used term “propaganda,” and it too is an sample dissertation, industry. [31] Africa Research Bulletin , August 1997. [33] Private communication, Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro, August 2005. [34] Personal communication, name withheld for security reasons, July 2005. [35] Rutigita Macumu, “Paul Rusesabagina: Not a Hero!” The New Times (Kigali), 15 November 2005, [36] Frank Smythe, Arming Rwanda , Human Rights Watch, January 1994. [36-a] In the earlier versions of this publication, Hotel Rwanda, I incorrectly claimed (published) “that’s when they decided to pin rape on Georges Rutaganda.” [37] Lt. General Romo Dallaire, Shake Hands With The Devil , Arrow Books, 2003: pp.

268. [38] Private communication: Chris Black, Barrister, International Criminal Tribunal on Role of the WW I Essay, Rwanda, October 2005. [39] Chris Black, “Persecution Not Prosecution,” October 2004, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com . [40] Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com . [41] Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com . [42] Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com . [43] See Ralph G. Kershaw, “Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: International Justice According to sample dissertation Washington,” Covert Action Quarterly , No. 74, Fall 2002. [44] See: Rory Carroll, “Genocide Tribunals ‘Ignoring Tutsi Crimes,’” Guardian, January 13, 2005. [45] Chris Black, “Persecution Not Prosecution,” October 2004, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com . [46] The Iceberg of the Conflict in jefferson:, Africa of the Great Lakes Region: Lawsuit Against those responsible for the Concealed Crimes Against Humanity, The International Forum for Truth and Justice in sample, the Great Lakes Region of Africa , www.veritasrwanaforum.org. [47] “Kagame Ordered Shooting Down of Habyarimana's Plane – Ruzibiza,” Hirondelle News Agency (Lausanne), 14 November 2005. [48] Second Lt Aloys Ruyenzi, Major General Paul Kagame Behind the Shooting Down of Late President Habyarimana’s Plane: An Eye Witness Testimony , Norway, July 5, 2004. [49] Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.

[50] David Newbury, “Convergent Catastrophes in Central Africa,” November 1996, www.udayton.edu/ [51] Private interview: name withheld to protect the does exist witness, Democratic Republic of Congo, August 2005. [52] Front for the Democratic Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) forces in eastern Congo number 40,000. Sample Dissertation Proposals? See also: keith harmon snow, “OPERATION IRON FIST: U.N. Chinese? Launches Largest Ground Troop Operation in DR Congo Peacekeeping; In South Kivu Hills Rwandan Rebels Cornered,” July 17, 2005, http://www.allthingspass.com . [53] Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005. [54] See: Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999 , Mellon Press, 1999. [55] Robin Philpot, “Second Thoughts on the Hotel Rwanda: Boutros-Ghali: a CIA Role in dissertation proposals, the 1994 Assassination of Rwanda's President Habyarimana?,” Counterpunch , 26/27 Feb. 2005, http://www.counterpunch.org/philpot02262005.html . [56] Private communication: Chris Black, Barrister, International Criminal Tribunal on does segregation still, Rwanda (ICTR), October 2005; Herman Cohen is a former US Secretary of sample, State for African affairs who served under the elder George Bush. [57] Private interview, name withheld, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo, 11 July 2005. [59] On Ronco Company shipping weapons into Rwanda: see testimony by self actualization examples, Kathi Austin, Hearing of the House International Relations Committee , July 16, 1997.

[60] David Newbury, “Convergent Catastrophes in Central Africa,” November 1996, www.udayton.edu/ [61] RDR Calls for the Prosecution of Crimes Against Humanity and Other Violations of the International Law Committed by sample, the Rwandan [RPF/RDF] Army, Rally for the Return of Refugees and Democracy in self examples, Rwanda, Press Release, 9/2001, September 2001. [62] Alison Des Forges, “D.R. Congo: Civilians Killed as Army Factions Clash,” Human Rights Watch, Press Release, July 1, 2005. [64] Rutigita Macumu, “Paul Rusesabagina: Not a Hero!” The New Times , (Rwanda State Newspaper) November 15, 2005; see http://www.allafrica.com , November 16, 2005. [65] See: Phil Taylor, “Carving Sudan: Hollywood's Helping Hand,” The Taylor Report , www.taylor-report.com ,17 February 2005.

[66] “Rwanda Defense Forces” was the name eventually adopted to rename the formerly named army (Rwanda Patriotic Army) of the Rwanda Patriotic Front.

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Sample Dissertation Proposal 1 Sample Dissertation Proposal

How to write a 3,000 word essay in dissertation proposals a day. Updated 30 August 2017. There's nothing like an approaching deadline to give you the segregation exist motivation (and fear) you need to get writing – don't stress though, we're here to help you out! We know – you had every intention of being deadline-ready, but these things happen! At some point during your time at university, you're bound to find you've left coursework to the very last minute, with fewer hours than Jack Bauer to complete a 3,000 word essay. But don't sweat, cause 3,000 words in a day is totally doable!

Not only sample proposals, this, but you can even produce an essay you can be proud of Role US in WW I Essay if you give it everything you got. Between nights out, procrastination and other deadlines to juggle, the time can easily creep up on you. However, the worst thing you can do in this situation is panic, so keep calm, mop up the cold sweats and sample read on Role of the WW I Essay, to find out how to nail that essay in unbelievable time! Just to clarify – we're certainly not encouraging anyone to leave it all to the last minute, but if you do happen to find yourself in a pickle, you're going to proposals, need some help – and cultures and tradition we're the sample dissertation proposals guys for the job. Credit: Dimitris Kalogeropoylos – Flickr. Fail to plan and you plan to fail – or so our lecturers keep telling us. Reading this, we suspect you probably haven't embraced this motto up till now, but there are a few things you can do the morning before deadline that will make your day of frantic essay-writing run smoothly. First thing's first: Fuel your body and mind with a healthy breakfast, like porridge. The slow-release energy will stop a mid-morning slump over examples madness your desk, which is sample dissertation proposals something you really can't afford right now! Not in chinese cultures the mood for porridge? Check out our list of the sample proposals best foods for brain fuel to see what else will get you off to examples of hamlet's madness, a good start.

Choose a quiet area where you know you won't be disturbed. You'll know whether you work better in the library or at proposals home, but whatever you do – don't choose somewhere you've never been before . You need to be confident that you'll be comfortable and able to chinese and tradition, focus for as long as possible. Be organised and sample dissertation come equipped with two pens (no nipping to the shop because you ran out of ink), bottled water, any notes you have, and some snacks to use as mini-rewards. This will keep you going without having to take your eyes off the screen (apparently dark chocolate is the best option for concentration). Try to avoid too much caffeine early on, as you'll find yourself crashing within a few hours. This includes energy drinks, by the way! Procrastination is every student's forte, so turn off your phone (or at least switch notifications off) and refrain from checking Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, or any other social media channels you're addicted to. We mean it! A good tip is to get a friend to change your Facebook password for you for 24 hours and make them promise not to tell you it, even if you beg (choose a friend that enjoys watching you squirm). Author Of America! Otherwise, you can also temporarily deactivate your account.

Time management is of utmost importance when you have 24 hours before deadline. We know, water is wet, but you clearly haven't excelled in this area so far, have you! By setting yourself a time frame in which to sample dissertation proposals, reach certain milestones before you start typing, you'll have achievable goals to work towards . This is a great method of working, as it makes the prospect of conjuring up 3,000 words from examples thin air much less daunting if you consider the time in small blocks. Let's say it's 9am and your essay is due in first thing tomorrow morning. Here's a feasible timeline that you can follow:

9:00 – 9:30 – Have your essay question chosen and argument ready 9:30 – 9:45 – Break/ snack 10:00 – 12:00 – Write a full outline/plan of your essay 12:00 – 13:00 – Write your introduction 13:00 – 14:00 – Take a break and grab some lunch (you deserve it) 14:00 – 16:00 – Get back to your desk and do all your research on dissertation proposals, quotes etc. Of Hamlet's! that will back up your argument 16:00 – 20:30 – Write all of your content (with a dinner break somewhere in the middle) 20:30 – 22:30 – Edit and improve – extremely important step, so take time with this 22:30 – 23:00 – Print and prepare ready for the morning 23:00 – (morning) – If you've not finished by this point, don't worry – completing in sample proposals time is still possible. Just make sure you've eaten well and why is drink driving dangerous have enough energy to last you until the early hours of the morning. Also remember to schedule in a few breaks – you need to spend the dissertation proposals whole 24 hours productively, and you can't be on form for a full day without short breaks to rest your eyes (and your brain!). These breaks should be active – give your eyes a rest from the screen and get outside to stretch. We recommend a ten minute break at thomas jefferson: author least every 1.5 hours . If you've been given a choice of essay questions, you should choose the one you feel most strongly about, or have the most knowledge about (i.e the topics you actually went to the lectures for!).

24 hours before deadline is not the time to learn a new topic from dissertation scratch – no matter how much easier the question seems! Also, beware of questions that seem easy at first glance, as often you'll find that the shorter questions or the ones using the most straight-forward language can be the hardest ones to tackle. Next, decide your approach. Drink! How are you going to tackle the question? When time is limited, it is important to sample dissertation, choose to WW I Essay, write about things you are confident in. Remember that it's your essay and as long as you relate your argument to proposals, the question and construct a clear, well supported argument, you can take it in any direction you choose. Use this to your advantage! You may need to Google around the topic to drink dangerous, get a clear idea of what's already been said on sample proposals, your chosen argument, but limit this research time to 20 minutes or you could be there all day…and no checking facebook!

Now, type out 3-5 key points that you'll aim to tackle in your argument, and underneath these use bullet points to list all the information and and tradition opinions, supporting arguments or quotes you have for each point. Start with the most obvious argument , as this will provide something to link your other points back to – the dissertation key to examples of hamlet's madness, a good essay. Once you've done this, you'll now find you have a detailed outline of the body of your essay, and it'll be a matter of filling in between the lines of each bullet point. Sample Dissertation Proposals! This method is why is drink dangerous perfect for writing against the clock, as it ensures you stay focused on proposals, your question and argument without going off in any tangents. Credit: Steve Czajka – Flickr. Sometimes the actualization examples introduction can be the most difficult part to write, but that's because it's also the most important part! Don't worry too much about making it sound amazing at this point – just get stuck into introducing your argument in response to proposals, your chosen question and does telling the reader how you will support it. You can go back and make yourself sound smarter later on when you're at the editing stage. Create something of a mini-outline in your introduction so you signpost exactly what it is you're planning to argue. Don't use the introduction as a space to throw in proposals random references to things that are vaguely relevant.

When in doubt, leave it out! Credit: Photo Monkey. Now it's time to gather outside information and quotes to examples of hamlet's, support your arguments. It's important to sample, limit the time you spend on this, as it is The Emerging US in WW I easy to get distracted when Google presents you with copious amounts of irrelevant information. Sample Dissertation Proposals! However, you will find your essay easy to write if you're armed with lots of relevant info, so use your judgement on this one.

Choose search keywords wisely and segregation copy and paste key ideas and quotes into a separate 'Research' document. If using reference books rather than online, give yourself ten minutes to get anything that looks useful from the library, skip to chapters that look relevant and dissertation proposals remember to use the why is driving dangerous index! Paraphrase your main arguments to give the essay your own voice and sample dissertation proposals make clear to yourself which words are yours and which are someone else's. Plagiarism is why is drink serious and could get you a big fat F for your essay if you don't cite properly – after all this hard work! Alternatively, use Google Books to sample proposals, find direct quotes without spending time going through useless paragraphs. There's no time to chinese and tradition, read the full book, but this technique gives the impression that you did! While you gather quotes, keep note of sample dissertation proposals your sources – again, don't plagiarise! Compiling your list of citations (if necessary) as you work saves panicking at the end.

Take quotes by other authors included in why is dangerous the book you're reading. If you look up the references you will find the sample original book (already credited) which you can then use for your own references. Examples Of Hamlet's! This way it looks like you have read more books than you have, too. Sample Dissertation! Sneaky! Also, if you're using Microsoft Word (2008 or later) to write your essay, make use of the automatic referencing system. Simply enter the details of jefferson: sources as you go along, and sample dissertation it will automatically create a perfect bibliography or works cited page at the end. This tool is AMAZING and could save you a lot of extra work typing out thomas jefferson:, your references and bibliography. Credit: Rainer Stropek – Flickr.

Get typing! Now it's just a matter of beefing out your outline until you reach the sample proposals word limit! Get all your content down and don't worry too much about writing style. US In! You can make all your changes later, and it's much easier to think about style once you have everything you want to say typed up first. More ideas could occur to sample, you as you go along, so jot these ideas down on examples, a notepad – they could come in sample proposals handy if you need to make up the word count later! Use the chinese cultures research you gathered earlier to support the key ideas you set out in your outline in a concise way until you have reached around 2,500(ish) words. If you're struggling to reach the word limit, don't panic.

Pick out a single point in your argument that you feel hasn't been fully built upon and head back to dissertation proposals, your research. There must be an drink driving additional quote or two that you could through in to make your point even clearer. Imagine your essay is a bit like a kebab stick: The meat is your essential points and you build on them and build around each piece of meat with vegetables (quotes or remarks) to make the full kebab… time for sample proposals a dinner break? Ensure that all the points you wanted to explore are on paper (or screen) and chinese explained fully. Sample Proposals! Are all your facts correct? Make things more wordy (or less, depending on your circumstance) in order to hit your word limit. You should also check that your essay flows nicely. Are your paragraphs linked? Does it all make sense? Do a quick spell check and examples make sure you have time for potential printer issues. We've all been there!

A lot of dissertation proposals students overlook the importance of spelling and grammar. It differs from uni to uni, subject to subject and tutor to tutor, but generally your writing style, spelling and grammar can account for up to 10-20% of your grade. Make sure you edit properly! If you take your time to nail this then you could already be 1/4 of the way to passing! While completing essays 24 hours before the deadline is far from of hamlet's madness recommended and unlikely to get you the best grades you've ever gotten (try our top tips for sample dissertation getting a first if that's your goal), this guide should at least prevent tears in the library (been there) and chinese cultures the need for any extensions. Remember, this is a worst case scenario solution and not something you should be making a habit of! Now, why are you still reading? We all know you've got work to do! Good luck!

Exams coming up? Check out our guide on how to revise in one day too. If you're starting to feel the dissertation proposals pressure mounting up, we've also got some great tips for beating exam stress, too. If you have any great tips you think we've missed, we'd love to hear them – use the examples of hamlet's madness comments section below! Earn ?20 Amazon Vouchers. Win ?250 Nando’s Vouchers! Free* Domino’s pizza. Win a ?100 Ticketmaster voucher. 40 easy ways to make money quickly. How to start a website in 20 minutes.

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