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Best Professional Practices for Artists: The Artist Resume. Examples Of Countertransference! While serving as a juror for a large group exhibition, I had to view a number of professional artist resumes. Overall, the experience was less than pleasant. I was shocked and dismayed by and responsibilities, the disorganization I encountered. One resume did not have the artist#8217;s name at examples of countertransference the topif they had been selected, there would have been NO WAY to contact them! Several resumes did not include basic contact information. Others included lengthy descriptions of professional experiences that had nothing to do with an hbo, art career, and still others were difficult to navigate, with pages and pages of of countertransference small-type font. I actually felt my brain hurting as I hunted for the basic information and experience which mattered.

If you are going to be evaluated for a professional opportunity based on your resume, the number one thing you need to do is make your information easily available. Make the font legible. Keep the size large enough to read without reading glasses. Use bullets and clearly separated or labelled sections. Is there enough white space? Too much white space?

If you fail to cover these basics, your resume will be useless. The Art Resume vs. The Employment Resume. Art resumes are very different from your job resume. The purpose of an sexandthecity hbo, art resume is to help an artist to win awards and examples grants, to gain acceptance into a residency program, or to achieve exhibition opportunities. None of this has anything to do with your former employment in non-art-related fields. Kohlberg Studied Development By! You will want to leave your employment experience out, for the most part. Another main issue: length.

Typically, an art resume is two to three pages long. If you are asked for a #8216;Curriculum Vitae,#8217; this document can be many pages in examples of countertransference length and include everything you#8217;ve ever done in art related fields, but a resume really should be no longer than two pages. Your art resume should be edited down to the essentials most recent accomplishments listed chronologically with recent items first, your education, your contact information, and, if applicable, your professional experience. Who is your audience? What is your goal? The more research you can do on southern and traditions whoever is going to examples of countertransference, be reviewing your resume, the better for southern culture and traditions you. Examples Of Countertransference! How can you make yourself look most appealing to lawrence kohlberg studied, your audience? Often times, less information that has been carefully edited counts as more. Contact information is always first. Of Countertransference! Include your name, address, phone, email, and website.

I think it is a good idea to print this part larger than the rest for easy and quick viewing. Education goes next. Include your most recent degrees first. If you have a degree in sexandthecity hbo something non-art related, you may want to leave it out. Of Countertransference! Competitive artist residencies can also be listed here as well. I suggest putting #8216;Awards and Honors#8217; next, if you have any. This category is important because it digtinguishes you from Essay Great all the other candidates. If you have been awarded a grant, put it here. If you received an art award at examples college graduation, it goes here. Any #8216;Best in Show#8217; awards, cash prizes, or other distinctions go here.

These items are a big deal. Solo Exhibitions go next, listed chronologically. If you have only had one or two, it may make you look inexperienced, so list them in a more general exhibition section. Hbo! If you are editing your information, which I highly recommend, then call this section #8216;Select Exhibitions.#8217; Juried Exhibitions can be a separate category. Base your decision to include a juried section on your numbers of these.

Typically, a juried exhibition is examples seen as being more impressive than a group exhibition, especially if the juror is southern culture and traditions well-known. Always list the examples name of the comparative juror in addition to the basic exhibition information: Show Title, Gallery Name, City and State, Exhibition Dates. This type of name-dropping is strategic, especially in an art world that is of countertransference small and inter-connected. And Traditions! #8216;Group Exhibitions#8217; or #8216;Select Group Exhibitions#8217; (if you are editing) go next. Choose what to include based on examples of countertransference what you are applying for. For example, if your resume is part of a packet you are sending to a gallery, you may want to edit out shows done in coffee shops or other #8216;non-gallery#8217; spaces. And Traditions! Gallerists tend to be snobs. Also, if you have exhibited with a gallery that is seen as #8216;less desirable#8217; than the one you are applying to leave it out.

If you have showed with someone that your goal gallery has a good relationship with, great highlight it by examples, leaving out #8216;filler.#8217; Your goal in hbo this section is to display a breadth of experience and examples a professional appearance. Define Comparative! You want to seem responsible and easy to work with this makes you a more desirable candidate. The next section should be #8216;Press#8217; or #8216;Select Bibliography.#8217; To be a viable candidate for pretty much anything, you need to have some kind of press. Press on online sources and blogs are absolutely fine. Of Countertransference! Even a small local newspaper or newsletter is worth mentioning. If a group show you participate in vs. Nurture: Promotion False is reviewed, but you are not mentioned, then what? If you need more lines in your press section, then include it. If you have enough press to look respectable, leave it out. 8. Related Professional Experience.

This last section is optional: #8216;Related Professional Experience.#8217; Remember, your artist resume is not a job resume. Your goal is not getting a job, but rather a show, a grant, or a residency, therefore anything NOT art related should be left out. This section can include professional memberships, volunteering, published writing, and examples any art-related jobs you have held. Don#8217;t worry if it seems like there are gaps here this is not a job resume! I know that many professional resumes include an objective. This takes up unnecessary space and is redundant.

If you are applying for something specific, your objective will be obvious. Leave this section out of an southern, artist resume. You should keep an all-encompassing curriculum vitae on your computer in examples of countertransference order to cut and paste the info into a new, shorter resume designed for a specific purpose. One other, last suggestion is to look at several examples of resumes by studied by, artists you respect. Most artist or gallery websites have easily down-loadable resumes. Choose a certain aesthetic, appearance, or organizational strategy for yourself based on examples of countertransference these examples. Happy applications!

Oh, and if you want to read the Professional Practices Post from last month on Artist Statements, click here. Author Cara Ober is southern Founding Editor at BmoreArt. Examples! Cara Ober is the Founding Editor at BmoreArt. How to lawrence studied moral development by, Become Your Own Artist-Advocate: Matthew Mann. Biggs and Featherbelle: The Sweet Smell of Success. Black Voices in Contemporary Art Criticism. Where are all the Black art critics? Inertia: Studio Visit with Rene Trevino. Guggenheim Fellowship Awarded to examples, Baltimore Artist.

Inertia: Studio Visit with Amanda Burnham. This is a pretty good article, except for the typo. That is essential in creating a good resume. Proofreading. It is sexandthecity hbo funny because I cannot reproduce your typo in this section without autocorrect changing it to distinguished. Also, comma at start of last graph is not needed. Also.

What about Public Art? I m seeking for this only.. Examples! The first thing to learn about sexandthecity hbo how to write a resume cover letter is that the cover letter gives the of countertransference job seeker a unique opportunity to introduce him or herself before actually meeting in person.Sample CV. I found your article on Sample Resume writing tips insightful and helpful, thanks for sharing this information on resume. Sample Resume. While it is important to put your schooling somewhere, if you have been out of school for a while sometimes your experience is teachers and responsibilities actually relevent. In this case, education should be located at the bottom.

Of course, everyone has their own opinions when it comes to resumes, and what may be right for one employer may not be for the next. This is good advice thank you. But reading it had me thinking that, given all the protocols, would be nice if the enclosed work spoke for itself right? Shouldn#8217;t this be the over-riding consideration? Great post- thank you so much! All of examples this is such a mystery to on Nature vs. Nurture: Parental Promotion Dichotomy, many of us. @Radar Redux- Good luck to examples, you in creative or nontraditional formatting.

In my experience, people find it arrogant and irritating, and define comparative choose not to deal with you. There is something to be said for being courteous, respectful and INFORMATIVE when communicating about yourself to potential patrons, funders, galleries or curators. No one wants to work with someone who they perceive will be difficult. If you have had success with this approach, I#8217;d love to hear about it. It seems so trivial, though its not. The idea of editing the information is great. Very useful post. Thanks. Of Countertransference! This is southern and traditions a very helpful blog post for artists. I will pass it on to all the recent art grads I know. Let me rephrase.

We am not judging anyone who chooses to conform to any process so as to examples of countertransference, get grants/jobs, whatever they participate in so as to sexandthecity, make a living, get shown, etc. Examples! The advice here is all excellent regarding this. That said, we had asked should an culture and traditions, artist feel compelled to fill out resumes or artist statements in traditional ways in of countertransference the first place, if they feel the and traditions process does not represent them in the way they wish to be represented. Examples! For example some artists we know question why this almost corporate formulaic format exists at all. They believe it to Essay of A Dichotomy, be archaic. They ask who does it really serve anyone and how? This questioning at least deserves consideration/ examination. And if one has a real deep desire to deconstruct and recontextualize the #8220;resume/artist statement process/construct#8221; why wait for examples of countertransference the project part of, say, a grant.

Why not jump in from the start in this way it is southern a real #8220;action#8221;instead of a simulation. The results may be illuminating. how does an artist apply for grant $$ without a resume if it is part of the requirement? i would save the #8216;challenging the of countertransference formula#8217; for my grant proposal. i think online exhibits are fine to list as group shows. Southern Culture And Traditions! as you do more exhibits, you will want to examples, edit and teachers and responsibilities choose the most competitive ones for of countertransference your resume. if you see the online ones as being #8216;less#8217; desirable, then leave them out down the road. Great advice and thanks. One question: Do you think online shows or competitions count as something for your resume? Even if its decent?

This comment has been removed by the author. You can order it direct from us or pick it up next week at area retailers like the BMA Museum Shop, Ivy Bookstore, Trohv, and Atomic Books. Lawrence Studied Moral Development! Designed by Wickerham Lomax, our cover artists for Issue 04! The BmoreArt calendar features arts and events and is updated daily. Tag your art and Balti-centric photos #bmoreart! We want to see your art, your exhibits, and your Baltimore.

The Internet is Exploding: 10 Must-Read Articles this Week. ABOUT ME | Call for Book Publication. MECU NEIGHBORHOOD EVENT GRANT APPLICATIONS *DEADLINE EXTENDED* Order the BmoreArt Journal of Art + Ideas directly from of countertransference us or from area retailers. BmoreArt is Best Cultural Resource in Baltimore! Bmoreart is a creative and critical daily online journal.

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Natural Disasters on Earth: Essay on Natural Disasters (9069 Words) Here is your comprehensive essay on Natural Disasters! A natural disaster is examples of countertransference, unforeseen, severe and immediate. Pollution, ozone depletion in southern culture and traditions, the stratosphere and global warming come in this category. Examples Of Countertransference. Natural disasters include cyclones, earthquakes, floods, drought (though these two are now being increasingly considered ‘man- made’ disasters) heat and cold waves, landslides, avalanches, flash floods, severe thunder­storms, hail, low level wind shears, and microburst.

Image Courtesy : The destructive potential of any natural hazard is kohlberg by, estimated basically by its spatial extent and of countertransference severity. Spatial extent upto which the effect of a disastrous event could be felt may easily be classified into small, medium and large scales. The phenomenon extending from a few kilometers to a few tens of kilometers are termed as small scale. Growing industrialisation and unjustified exploitation of natural resources have brought our echo system to a verge of Essay Gatsby, non-reversibility and imbalance. This has led to a threat from a set of natural hazards like pollution, global warming and ozone depletion on large or global scale. The management aspect of disaster may be classified as: (a) early warning system; (b) rescue operations; (c) relief operations; (d) rehabilitation; and (e) long range planning. The most important is the examples of countertransference, early warning systems.

Unless sufficient advance notice is available, evacuation of the population likely to be affected cannot be undertaken. There are two aspects of lawrence studied moral development, early warning system. One is the of countertransference, availability of an effective technique to forecast the disaster with its extent and the other is effective communication of the same to hbo the civil authority responsible for rescue operations. In some phenomena, such as cyclones, flood, etc. the time available to examples respond to the hazard is of the order of a few days. Essay On Nature Vs. Nurture: Of A False Dichotomy. Hence early warning, communication, and rescue operations are possible. But, in a few cases like flash floods, microburst, etc., the examples, response time is of the order of vs. Nurture: Parental Promotion False, few minutes only, which calls for a very fast early warning and efficient communication system. The human-activity-induced hazards like pollution and examples of countertransference global warming have already started showing their precur­sors, giving sufficient time to control and avoid these hazards by long term planning. On the hbo, contrary, in earthquakes no proven methods has yet been evolved to examples give any prior warning and so post-hazard mitigation is the only alternative. Role of Communication For a developing country like India, the role of communication in disaster mitigation is extremely critical. Vast areas of the country do not have telephone/ telegraph links.

These can neither be provided in a short span of time available for culture and traditions, mitigation nor are there resources to do so. We have to depend on existing links, many of which completely break down during the disaster. The various types available for dissemination of disaster warning as well as arranging mitigation are: (a) land line links; (b) underground cable links; (c) wireless links; (d) microwave (LOS); and (e) satellite links. The only examples of countertransference, effective communication which is likely to remain completely or partially unaf­fected is the satellite link. This assumes that the earth stations at the two ends are suitably located to remain unaffected. Further link between the earth station and southern culture and traditions the affected area is usually through microwave/ land line, which has its limitation as it may break down. The most effective way of dissemination of warning is Disaster Warning System (DWS) used by the IMD for issue of cyclone bulletin to the coastal areas. This could be extended to the entire earthquake/ flood prone areas. Experience has shown that it remains completely unaffected under the severest cyclonic condition. However, the system is of countertransference, limited to one way communication only. For effective two way communication, VHF/UHF links should be established from every earth station to the affected zone.

Use of existing police VHF/UHF link can be made. The only addition required is the missing link between the nearest earth station to police headquarters. The linking of these with police VHF/UHF stations would not involve large investments. This would be a cost effective and reliable communication system for disaster warning and mitigation. Stated simply, ‘an earthquake is a vehement shake of the earth from natural causes’. Define. Technically an earthquake is a phenomenon of strong vibrations occurring on the ground, consequent to release of large amount of energy within a short period of time because of some disturbance in the earth’s crust or in the upper part of the of countertransference, mantle. The theory of plate tectonics offers a comprehensive explanation for several geological phenomena — continental drift, mountain building and volcanism, and, of course, earthquake. According to this theory, when the molten mass that was the earth billions of years ago cooled down, the crust that was formed was not one homogenous piece but broken into about a dozen large plates and several smaller ones with their thickness ranging from 30 km down to Essay Great Gatsby the lithosphere at depth of about 100 km or so.

The plates are in incessant motion, with speeds of examples, about 1 cm to 5 cm a year. This mobile jigsaw puzzle is development by, what is of countertransference, termed as the continental drift, which results in the formation of mountains, midoceanic ridges, ocean trenches, volcanoes and seismic energy build­up. Where two places converge or collide, a deep trench forms and one plate is deflected downwards into the asthenosphere which lies below the crust and development the lithosphere. When two thick continential plates collide, rocks on the land are relatively light and too buoyant to examples descend into the asthenosphere. The result is a huge zone of crushing, with rocks and other materials being folded. Essay On Nature Promotion. And this is examples, how the Himalayas have emerged or, in fact, are continuing to emerge. As the deformation of the plate margins goes on, energy builds up in rocks in the form of elastic strain which continues till it exceeds their elastic limits and the rocks give way.

The sudden release of stored elastic energy causes earthquakes. Earthquakes in India are caused by on Nature Parental False the release of elastic strain energy created and replenished by the stresses from the collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The most intense earthquakes occur on the boundaries of the Indian plate to the east, north and west. In the examples, Indian plate, faults are created when this rubs against the Eurasian plate. Promotion False Dichotomy. (When an earthquake occurs along a fault line within the plate, it is called an intra-plate earthquake. The majority of the earthquakes occur along plate boundaries.) Earthquakes are also caused by volcanic activity. Construction of large water reservoirs may also cause earthquakes—these are called reservoir-induced earthquakes. The movement of the plates and occurrence of earthquakes seem to be concentrated in certain areas or zones of the earth. Based on intensity and of countertransference frequency of occurrence, world map is divided into the following earthquake zones or belts— Circum-Pacific Belt Surrounds the Pacific Ocean and accounts for more than three-fourths of the world’s earthquakes.

Sometimes called the ‘Ring of Fire’, its epicentre are the coastal margins of North and South America and East Asia. These represent the eastern and studied by western margins of the Pacific Ocean respectively. The occurrence of maximum number of earthquakes in this region is due to four ideal conditions— (i) Junction of continental and oceanic margins. (ii) Zone of young folded mountains. (iii) Zone of active volcanoes. (iv) Subduction zone of destructive or convergent plate boundaries. Also called the Mediterranean Belt or Alpine-Himalayan Belt, it accounts for about 21 per cent of the examples of countertransference, total seismic shocks. It includes the Essay vs. Nurture: Parental Dichotomy, epicentres of the Alpine mountains and their offshoots in of countertransference, Europe, Mediterranean Sea, Northern Africa, Eastern Africa, Himalayan Mountains and Burmese hills. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Belt:

The epicentres of this region are along the mid-Atlantic Ridge and the islands near the ridge. This belt represents the zone of moderate and shallow focus earthquakes—the reason for this being the creation of transform faults and on Nature False Dichotomy fractures because of splitting of plates followed by their movement in the opposite examples of countertransference, direction. Based on seismic data and different geological and geophysical parameters, the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) had initially divided the country into hbo, five seismic zones. Examples. In 2003, however, BIS redefined the studied, seismic map of India by merging zones I and II. Thus India has four such zones now—II, III, IV and examples V. There is thus no part of the country that can be termed earthquake free. Of the five seismic zones, zone V is the most active region and zone I shows least seismic activity. The entire north-eastern region falls in zone V. Besides the North- East, zone V includes parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rann of Kachch in Gujarat, northern Bihar and the Andaman and Nicobar islands. Essay In The Gatsby. One of the reasons for this region being prone to earthquake is the presence of the young-fold Himalayan Mountains here which have frequent tectonic movements. Zone IV which is the examples, next most active region of seismic activity covers Sikkim, Delhi, remaining parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, northern parts of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, parts of Gujarat and small portions of roles, Maharashtra near the west coast. Zone III comprises Kerala, Goa, Lakshadweep, remaining parts of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, parts of Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

The remaining states with lesser known activity fall in zone II. The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, the Bihar-Nepal border, the Rann of Katchh in Gujarat and the Andaman Islands fall into the unstable belt which stretches right across the globe. The high seismicity of the examples, Indian subcontinent arises from the tectonic disturbances associated with the northward movement of the Indian plate, which is underthrasting the Eurasian plate. The Himalayan region has been the site for great earthquakes of the world of magnitude greater than 8.0. This highly seismic belt is a branch of one of the three major seismic belts of the world called the “Alpide-Himalayan Belt”. The high seismicity region extends from Hindukush in the west to Sadiya in the northeast which further extends down to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Different institutions including the roles, Indian Meteorogical Department and the Indian School of Mines, have after a study of mechanics of several earthquakes in the north- eastern region found that the thrust faulting was generally indicated along with Dawki fault and of countertransference the Indo-Burma border.

Dr. H. Teiedemann, a member of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute of the Seismological Society of America, said in studied moral, 1985 that the examples of countertransference, increased interplay activity near the north-eastern boundary in the Indian plate coupled with thrusting of the define comparative, Himalayan Burmese sector pointed to the danger of earthquakes in the region. There are three kinds of seismic waves. Waves that move the fastest are called primary, or P, waves. These waves, like sound waves, travel longitudinally by of countertransference alternate compression and expansion of the medium, like the movement of the bellows of an lawrence studied moral by, accordion. Somewhat slower are the secondary, or S, waves which propagate transversely in the form of snakelike wriggles at right angle to the directions of travel. These cannot travel through liquids or gases. Of Countertransference. The slowest earthquake waves are the long, or L, waves which cause the kohlberg studied moral by, most extensive damage as they move along the examples of countertransference, earth’s surface.

Incidentally, ‘L’ waves on sea floor cause sea waves on the surface called tsunamis. Teachers Roles And Responsibilities. They rise to 100 feet or more and cause damage when they break on habitated coasts. All three kinds can be detected and recorded by sensitive instru­ments called seismographs. A seismograph is of countertransference, usually anchored to the ground and carries a hinged or suspended mass that is set into oscillation by ground movement during an earthquake. The instrument can record both horizontal and southern and traditions vertical ground movement in the form of examples of countertransference, wavy lines on on Nature Parental of A False Dichotomy paper or film. Of Countertransference. From the record, called a seismogram, it is possible to find out how strong the quake was, where it began and how long it lasted. The location of the epicentre of a quake is determined from the time of arrival of the P and S waves at the seismographic station. Since P waves travel at a speed of about 8 km per second and on Nature vs. Nurture: Parental Promotion of A S waves at 5 km per second, it is possible to compute the distance of their origin from the seismic record. If the examples, distance from three stations are computed, the exact location can be pin pointed.

A circle of appropriate radius is drawn around each station. The epicentre lies where the circles intersect. ‘Magnitude’ and Essay in the Gatsby ‘intensity’ are the two ways in examples, which a quake’s strength is generally expressed. The magnitude is a measure that depends on the seismic energy radiated by the quake as recorded on Essay on Prohibition in the Gatsby seismographs. The intensity, in turn, is a measure that depends on the damage caused by the quake. It does not have a mathematical basis but is based on observed effects.

A quake’s magnitude is usually measured in terms of the examples of countertransference, Richter scale. Devised by the American seismologist, Charles Francis Richter, in 1932, the Richter scale is not a physical device but a logarithmic scale based on recordings of seismographs, instruments which automatically detect and record the intensity, direction and Essay on Prohibition in the Great duration of a movement on the ground. The scale starts at one and examples of countertransference has no upper limit. Since it is a logarithmic scale, each unit is 10 times greater than the previous one; in lawrence kohlberg studied by, other words, an increase of one unit (whole number) on the Richter scale signifies a 10-fold jump in the quake’s size (or 31 times more energy released). On this scale, the smallest quake felt by humans is about 3.0, and the smallest quake capable of examples of countertransference, causing damage is about 4.5. The strongest quake ever recorded had a magnitude of 8.9. Richter magnitude effects are confined to the vicinity of the epicentre. The Richter scale has been immensely modified and Essay Parental Promotion of A False Dichotomy upgraded since it was introduced.

It remains the of countertransference, most widely known and roles and responsibilities used scale for measuring the magnitude of an of countertransference, earthquake. For measurement of the intensity of an earthquake, the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale is used. The 12-point Mercalli scale measures the intensity of roles and responsibilities, shaking during an earthquake and is assessed by inspecting the damage and interviewing survivors of the earthquake. As such, it is extremely subjective. Furthermore, because the intensity of shaking varies from one place to another during an earthquake, different Mercalli ratings can be given for the same earthquake. Unlike the Mercalli scale, the Richter scale measures the magnitude of an earthquake at its epicentre.

What are aftershocks? Aftershocks are earthquakes that often occur during the days and months that follow some larger quake. Aftershocks occur in the same general region as the main shock and are believed to be the result of examples of countertransference, minor readjustment of stress at place in the fault zones. Generally, major quakes are followed by a larger number of aftershocks, decreasing in frequency with time. Aftershocks may rock a region for as long as four to six months after the initial quake. However, strong ones last only a few days. Aftershocks are generally not as strong in magnitude as the initial tremor.

But a small chance of them being stronger in magnitude cannot be ruled out, in which case the first and aftershocks become known as foreshocks. How frequently do quakes occur? Earthquakes occur every day around the world. Hbo. Each day there are about 1,000 very small earthquakes measuring 1 to 2 on examples of countertransference the Richter scale. Approximately, there is one every 87 seconds. Annually, on an average, there are 800 quakes capable of causing damage with a magnitude of define, 5-5.9, and 18 major ones with a magnitude of 7 or more. The science of examples, earthquake prediction is at its infancy at present, even though several intensive attempts in this direction have been going on for the last two to Essay Parental of A Dichotomy three decades in the USA, Russia, Japan, China and examples of countertransference India. In spite of some breakthroughs— the notable example being the prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake of China (7.3M)—there is define comparative, yet no reliable system to predict an earthquake. For, just a year later in 1976, the seismologists could not predict the Tangshan earthquake.

To predict earthquakes one has to first fully understand the underlying dynamics. For example, even though it is examples, known that this intense seismic activity is a result of the on Prohibition, north-northeastern movement and under thrusting of the Indian plate, it is not known what fraction of the strain energy is being released by earthquakes along the belt. Aside from such dynamic imputs, an empirical basis of prediction can be founded by examples of countertransference recognising, monitoring and interpreting observable and decipherable precursory phenomena. Present day earthquake prediction techniques have mainly to do with precursory phenomena. The parameters that are normally looked at include electrical resistivities, geomagnetic properties, variation in the ratio of compressional to shear wave velocities, etc. Culture And Traditions. Even radon emission from the of countertransference, earth’s crustal layers increase before an impending earthquake. One approach is to predict earthquakes on the basis of changes believed or known to precede an earthquake. Such earthquake precursors include abnormal tilting of define comparative, ground, change in strain in rock, dilatancy of examples of countertransference, rocks which could be measured by a change in velocities, ground and water levels, sharp changes in pressure, and unusual lights in the sky.

The behaviour of some animals is also believed to undergo a distinct change prior to an earthquake. Some lower creatures are perhaps more sensitive to sound and vibrations than humans; or endowed with what one may call prescience. Another approach is to estimate the probabilistic occurrence of an earthquake statistically by relating the past occurrences to weather conditions, volcanic activity and tidal forces. There have been some notable Indian efforts too in developing prediction models in the Himalayan-belt context. One relates to the so- called seismic gaps, which postulates that great earthquakes rupture the Himalayan arc whose total length is about 1700 km. Of this, about 1400 km is supposed to have been ruptured releasing part of the pent-up energy during the last four great earthquakes, leaving a portion of about 300 km to be broken in False Dichotomy, a “future great earthquake”. The most likely unruptured gaps in the Himalayan arc are stated to be in Uttar Pradesh (Ganga Basin), and in Kashmir. Proponents of this model have postulated that the entire Himalayan detachment would rupture in 180-240 years, the rupture being caused by a 8.0 M plus earthquake. This hypothesis forms the basis for the apprehension of the of countertransference, Tehri dam being subjected to Essay on Prohibition Great Gatsby earthquakes of examples of countertransference, this magnitude. Some scientists have noted that certain cycles of low and sexandthecity high seismicity characterise the Alpide belt.

For example, after an extremely active cycle from 1934 to 1951, with 14 earthquakes of examples of countertransference, magnitude greater than 7.7 a quiet phase began in 1952, and till now only four such events have occurred. In the lawrence kohlberg by, world scientific community, the latest in earthquake prediction techniques have come from the United States. One method developed by the Americans involves the use of laser beams. These beams are shot from an observatory to a geostationary satellite in space. On hitting the satellite, the waves are reflected back to examples the observatory. A substantial difference in the time taken by the laser beams to travel between the two points is an indication of considerable tectonic plate movement, and perhaps an imminent earthquake. A recent study of Indonesian reefs showed that corals record cyclical environmental events and roles could predict a massive earthquake in the eastern Indian Ocean within the next 20 years. The study conducted off Indonesia’s Sumatra Island showed they have annual growth rings, like those in tree trunks, which record cyclical events such as earthquakes. Scientists said the earthquake could be similar to the magnitude 9.15 earthquake which sparked the of countertransference, devastating 2004 tsunami and left more than two lakh people either dead or missing across Asia. The corals off Sumatra’s Mentawai Islands showed a major earth­quake had occurred every 200 years since 1300. When earthquakes push the seafloor upward, lowering local sea level, the corals cannot grow upward and southern grew outward instead, a major indication.

An area off Sumatra that has been the examples, source of disastrous earthquakes, still carries a lot of Essay in the Gatsby, pent-up pressure that could result in another strong quake, noted the study reported in the journal Nature. It is not, however, clear as of now whether a precise earthquake prediction and warning system can be developed and put to examples any effective use. The greatest damage in an earthquake is caused by the destruction of buildings and resultant loss of life and property and destruction of infrastructure. The earthquakes having the same magnitude on sexandthecity the Richter scale may vary in of countertransference, damage from place to place. The extent of damage that an earthquake can cause may depend on more than one factor. The depth of the focus may be one factor. Earthquakes can be very deep and in such cases surface damage may be less. The extent of damage also depends on how populated and developed an area is. A ‘great’ earthquake in an uninhabited or virtually uninhabited area will be less damaging than a ‘large’ earthquake in a highly populated area. The National Buildings Organisation of India lists weaknesses in burnt brick buildings as follows: i. Poor strength of material in tension-and shear.

ii. Toothed joint causing a vertical plane of weakness between perpendicular walls. iii. Large openings placed too close to define comparative the corners. Long rooms having long walls unsupported by cross-walls. iv. Examples. Unsymmetrical plan, or with too many projections. v. Use of heavy roofs having flexibility in plan. vi.

Use of light roofs with little binding effects on sexandthecity hbo walls. Some measures to prevent building collapse during the earthquake are: symmetry and rectangularity of examples of countertransference, building; symmetry in locating openings; simplicity in elevation or avoidance of ornamentation; intersecting internal walls so as to divide the Great Gatsby, total plan in square enclosures of not more than 6 m wide; use of steel or wooden dowels going into walls meeting at corners (shear walls) or T-junctions to provide effective bonding; use of bond beam or band of reinforced concrete at lintel levels of openings and serving as lintel too. The last one is the one feature that is most effective in ensuring the integrity of enclosures like a rigid box. For masonry construction, the BIS has specified that materials to be used should be well-burnt bricks and not sun-dried bricks. Of Countertransference. The use of arches to span over openings is a source of weakness and should be avoided unless steel ties are provided. Scientists have suggested designing buildings to counter quake movement by shifting the centre of gravity with the help of a steel weight placed on hbo the top of the buildings.

In plain areas or towns which are located on of countertransference a river bank, or situated on a thick layer of alluvial soil (like Ahmedabad), the ‘deep piles technology’ may be useful. In this technique, thick, columns of concrete and steel are inserted 10-30 metre deep into the soil beneath the regular foundation. In case of earthquakes, these pillars provide extra strength and prevent the buildings from collapsing. In the ‘base isolation technique’, heavy blocks of rubber and steel are put between the foundation and the building. During a quake, the rubber absorbs the shocks. In high-rises, enlarged structures on the top floors should be avoided. Enlarged top storeys shift the centre of gravity higher making the teachers roles and responsibilities, building more unstable during the earthquake. ‘Soft first storeys’ should be avoided.

In cities, many buildings stand on columns. The ground floor is generally used for parking and walls start from the first floor. These buildings collapse quickly during an earthquake. Independent tall cores should be avoided unless they are tied to the main structure. Tropical cyclones, the most destructive of nature’s phenomena, are known to examples form over all tropical oceans except over define the South Atlantic and the South Pacific, east of about 140° W. An intense low pressure area in the atmosphere is formed before/after the examples, monsoon. It is associated with fierce wind and heavy rainfall. Horizontally it extends from 500 to 1000 km and sexandthecity vertically from the surface to about 14 km. Severe tropical cyclones cause considerable damage to property and agricultural crops. The principal dangers posed are: (a) fierce winds; (b) torrential rains and associated flooding; and of countertransference (c) high storm tides (combined effect of storm surge and tides).

Rainfall up to 20 to 30 cm a day is common. The highest ever sustained winds recorded in the case of tropical cyclones are 317 kmph. Storm surge (rise of sea level) of four metres are common. The highest sea level elevation in the world due to continued effect of storm surge and astronomical high tide occurred in 1876 near Bakerganj, where the sea level rose by studied moral development by about 12 metres above the mean sea level on that occasion. Tropical cyclones over the Bay of Bengal occur in two district seasons, the pre-monsoon months of of countertransference, April-May and the post-monsoon months of October-November. On an average, in and responsibilities, fact, almost half a dozen tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea every year, out of which two or three may be severe. Out of examples of countertransference, these, the stormiest months are May-June, October and November.

Compared to the pre- monsoon season of May, June, when severe storms are rare, the months of October and November are known for severe cyclones. The IMD has published the tracks of the cyclones since 1891 and sexandthecity hbo updates them every year in its quarterly scientific journal, Mausam. As 90 per cent of the deaths in severe cyclones all over the world occur in high storm surges accompanying them, the only feasible method to save the lives of human beings and animals is to evacuate them to safe inland cyclone shelters as early as possible after the receipt of advance cyclone warnings from the IMD. The evacuation of people is difficult in flat coastal districts as in Bangladesh where the tides of six to 10 metres above the sea level submerges offshore islands and travels inland for considerable distances. Tropical cyclones are by examples of countertransference nature devastating mainly because of roles and responsibilities, their place of birth, namely, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). This is a narrow belt at examples of countertransference, the equator, where the trade winds of the two hemispheres meet. It is a region of high radiation energy which supplies the necessary heat for comparative, the vaporisation of sea water into the air.

This moist unstable air rises, generates convective clouds and leads to an atmospheric disturbance with a fall in surface atmospheric pressure. Of Countertransference. This causes a convergence of surrounding air towards this region of low pressure. The converging mass of define comparative, air gains a rotary motion because of what is known as the Coriolis force caused by the rotation of the of countertransference, Earth. However, under favourable circumstances, such as high sea-surface temperatures, this low pressure area can get accentuated. The convective instability builds up into an organised system with high-speed winds circulating around the sexandthecity, low pressure interior. The net result is a well formed cyclone consisting of examples of countertransference, a central region of comparative, light winds known as the ‘eye’. The eye has an average radius of 20 to 30 km. in fact, in a mature storm like in Bangladesh. It can even be as much as 50 km.

Given the existing scientific knowledge about cyclones, it is not yet possible to physically dissipate the buildup of a massive cyclone. Of Countertransference. Cures are generally worse than the disease. For example, while seeding by sodium iodide crystals has been attempted in some parts of the define, world— with marginal success—a more effective prescription proposed sometimes is a nuclear explosion. Obviously, that would be trading one disaster for an even greater one. Accepted technology, therefore, only provides the capability to detect and track cyclones with sophisticated satellite imagery and ground- based radar systems. But here too the limitations are glaring. Atmospheric science, for example, is not yet in a position to unambiguously predict the motion and behaviour of a cyclone more than 24 hours ahead of its arrival. So all that is possible in that brief span is to warn the vulnerable sections of the population of the imminent danger and adopt measures to examples of countertransference move them to safer cyclone withstanding structures.

The frequency, intensity and coastal impact of cyclones varies from southern region to examples region. Interestingly, the frequency of tropical cyclones is the least in the north Indian Ocean regions of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea; they are also of moderate intensities. But the cyclones are deadliest when they cross the Essay, coast bordering North Bay of examples of countertransference, Bengal (coastal areas of Orissa, West Bengal and Bangladesh). This is mainly due to storm surges (tidal waves) that occur in this region inundating the on Nature False, coastal areas. Over the of countertransference, last two-and-a-half centuries, 17 of the on Nature vs. Nurture: Parental Promotion False Dichotomy, 22 severe tropical cyclones—each causing loss of more than 10,000 human lives—took place in the North Bay of Bengal. While gales and strong winds, as well as torrential rain, that usually accompany a cyclone can cause sufficient havoc to property and agriculture, loss of human life and cattle is mainly due to storm surges.

If the terrain is shallow and shaped like a funnel, like that of Bangladesh—much of the exposed land is just about at the mean sea level or even less—storm surges get enormously amplified. Of Countertransference. Coastal inundation due to a combination of high tide and storm surge can cause the worst disaster. India has an comparative, efficient cyclone warning system. Tropical cyclones are tracked with the help of (i) regular observation from weather network of of countertransference, surface and upper air observation stations, (ii) ships report, (iii) cyclone detection radars, (iv) satellites, and (v) reports from commercial aircraft. Ships of merchant fleet have meteorological instruments for taking observations at sea. A network of cyclone detection radars have been set up along the coast at Kolkata, Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Machilipatnam, Chennai, Karaikal, Kochi, Goa, Mumbai and Bhuj. And Responsibilities. The range of these radars is examples, 400 km. When the cyclone is define comparative, beyond the range of examples, coastal radars, its intensity and Essay vs. Nurture: Promotion of A False movement is monitored with weather satellites. Warnings are issued by examples of countertransference the area cyclone warning centres located at Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai, and cyclone warning centres at Bhubaneswar, Visakhapatnam and lawrence development by Ahmedabad. IMD has developed a system known as Disaster Warning System (DWS) to transmit cyclone warning bulletins through INSAT-DWS to the recipients.

This consists of the following elements: (i) The cyclone warning centre for originating the area code of the examples, districts and disaster warning message; (ii) The earth station located near the teachers and responsibilities, cyclone warning centre with uplink facility in C-band and examples suitable communication links; (iii) The C/S band transponder on board INSAT; and. (iv) The INSAT-DWS receivers located in Great, cyclone prone areas. Typically, in a cyclone the maximum devastative effects are within about 100 km from the centre and on the right of the storm track where all the islands lie. Examples Of Countertransference. Evacuating the population just 24 hours before would require an army of studied by, high speed boats, an unfeasible proposition for a resource—poor country. Of Countertransference. The obvious solution, therefore, would be to provide a large number of storm shelters in the particularly vulnerable areas. So inured are we to the annual phenomena of floods in hbo, season, that one more village practically washed away by a flash flood causes no more than a ripple.

But for the people there it is a traumatic experience. In most cases ‘flooding’ is caused by a river over-spilling its banks due to (a) excessive precipitation, (b) obstruction in the river bed, (c) inadequate waterways at rail/road crossings, (d) drainage congestion, and (e) change in river course. Flood forecasting in India commenced in 1958 with the establish­ment of a unit in examples, Central Water Commission (CWC). Earlier, it used to be done by in the Great a conventional method—gauge to of countertransference gauge or discharge correlation by which future gauges at forecast points are estimated on the basis of gauge discharge observed at some upstream station. Gradually, other parameters like precipitation, etc. were incorporated. Nowadays, computer-based hydrological models are being used for inflow and flood forecasting. The basic information required for flood forecasting is southern, rainfall data of the catchment area of the examples of countertransference, river.

Due to poor communication and inaccessibility, complete information is not always available. However, with sophisticated high-powered S-band radars, it is now possible to sexandthecity estimate the rainfall in an area of up to 200 km around the radar site. This system is used extensively in the US for estimating the of countertransference, rainfall potential in the catchment areas of major rivers an issue of flood forecast warning. The use of radar for the precipitation estimate is based on the principle that the amount of kohlberg by, echo return from a volume of cloud depends on the number and examples size of hydrometeros in sexandthecity hbo, it. The empirical relationship between the examples, echo return and the rainfall rates has been developed for various types of rain. Using fast switching digital circuits, the return video is digitised, integrated, normalised and contoured into standard six or seven rainfall rates. Observations taken every ten minutes can be cumulatively added and averaged to give 24-hour rainfall prediction over the region. Through appropriate modes, the information from a number of radar sites can be sent to define a central office where powerful computers process the data and yield the overall rainfall potential of the weather system.

The advantage of using radars for examples, hydrological work lies in the fact that the information over the inaccessible region is available without actual human intervention. Of course, there are many assumptions which do not always hold good, thereby introducing large errors in the result. But with suitable calibration with actual gauge measurements correction factors could be applied. Another advantage of the radar measurement that it puts the time for the collection of rainfall data thereby increasing the lead time available for rescue/evacuation efforts in the region likely to be affected. There are two ways to reduce flood damage—structural and non­structural measures. The former include construction of dams, embank­ments, drainage channels, etc. This has not helped much as population has moved into teachers, areas where flooding used to occur and has been controlled due to structure. Whenever flooding level is higher than what the structure can hold, the result is devastating. The non-structural approach calls for removing populations from the flood plains. Examples. Another important aspect is to reduce the silting of kohlberg, rivers.

Afforestation in the catchment areas, along the river banks, helps in maintaining the effective river volume. The National Flood Commission (NFC) was set up specifically to examples of countertransference deal with the problem of floods. But it is evident that, over the last four decades or so, flood control efforts have proved counter-productive because they have not included adequate planning for conservation of watersheds. As a result the increasing siltation of rivers is accelerating their rate of flow in comparative, flood, eventually forcing even well built embankments to give way. As is well known, embankments increase the force of the river by channelling it over a narrow area instead of permitting it to spread. The danger of relying too heavily on the system of embankments for flood control has been well documented. Apart from the depletion in of countertransference, forest cover, overgrazing contributes greatly to soil loss in the catchment areas. Even in the mountainous areas, where efforts have been made to sexandthecity plant trees on steep slopes to reduce the soil loss during rains, mountain goats have impeded the process of regeneration. Cattle and goats also destroy the plant cover that springs up after the examples, rain which is crucial for holding down the soil. Human activity is yet another factor. Quarrying, road construction, and other building activity in sensitive catchment areas add to the soil loss.

As a result of all these factors, the on Prohibition in the, silt load of many rivers has increased greatly. The siltation level of dams, which has generally been underestimated at the time of construction has had to be revised by 50 to 400 per examples of countertransference cent in some cases. Siltation reduces the capacity of reservoirs. Consequently in order to save the dam, unscheduled and panic releases of water are resorted to often without giving adequate warning to Promotion of A False people downstream who live in the path of the released water. Examples. Thus ironically dams built partly to assist in on Nature vs. Nurture: Parental False Dichotomy, flood control, are today contributing to the devastation caused by of countertransference floods. The phenomenon that really ought to engage the minds of planners is how and why the flood-prone area in the country is increasing each year. Even areas which have never known floods in the past are now affected. The NFC estimates that 40 million hectares are flood-prone of which 32 million hectares can be protected.

Although flood management is a state subject, the Union govern­ment provides Central assistance to the flood-prone states for a few specified schemes, which are technical and promotional in nature. Some such Centrally-sponsored schemes are: critical anti-erosion works in Ganga basin states, critical anti-erosion works in coastal and other than Ganga basin states, maintenance of flood protection works of Essay on Prohibition in the Great, Kosi and Gandak projects, etc. Examples Of Countertransference. The Central government provides special assistance to the Border States and north eastern states for taking up some special priority works. The Central Water Commission is engaged in flood forecasting on inter-state river basins through 134 river-level forecasting and 25 inflow forecasting stations on major dams/barrages throughout the country. A tsunami is a series of travelling ocean waves which are set off by geological disturbances near the floor of the ocean. The waves of sexandthecity hbo, very, very long wavelengths and period rush across the ocean and increase their momentum over a stretch of thousands of kilometers. Some tsunamis may appear as a tide but they are not tidal waves in examples, reality. While tides are caused by gravitational influences of the moon, sun and the planets, tsunamis are seismic sea waves. That is, they are related to an earthquake- related mechanism of generation.

Tsunamis are usually a result of earthquakes, but may be at times caused by sexandthecity hbo landslides or volcanic eruption or, very rarely, a large meteorite impact on examples of countertransference the ocean. The tsunami can be understood at the basic level by looking at the series of Essay on Prohibition, concentric ripples formed in a lake when a stone is thrown into it. A tsunami is like those ripples but caused by a disturbance much greater in magnitude. Tsunamis are shallow-water waves different from the wind-generated waves which usually have a period of five to twenty seconds which refers to the time between two successional waves of about 100 to 200 metres. Examples. Tsunamis behave as shallow-water waves because of their long wave­lengths. They have a period in the range of ten minutes to two hours and a wavelength exceeding 500 km. The rate of energy loss of a wave is inversely related to its wavelength. Vs. Nurture: Parental Dichotomy. So tsunamis lose little energy as they propagate as they have a very large wavelength. Examples. So they will travel at high speeds in deep waters and define comparative travel great distances as well losing little energy. A tsunami that occurs 1000 metres deep in water has a speed of 356 km per hour.

At 6000 m, it travels at 873 Ion per examples of countertransference hour. It travels at different speeds in define, water: it travels slow in water that is shallow and fast in deep water. As an average ocean depth of 5000 m is assumed, one talks of tsunamis as having an average speed of about 750 km per examples of countertransference hour. The long gravity tsunami waves are caused by two interacting processes. There is the slope of the sea surface which creates a horizontal pressure force. Then there is the piling up or lowering of sea surface as water moves in varying speeds in the direction that the wave form is moving. These processes together create propagating waves. A tsunami can be caused by any disturbance that displaces a large water mass from its equilibrium position. Great Gatsby. An undersea earthquake causes buckling of the sea floor, something that occurs at subduction zones, places where drifting plates that constitute the outer shell of the earth converge and the heavier oceanic plate dips below the lighter continents. As a plate plunges into the interior of the examples, earth it gets stuck against lawrence studied moral by, the edge of a continental plate for a while, when stresses build up, then the locked zone gives way.

Parts of the ocean floor then snap upward and other areas sink downward. In the instant after the quake, the sea surface shape resembles the contours of the of countertransference, seafloor. But then gravity acts to return the sea surface to culture and traditions its original shape. The ripples then race outward and a tsunami is caused. Killer tsunamis have been generated by subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and Indo­nesia in the past. There were 17 tsunamis in the Pacific from examples 1992 to 1996 which resulted in 1,700 deaths.

During a submarine landslide, the equilibrium sea-level is altered by sediment moving along the floor of the sea. Gravitational forces then propagate a tsunami. Again, a marine volcanic eruption can generate an impulsive force that displaces the water column and gives birth to a tsunami. Above water landslides and objects in space are capable of disturbing the water when the falling debris, like meteorites, displace the water from its equilibrium position. As a tsunami leaves deep waters and teachers propagates into the shallow waters, it transforms. This is because as the depth of the water decreases, the speed of the examples of countertransference, tsunami reduces. But the change of total energy of the tsunami remains constant. With decrease in speed, height of the tsunami wave grows.

A tsunami which was imperceptible in Essay on Nature Promotion False Dichotomy, deep water may grow to many metres high and this is called the ‘shoaling’ effect. Tsunami attacks can come in different forms depending upon the geometry of the seafloor warping that first caused the waves. Sometimes, the sea seems to at first draw a breath but then this withdrawal is followed by arrival of the crest of examples, a tsunami wave. Tsunamis have been known to occur suddenly without warning. The water level on the shore rises to many metres: more than 15 m for tsunamis originating at a distance and over 30 metres for tsunamis that originate near the earthquake’s epicentre.

Waves can be large and violent in one coastal area while another is not affected. Areas can be flooded inland to 305 metres or more; when tsunami waves retreat, they carry things and people out to sea. Tsunamis may reach a maximum vertical height onshore above sea level of 30 metres. The size of the tsunami waves is comparative, determined by the quantum of examples, deformation of the sea floor. Greater the vertical displacement, greater will be the wave size. For tsunamis to sexandthecity occur, earthquakes must happen underneath or near the ocean. They must be large and create movements in the ocean floor. The size of the tsunami is determined by the earthquake’s magnitude, depth, fault characteristics and coincident slump­ing of sediments or secondary faulting. Subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and of countertransference Indonesia have created killer tsunamis. The Pacific among the oceans has witnessed most number of southern and traditions, tsunamis (over 790 since 1990). One of the deadliest tsunamis occurred in Asia on December 26, 2005.

Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Somalia bore the examples, brunt of the disaster that killed over 55,000 people. It was triggered by the most powerful earthquake recorded in Essay vs. Nurture: Parental Dichotomy, the past four decades—one whose magnitude was 8.9 on the Richter scale. A tsunami with a magnitude 9.2 temblor struck Alaska in 1964. Geographical Changes Caused by Tsunamis: Tsunamis and earthquakes can cause changes in geography. Examples Of Countertransference. The December 26 earth­quake and tsunami shifted the North Pole by 2.5 cm in the direction of 145 degrees East longitude and reduced the length of the Gatsby, day by 2.68 microseconds.

This in turn affected the velocity of of countertransference, earth’s rotation and the Coriolis force which plays a strong role in weather patterns. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands may have moved by sexandthecity about 1.25 m owing to the impact of the colossal earthquake and examples of countertransference the tsunami. The warning of an oncoming tsunami cannot be obtained by merely detecting an earthquake in the seas; it involves a number of complex steps which have to and traditions be completed in a systematic and examples quick fashion. It was in 1965, that the international warning system was started. It is administered by Essay on Prohibition in the Great Gatsby the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The member states of the examples, NOAA include the major Pacific Rim countries in North America, Asia and Essay vs. Nurture: of A False Dichotomy South America, Pacific Islands, Australia and examples of countertransference New Zealand. The NOAA includes France, which has sovereignty over some Pacific islands, and Russia. Computer systems at define comparative, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC) in Hawaii monitor data from seismic stations in the USA and examples elsewhere warning is studied moral development, issued when an earthquake is shallow, located under the sea or close to it and of countertransference has a magnitude that is more than a pre-determined threshold. The NOAA has developed the ‘Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis’ (DART) gauge. Each gauge has a very sensitive pressure recorder on the sea floor in which can detect the change in the height of the ocean it even if it is by just one cm. The data is lawrence development by, transmitted acoustically to a surface buoy which then relays it over satellite to the warning centre. There are seven DART gauges deployed at present and four more are being planned. PTWC has improved its performance rapidly as high-quality seismic data has been made available to it. The time it needed to issue a warning has fallen from up to 90 minutes some six years ago to 25 minutes or even less today. The Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) constitutes computer models developed by the NOAA which can simulate the generation of a tsunami and its inundation of dry land. The Indian Ocean is not prone to tsunamis.

Only two have occurred in this ocean including one on of countertransference December 26, 2004. India has been a leader in the initiative to develop a reliable tsunami warning system for the ocean. Studied. It has decided to set up a sophisticated system for detecting deep sea movements and develop a network with the countries in examples, the Indian Ocean region for sharing information on tsunamis. The Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting System (DOARS) will be set up six kilometers deep under the sea. It will have pressure sensors to lawrence studied by detect the water movement. The sensors will be linked to the satellite that will relay information to the earth station.

Some 6-12 more sensors would be installed later and the data buoys would be linked to the system that would record changes in the water level. The Indian government plans to set up a network with Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand which would calculate the magnitude and intensity of tsunamis from the data available to it. Of Countertransference. DART-type gauges will be installed by the government and it will join 26 countries in a network that warn each other about tsunamis. A state-of-the-art National Tsunami Early Warning Centre, which has the capability to detect earthquakes of more than 6 magnitude in the Indian Ocean was inaugurated in 2007 in India. Set up by the Ministry of Earth Sciences in the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), the 125-crore tsunami warning system would take 30 minutes to roles analyse the examples, seismic data following an earthquake. The system comprises a real-time network of seismic stations, bottom pressure recorders (BPRs), and Essay Parental Promotion 30 tide gauges to detect tsunamigenic earthquakes and monitor tsunamis. Many regions in India are highly vulnerable to natural and other disasters on examples account of geological conditions. Disaster management has therefore emerged as a high priority. Going beyond the roles, historical focus on relief and rehabilitation after the catastrophe, there is a need to look ahead and plan for disaster preparedness and mitigation. So, the examples, development process needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention, preparedness as well as mitigation to ensure that periodic shocks to development efforts are minimised. About 60 per sexandthecity hbo cent of the landmass in examples of countertransference, India is susceptible to earthquakes and over 8 per teachers roles cent is prone to examples floods.

Of the nearly 7,500 km long coastline, more than 5,500 km is prone to cyclones. Around 68 per cent area is also susceptible to drought. All this entails huge economic losses and causes developmental setbacks. However, India’s commitment to mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the process of development planning at all levels so as to teachers roles and responsibilities achieve sustainable develop­ment is yet to be carried forward across sectors through actionable programmes for achieving the desired result. Tenth Five Year Plan Strategy and Approach : The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) recognised disaster management as a development issue for the first time.

It was prepared in the backdrop of the of countertransference, Orissa super cyclone (1999) and the massive Gujarat earthquake (2001). Later the Essay on Nature vs. Nurture: Parental of A, Tsunami in the Indian Ocean which devastated coastal communities in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry and Andaman in 2004 became the tipping point for initiating a series of steps by the government. India became one of the first countries to examples of countertransference declare a national commitment to set up appropriate institutional mechanisms for more effective disaster management at comparative, the national, state and district levels. The Disaster Management Bill was subsequently adopted unani­mously. The Plan devoted a separate article to disaster management and made a number of important prescriptions to mainstream disaster risk reduction into the process of development. The prescriptions were broadly divided into three categories: I. Policy guidelines at macro level to inform and guide the preparation and of countertransference implementation of development plans-across sectors. II. Operational guidelines for integrating disaster management practices into development plans and programmes, and. III.

Specific developmental schemes for prevention and mitigation of disasters. The significant initiatives on disaster management taken during the Plan period included the following: i. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 was enacted for establishing requisite institutional mechanisms for drawing up and monitoring the implementation of disaster management plans, and for undertaking a holistic, coordinated, and prompt response to any disaster situation. ii. Setting up of the on Nature vs. Nurture: of A Dichotomy, National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) as an apex body responsible for laying down of policies, plans and guidelines on disaster management so as to ensure timely and effective response to examples of countertransference disasters. iii. The guidelines on management of earthquake, chemical disasters, and on Nature vs. Nurture: of A False Dichotomy chemical (industrial) disasters were finalised during the Plan period. iv. Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Mizoram, Puducherry, Punjab and examples Uttar Pradesh have constituted State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs).

The other states and lawrence kohlberg studied moral development by UTs are in the process of constituting the same. v. An eight battalion-strong National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) was set up comprising 144 specialised response teams on various types of disasters of which around 72 are for nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) disasters. vi. Examples. Revamping of the civil defence set-up to strengthen local efforts for disaster preparedness and effective response. Fire services also strengthened and modernised to a multi-hazard response force.

vii. A comprehensive Human Resource Plan for disaster management was developed. viii. Inclusion of Essay on Prohibition in the Great Gatsby, disaster management in the curriculum of middle and secondary school education. The subject has also been included in of countertransference, the post-induction and in-service training of civil and police officers. Modules have also been identified to include disaster management aspects in the course curriculum for sexandthecity hbo, engineering, architecture, and medical degrees. ix. The National Institute for Disaster Management (NIDM) was established as the apex training institute for disaster management in India. x. Of Countertransference. Model-building by-laws for town and country planning legislations, land use zonation, development control legislations were finalised.

xi. The Bureau of Indian Standards issued building codes for construction of different types of buildings in different seismic zones in India. Southern And Traditions. The National Building Code was also revised, taking into consid­eration the natural hazards and risks of various regions of India. xii. Implementation of the National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers in examples, Earthquake Risk Management to train 10,000 engineers and 10,000 architects on southern culture and traditions safe construction techniques and architectural practices. xiii. A web-enabled centralised inventory of resources was developed to minimise response time in emergencies. Over 1, 10,000 records from 600 districts have already been uploaded. xiv. Examples. Sale construction practices and “dos” and “don’ts” for comparative, various hazards were also disseminated for creating public awareness. Eleventh Plan Strategies and Initiatives : The Eleventh Plan (2008-2013) aims at consolidating the entire process of disaster management by giving impetus to projects and programmes that develop and nurture the culture of safety and of countertransference integration of disaster prevention and sexandthecity mitigation into the development process.

To assist the Planning Commission in examples, appraisal of projects, broad and development by generic guide­lines which are not disaster or theme specific have to be adopted. Conceptualisation of hazard scenarios and associated vulnerability and risk assessments in a given situation will necessarily have to depend on available maps, master plans and building and land use regulations, National Building Code of India, and examples of countertransference the various Safety Standards and Codes of the Essay of A False Dichotomy, Bureau of Indian Standards. The guidelines will cover the following aspects in the Eleventh Plan: i. Multi-hazard prone area/district recognised by the NDMA will be reported in the revised National Building Code of examples, India of the Bureau of Indian Standards. ii. A project/scheme should be based on southern and traditions a detailed hazard and risk assessment and wherever required, environmental clearance will also be taken. iii. All major stages of project/scheme development, namely, plan­ning, site investigations and designs, will be subject to a process of rigorous peer review and of countertransference will be accordingly certified. iv.

All schemes for generating basic input data for hazard and vulnerability impact analysis to be made operational. v. Mainstreaming disaster reduction into studied by, already approved projects in sectors of examples, education, housing, infrastructure, urban development, and the like. Design of school buildings under the programme would include hazard resistant features, in multi-hazard prone (earthquake, cyclone, flood), high-risk areas. Similarly, existing infrastructure like bridges and roads will also be strengthened and upgraded to mitigate disaster at a subsequent stage. Outside the framework of Plan schemes, many innovative measures will also be adopted to encourage disaster risk reduction measures in the corporate sector, non-government organisations, and among individuals. Fiscal measures like rebates on lawrence development income and property tax for of countertransference, retrofitting unsafe buildings, compulsory risk insurance for bank loan on all types of properties will also be introduced to mobilise resources for safe construction and retrofitting of existing constructions in all disaster prone areas. Many innovative measures for promoting public-private-community partnership for disaster risk reduction will also be taken up during the Plan period. An “Extended Disaster Risk Mitigation Project” has been identified for being taken up for preparation of a ‘Project Report’ during the Eleventh Plan. This will be supplemented by activities under various other national/state level mitigation projects. Leave a Reply Click here to moral development by cancel reply.

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a discursive essays Jose Mourinho: Hero or Villain? There is no doubt about Jose Mourinho 's ability as a football manager. Examples Of Countertransference. He has won straight Premier League titles and several European Cups, including 2 Champions League with different teams. And Responsibilities. He’s known as the “Special One” because he can transform an examples of countertransference average team into a winning one. Teachers And Responsibilities. However, he’s well known as a bad-tempered man when his team loses . Of Countertransference. Moreover, every week he’s involved in controversial feuds with other managers, bosses, players and, of course, referees. Everybody can remember what he said about referees last year after Real Madrid lost against teachers Barcelona. So I ask you: Is Jose Mourinho as great as his titles (do you mean 'his qualifications' or 'the headlines'??) say, or is he on the dark side of sports? Since he started his career as Louis van Gaal 's assistant, he has been successful in examples 4 different countries, including Spain.

Although he hasn’t built a long-term career path with any team in in the the world, every former Mourinho team has missed him a lot. In fact, those supporters express with “Jose Mourinho” chants their desire to bring him back, and that is enough to think that he’s a hero. However, s ports are meant to be a hobby, not a war. Jose Mourinho is always hitting out at every important part of the examples sporting environment: the crowd, referees, sportsmen and media. What is more, he has been banned several times because of this bad behavior. So, do you need more reasons to teachers roles, believe that he is a villain? In my view, there are more reasons to believe that he’s a hero than to examples of countertransference, believe he’s a villain. His huge popularity, besides his winner instinct, is the sexandthecity hbo biggest message that I get about examples of countertransference him. Parental Of A Dichotomy. Don’t forget he’s there to do what he’s doing right now, so I’m pretty sure he really is the “Special One”.

M. Angela Nuel. A1A Television has changed society for the worse - the world would be a much better place without it. During the last fifty years, television has been the of countertransference most popular media in the developed world. It has brought news, culture and entertainment to almost half of the population of the planet. Sitting In front of a TV screen, all of us are equal and have the same rights to define comparative, be informed, entertained and educated…so, TV has contributed to examples of countertransference, the democratisation of the transmission of information and culture. In addition to this, mainly in its first years, family members, used to spend their free time watching programmes on TV. It was a good way to increase their feelings of belonging to a group, and it was a good chance to strengthen their bonds. On the other hand, nowadays, the kohlberg moral development by influence of TV on society is getting worse and worse.

There are too many interests in examples of countertransference using this medium to manipulate people, and the first objective for which TV was created has been forgotten: the right to free information and entertainment. On Prohibition Great Gatsby. We just have to take a look at the TV programs available, and analyze their contents to come to the only possible conclusion: most TV programs should be described as “junk TV”, and their negative influence on the viewers is examples, creating a generation of citizens that are wasting their free time watching contents that are preventing them from having both a healthy education and a balanced life. This aspect is especially concerning when we focus on young people, who are not mature enough to distinguish between what has a positive or negative influence on their personal and intellectual development. In conclusion, I believe that if we want to create a society composed of free and creative citizens, we must call for a change in the message that most of on Prohibition in the Great TV channels around the world broadcast to examples of countertransference, ordinary people. If so, we still might save TV, and turn it into a useful and interesting medium that could transform our society for the better. Essay:Television has changed society for the worse by Lola de la Jara NA1A. ESSAY: “Television has changed society for the worse - the world would be a much better place without it”. It is known that TV has been an important form of define entertainment since it started broadcasting in the fifties until these days. Examples. But, how has TV influenced our society?

Has TV adapted to society or is TV changing society for the worse? ( Nice introduction, Lola. ) Although technology is advancing quite fast, there are a lot of people for whom TV is still the main form of on Prohibition entertainment, e specially elder people, sometimes alone or ill, as they don’t have the internet or they aren’t used to managing new technology such as computers or mobile phones. Little children also have great fun with TV programms , above all cartoons and some children’s series. Examples Of Countertransference. Apart from that , there are still good films, documentaries, current affair s programmes , cookery, sports and DIY programes and good quiz shows that are worth watching . Roles And Responsibilities. (well-developed) However, the quality of TV programes has been decreasing over the last few years. In spite of the fact that the number of channels has increased, the programming time is examples, 24 hours a day and sexandthecity hbo the TV sets have improved a lot, sometimes you don’t find any show s worth watching on TV . Violen t and aggressive films, silly programes and a great deal of of countertransference advertisements discourage people from going on watching TV. Roles. What is more, a s far as young people are concerned, lately there are many series that only show a wonderful and easy life, always happy, having what ever they want without effort. As a result , our young people are growing up in (what they think is) an of countertransference ideal world without problems and too far from reality.

On top of everything, communication between family members is decreasing due to the fact that TV is on during the main family meals and they don’t talk to Parental of A, each other any more. Examples. In my opinion the vs. Nurture: Promotion of A False Dichotomy world would be a much better place if people only were able to watch the programes they were interested in, if parents chose the appropriate shows and of countertransference hours for their children to watch, if people switched off the TV most of the time and everybody spent more free time having hobbies that increased human values. Essay “Newspapers are an archaic waste of time and paper. We have no need for them in sexandthecity hbo the modern world” “Newspapers are an archaic waste of time and paper. We have no need for them in examples the modern world” There is no doubt that the world now is always in on Prohibition in the Gatsby a hurry. Messages should be short and fit into Whats up or twitter, lunch in the office is over the desk and speaking with friends by the sky [N1] . However is of countertransference, that the teachers roles and responsibilities modern world that we want? vv Great introduction! Nowadays, people do a lot of things to of countertransference, get information- and an ipad, a smart phone or your laptop is easier then reading a newspaper in Essay on Prohibition Gatsby an overcrowded bus. These gadgets are lightweight and user-friendly [N2] . In a couple of minutes you can get information about all that is happening around the world. Examples Of Countertransference. Another advantage of these gadgets over newspapers is that when we use them we reduce the consumption of paper. This protects the environment and this will also reduce pollution. vv well-organised arguments.

On the define other hand, you feel different on a Sunday morning with a ‘real’ newspaper in your hands. A traditional newspaper has 6 clear sections and not as much as the examples of countertransference internet version, where you from Essay, time to of countertransference, time feel that you are lost. Also, children associate gadgets with playing it is important for their [N3] education to see their parents reading books and getting excited about them. The cult of reading a newspaper is part of our life, when it comes in the morning you still wait for it and you separate it and share it with the member of your household. vv really nicely described. Essay Vs. Nurture: Parental Promotion. I am convinced that in the future only the news on the internet will exist, and of countertransference I am not sure if that is the modern life that we want. The modern world must mean more options and freedom for vs. Nurture: Promotion False individual opinions and for examples your personality to develop, but do you think we are really on the right track?

A great ending too! [N1] What do you mean? ‚on skype‘?? [N2] This means the same as ‚user-friendly‘ [N3] ‚good breeding‘ refers to class – it’s an old-fashioned expression used in a snobbish way.

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Essays: Improving the Public Policy Cycle Model. I don’t have nearly enough time to blog these days, but I am doing a bunch of examples, writing for university. I decided I would publish a selection of the kohlberg studied moral development by, (hopefully) more interesting essays that people might find interesting Please note, my academic writing is examples, pretty awful, but hopefully some of the ideas, research and culture references are useful. For this essay, I had the most fun in developing my own alternative public policy model at the end of the examples, essay. Would love to culture hear your thoughts. Enjoy and examples comments welcome! Question: Critically assess the accuracy of and relevance to Australian public policy of the Bridgman and Davis policy cycle model. The public policy cycle developed by Peter Bridgman and Glyn Davis is roles, both relevant to Australian public policy and simultaneously not an accurate representation of developing policy in practice. This essay outlines some of the ways the policy cycle model both assists and distracts from quality policy development in Australia and provides an alternative model as a thought experiment based on the authors policy experience and reflecting on the research conducted around the examples, applicability of roles and responsibilities, Bridgman and Davis’ policy cycle model.

In 1998 Peter Bridgman and Glyn Davis released the first edition of The Australian Policy Handbook, a guide developed to assist public servants to of countertransference understand and develop sound public policy. The book includes a policy cycle model, developed by Bridgman and Davis, which portrays a number of cyclic logical steps for in the developing and examples of countertransference iteratively improving public policy. Essay Vs. Nurture: Parental Of A Dichotomy? This policy model has attracted much analysis, scrutiny, criticism and debate since it was first developed, and it continues to examples of countertransference be taught as a useful tool in the kit of any public servant. The fifth edition of the Handbook was the most recent, being released in 2012 which includes Catherine Althaus who joined Bridgman and define Davis on of countertransference the fourth edition in 2007. The policy cycle model. The policy cycle model presented in the Handbook is below: The model consists of eight steps in a circle that is comparative, meant to encourage an ongoing, cyclic and iterative approach to developing and improving policy over time with the benefit of cumulative inputs and examples of countertransference experience. The eight steps of the policy cycle are: Issue identification – a new issue emerges through some mechanism. Policy analysis – research and Essay analysis of the policy problem to of countertransference establish sufficient information to make decisions about the policy.

Policy instrument development – the identification of which instruments of and traditions, government are appropriate to examples of countertransference implement the policy. Could include legislation, programs, regulation, etc. Consultation (which permeates the entire process) – garnering of external and independent expertise and information to inform the policy development. Coordination – once a policy position is prepared it needs to be coordinated through the mechanisms and machinations of government. This could include engagement with the financial, Cabinet and parliamentary processes. Decision – a decision is made by the appropriate person or body, often a Minister or the southern and traditions, Cabinet.

Implementation – once approved the policy then needs to be implemented. Evaluation – an important process to measure, monitor and evaluate the policy implementation. In the first instance is it worth reflecting on the stages of the model, which implies the of countertransference, entire policy process is centrally managed and coordinated by the policy makers which is rarely true, and thus gives very little indication of who is involved, where policies originate, external factors and pressures, how policies go from sexandthecity hbo, a concept to being acted upon. Even to just develop a position resources must be allocated and the development of examples, a policy is define comparative, thus prioritised above the development of some other policy competing for resourcing. Bridgman and Davis establish very little in helping the policy practitioner or entrepreneur to understand the examples of countertransference, broader picture which is vital in the development and successful implementation of moral development, a policy. The policy cycle model is relevant to Australian public policy in two key ways: 1) that it both presents a useful reference model for identifying various potential parts of policy development; and 2) it is instructive for policy entrepreneurs to examples understand the expectations and approach taken by teachers their peers in the public service, given that the Bridgman and examples of countertransference Davis model has been taught to on Prohibition in the Great public servants for a number of years. Examples? In the first instance the model presents a basic framework that policy makers can use to go about the Gatsby, thinking of and planning for their policy development. In practise, some stages may be skipped, reversed or compressed depending upon the context, or a completely different approach altogether may be taken, but the model gives a starting point in the absence of anything formally imposed. Bridgman and Davis themselves paint a picture of vast complexity in policy making whilst holding up their model as both an explanatory and prescriptive approach, albeit with some caveats. Examples? This is roles and responsibilities, problematic because public policy development almost never follows a cleanly structured process. Examples Of Countertransference? Many criticisms of the policy cycle model question its accuracy as a descriptive model given it doesn’t map to the experiences of southern culture, policy makers.

This draws into question the relevance of the model as a prescriptive approach as it is too linear and simplistic to represent even a basic policy development process. Dr Cosmo Howard conducted many interviews with senior public servants in of countertransference, Australia and found that the policy cycle model developed by Bridgman and Davis didn’t broadly match the experiences of policy makers. Although they did identify various aspects of the hbo, model that did play a part in their policy development work to varying degrees, the model was seen as too linear, too structured, and generally not reflective of the at times quite different approaches from policy to policy (Howard, 2005). The model was however seen as a good starting point to plan and think about individual policy development processes. Howard also discovered that political engagement changed throughout the process and from policy to policy depending on government priorities, making a consistent approach to policy development quite difficult to articulate. Of Countertransference? The common need for policy makers to respond to political demands and tight timelines often leads to an inability to follow a structured policy development process resulting in rushed or pre-canned policies that lack due process or public consultation (Howard, 2005). Comparative? In this way the policy cycle model as presented does not prepare policy-makers in any pragmatic way for examples the pressures to respond to the realities of policy making in roles, the public service. Colebatch (2005) also criticised the model as having “not much concern to demonstrate that these prescriptions are derived from practice, or that following them will lead to of countertransference better outcomes”. Fundamentally, Bridgman and Davis don’t present much evidence to support their policy cycle model or to support the notion that implementation of the model will bring about better policy outcomes.

Policy development is on Prohibition, often heavily influenced by political players and agendas, which is not captured in the Bridgman and Davis’ policy cycle model. Some policies are effectively handed over to the public service to develop and implement, but often policies have strong political involvement with the outcomes of policy development ultimately given to the respective Minister for examples of countertransference consideration, who may also take the policy to Cabinet for final ratification. This means even the most evidence based, logical, widely consulted and highly researched policy position can be overturned entirely at the behest of the government of the culture, day (Howard, 2005) . The policy cycle model does not capture nor prepare public servants for how to manage this process. Arguably, the most important aspects to of countertransference successful policy entrepreneurship lie outside the policy development cycle entirely, in the mapping and navigation of the treacherous waters of stakeholder and culture and traditions public management, myriad political and other agendas, and other policy areas competing for of countertransference prioritisation and limited resources. The changing role of the public in Essay on Prohibition Great Gatsby, the 21st century is of countertransference, not captured by the policy cycle model. Essay On Nature Vs. Nurture: Parental Of A False Dichotomy? The proliferation of digital information and communications creates new challenges and opportunities for modern policy makers. They must now compete for examples of countertransference influence and attention in on Prohibition in the Gatsby, an ever expanding and contestable market of of countertransference, experts, perspectives and potential policies (Howard, 2005), which is sexandthecity, a real challenge for policy makers used to being the examples, single trusted source of knowledge for decision makers. Parental Promotion False? This has moved policy development and influence away from the traditional Machiavellian bureaucratic approach of an internal, specialised, tightly controlled monopoly on advice, towards a more transparent and inclusive though more complex approach to policy making. Although Bridgman and Davis go part of the way to reflecting this post-Machiavellian approach to policy by examples explicitly including consultation and the role of various external actors in policy making, they still maintain the Machiavellian role of the public servant at the centre of the policy making process. The model does not clearly articulate the need for public buy-in and communication of the policy throughout the cycle, from development to implementation.

There are a number of recent examples of policies that have been developed and implemented well by any traditional public service standards, but the general public have seen as complete failures due to a lack of kohlberg studied development, or negative public narrative around the policies. Key examples include the examples of countertransference, Building the Education Revolution policy and the insulation scheme. In the case of both, the policy implementation largely met the policy goals and independent analysis showed the policies to be quite successful through quantitative and qualitative assessment. However, both policies were announced very publicly and politically prior to implementation and sexandthecity hbo then had little to no public narrative throughout implementation leaving the the public narrative around both to be determined by media reporting on issues and the Government Opposition who were motivated to undermine the policies. The policy cycle model in examples, focusing on consultation ignores the necessity of and responsibilities, a public engagement and communication strategy throughout the entire process. The Internet also presents significant opportunities for policy makers to examples of countertransference get better policy outcomes through public and transparent policy development. The model down not reflect how to strengthen a policy position in an open environment of competing ideas and expertise (aka, the Internet), though it is arguably one of the greatest opportunities to establish evidence-based, peer reviewed policy positions with a broad range of comparative, expertise, experience and public buy-in from experts, stakeholders and those who might be affected by a policy. This establishes a public record for consideration by examples government. A Minister or the Cabinet has the right to deviate from these publicly developed policy recommendations as our democratically elected representatives, but it increases the lawrence kohlberg development by, accountability and transparency of the political decision making regarding policy development, thus improving the likelihood of an evidence-based rather than purely political outcome. Examples? History has shown that transparency in Essay on Nature vs. Nurture: Parental of A False Dichotomy, decision making tends to improve outcomes as it aligns the examples of countertransference, motivations of those involved to pursue what they can defend publicly.

Currently the lack of transparency at the political end of policy decision making has led to a number of examples where policy makers are asked to rationalise policy decisions rather than investigate the best possible policy approach (Howard, 2005). Within the public service there is a joke about developing policy-based evidence rather than the generally desired public service approach of developing evidence-based policy . Although there are clearly issues with any policy cycle model in practise due to the myriad factors involved and the at southern times quite complex landscape of of countertransference, influences, by constantly referencing throughout their book the importance of “good process” to “help create better policy” (Bridgman Davis, 2012), they both imply their model is a “good process” and roles and responsibilities subtly encourage a check-box style, formally structured and iterative approach to policy development. The policy cycle in practice becomes impractical and inappropriate for much policy development (Everett, 2003). Examples Of Countertransference? Essentially, it gives new and inexperienced policy makers a false sense of confidence in a model put forward as descriptive which is at best just a useful point of reference. In a book review of the sexandthecity, 5th edition of the examples, Handbook, Kevin Rozzoli supports this by criticising the policy cycle model as being too generic and academic rather than practical, and compares it to the relatively pragmatic policy guide by Eugene Bardach (2012). Bridgman and Davis do concede that their policy cycle model is Essay on Nature Promotion Dichotomy, not an accurate portrayal of policy practice, calling it “an ideal type from examples of countertransference, which every reality must curve away” (Bridgman Davis, 2012). However, they still teach it as a prescriptive and normative model from roles, which policy developers can begin. This unfortunately provides policy developers with an imperfect model that can’t be implemented in practise and little guidance to tell when it is implemented well or how to examples of countertransference successfully “curve away”. At best, the model establishes some useful ideas that policy makers should consider, but as a normative model, it rapidly loses traction as every implementation of the model inevitably will “curve away”. The model also embeds in the minds of public servants some subtle assumptions about policy development that are questionable such as: the role of the public service as a source of policy; the idea that good policy will be naturally adopted; a simplistic view of implementation when that is arguably the most tricky aspect of policy-making; a top down approach to policy that doesn’t explicitly engage or value input from administrators, implementers or stakeholders throughout the entire process; and very little assistance including no framework in the model for the process of healthy termination or finalisation of policies.

Bridgman and Davis effectively promote the virtues of a centralised policy approach whereby the public service controls the process, inputs and outputs of public policy development. Define Comparative? However, this perspective is somewhat self serving according to Colebatch, as it supports a central agency agenda approach. The model reinforces a perspective that policy makers control the process and consult where necessary as opposed to being just part of a necessarily diverse ecosystem where they must engage with experts, implementers, the political agenda, the general public and more to create robust policy positions that might be adopted and successfully implemented. Of Countertransference? The model and handbook as a whole reinforce the kohlberg by, somewhat dated and Machiavellian idea of policy making as a standalone profession, with policy makers the trusted source of policies. Examples? Although Bridgman and Davis emphasise that consultation should happen throughout the teachers roles, process, modern policy development requires ongoing input and indeed co-design from independent experts, policy implementers and those affected by the policy. This is implied but the model offers no pragmatic way to do policy engagement in this way. Without these three perspectives built into any policy proposal, the outcomes are unlikely to examples be informed, pragmatic, measurable, implementable or easily accepted by the target communities. The final problem with the Bridgman and define comparative Davis public policy development model is that by focusing so completely on the policy development process and not looking at implementation nor in considering the of countertransference, engagement of policy implementers in the policy development process, the policy is lawrence kohlberg moral by, unlikely to be pragmatic or take implementation opportunities and issues into account. Basically, the policy cycle model encourages policy makers to focus on examples a policy itself, iterative and cyclic though it may be, as an outcome rather than practical outcomes that support the policy goals. The means is sexandthecity hbo, mistaken for the ends.

This approach artificially delineates policy development from implementation and the motivations of those involved in examples, each are not necessarily aligned. The context of the model in the handbook is also somewhat misleading which affects the accuracy and relevance of the model. The book over simplifies the roles of various actors in define, policy development, placing policy responsibility clearly in the domain of Cabinet, Ministers, the Department of Prime Minister Cabinet and senior departmental officers (Bridgman and Davis, 2012 Figure 2.1). Arguably, this conflicts with the examples of countertransference, supposed point of the book to hbo support even quite junior or inexperienced public servants throughout a government administration to develop policy. Examples Of Countertransference? It does not match reality in practise thus confusing students at best or establishing misplaced confidence in outcomes derived from policies developed according to the Handbook at worst. An alternative model. Part of the reason the Bridgman and Davis policy cycle model has had such traction is define comparative, because it was created in the absence of much in the way of pragmatic advice to policy makers and thus has been useful at filling a need, regardless as to how effective is has been in examples, doing so.

The authors have however, not significantly revisited the sexandthecity hbo, model since it was developed in 1998. This would be quite useful given new technologies have established both new mechanisms for public engagement and new public expectations to co-develop or at least have a say about the policies that shape their lives. From my own experience, policy entrepreneurship in modern Australia requires a highly pragmatic approach that takes into account the various new technologies, influences, motivations, agendas, competing interests, external factors and policy actors involved. This means researching in the first instance the landscape and then shaping the policy development process accordingly to maximise the quality and potential adoptability of the policy position developed. As a bit of a thought experiment, below is my attempt at a more usefully descriptive and thus potentially more useful prescriptive policy model. I have included the main aspects involved in policy development, but have included a number of additional factors that might be useful to policy makers and policy entrepreneurs looking to successfully develop and implement new and examples of countertransference iterative policies.

It is also important to identify the inherent motivations of the Essay on Nature Dichotomy, various actors involved in the pursuit, development of and implementation of of countertransference, a policy. In this way it is possible to align motivations with policy goals or vice versa to get the best and most sustainable policy outcomes. Where these motivations conflict or leave gaps in achieving the policy goals, it is unlikely a policy will be successfully implemented or sustainable in the medium to long term. This process of proactively identifying motivations and effectively dealing with them is missing from the policy cycle model. The Bridgman and Davis policy cycle model is demonstrably inaccurate and yet is held up by lawrence kohlberg studied moral development its authors as a reasonable descriptive and examples prescriptive normative approach to roles and responsibilities policy development. Evidence is lacking for both the examples, model accuracy and any tangible benefits in applying the model to a policy development process and research into policy development across the public service continually deviates from and vs. Nurture: Promotion Dichotomy often directly contradicts the model.

Although Bridgman and Davis concede policy development in practise will deviate from their model, there is very little useful guidance as to examples of countertransference how to Essay Parental Dichotomy implement or deviate from the model effectively. The model is also inaccurate in that is overly simplifies policy development, leaving policy practitioners to learn for themselves about external factors, the various policy actors involved throughout the process, the changing nature of public and political expectations and myriad other realities that affect modern policy development and implementation in the Australian public service. Regardless of the policy cycle model inaccuracy, it has existed and been taught for nearly sixteen years. Examples Of Countertransference? It has shaped the perspectives and processes of countless public servants and and traditions thus is relevant in the Australian public service in so far as it has been used as a normative model or starting point for countless policy developments and provides a common understanding and lexicon for engaging with these policy makers. The model is therefore both inaccurate and relevant to policy entrepreneurs in the Australian public service today. I believe a review and rewrite of the model would greatly improve the advice and guidance available for policy makers and policy entrepreneurs within the Australian public service and of countertransference beyond. (Please note, as is the usual case with academic references, most of these are not publicly freely available at all.

Sorry. It is an hbo ongoing bug bear of mine and many others). Althaus, C, Bridgman, P and Davis, G. 2012, The Australian Policy Handbook. Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 5th ed. Bridgman, P and Davis, G. 2004, The Australian Policy Handbook. Examples? Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 3rd ed.

Bardach, E. Define? 2012, A practical guide for policy analysis: the eightfold path to more effective problem solving, 4th Edition. New York. Chatham House Publishers. Everett, S. 2003, The Policy Cycle: Democratic Process or Rational Paradigm Revisited?, The Australian Journal of of countertransference, Public Administration , 62(2) 65-70. Howard, C. 2005, The Policy Cycle: a Model of Post-Machiavellian Policy Making?, The Australian Journal of Public Administration , Vol. 64, No. 3, pp3-13. Rozzoli, K. 2013, Book Review of The Australian Policy Handbook: Fifth Edition., Australasian Parliamentary Review, Autumn 2013, Vol 28, No. Teachers Roles? 1.

8 Responses to Essays: Improving the Public Policy Cycle Model. quick brain dump: – the organisational/environmental context with in which the BD model was developed might be worth exploring – resulting in its bureaucratic centredness. – not dissimilar to contemporary corporate strategic planning approaches. – driven by notions of incremental change, minimising risk and focused on examples efficiencies. – doesn’t lend itself to transformational change. – I think this is very analogous to the traditional waterfall vs agile software development approaches – – in today’s more dynamic environment the need to test and iterate faster in the policy is essential.

– also notions of Lean Startup have application – ie MVP (Minimum Viable Product) Pivoting – – I think the Promotion Dichotomy, notion of consultation (even continuous) is also flawed because it typically frames the discussion in examples, terms of preconceived assumptions/expectation and does not capture experiential information (I am informed by notions of tacit and explicit knowledge might quit there before I fall off my soapbox… hope that was useful in some way. Nice, thanks James! I guess I come from an assumed position of co-development where possible rather than straight consultation, so perhaps my assumptions don’t shine through allowing a less collaborative approach. Point taken! The rest of the ideas are fascinating and I’ll get reading asap Thanks! re consultation – worth looking at ethnographic approaches… btw – love Pinky and the Brain – it was often my team mantra in my corporate lives – but, strictly speaking the quote is: Pinky: “Gee, Brain, what do you want to do tonight?” The Brain: “The same thing we do every night, Pinky—try to take over the world!” just one more thing… from teachers, my experience cycles with even numbers of steps don’t work nearly as well as one with odd numbers… and less steps is better – 3 or 5 work best – 7 is max… and if you get the steps to start with the examples, same letter of the alphabet that’s a bonus and increases the chances of sexandthecity hbo, it catching on. Looks good Pia ! My key criticism (which you’ve also captured) is that Bridgman and Davis place the examples of countertransference, Cabinet process at the centre of policy making when agencies and policy officers (through their interactions with other stakeholders) can actually set the policy agenda.

In your diagram I would also include ‘stickability’- there are a myriad of issues that can be triggered but whether or not they last the distance to getting properly considered is another issue. Culture? As a model of policy making I am a fan of Charles Lindblom and of countertransference incrementalism ( . Amatai Etzioni built upon this paradigm further and called it mixed scanning as a third approach (the second approach was Herbert Simons Bounded Rationality) …in this day and age a pluralistic approach to conceptualizing all three in sexandthecity, the guise of ‘strategic policy’is probably most useful. Thanks Evan, really useful! Really enjoyed reading this (albeit a few years late!). I agree this policy development model reflects none off the realities in which real policies are developed, and that the staged nature precludes a more interactive and of countertransference engaged model. I am really interested in how social media can be harnessed for Essay vs. Nurture: Parental co-development and design of policy and would welcome any thoughts/readings you may have on the issue… Thanks Jeremy, I’m glad it was useful You may enjoy an article we wrote about the Public Spheres, which was a model for public policy development with public co-design Welcome to of countertransference my blog. It goes back a while and has my thoughts on all things technology, open government, FOSS and freedom. In The? May contain traces of silliness and martial arts. Check out my Gov 2.0 (open government) posts.

They represent the bulk of my thinking and work at of countertransference the moment.