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Portrait du philosophe en roi Lear (Shakespeare et Nietzsche) Il sagit ici daborder comparativement Nietzsche et Shakespeare sous le rapport de la folie . Of Mice And Men: Essay! Apres avoir resume Le Roi Lear , de Shakespeare, larticle sattache a definir le personnage du Fol (ou bouffon) comme porteur dune verite cynique et porteur du theme de linversion des valeurs propre au paradigme carnavalesque de la fete (Saturnales antiques), auquel Nietzsche, autant que Shakespeare, a pu puiser. Pilocarpine Mechanism! On montre ensuite, dans une perspective foucaldienne, que la folie dans la piece de Shakespeare garde un caractere dambiguite, la verite semblant circuler entre les differents types de folie (feinte, oraculaire, poetique) que demontrent les differents personnages de la piece. Of Mice Of Loneliness Essay! On rappelle enfin la coherence entre le rapport philosophique et le rapport existentiel de Nietzsche a la maladie. Definition! La notion d Amor Fati, qui impregne egalement la piece de Shakespeare, synthetise cette attitude a la fois tragique et dionysienne. 1 Lorsque Nietzsche proclame la mort de Dieu, a la fin du XIX e siecle, il enonce un paradoxe sur lequel on of Loneliness Essay, ninsiste pas toujours suffisamment. For Copper! Si Dieu est Dieu en effet, et quand bien meme il aurait le dessein de se suicider , il garde sans doute par devers lui la possibilite dannuler cette annulation meme. Of Mice And Men: Essay! La question de Dieu conduisant rapidement aux limites du langage, Nietzsche a garde de rejoindre un atheisme pieux dont la naivete est assez grande (au XXI e siecle aussi bien) pour poser que Dieu nexiste pas avec cette assurance qui est une foi negative et symfetrique de lautre. Lawrence Studied Development! Car le linguiste sait que toute negation repose sur une hypothese predicative a laquelle elle vient se superposer comme un element supplementaire : il sagit ici de la relation entre un sujet (Dieu) et son predicat (exister) quinvalide la negation (ne pas).

Latheisme pieux est donc force de poser lhypothese Dieu, a qui il doit sa propre possibilite. And Men: The Impact Essay! Il tombe dans le piege que lui tend la grammaire et dont Nietzsche se joue malicieusement. 1968 Convention! Cest que Dieu et la foi, des lors quils sont reconnus comme dun domaine hors langage, ne constituent plus des problemes philosophiques a strictement parler. And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! En revanche, que la raison ait atteint une etape de son developpement de nature a ebranler le fondement transcendantal de la morale, de la politique, de la philosophie ou de la science, voila qui constitue un probleme de taille, que Nietzsche decrit dailleurs comme un veritable cataclysme cosmique. Of A Nurse! Car lOccident, dit-il, vit la une crise capitale, a nulle autre comparable, et dont il pourrait bien ne pas sortir. Of Mice Of Loneliness! LOccident ayant en outre communique le soupcon seculier au reste du monde, cette crise est de fait une crise planetaire. For Copper! Laffaire de Nietzsche est donc principalement la creation de valeurs capables de succeder a la perte du fondement. 2 On pourrait etudier les metamorphoses de la mort de Dieu sous son aspect theologico-politique dans une piece de Shakespeare comme Richard II , mais ce que montre le dramaturge dans Le Roi Lear , cest dabord une conscience claire de la perte du fondement theologico-scientifique. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Essay! Avec la revolution copernicienne, lEurope a certes infiniment raffine son esprit scientifique, mais elle a perdu le sens de laube, des etoiles et des orages. Equation Sulphate! Elle a certes conquis un regard nouveau, plus abstrait et plus puissant, englobant, unificateur et centre, mais elle a du sacrifier pour cela la multiplicite dont le Moyen-Age aimait encore sentir la presence.

Pour ce qui est de lart et du fondement theologico-artistique, epopees et tragedies de dimensions cosmiques ont retreci a proportion du retrecissement de la terre, devenue grain de sable dans les espaces infinis. Of Mice! Elles nauront plus bientot que les dimensions du roman et du drame bourgeois. Definition Of A! Or Shakespeare se situe precisement a la charniere entre le monde cosmique celui de Lear, roi dune Angleterre pre-chretienne, augure de lorage sur la lande et le monde individuel, interieur, prive celui dHamlet. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness! Il a en outre une conscience tres aigue de cette situation : sur la lande du Roi Lear , entre le pole de linfini stellaire et celui de lindividu errant, il fait eclater un orage qui ebranle lordre du monde. Pilocarpine Of Action! On percoit clairement que le monde ancien que gouvernaient les dieux nest deja plus quun souvenir pour le dramaturge.

Mais on Of Mice and Men:, percoit non moins clairement que veut demeurer en lui la conscience dun monde divise en lieux distincts, selon un schema cosmologique qui fait fi de la revolution copernicienne : enfers, terre et cieux, Hades, monde et Champs Elysees. Equation! Sil nest plus darriere-monde, plus de coulisses pour le theatrum mundi , il reste que la possibilite dune circulation doit etre pour Shakespeare conservee entre des mondes paralleles, symboliques et reels. Of Mice And Men:! Reve et realite, folie et raison, spectres et etres de chair se cotoient donc allegrement dans des pieces rassemblant les mondes qui se disjoignent, comme Isis, avatar dionysiaque, rassemblait les membres dOsiris. Definition! Si Dieu meurt au XIX e siecle, force est donc de constater que son agonie commence a lepoque de Shakespeare, a la Renaissance. And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness! Et lon sait que selon Nietzsche il faudra encore quelques siecles pour que lhomme cet homme vulgaire qui se rit de linsense apportant la nouvelle de la mort de Dieu parce quil ne la jamais ne serait-ce que cherche prenne toute la mesure de levenement. 3 Au dernier acte de sa vie, pendant les dix dernieres annees de son existence, Nietzsche na plus sa raison que par intervalles de quelques minutes.

Au dernier acte du Roi Lear , le heros eponyme sombre de plus en plus dans la folie. Labour Relations Law Essay! Leffondrement de Nietzsche a lieu un jour de janvier 1889 dans les rues de Turin. Of Mice And Men: The Impact! Il retient tout a coup le bras dun maquignon maltraitant un cheval, fond en larmes, etreint lanimal et plonge dans une nuit zebree de rares eclairs lucides qui durera jusqua sa mort. Definition Of A! Sur la lande, accompagne de son Fol, Lear retient quant a lui le bras dun bedeau flagellant une prostituee : 1 Les citations sont empruntees a la traduction de A. Of Mice And Men: Of Loneliness Essay! Robin (Le Roi Lear, Paris, Flammarion, 1995). Canaille dhuissier [beadle], retiens ta main sanglante, Pourquoi fouettes-tu cette prostituee ? 2 Voir Pierre Brunel, Theatre et cruaute ou Dionysos profane, Paris, Librairie des Meridiens, 1982. Equation For Copper Sulphate! 3 Le mot est de Charles Andler dans Nietzsche, sa vie, sa pensee, Paris, Gallimard, 1979, 3 volumes (. Of Mice The Impact Of Loneliness! ) 4 Histoire de la folie a lage classique, Paris, Gallimard, 1961. Sa fin approche egalement. Chinese New Year! Comme dans ces rites dionysiaques ou furieuses des femmes pourchassent une victime quelles consommeront ensuite (oribasie, diasparagmos, omophagie2), Lear est traque par ses propres filles, metaphoriquement lacere ( Est-ce la coutume que les peres chasses aient si peu de pitie pour leur chair ? , III, 4, 72-3) et devore ( Nest-ce pas comme si cette bouche dechirait cette main / Pour avoir porte vers elle la nourriture ? , III, 4, 15-16). Of Mice And Men:! Nietzsche termine sa vie entre les mains dune mere qui offrira sa canne a Adolfe Hitler et dune s?ur qui mutilera ses ?uvres pour plaire au regime que lon sait.

Lanalogie entre la vie ou le devenir des ?uvres de Nietzsche et le personnage de Shakespeare est frappante, et eclairante, mais notre propos nest pas den rester a cette analogie (ni certes dinvoquer la soi-disant malediction qui doit forcement frapper le genie, le penseur, le poete, selon une mythologie heritee du Romantisme). Lawrence Kohlberg Development By! On pourrait en effet soutenir que Nietzsche et Lear se sont isoles de lordre ( trop ) humain en derogeant a leurs devoirs de responsabilite : Lear est irresponsable des la premiere scene, provoquant une competition de louanges insensee entre ses filles, et Nietzsche nest pas un philosophe responsable au sens ou il attaque lordre philosophique et moral de la culture. And Men: The Impact! On pourrait soutenir que ces deux etre sont morts au monde social et se sont ouverts a une comprehension assez franciscaine du monde3. 1968 Democratic Convention! Lear passe en effet pour cet egoiste qui decouvre finalement une sorte de caritas salvatrice Tout cela est vrai mais il y a plus. Of Mice Of Loneliness! Nous nous demandons si la piece de Shakespeare ne montre pas la folie comme une forme dissue a la cruaute (folie feinte dEdgar, folie professionnelle du bouffon ou veritable alienation de Lear) et si Nietzsche naurait pas theatralise sa philosophie afin de rendre sa depossession finale, crainte de longue date, aussi coherente que celle dun personnage tel que Lear. Pilocarpine Of Action! Sil naurait pas fait en sorte dintegrer a lavance et avec style sa douloureuse fin a cette ?uvre quil fit de sa vie. Of Mice And Men: The Impact! Nietzsche devint-il fou parce quil pensa trop loin , parce quil alla dans lOuvert (hypothese selon nous superstitieuse, que reprennent aujourdhui tant ses pieux admirateurs athees de type onfrayen que ses contradicteurs croyants de type girardien), ou bien pensa-t-il la totalite ouverte parce que son existence etait une souffrance et quil lui fallait creer une philosophie capable dembrasser les contraires et de les laisser coexister sans les resoudre synthetiquement : raison et folie, joie et souffrance ? Dionysos en tout cas ne les separe pas tandis que la culture classique qui nait a lepoque ou Shakespeare ecrit son ?uvre les oppose radicalement, selon une analyse celebre. Symbol Equation For Copper Sulphate! Michel Foucault montre en effet que la culture classique rompt au XVII e siecle avec la representation medievale dune folie circulante (nef des fous telle que Bosch la peignit, par exemple) et la representation dune folie percue comme lieu imaginaire de passage entre les mondes (de la vie et de la mort, du concret et de labstrait)4. Of Mice And Men: Of Loneliness! Tracant une frontiere infrangible entre raison et deraison, lage classique ne concoit plus la folie comme zone indeterminee, terrain vague (lande desolee) qui donnerait acces aux forces de linconnu (orages, etres surnaturels) mais comme lautre de la raison que la raison constitue elle-meme dans et par son discours. Lawrence Kohlberg Studied Development By! La folie comme deraison, dit Foucault, est un espace que reserve la raison elle-meme, dans son propre espace, pour ce quelle definit comme son alterite. And Men:! Le Roi Lear et la philosophie de Nietzsche temoignent dune vision tres differente de ces choses.

4 La piece developpe deux intrigues qui se font echo : celles de deux peres trahis (Lear et Gloucester), lun par deux de ses trois filles, lautre par un fils illegitime. For Copper! Les deux peres ont attire sur eux-memes le courroux des dieux puisque Gloucester a concu lenfant rebelle hors du mariage (provoquant la jalousie du fils illegitime vis-a-vis de lheritier) et que Lear a impose a ses filles une stupide competition de louanges. Of Loneliness! Il entend en effet partager son royaume entre Regan, Goneril et Cordelia, mariees a Albany et Cornouailles pour les deux premieres, courtisee par le Duc de Bourgogne et le roi de France pour la derniere. Lawrence Moral! Celle qui convaincra le mieux son pere de lamour quelle lui porte heritera de la plus grande partie du royaume. And Men:! Comme Cordelia se refuse a cette joute verbale et quelle garde le silence, Lear entre en fureur et la desherite. Chinese New Year Bbc! Cest le Roi de France qui epouse en fin de compte la princesse a lencan dedaignee par le Duc.

5 Parallelement Edmond, le fils mal venu de Gloucester, nadmet pas le systeme du lignage qui lempeche dheriter. And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! Il ourdit un complot contre Edgar, son demi-frere, et parvient a provoquer sa fuite ainsi qua obtenir de son pere quil fasse de lui lheritier legitime. Pilocarpine Mechanism! De son cote, Kent, que Lear avait banni pour avoir pris la defense de Cordelia, se deguise et se joint a la suite du roi. Essay! Il devine en meme temps que le bouffon de Lear un complot de Goneril et Regan contre leur pere. Development By! Mais pour avoir perce ce secret elles le mettent aux fers. The Impact Essay! Fulminant, Lear le fait liberer et sen va sur la lande ou menace un orage. Definition Of A! La, Edgar, le fils legitime de Gloucester, sest deguise en vagabond pour echapper a une battue. Of Mice The Impact! Il feint la demence et repond au pseudonyme de Tom OBedlam. New Year Bbc! On apprend que Cordelia se trouve a Douvres avec larmee francaise, prete a secourir son pere maltraite. And Men: Of Loneliness! Ayant fui ses deux filles ingrates, Lear ecume de rage contre les elements dechaines, sur la lande, accompagne de son Fol et de Gloucester. Chinese New Year Bbc! Comme ils cherchent a sabriter dans une cahute, ils decouvrent Tom qui sy protege deja de la pluie, et delire a propos de demons qui le pourchasseraient, ce qui fait chavirer la raison de Lear qui y voit une analogie avec son propre sort.

Mais pour heriter plus rapidement, Edmond a denonce lalliance de son pere avec le roi. And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness! Gloucester, qui heberge a present Lear chez lui, se voit donc arrete par Cornouailles. Labour Relations Law Essay! En punition de son arrogance, ce dernier lui arrache les yeux, non sans avoir ete mortellement blesse par un serviteur que lacte revoltait. Of Mice And Men: Essay! Dautres serviteurs parviennent a soustraire Gloucester a ses geoliers et le cachent sur la lande a nouveau ou il rencontre Edgar, son fils, toujours deguise en Tom. Chinese! Comme le vieil homme enuclee entend se jeter du haut des falaises de Douvres pour mettre fin a son calvaire physique et moral, Tom, qui ne devoile pas son identite, se propose comme guide. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Essay! En chemin il fait sauter son pere sur place, emprunte la voix dun passant et pretend lavoir vu tomber du haut de la falaise. Of A! Croyant au miracle, Gloucester se resout a accepter son sort. And Men:! Pendant ce temps, Goneril complote avec le batard pour eliminer son mari, Albany, qui prend trop souvent la defense de Lear. Chinese Bbc! Mais elle craint que sa s?ur Regan, devenue veuve de Cornouailles, nait des vues sur Edmond, quelle entend se reserver. 6 Cordelia quant a elle a retrouve son pere qui errait sur la lande, le front ceint dune couronne dherbes et de fleurs sauvages, delirant. And Men: The Impact Essay! Elle le confie a un docteur qui lui rend un semblant de raison au moyen de plantes medicinales, dune cure de repos et de musique.

Mais bientot une bataille a lieu et larmee francaise est mise en deroute par Albany. Mechanism! On emprisonne ensemble Lear et Cordelia, ce dont le vieux pere se trouve assez content. Of Mice The Impact Essay! Cependant, Albany, qui sait quEdmond et Goneril complotent egalement contre lui, les met aux arrets. Equation For Copper Sulphate! A nouveau deguise, mais en chevalier cette fois, Edgar est revenu defier son demi-frere quil blesse mortellement. And Men: The Impact Essay! Le batard confesse avant de succomber quil a donne des ordres pour faire assassiner Cordelia en prison. Democratic Violence! Entre temps lemotion a emporte Gloucester alors quil reconnaissait la voix de son fils vengeur et Goneril, de jalousie, a empoisonne sa s?ur Regan avant de se suicider. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness! Lear apparait finalement, portant le cadavre de Cordelia dans ses bras, delirant de nouveau.

Il rend son dernier souffle sur le corps de sa fille. Labour! Revient alors a Albany, Kent et Edgar la tache dadministrer le royaume. 5 Le Voyageur et son ombre, in and Men: of Loneliness ?uvres completes, Paris, Laffont, coll. Labour Relations! Bouquins, 2004, 2 volumes, v (. The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! ) 6 Voir Jay L. Chinese New Year! Halio, King Lear, a Guide to Of Mice The Impact Essay the Play, Wesport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 2001, d (. Law Essay! ) 7 Avant meme de perdre la raison, Lear se conduit de facon insensee. The Impact Essay! Il y a la un echo de la situation politique ou se trouve Jacques Premier, fils dElisabeth, soucieux de preserver lunite de lAngleterre et de lEcosse sur laquelle il regnait avant de succeder a sa mere.

On peut lire Le Roi Lear comme un conte politique a lusage du nouveau monarque, le prevenant contre les dangers de la dislocation. Labour! Or il est precisement un personnage de la piece qui ne cesse de rappeler le roi a la raison : il sagit de son bouffon, parfois appele boy par Lear qui le tient en affection. And Men: Of Loneliness Essay! Non seulement il faut dire que le roi est envieux de la liberte de parole dont jouit le fou, mais il faut ajouter que lidentification du roi a son Fol est partout implicite : Tu ferais un excellent fou ! , dit bien vite le bouffon a son maitre (I, 5, 32). Definition! Si bien quon en vient a se demander si lun nest pas lombre de lautre, selon une metaphore nietzscheenne : Tu sauras que jaime lombre comme jaime la lumiere est-il ecrit au debut du Voyageur et son ombre . And Men:! Et encore : Pour quil y ait beaute du visage, clarte de parole, bonte et fermete du caractere, lombre est necessaire autant que la lumiere 5. Relations Law Essay! Cette ombre qui accompagne le voyageur et dialogue avec lui participe dune critique nietzscheenne de la conscience diurne. And Men: Essay! Cest elle qui eperonne le voyageur dans sa quete du reel au milieu du desert.

Cest elle qui le pousse a demasquer le discours moral et philosophique comme lexpression de passions du moi et non dune verite transcendantale. Relations Law Essay! De meme, cest le fou qui reproche a Lear le manque de bonte et de fermete de son caractere. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness! Cest lui qui, paradoxalement, parle clair et denonce tant les hypocrisies sociales que linjustice du roi lui-meme, liee peut-etre a quelque trouble dans ses rapports avec ses filles. Democratic Convention Violence! Il introduit dans la piece une dissonance stylistique remarquable puisque, par contraste avec les vers blancs ou rimes reserves aux autres personnages, il sexprime en prose, chante des chansons, decoche des dictons assassins qui sont autant daphorismes destines a ramener Lear a lessentiel. Of Mice And Men: Of Loneliness! Le bouffon, comme Nietzsche avec ses fragments, maximes et pointes, va droit au c?ur des problemes par ses propos concentres, ironiques et parodiques. Symbol Equation! De meme que Nietzsche monte a lassaut de la pensee systematique arme de larbalete et des fleches du scepticisme caustique (dans Humain, trop humain et Le Voyageur et son ombre , qui en est la deuxieme partie), de meme le fou de Lear pointe larme aceree de son esprit ( wit en anglais, Witz en allemand) sur les faiblesses de la cuirasse de son maitre.

Lorsque Lear implore quon le rassure sur son identite ( Qui est celui qui pourrait me dire qui je suis ? ), le fou repond de facon sibylline : Lombre de Lear (I, 4, 212-3). And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! On sest beaucoup interroge sur le sens de cette replique. Democratic Convention! Selon la facon dont nous lisons la piece, lombre de Lear, cest autant lautre, le fou, le porte-parole de la verite dont lironie et les jeux de mots veulent guider le roi a travers la piece, que linconscient de Lear lui-meme, la part nocturne de sa personnalite. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Essay! Les interpretations psychanalytiques de la piece ne font dailleurs pas defaut, qui suggerent par exemple que le roi encourage et recompense la flatterie de ses filles par crainte de lamour et desir de leviter. Pilocarpine Mechanism Of Action! Croyant quil ne merite pas detre aime ou quil ne serait pas capable de retourner lamour qui lui serait offert, Lear soudoie ses filles, il exige un amour factice et fait de rhetorique en echange dun tiers de son royaume6. And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness! Et il est vrai que tant quil a son fou aupres de lui (tant que subsistent quelques passerelles, quelques pourparlers possibles avec son inconscient), Lear est relativement sain desprit. Equation Sulphate! Des quil le perd en revanche, il sombre. Of Mice Of Loneliness! La replique est assez celebre egalement ou le fou, lombre de cette ame errante, de cette ame en tribulation quest Lear, declare quil ira se coucher a midi ( Et moi jirai me coucher a midi , III, 6, 81).

Cette tirade lancee, on Law Essay, ne le revoit plus sur scene. And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! A midi en effet, Nietzsche fait grand usage de cette image, lombre tend a disparaitre (le scepticisme a se resorber en foi dans le Surhomme et lEternel Retour). Labour Law Essay! En tant quil est lombre de Lear, le fou temoigne donc dune meta-sincerite , dune sincerite qui ne sexprime pas comme les arguments sinceres sexpriment dhabitude, de facon claire et rationnelle. The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! Il denonce meme un certain silence social qui se fait sous couvert de clarte et de rationalite absolues. Pilocarpine Mechanism! Il jouit dun statut particulier, en marge des conventions sociales, qui lui permet de porter sur le monde un regard dessille, sans concessions. Of Mice! Et lon reconnait ici lideal du philosophe selon Nietzsche.

Lerrance qui fut dailleurs la sienne durant son existence, le statut dapatride quil etait fier de posseder depuis sa periode baloise, sa distance vis-a-vis des interets economiques, son celibat (force et endure sans joie, il faut le dire, mais utilise comme symbole philosophique), lui donnaient la possibilite de parler plus librement, de mettre la verite a nu. Symbol For Copper! Or quest-ce que la verite selon le fou de Lear ? Cest une chienne que lon renvoie a la niche (I, 4, 99) parce quon na aucune envie de lentendre. The Impact Of Loneliness! Et que na-t-on pas envie dentendre lorsquon est roi ? Par exemple que lon nest rien : Tu nes plus quun zero sans rien devant ; me voici plus que toi ; je suis un fou ; toi tu nes rien (I, 4, 175-7). 7 Cite par Karl Lowith, Nietzsche (la philosophie de lEternel Retour), Paris, Hachette, 1998, p. Equation! 1 (. Of Loneliness Essay! ) 8 Le fou, on studied development by, le voit, a partie liee avec le rien, le Nichts , comme le dit la langue allemande en des sonorites proches du nom meme de Nietzsche philosophe accuse de nihilisme qui tenait au contraire que de penser le neant ecartait mieux le nihilisme que de le refouler. Of Mice The Impact! Le roi, qui est tout, eprouve la tentation du rien au sens ou il en a besoin comme dune moitie dombre qui le constituerait, tout en eprouvant un sentiment de repulsion vis-a-vis de ce rien. 1968 Democratic! Et tantot il cherit ce boy , ce jeune garcon qui laide a supporter ses angoisses, tantot il menace de lui donner le fouet. The Impact Of Loneliness! Le roi voudrait bien, lui aussi, faire le guignol impunement. New Year! Mais il craint daller trop loin et de perdre ses facultes intellectuelles : O ! cieux clements, ne permettez pas que je devienne fou, que je devienne fou ! (I, 5, 38). Of Loneliness! Et pourtant, etre un peu fou, un peu guignol, cela vaut beaucoup mieux que detre pesant comme un philosophe a systeme, dit Nietzsche, ou comme une idole pour places publiques : Je crains terriblement detre canonise () Je ne veux pas etre un saint, je prefere etre un guignol 7. Sulphate! Etre un guignol constitue peut-etre meme lhorizon a ne pas perdre des yeux ecrit Georges Bataille dans son ouvrage sur Nietzsche : 8 Sur Nietzsche (volonte de chance), in Of Mice The Impact of Loneliness Essay ?uvres completes, Paris, Gallimard, 1973, volume V, p. Definition Nurse! 20. Au fond, lhomme entier nest quun etre ou la transcendance sabolit, de qui rien nest separe : un peu guignol, un peu Dieu, un peu fou Cest la transparence 8.

Et Lear voudrait bien renverser toutes les valeurs, devenir fou sans risque, ecumer et se rouler a terre en eructant des paroles impenetrables. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! Il faut se souvenir ici que la prestation meme du fou sur la scene elisabethaine constituait un morceau de bravoure que lon confiait a des acteurs choisis. Labour Law Essay! Les parterres attendaient avec impatience leffet spectaculaire de ces crises depilepsie auxquelles se laissaient aller des histrions celebres. And Men: The Impact Essay! Or Lear dechu, chasse de tous les chateaux, vagabondant sur une lande hostile et conjurant les elements la bave aux levres, se prete a un ceremonial qui exalte lenergie pre-individuelle. Nurse! Il procede a ce quArtaud eut nomme un appel de forces , il rejoue pour le plus grand plaisir de chacun la scene dune crise ou la depense energetique est aussi grande et inutile que vitale expression dune part maudite , selon le vocabulaire de Bataille a nouveau. Of Mice The Impact Of Loneliness! Le fou est le cynique, le realiste de service, celui qui a presque toute licence de parler crument autant que de desarticuler le langage ou de pousser des cris sauvages. Convention! Cest un personnage central dans le schema saturnalien dinversion des valeurs qui est consubstantiel au theatre de Shakespeare. 9 On pense ici aux biologismes nazis et staliniens. 9 Entre le calendrier base sur le retour quotidien du soleil et celui, plus ancien, qui suit les revolutions periodiques de la lune, se tiennent douze jours vacants, comme suspendus au-dessus du temps. And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness! A Rome, ces douze jours dhiver etaient loccasion de fetes, les Saturnales, qui culminaient lors de la douzieme nuit ou Nuit des Rois cette Twelfth Night dont Shakespeare fera le titre dune de ses comedies les plus magistrales. Pilocarpine Mechanism Of Action! On avait coutume de designer un individu de preference epileptique pour prendre la place de la plus haute autorite pendant la duree de la fete roi de Malgouverne ou fou qui se livrait a toutes les excentricites puis, dans la version la plus ancienne du rite, on Of Mice of Loneliness Essay, le sacrifiait comme une victime expiatoire et porteuse de tout le mal social enfin expulse.

Or a bien des egards, Lear est ce fou qui meurt en victime emissaire , cet etre a peine encore humain que lon expulse et livre en pature aux dieux courrouces ou au desert aride. Of Action! Et lon peut se demander si Nietzsche nest pas, lui aussi, ce fou qui entreprend de renverser toutes les valeurs. Of Loneliness! Sa facon de sen tenir a un strict naturalisme, ou de vouloir le laisser croire, fait naitre cette reflexion. Labour Relations Law Essay! Car on The Impact Essay, voit bien aujourdhui quelles peuvent etre les applications concretes et assassines de cette verite par deux fois mise en pratique au XX e siecle9. Symbol! Et cest bien parce quil craint de telles applications que Nietzsche decide de ne pas publier La Volonte de puissance , comme il en fait etat dans une lettre a Paul Ree de 1888. The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! Cependant, la verite est peut-etre tout entiere dans la nature quand meme, dont on equation, peut faire de bons comme de mauvais usages, et reservee a une certaine engeance, a des compagnons choisis. And Men: Of Loneliness! Cest de la nature en tout cas que se reclame Edmond, le batard, dans une tirade plus ambigue quon a pu le croire : Toi, nature, tu es ma deesse ; a tes lois. Sont voues mes services. Lawrence Studied Moral! Pour quel but devrais-je. Rester sous le fleau de la coutume et laisser.

Le droit pointilleux des nations me depouiller. Pour un retard de douze ou quatorze lunes. Sur un frere ? Pourquoi batard ? Illegitime pourquoi ? 10 James Dauphine et Jean Richer, Les Structures symboliques du Roi Lear de Shakespeare, Paris, Les (. Of Mice The Impact Essay! ) Est-ce que Lear nest pas ce roi de Malgouverne qui etait responsable de son royaume, garant de lordre du ciel et du cycle des saisons et qui, en renoncant a sa couronne pour la donner a ses filles et a leurs epoux, a perturbe lordre du cosmos, rendant possibles un Edmond, un immoraliste ? La tirade dEdmond gene frequemment les lecteurs de Lear qui percoivent une contradiction entre le personnage indubitablement cruel et mauvais quil incarne, et lenergie seduisante de son propos. Symbol For Copper Sulphate! Il parle en effet contre le droit dainesse, le lignage, lexclusion injuste dont il fait lobjet (nayant pas choisi de naitre illegitime), et pour les marginaux, les laisses-pour-compte, les victimes dun ordre des choses arbitraires et contraire a la nature. Of Mice And Men: Of Loneliness! Et peut-on le blamer de se faire fort dobtenir par son intelligence ces terres auxquelles il na pas droit selon la tradition ? Malgre lincontestable dimension exaltante de cette celebre profession de foi naturaliste, certains pensent que cest une grave erreur de croire que Shakespeare la reprend a son compte ! 10 Il ne nous est pas possible davoir ici le point dexclamation aussi facile. New Year! Lerreur ne serait-elle pas plutot dassigner Shakespeare a residence chez quelque personnage que ce soit ? Comme Nietzsche, Shakespeare propose des enonces gnomiques contradictoires qui donnent la verite dun personnage a un instant donne. Of Mice And Men: Essay! Ici, Edmond peut apparaitre comme une victime. Nurse! Ce quil dit est reprehensible dun point de vue elisabethain (banal au XXI e siecle), mais il le dit de facon fort eloquente. Of Mice And Men: The Impact! Peut-etre Shakespeare ouvre-t-il avec cette tirade et ce personnage quelques pistes pour des artistes et philosophes a venir Lorsque Edmond parle au nom de la nature, cest aussi par opposition a certains personnages que la superstition conduit a lechec.

Ainsi de Gloucester, son pere, qui sinquiete au debut de la piece de recentes eclipses : Ces dernieres eclipses du soleil et de lunes ne nous presagent rien de bon (I, 2, 96-7), et que le batard commente en aparte : Voila la folie ou le monde excelle : quand nous souffrons dans notre sort souvent par exces dans notre conduite nous rendons responsables de notre desastre le soleil, la lune et les etoiles (I, 2, 132-6). Il semble difficile de rendre sur Edmond un jugement categorique sans ralentir, voire stopper cette mobilite extreme du sens qui est le propre des ?uvres de Shakespeare. 10 Dautant quEdmond nest pas le seul a parler au nom de la nature. Democratic Convention Violence! Cordelia, figure de la redemption par lamour elle a toutes les vertus du c?ur -, invoque egalement les pouvoirs de la terre afin de rendre la sante a son pere : Vous, tous les secrets benis, Vous, toutes les vertus pas connues [unpublishd] de la terre, Jaillissez avec mes pleurs ! Le docteur, comme dans Romeo et Juliette frere Laurent, incarnera ici cet homme-medecine si shakespearien, ce personnage qui connait les plantes et les secrets du regne vegetal, et qui est capable dapaiser les douleurs physiques et morales des protagonistes. Of Mice And Men: Of Loneliness! Le Roi Lear est en outre une piece qui existait avant la version quen a donne Shakespeare en en renforcant le primitivisme. Labour Relations! Nous sommes censes etre les temoins dun drame paien, pre-chretien.

Lorsque Kent, qui avait pris la defense de Cordelia et pour cela avait ete banni par Lear, rejoint les courtisans de son maitre, quil ne se resout pas a abandonner, cest sous les traits dun denomme Caius, ou il faut peut-etre lire Gaius, cest-a-dire le fiance mystique de Gaia, la Terre. Of Mice And Men:! Personnage eminemment positif, Kent fera finalement partie du triumvirat charge dadministrer le royaume apres la mort de Lear. 11 Dans King Lear and definition the Gods (San Marino, Californie, 1966), W. Of Mice And Men:! R. Of A Nurse! Elton tente de demontrer que la (. Of Mice And Men: The Impact! ) 11 Il y a donc un naturalisme sinistre et un naturalisme bienfaisant, une voie noire et une voie blanche, une nature qui est volonte de pouvoir, une autre volonte de puissance. 1968! En inversant les valeurs et en liberant la voie noire dont Edmond est un adepte, la folie de Lear nen peut quelle ne libere aussi la voie blanche, que represente Cordelia11. 12 Lear est donc ce roi qui est en quete dun certain reel ( real , en anglais) au-dela des mascarades et des hypocrisies du monde social ou de la cour. Essay! Cette recherche (philosophique) sapparente a une forme de folie et lalienation vis-a-vis de lordre humain qui en resulte le laisse avec, pour compagnons dinfortune, des etres egalement marginalises : un fou professionnel et un fuyard qui feint la demence (Edgar-Tom). New Year Bbc! Car Edgar, pauvre Tom , nest meme pas officiellement fou. The Impact! Il sest a moitie denude, il sest couvert de boue pour etre meconnaissable, et il tient des propos qui semblent incoherents pour echapper a Edmond, son persecuteur. Lawrence By! On a souvent remarque quEdgar semblait retourner a un etat pre-social de lhomme originel (Adam chasse du jardin dEden ou Abel poursuivi par Cain). The Impact Essay! Il est proche de la bete par son accoutrement.

Cest le paria absolu, celui qui a coupe tout lien avec lhumanite, jusquau lien que constitue la raison, le logos qui permet la communication entre les hommes. For Copper! Or lorsque Lear le rencontre dans la cahute ou il sabrite de lorage, il est trouble du recit ou Tom se dit pourchasse par des demons. Of Mice And Men: Essay! Sentant sa raison vaciller, Lear decide de se coucher et fait le geste doter ses vetements a son tour, geste symbolique qui sera repete a sa mort ( Je vous en prie, defaites ce bouton , V, 3, 308). Labour Relations! Cest donc comme si il y avait de la raison et de la sante dans la folie non seulement dans celle de Tom, qui nest que feinte, mais egalement dans celle de Lear. The Impact Of Loneliness! Lorsque le roi dit a Gloucester, qui a perdu ses yeux, de regarder avec ses oreilles ( Un homme peut-il voir sans yeux comment va le monde ? Regarde avec tes oreilles ! , IV, 6, 154-6), on nurse, soupconne que sa folie nest pas reelle. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Essay! Kent commente dailleurs ses dires ainsi : O, bon sens et delire entremeles ! La raison dans la folie ! (IV, 6, 170-1). Definition! Il y a comme un lien entre ces trois fous que sont Edgar, Lear et son boy , reunis dans cette cahute. And Men: Of Loneliness! La simulation, letrange demence et le cabotinage sont apparentes. Relations Law Essay! Edgar se dissimule assez paradoxalement puisque sa nudite est son seul deguisement, et les elucubrations de Lear comme du fou sonnent vrai. Of Mice And Men: Essay! On a finalement limpression que la verite circule dune folie a lautre : verite des metaphores dEdgar, verite des cynismes du fou, verite oraculaire de Lear en qui la frontiere entre lucidite et aveuglement semble imprecise.

Gloucester, ce double de Lear qui est trahi par son batard, confesse dailleurs que sa cecite reelle est sans rapport avec cette clairvoyance stoicienne quil a acquise grace a Edgar : Jai trebuche quand jy voyais (IV, 1, 19). Law Essay! Si ?edipe se crevait les yeux davoir vu, on and Men:, arrache ceux de Gloucester et il voit enfin. Development By! Car la verite, cest que nous venons au monde en pleurant comme qui irait vers le billot ( Quand nous sommes nes, nous crions detre venus / Sur cette grande scene de fous. And Men: The Impact Essay! Voila pour les chapeliers une idee [This a good block], IV, 6, 178-9), et quune conscience aigue de la cruaute peut nous faire souhaiter devenir fou ( Mieux vaudrait que je sois aliene : / Mes pensers seraient separes de mes souffrances (IV, 6, 273-4), mais que si nous ne pouvons pas vivre, nous ne pouvons pas plus mourir. Equation! Le desespoir nest pas une solution preferable au ridicule espoir et Gloucester se tient entre les deux, Voyant enuclee dont le faux suicide, ce saut quil croit faire du haut des falaises de Douvres, evoque le saut de Leucade, plongeon rituel et purificateur des inities aux mysteres dEleusis.

Cest dans lacceptation du joug de Fortune que Gloucester trouve une forme de salut : dans linespoir . And Men: Of Loneliness! Cest son propre fils, Edgar, qui lui enseignera cette lecon quil se repete a lui-meme sur la lande : O dieux ! Quel est-il celui qui peut dire Je suis au pire ? Me voici plus que jamais au pire () E je puis subir pire encore ; il ny a pas le pire. Aussi longtemps que nous pouvons dire : Voici le pire ! 12 Le Gai savoir, 110, in lawrence ?uvres completes, Paris, Laffont, coll. Of Mice The Impact Essay! Bouquins, 2004, 2 volumes, volume (. Symbol Equation! ) 13 Dautres episodes donnent a la piece une couleur initiatique, notamment la grande scene de lorage sur la lande et du refuge trouve dans un repli de la terre, une cabane, une cahute, en tout cas pas une demeure : initiation par leau, lair et le feu que complete une epreuve de la terre, de la hutte glacee (les scenes 1, 2 et 4 de lacte III). Of Loneliness! Avoir perdu titres, chateaux, vetements et logique, et rencontre les elements, a conduit Lear et Gloucester au-dela des apparences, dans une obscure transparence qui finit toutefois par les emporter tous les deux : lun de voir sa fille assassinee, lautre de reconnaitre avec trop demotion son fils triomphant derriere les masques successifs. For Copper Sulphate! Etrange lecon de cette piece ou la verite peut faire mourir, sauf a etre passe maitre dans lart du deguisement, du masque, du theatre, comme cest le cas de Kent et dEdgar. Of Mice The Impact Of Loneliness! Jusqua quel point la verite supporte-t-elle lassimilation ? , se demande Nietzsche dans Le Gai Savoir 12. Lawrence Studied Moral Development By! Lart nest-il pas notre mensonge vital, protecteur ? Lancien monde avait-il tant de retard sur le nouveau dans son rapport au vrai ? Nous ne comprenons plus tout a fait comment les Anciens avaient la sensation du plus prochain et du plus frequent par exemple du jour et des veilles : puisquils croyaient aux reves, la vie a letat de veille seclairait dautres lumieres. The Impact Of Loneliness! Et de meme, toute la vie, avec la refraction de la mort et de sa signification : notre mort est une tout autre mort. Nurse! Tous les evenements brillaient dune autre couleur car un dieu rayonnait deux ; de meme toutes les previsions et toutes les decisions dun lointain avenir : car lon avait les oracles et les secrets avertissements et lon croyait aux predictions. Of Mice Of Loneliness! La verite etait concue differemment, car le dement pouvait autrefois passer pour son porte-parole ce qui nous fait frissonner ou rire (). Of Action! Nous avons donne aux choses une couleur nouvelle, et nous continuons sans cesse a les peindre autrement, mais que pouvons-nous jusqua present contre la splendeur du coloris de ce vieux Maitre ? je veux dire lancienne humanite13. Of Mice And Men: Of Loneliness! 14 Dictionnaire des racines des langues europeennes, R. Symbol! Grandseigne dHauterive (ed.), Paris, Larous (. The Impact! ) 14 Mais Le Roi lear est une piece qui nous conduit au-dela de la simple et peut-etre ennuyeuse sagesse.

Car si Lear est en quete du reel ( King real ), il nen delire pas moins pour autant et lon ne saurait passer sous silence le fait quil sombre dans une alienation reelle, quil devient aussi fou que la mer agitee. Definition Nurse! Delirer a une racine europeenne (LEIS-) que lon retrouve dans le mot latin lira qui designe le sillon14. The Impact Essay! Delire celui qui sort du droit chemin. Chinese New Year Bbc! Dans la Grece antique, on Of Mice The Impact of Loneliness, appelait le Delirant, le Bruissant ou le Fremissant, celui auquel la foule vouait un culte qui selevait en clameurs rythmees : Dionysos. Labour Law Essay! Le culte dionysiaque, dorigine sacrificielle, procedait comme les Saturnales romaines a un renversement temporaire des valeurs. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! La demesure, le desordre, la transgression, le delire etaient de mise lors de rites orgiaques ou des bacchantes bondissaient en thyases provocantes. Pilocarpine! Une lecture dionysiaque du Roi Lear est possible et rend le rapprochement de Shakespeare et Nietzsche particulierement interessant puisque nul nignore lutilisation philosophique qua fait lAllemand de cette divinite archaique.

15 Il faut se souvenir que Dionysos est fils de Zeus, le dieu porte-foudre, et de Semele, simple mortelle qui voulut recevoir son amant divin dans toute sa puissance, et sen trouva foudroyee. And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness! Dionysos, qui etait encore a naitre de leur union, fut retire du corps maternel afin quil achevat sa gestation dans la cuisse de son pere. Lawrence Kohlberg Studied By! Dans ce mythe elementaire de fertilite, Semele est la Terre-Mere que feconde leclair. The Impact Of Loneliness! Dionysos nait donc de letreinte du ciel et de la terre, comme cest a la suite de lorage que Lear devient un autre. Chinese Bbc! Par ailleurs, le mythe de la naissance de Dionysos, qui relate en fait une double naissance, suit le schema initiatique qui correspond a celui de Lear (naissance, mort et renaissance). Of Mice The Impact Essay! Car lorsquil entre dans la cahute comme dans une seconde matrice, Lear souvre a une forme de sympathie universelle (la critique parle de caritas ), a une soudaine conscience de la misere du monde au-dela de la sienne propre qui augure dune forme de purification. Labour Law Essay! Il sinquiete dabord du bien-etre de son fou, puis de tous ceux qui nont pas assez : Pauvres misereux tout nus, ou que vous soyez () / Oh ! Jai trop peu / Pris souci de ceci ! , (III, 4, 28-33).

Dans lintrigue parallele son double, Gloucester, qui rencontre Edgar-Tom sur le chemin de Douvres, lui fait don de sa bourse ( ainsi la distribution detruirait lexces / Et tout homme aurait satiete (IV, 1, 69-70), et est enfin conduit a un changement de personnalite. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Essay! Il y a la un trope de la deuxieme naissance qui resonne comme un echo, fut-il distant, du mythe dionysiaque. For Copper! Mais Lear est egalement ce vagabond errant qui, au plus fort de sa crise de delire, se coiffe dune couronne dherbes dont le suc est nocif ou mortel fumeterre, bardane, ivraie, cigue. Of Mice Essay! Or Dionysos, dieu de la vigne, est apparente au monde vegetal, et cela dautant plus quil epouse Ariane, deesse egeenne de la vegetation. Mechanism! On nous dira que Lear na pas depouse.

Mais justement, dun point de vue psychanalytique, Lear peut sembler amoureux de sa fille, au point quil se rejouit dapprendre quAlbany entend les enfermer dans la meme cellule. Of Mice The Impact! Et sil est une deesse de la vegetation dans la piece, cest assurement Cordelia, que Lear aime comme Dionysos Ariane. By! Cest grace a des simples, on and Men: The Impact Essay, la vu, et a la musique (autre element dionysien), que Cordelia parvient a apaiser les souffrances de son pere (IV, 7). By! Mais il y a plus. And Men: The Impact! Lear doit apprendre que sa quete dun amour infini aupres de sa fille est trouble, que Cordelia ne peut etre ni ne peut remplacer sa propre mere. Chinese New Year! Cordelia est un peu une mere-fille pour Lear, une Ariane et une Semele (qui sont toutes deux des figures du salut). 15 Pierre Leveque et Louis Sechan, Les Grandes divinites de la Grece, Paris, A. And Men:! Colin, 1990. 16 Cependant, pour dechiffrer plus avant le personnage de Lear, il faut encore faire remarquer que les plantes veneneuses dont il se couronne font un echo a la couronne depine du Christ.

Le portrait dun Lear souffrant une passion et benissant finalement le monde acheve alors devoquer les portraits medievaux et renaissants du Christ en Ecce Homo , que Nietzsche a voulu utiliser et appliquer a sa propre personne. Chinese! On se souvient egalement des billets dits de la folie quenvoyait Nietzsche vers la fin de sa vie et quil signait indifferemment de Dionysos ou du Crucifie . Of Mice Of Loneliness! Cest que lopposition du Christ et de Dionysos napparait que dans un deuxieme temps. Kohlberg Studied Moral Development By! Le phenomene est identique mais son sens differe par la valeur accordee a la souffrance (concue comme justification de la vie pour le Christ selon St Paul , affirmee avec la vie pour Dionysos). Of Mice And Men: Of Loneliness! Tous deux sont nes de lunion du plus grand des dieux et dune mortelle ; tous deux sont descendus aux enfers (Dionysos pour en ramener Semele et lintroduire au sejour des Immortels) tous deux sont donc psychopompes, ils guident les ames et incarnent la renaissance (lun par sa double naissance, lautre par sa resurrection). Chinese! Quant aux debordements du culte dionysiaque, pour Pierre Leveque et Louis Sechan, ils auraient contribue a faire naitre lidee que lame humaine serait apparentee au divin, et plus reelle peut-etre, que le corps. And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! Car le dionysiaque introduisit les hommes dans le monde des dieux, il spiritualisa la creature qui, par lui, se decouvrit capable de sortir delle-meme dans lextase (dont letymologie dit cette sortie meme)15. New Year Bbc! Ces debordements sensuels et irrationnels temoignent dune recherche, par la transgression, de quelque chose de surhumain. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Essay! Ladepte du culte de Dionysos tente dabolir la frontiere qui le separe du divin.

Vus sous cet angle, les derniers billets de Nietzsche semblent beaucoup moins incoherents quon a pu le dire. Labour Relations Law Essay! Mais en ce point, le texte de Shakespeare resiste et se refuse a la totalisation, a la cloture du sens. Of Mice Of Loneliness! Car faut-il penser que Lear est ce personnage a la fois christique et dionysiaque, en qui lhomme et le dieu ne font plus quun, pour qui raison et folie ne sexcluent pas mutuellement mais tentent de cohabiter comme le roi et le pauvre here cohabitent dans un meme royaume ? Ou bien faut-il sen tenir a linterpretation selon laquelle Dionysos a rendu fou celui qui, dune maniere ou dune autre, ne la pas honore comme il se doit ? Car cest aussi lun des pouvoirs de ce dieu que de dissoudre lindividu et de lui imposer une regression dans le magma inconscient au gre de son humeur. Labour Law Essay! Lear, rappelons-le, finit mal. The Impact! Mais nous neprouvons pas le besoin de resoudre cette contradiction, qui nest dailleurs peut-etre quune conjonction denonces opposes temoignant que lartiste a vu plus loin que ce que la conscience ordinaire peut voir. Democratic Violence! On ne refuse pas au texte de Shakespeare sa faculte pourtant evidente de deborder toute interpretation sans une certaine outrecuidance methodologique. 16 Le Gai Savoir, Livre II, 84, in and Men: The Impact of Loneliness Essay ?uvres completes, Paris Laffont, coll. Kohlberg Moral By! Bouquins, 2004, 2 volumes (. Of Mice Of Loneliness! ) 17 Apres avoir envisage la folie comme un masque impenetrable que peut prendre la sagesse masque du clown, du guignol, du bouffon apres avoir dresse un portrait de Lear en realiste , puis en Delirant dionysien, il reste a faire remarquer que Shakespeare utilise la folie comme metaphore du theatre. Pilocarpine Mechanism Of Action! Car lalienation est une forme de possession que lon peut retrouver dans lart dramatique, ou lacteur doit savoir se laisser habiter par un autre. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness! Et quest-ce que la folie au theatre sinon un pretexte a exuberance verbale ? Quest-ce que la poesie, et surtout le lyrisme , sinon une sauvage deraison ( la sauvage et belle deraison vous refute, o penseurs utilitaristes ! 16, dit Nietzsche), une expression barbare qui entend gonfler les mots a les faire eclater, une eruption de sincerite, flammes et sang meles, qui defie toute la culture des cadres et des formes ou se dissimulent les etres qui nosent etre eux-memes ? Les paroles du bouffon, du roi dement et dEdgar qui simule la folie sont autant de mises en abyme de la poesie elle-meme, que Shakespeare fait pleuvoir sur son texte. Labour! Comme il est des pluies de meteores, il est des pluies de metaphores.

Celles de Shakespeare sont dune beaute et dune force inouies, averses incandescentes dimages et de langage merveilleusement etranges, orages idiomatiques et idiosyncrasiques. Essay! Cest une lecon dinventivite a chaque page, une demonstration de ce dont la langue est capable lorsquun genie verbal comme Shakespeare sen empare. Bbc! Et lon soulignera egalement que lapparence, pour un poete comme Shakespeare, cest letre. And Men: The Impact! Car on definition of a, le soupconne frequemment de ne voir que delire et folie, bruit et fureur, dans le fond des choses. And Men: The Impact! Or quelle forme donnerait-il a ce qui nen a guere sinon une forme barbare comme le lyrisme le lui permet ? Le lyrisme, cest letre en tant quapparence. Mechanism! Le beotien (ce penseur ou cet individu utilitariste dont se plaignait Nietzsche) demande parfois pourquoi les poetes ecrivent tant de mots et prennent tant de detours images quand on of Loneliness Essay, pourrait dire les choses plus simplement. Lawrence Moral By! Mais cest qua certaines profondeurs on Of Mice and Men: The Impact of Loneliness, ne peut pas dire les choses autrement quon les dit, et tout artiste qui le pourrait serait coupable dornementation pompeuse. Symbol For Copper Sulphate! Le lyrisme est une expression delirante qui sapparente a un voile permettant de regarder le brasier en face.

Cest une approximation maximale, une erreur minimale par laquelle le poete qui est voyant peut echapper aux consequences de la lucidite. Of Mice The Impact Of Loneliness! Le lyrisme ne cherche pas a dire exactement quoi que ce soit, car il ne trouve en definitive rien dexact a dire, rien qui se puisse formuler dans la simplicite dune ressemblance ou dune adequation avec le vrai. Symbol Sulphate! Telle est sa verite paradoxale verite de lartiste et du philosphe-artiste. Of Mice And Men:! Mais parce que cette verite est celle du chaos et de la desagregation, quelle menace lindividu dans lorganisation hierarchique de sa personnalite, quelle mine le rapport sous lequel les forces qui le composent peuvent avancer, la poesie, lart en general, permettent a ceux dont lexigence de lucidite est totale de penser a plus de profondeur sans sombrer. 1968 Democratic Convention! Ils ont la verite de la profondeur en tant que surface, du fond en tant que forme, de la pensee en tant que poesie. 17 Voir Karl Lowith, Nietzsche (la philosophie de lEternel Retour), Paris, Hachette, 1998. Of Mice And Men: Of Loneliness! 18 Cf., Lowith, id., p. Definition! 124.

19 Ce que vous appeliez monde doit etre dabord cree par vous , Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra, Dan (. And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! ) 20 Cite par Philippe Sollers dans Une Vie divine, Paris, Gallimard, 2005, p. Definition Of A! 386. 18 Je suis lie / Sur une roue de feu (IV, 7, 45-6), dit Lear pour decrire sa souffrance. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness! Les figures du cercle sont aussi importantes dans le theatre de Shakespeare que dans la philosophie de Nietzsche. Definition Of A! Avec lEternel Retour, lAllemand a donne un souffle nouveau a un symbole ancien, que lAnglais utilisait deja (comme nombre de symboles archaiques ou medievaux) au moins pour sa signification cosmique (le cycle des saisons) et dans une perspective pastorale ouvertement dirigee contre le tour pris par lurbanisation de lAngleterre post-medievale. The Impact Essay! La lecture du Roi Lear fait naitre quelques reflexions a propos de la folie telle quon la trouve dans la vie et l?uvre de Nietzsche, notamment dans ses rapports avec la doctrine du Retour. Kohlberg Development! Avec lEternel Retour, Nietzsche a voulu sanctifier le monde et la totalite de letant. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness! Il a parfois ecrit que cette pensee etait a la fois le sommet de sa philosophie et celui de la contemplation. Chinese New Year Bbc! Cest une pensee qui semble facile a comprendre (tout revient) et que cependant Nietzsche qualifie de secrete, incomprehensible du vulgaire (notamment du nain qui accompagne Zarathoustra et croit saisir le sens de linstant, au portique ou se heurtent linfini du passe et linfini de lavenir). And Men:! Sappuyant sur la volonte deternite pour toutes choses quaffiche Nietzsche dun bout a lautre de son ?uvre, Karl Lowith insiste sur le fait que cest pourtant bien lexistence finie et dans le temps que le philosophe entend elever a une signification eternelle17. 1968 Violence! Mais loin que la pensee nietzscheenne enferme lhomme dans un culte de lephemere (ou alors dune facon seconde), lEternel Retour engage chacun a donner au fini une dimension infinie, perenne, eternelle . Of Mice The Impact! Il ny a donc rien dephemere, dans la philosophie de Nietzsche, rien qui disparaisse a jamais. 1968 Convention Violence! Tout revient.

Quoi quil arrive alors, il te faut vouloir ce qui arrive, et en faire ton bonheur et mieux, ta joie. And Men: The Impact! Pareille pensee rend necessaire une acceptation de la totalite du monde jusque dans ses manifestations les plus contradictoires, les plus terribles peut-etre. Chinese! Mais on Of Mice and Men: of Loneliness Essay, na pas manque de souligner quil y avait une contradiction a affirmer la necessite de toutes choses en meme temps que le Surhomme, quenseigne Zarathoustra, et cette exigence de perpetuel depassement de soi quil porte. Chinese New Year Bbc! La philosophie de Nietzsche contient une equation anthropologique et une equation cosmologique qui se contredisent. Of Mice And Men:! Lhomme moderne doit savoir ou investir son courage mais il se heurte a la necessite, qui rend sa volonte superflue. Nurse! Comment concilier le monde physique et la volonte, le retour du soleil et le depassement de soi ? Cest poser le probleme de lunite des contraires en meme temps que celui du rapport de lhomme au monde. And Men: Of Loneliness! Il y a une tentative nietzscheenne de celebrer de nouvelles fiancailles entre lhomme et lunivers naturel, mais Nietzsche semble dans le meme temps avoir conscience que cette tentative est vouee a lechec. Bbc! Car chaque jour le monde post-copernicien apporte de nouvelles decouvertes inconciliables avec le monde ancien, dont lordre naturel ne faisait pas question et ou lhomme trouvait sa place sans que lui soit impose ce statut derrant qui est aujourdhui le sien. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Essay! Nietzsche semble deriver dans linfini, a la recherche dune ile fortunee, comme Prospero jadis chasse de son royaume et refugie sur une ile fantastique dans La Tempete . Convention! Or il ne peut regagner le monde quen le faisant dependre de la volonte creatrice, en transformant len-soi et le pour-soi en un en-moi et un pour-moi18. The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! Puisquil ny a plus de monde, puisque le point de repere fait defaut qui pourrait nous donner un apercu de la totalite, il revient a lhomme, qui pour cela devra se surpasser, de creer le monde, de creer les valeurs grace auxquelles il sera a nouveau possible de parler de monde, de totalite, celle-ci dut-elle etre une totalite ouverte.

Ce que lon appelait monde, dit Zarathoustra, il faudra desormais le creer19. 1968 Democratic! Nietzsche a donc une conception paradoxale du temps et du monde ou il est possible davoir vecu ce qui reste a vivre et de creer ce qui est deja la. Of Mice The Impact! Quel serait le bonheur du soleil qui se leve, dit Zarathoustra dans le Prologue, sil navait ceux quil eclaire ? On voit alors mieux comment Nietzsche, qui souffrit dune sante defaillante, reussit a sanctifier sa vie par sa pensee et par son ?uvre. Studied Development! Cest en acceptant le joug quil se libera. And Men: Of Loneliness! Et on chinese, peut dire alors que Nietzsche naquit de ses propres livres : car sans doute il soupconna assez jeune que la deraison le guettait, mais des La Naissance de la tragedie et quels que soient les revirements a venir, on and Men: of Loneliness Essay, le voit chercher un autre langage, un langage qui abolirait la frontiere entre rationalite et irrationalite, un langage qui ne delivrerait pas de signification aisement codifiable et qui maintiendrait par la meme louverture des possibles. Labour Law Essay! Car lentendement ordonne ce qui originellement est un (la vie , dans sa totalite), il le fragmente et nenonce jamais que des jugements partiels lorsquil tente pourtant de concevoir le tout.

Comment au contraire approuver les antagonismes les plus disparates ? Telle est la question que pose Nietzsche tout au long de son ?uvre. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! Il degage dans La Naissance de la tragedie la necessite du mythe (Dionysos et Apollon), rejetant le socratisme qui pretend resoudre les contradictions du monde tragique par la logique. Pilocarpine Mechanism Of Action! Il revoque a longueur douvrages loptimisme mensonger des natures qui detournent leur regard de labime. Of Mice And Men: The Impact! Il affirme dun bout a lautre que la connaissance de lhorreur et de la folie est, contrairement au prejuge, un signe de force, et que penser le mal ecarte le mal. Definition Of A Nurse! Il conserve partout, en fait, ce pessimisme de la force qui lui permet decrire la tragedie de sa vie avant meme que celle-ci ne se soit deroulee. Of Mice And Men: The Impact Of Loneliness! Un temoignage de Koselitz se revele a ce sujet tout a fait saisissant : Jai vu Nietzsche dans des etats ou cest horrible ! il me faisait leffet de simuler la folie, comme sil etait content que cela finisse ainsi 20. Pilocarpine! Nietzsche aura donc joue Lear, qui fut son dernier masque. And Men: Of Loneliness Essay! Et la mort est venue lorsquil ne lui a plus ete possible de porter de masque. 1 Les citations sont empruntees a la traduction de A. Law Essay! Robin (Le Roi Lear, Paris, Flammarion, 1995). 2 Voir Pierre Brunel, Theatre et cruaute ou Dionysos profane, Paris, Librairie des Meridiens, 1982. 3 Le mot est de Charles Andler dans Nietzsche, sa vie, sa pensee, Paris, Gallimard, 1979, 3 volumes, volume II, p. Of Mice! 613.

4 Histoire de la folie a lage classique, Paris, Gallimard, 1961. 5 Le Voyageur et son ombre, in convention violence ?uvres completes, Paris, Laffont, coll. And Men: The Impact Essay! Bouquins, 2004, 2 volumes, volume I, p. Democratic Violence! 828. 6 Voir Jay L. Of Mice And Men: Essay! Halio, King Lear, a Guide to definition nurse the Play, Wesport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 2001, dernier chapitre. 7 Cite par Karl Lowith, Nietzsche (la philosophie de lEternel Retour), Paris, Hachette, 1998, p. The Impact! 134. 8 Sur Nietzsche (volonte de chance), in development by ?uvres completes, Paris, Gallimard, 1973, volume V, p. The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! 20. 9 On pense ici aux biologismes nazis et staliniens.

10 James Dauphine et Jean Richer, Les Structures symboliques du Roi Lear de Shakespeare, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1979, p. Chinese New Year! 77. 11 Dans King Lear and and Men: The Impact Essay the Gods (San Marino, Californie, 1966), W. Lawrence Studied Development! R. Of Mice Of Loneliness! Elton tente de demontrer que la piece temoigne dun rejet progressif des dieux suivi de ladoption dune sorte de materialisme. 12 Le Gai savoir, 110, in 1968 democratic convention ?uvres completes, Paris, Laffont, coll. The Impact Of Loneliness Essay! Bouquins, 2004, 2 volumes, volume II, p. Chinese New Year! 124. 14 Dictionnaire des racines des langues europeennes, R. And Men:! Grandseigne dHauterive (ed.), Paris, Larousse, 1994, p. Lawrence Kohlberg By! 106. 15 Pierre Leveque et Louis Sechan, Les Grandes divinites de la Grece, Paris, A. And Men: Of Loneliness Essay! Colin, 1990. 16 Le Gai Savoir, Livre II, 84, in chinese ?uvres completes, Paris Laffont, coll.

Bouquins, 2004, 2 volumes, volume II, p. Of Mice Of Loneliness! 101. 17 Voir Karl Lowith, Nietzsche (la philosophie de lEternel Retour), Paris, Hachette, 1998. 18 Cf., Lowith, id., p. Lawrence Studied Development By! 124. 19 Ce que vous appeliez monde doit etre dabord cree par vous , Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra, Dans les Iles Bienheureuses , in and Men: Essay ?uvres completes, Paris, Laffont, coll. Definition! Bouquins, 2 volumes, volume II, p. And Men:! 348. 20 Cite par Philippe Sollers dans Une Vie divine, Paris, Gallimard, 2005, p. Pilocarpine Mechanism! 386. Pierre Jamet , Portrait du philosophe en roi Lear (Shakespeare et Nietzsche) , Philosophique , 10 | 2007, 75-95. Pierre Jamet , Portrait du philosophe en roi Lear (Shakespeare et Nietzsche) , Philosophique [En ligne], 10 | 2007, mis en ligne le 06 avril 2012, consulte le 03 octobre 2017. Of Mice! URL : http://philosophique.revues.org/120 ; DOI : 10.4000/philosophique.120.

(SHAKESPEARE A LA LUMIERE DE NIETZSCHE) #32; [Texte integral] Presses universitaires de Franche-Comte. Mehdi Belhaj Kacem 16 | 2013. La forme - Deleuze (2) 15 | 2012. Hegel - Deleuze (1) 14 | 2011. Esthetique n2 13 | 2010. Wittgenstein - experience(s) 12 | 2009.

Hume - L'individu 11 | 2008. Marx - L'image 10 | 2007. Saint Augustin 7 | 2004. Esthetique 6 | 2003. La volonte 5 | 2002. La metaphysique 2 | 1999. ISSN electronique 2259-4574.

Informations Titre : Philosophique En bref : Revue consacree aux themes du programme de lagregation et aux axes recents de la recherche philosophique.

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The first major section of your resume is called the Career Objective. This applicants Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on Of Mice of Loneliness, the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Of A? Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of of Loneliness Essay, experience in food preparation and service 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and Safety.

3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of bbc, wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to fill: Aiming toeffectively perform a management position at The Impact your restaurant. In the Relations eyes of a hiring manager, this applicants Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the and Men: The Impact Essay objective. Definition? It is also well written, and targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by and Men: The Impact of Loneliness Essay, 11% through 2022.

Its very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the of action applicant makes a convincing argument that shed be an asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about Of Mice and Men: of Loneliness Essay, how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the size and bbc, scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition.

The easiest way to do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons food orders on and Men: of Loneliness Essay, slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to 1968 democratic convention patrons and answer questions about The Impact of Loneliness, menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the pilocarpine mechanism of action vast majority of your competition. If you really want to blow away the hiring manager, youll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurants wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average.

Do you know how much you make in and Men: The Impact of Loneliness Essay sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants especially big chains will track their servers sales statistics for the purposes of budgeting (and, of bbc, course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and and Men: The Impact of Loneliness Essay, include them on symbol equation for copper, your resume. Even if you didnt perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and Of Mice of Loneliness, hard working. This is called writing an achievement oriented resume and these tend to moral by land the most interviews.

Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to Of Mice and Men: The Impact of Loneliness the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and English is a valuable asset to have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in 1968 violence your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume:

Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to of Loneliness Essay be bilingual in Spanish and 1968 convention violence, English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to Of Mice and Men: having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is definition of a nurse because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to of Loneliness Essay food service (Certificate in Food Handling and bbc, Safety, BA in Food Science). Understandably, you may not and thats fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, youll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on you.

The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because its likely that you dont have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs youve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter Newjobs.com (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points.

Otherwise, this is Of Mice and Men: a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done Professional Profile.) Cook CC.edu (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and sulphate, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to Of Mice The Impact of Loneliness your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of democratic, Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and Of Mice and Men: of Loneliness Essay, learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. Of A? See why.

How to Modify and Of Mice The Impact Essay, Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to kohlberg moral development unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for Of Mice of Loneliness a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to Labour Relations Law Essay introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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Clinical and Experimental Dermatology. British Association of Dermatologists. Editor: Dr George W. And Men: The Impact Essay. M. Millington, Norwich, UK. Impact Factor: 1.589. ISI Journal Citation Reports Ranking: 2016: 36/63 (Dermatology) Online ISSN: 1365-2230. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology ( CED ) is a unique provider of relevant and accessible material of educational value to practising clinicians and mechanism of action dermatological researchers. In supporting the Of Mice and Men: The Impact continuing professional development (CPD) of dermatology specialists, the journal aims to advance understanding, management and treatment of skin disease and improve patient outcomes. In addition to a dedicated CPD section, CED publishes review articles, original papers, concise reports and items of correspondence. CED is an official organ of the British Association of Dermatologists but attracts contributions from 1968 violence all countries in which sound clinical practice is conducted, and its circulation is equally international. Journal content and further informationincluding author guidelines and The Impact submission detailscan be found online at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.

2. MANUSCRIPT CATEGORIES. Clinical and Relations Experimental Dermatology invites the following types of Essay submission: The Journal aims to sulphate, publish concise, high-quality review articles on subjects of interest covering both clinical and experimental aspects of dermatology. Review articles may be solicited by the Editor or may be submitted by authors for Of Mice of Loneliness Essay, publication subject to peer review. Review articles must include an abstract (maximum 250 words), should not exceed 1200 words of body text, and are limited to 30 references. A bulleted list of up to 6 'learning points' must also be included; learning points should synthesise the moral by key take home messages and Of Mice and Men: of Loneliness convey how the review article will improve patient health outcomes. Use of illustrations and Law Essay figures in of Loneliness, review articles is encouraged. Occasionally, submission of review articles of longer length, with more references, may be permitted, if the article concerned is a systematic review, national clinical guideline or meta-analysis. All such submissions must be discussed with the editor prior to symbol for copper, submission.

Review articles must also include 5 multiple choice questions (MCQs) which test the knowledge of the reader. Detailed guidelines for of Loneliness, authors in writing MCQs are provided here . Original articles must include a structured abstract (maximum 250 words), should not exceed 2000 words of body text, and democratic convention are limited to 25 references. Figures should not normally exceed four in number. Of Mice And Men: Of Loneliness. Original articles must include bulleted statements (maximum 70 words) in new year, answer to and Men:, the following questions: what's already known about this topic?; what does this study add? Concise reports must include an abstract (maximum 150 words, no subtitles), followed by the body text formatted into an introduction, report and discussion, and should not exceed 1000 words (excluding references). No more than 10 references should be cited. A bulleted list of up to chinese, 6 'Learning Points' must also be included; Learning Points should synthesise the The Impact of Loneliness Essay key take home messages and convey how the Concise Report will improve patient health outcomes. A maximum of three figures are permitted. Correspondence (Letters to lawrence kohlberg studied moral development, the Editor) may be in response to issues arising from recently published articles, or short, free-standing pieces expressing an opinion.

The correspondence section aims to and Men: The Impact of Loneliness, reflect a wide number of issues relevant to clinical and pilocarpine mechanism of action experimental studies in dermatology, as well as encompassing personal views on clinical practice or dermatological research. Letters should be formatted in one continuous section, should not exceed 500 words, and are limited to Of Mice and Men: The Impact of Loneliness, 5 references, two tables and nurse two figures. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) The Journal aims to publish regular, peer-reviewed educational features relevant to and Men: Essay, the practice of clinical dermatology. The main types of article are currently: • Clinicopathological cases These should provide a test of the pilocarpine mechanism of action reader's diagnostic skills. For each, the clinical history, pathology and Of Mice and Men: The Impact Essay illustration(s) should be presented first (on one printed page of the Journal). Definition Of A. This should be followed by the diagnosis, discussion and learning points. The entire text and Essay all illustrative material will be limited to two printed pages of the lawrence kohlberg studied by Journal. As a guide, clinicopathological cases should not exceed 600 words and are limited to 6 references.

All clinicopathological cases must also include 2 multiple choice questions (MCQs) which test the knowledge of the reader. Detailed guidelines for Of Mice of Loneliness, authors in writing MCQs are provided here . • A paper that changed clinical practice Such articles should encompass discussion of a published paper that has made an impact on the author's management of patients. Labour. The text should not exceed 800 words and no more than 6 references should be cited. All paper that changed clinical practice submissions must also include 2 multiple choice questions (MCQs) which test the knowledge of the reader. Detailed guidelines for authors in writing MCQs are provided here . • A memorable patient These should report a case that made an impact on the author. The text should not exceed 600 words and should include no more than two figures and 6 references. All memorable patient articles must also include 2 multiple choice questions (MCQs) which test the Of Mice The Impact of Loneliness Essay knowledge of the reader.

Detailed guidelines for authors in writing MCQs are provided here . • Genetic report These should report a case involving genetics or a genodermatosis that made an impact on the author. The text should not exceed 600 words and should include no more than two clinical figures, plus a histological figure, an chinese new year bbc electrophoretogram, up to 2 tables and The Impact Essay 6 references. All genetic report articles must also include 2 multiple choice questions (MCQs) which test the knowledge of the reader. Detailed guidelines for authors in writing MCQs are provided here . • Therapeutic vignette These should describe, and preferably illustrate, a therapeutic technique regularly used and chinese new year considered especially useful by the author. This may be surgical, medical, or may relate to other therapeutic and cosmetic modalities such as cryotherapy, lasers etc. Illustrations should not exceed 2 in number.

The text should not exceed 800 words and up to 6 references may be cited. All therapeutic vignette articles must also include 2 multiple choice questions (MCQs) which test the knowledge of the reader. And Men: Essay. Detailed guidelines for authors in writing MCQs are provided here . • Patient view point These should be a joint article, predominantly written by Relations, the patient ( up to Of Mice and Men: of Loneliness Essay, 800 words body text), but with up to 250 words additionally provided by the clinician(s), which would be kept separately in a text-box. Up to 5 references may cited. Unlike other CPD articles, multiple choice questions are not required for patient viewpoint manuscripts. 3. SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS. Submissions should be made online at the Clinical and Experimental Dermatology ScholarOne Manuscripts site (formerly known as Manuscript Central).

New users should first create an account. Once a user is nurse logged onto and Men: The Impact of Loneliness Essay, the site, submissions should be made via the Author Centre. Completed consent forms must be uploaded to ScholarOne Manuscripts at the same time as manuscript submission using file designation 'Supplementary files not for review'. Revised manuscripts must be submitted as revisions as directed by the Manuscript Central website. Do not resubmit a revision as a new manuscript as this may result in re-review and considerable delay. The revision should be complete and contain all the tables and figures. Pilocarpine Mechanism Of Action. Do not resubmit the original manuscript with your revision . 4. PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS. Manuscripts must be written in English and must comply with these instructions in every detail. Text should be supplied in a word processed format such as Microsoft Word for Of Mice Essay, Windows. Charts and lawrence studied by tables are considered textual and should be supplied in the same format.

Figures (illustrations, diagrams, photographs) should be supplied in The Impact, gif, jpeg, tif or eps format. All manuscripts must be typed in 1968 democratic, 12 pt font with lines double spaced and margins of at least 2.5 cm. Abbreviations must be defined when first used, both in the abstract and in the main text. Manuscripts must be as succinct as possible. Text must comply with the word and figure limits defined in The Impact Essay, Section 2. 1968 Convention Violence. If authors consider that a manuscript should not conform to Of Mice and Men: The Impact of Loneliness Essay, the limits specified, exceptionally good reasons must be clearly provided in a letter to the Editor accompanying the submission.

Repetition of information or data in different sections of the manuscript must be carefully avoided. Manuscripts should, where appropriate, include: The first page of all manuscripts (including correspondence) should contain the following information: 1) the title of the paper. 2) Surnames (family names) and initials of each author. 3) name of the institution at which the of a nurse research was conducted. 4) name, address, telephone and fax number, and email address of corresponding author. 5) 26 article keywords. 6) manuscript word count (excluding abstract and Of Mice references), table and figure count. 7) any conflict of interest disclosures (see Section 5). 8) a running head not exceeding 50 characters.

Authors submitting Original Articles should note that structured abstracts (maximum 250 words) are required. The structured abstract should adopt the format: Background, Aim, Methods, Results, Conclusions. Review articles require abstracts (maximum 250 words), as do concise reports (maximum 150 words) but they need not be structured. Abstracts should contain no reference citations. Correspondence and CPD articles do not require abstracts. This should in general, but not necessarily, be divided into lawrence development sections with the headings: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Tables, Legends and Figures. Figures should be submitted as separate files. The acknowledgements should include a statement of all funding sources that supported the work.

Please submit the full text of the Of Mice and Men: The Impact of Loneliness Essay manuscript, including the abstract, tables, legends, references and bulleted statements as a single document. A separate abstract will be requested on submission and chinese new year bbc will be used for Of Mice and Men:, inviting reviewers. Chinese New Year Bbc. This should match the abstract in the main manuscript. Tables and Figures. Tables and Of Mice The Impact figures should not be inserted in the appropriate place in the text but should be included at the end of the 1968 democratic manuscript, each on a separate page. Tables and figures should be referred to Of Mice The Impact Essay, in text as follows: Fig. Violence. 1, Figs 24; Table 1, Table 2. The place at which a table or figure is to be inserted in the printed text should be indicated clearly on a manuscript. Each table and/or figure must have a legend that explains its purpose without reference to the text. Of Loneliness. Where a figure has more than one panel, each panel should be labelled in the top left-hand corner using lower case letters in parentheses i.e. ‘(a)’, ‘(b)’ etc., and a brief description of each panel given in the figure legend.

Only figures of excellent quality will be considered for publication. The Journal will publish colour photographs free of charge subject to Labour Relations, editorial approval. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce previously published figures or tables. When an individual is identifiable in a photograph written permission must be obtained (see under ‘ethics’ below). References should be in Vancouver format and appear as consecutive, unbracketed superscript numbers in the text, e.g. ‘in our previous reports1,2 and those of Smith et al. 35’ and should be listed numerically in the reference list at the end of the article.

Format references as below, using standard (Medline) abbreviations for of Loneliness Essay, journal titles. When there are more than four authors, include the pilocarpine mechanism first three authors followed by et al. 1 de Berker DAR, Baran R, Dawber RPR. The Nail in Dermatological Diseases. The Impact Of Loneliness Essay. In: Baran and Dawber's Diseases of the Nails and violence their Management (Baran R, Dawber RPR, de Berker DAR, Haneke E, Tosti, A, eds), 3rd edn. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd, 2001: 17292. 2 Murray ML, Cohen JB.

Mycophenolate mofetil therapy for moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Dermatol 2007; 32: 237. 3 Graham-Brown R, Burns T. And Men: Of Loneliness Essay. Lecture Notes : Dermatology . Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2006. 4 Smith A. (1999) Select committee report into social care in the community [WWW document]. URL http://www.dhss.gov.uk/reports/report015285.html [accessed on 7 November 2003]. We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote for reference management and formatting.

EndNote reference styles can be searched for here: http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp . Submission of a manuscript will be held to bbc, imply that it contains original unpublished work and of Loneliness Essay is not being submitted for pilocarpine mechanism of action, publication elsewhere at the same time. The author must supply a full statement to the Editor about Of Mice and Men: of Loneliness, all submissions and violence previous reports that might be regarded as redundant or duplicate publication of the same or very similar work. CED employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript, you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works. Conflicts of Interest.

Authors are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships between themselves and others that might be perceived by others as biasing their work. To prevent ambiguity, authors must state explicitly whether potential conflicts do or do not exist. When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the The Impact of Loneliness Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983. Do not use patients' names, initials or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the 1968 violence institution's or a national research council's guide for, or any national law on, the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. A statement describing explicitly the Of Mice The Impact of Loneliness ethical background to the studies being reported should be included in Relations Law Essay, all manuscripts in the Materials and Of Mice and Men: The Impact Essay Methods section. Ethics committee or institutional review board approval should be stated. Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and Law Essay the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. The Impact Of Loneliness. Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential but patient data should never be altered or falsified in an attempt to attain anonymity.

Complete anonymity is definition nurse difficult to achieve and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. And Men: The Impact Essay. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship and all those who qualify should be listed. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for of a nurse, appropriate portions of the content. One or more authors should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, from inception to published article. Authorship credit should be based only on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of Of Mice and Men: The Impact data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3) final approval of the version to be published. Conditions 1, 2 and 3 must all be met. Acquisition of funding, the Relations Law Essay collection of data or general supervision of the and Men: of Loneliness Essay research group, by themselves, do not justify authorship. All others who contributed to the work who are not authors should be named in the Acknowledgements section. Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)

As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), adherence to these submission criteria is symbol equation sulphate considered essential for of Loneliness, publication in Clinical and Experimental Dermatology; mandatory fields are included in the online submission process to ensure this. If, at a later stage in the submission process or even after publication, a manuscript or authors are found to have disregarded these criteria, it is the duty of the Editor to report this to bbc, COPE. COPE may recommend that action be taken, including but not exclusive to, informing the authors' professional regulatory body and/or institution of such a dereliction. Copyright Transfer Agreement. If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of Of Mice Essay all authors on the paper. Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA. Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA.

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