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business plan lounge Use Business Plan Pro to edit this sample plan and Essay make it your own. Over 500+ additional sample plans also included. Restaurant - Fine Dining. Gabri's Lounge Restaurant is a 60 seat fine-dining restaurant with a 20 seat lounge. We focus on Efficacy of Air Power Kosovo our New American-Swedish menu with a touch of Asian influence. We will be located in the booming, and rapidly expanding, borough of Long Branch, New Jersey 'on the shore.' The outlook for the future of Long Branch is promising. On The Confucian Ethics. Developers are recreating a $150 million first-class resort project. The old pier will be rebuilt with ferry service to Manhattan, New York City, beach cabanas, boardwalk and a bike path over a total of 25 acres. There will be 100,000 sq. Efficacy Kosovo. ft. of commercial space, and over on The Confucian, 700 residential units with condo and townhouses ranging from $200,000-$500,000; rentals from $1000-$2,500 a month, and what effects of deforestation a two-tier garage. The combination of these elements will provide the city with a year-round economy.

The area is in need of a warm and friendly place with excellent food. On The Confucian Ethics. A place where you always know you will get the best of everything. Gabri's Lounge Restaurant will feature a cozy dining room and environmental issues an elegant lounge. Comfortable furnishings and decor with soothing warm tones. Essay Ethics. The lounge has comfy couches and what antique love seats with a softly lit bar. Ethics. It will be the perfect place to stop in for a bite to eat, for a drink or for a small business meeting.

For extra comfort and to please a large group of people we will make up special hors d' oeuvre platters for of deforestation, customers. The menu will be inspired from different countries' specialties and appeal to a diverse clientele. You can get Swedish specialties like herring, gravlax and on The Ethics meatballs, or you can go a little bit more International and environmental issues choose a red curry chicken with basmati rice, or an Asian grilled shrimp with spinach, tofu and black bean sauce. We will also have a special pasta dish entree every day plus the 'all American meal' such as barbecue beef ribs and baked beans. Adding value will be an interesting business lunch menu with specialties every day. The menu will change every 3-4 months but keep the Essay Confucian Ethics favorites.

Prices will be competitive with other upscale restaurants in on his, the area. However, it is the strategy of Essay on The, Gabri's Lounge Restaurant to give a perception of higher value than its competitors, through its food, service and entertainment. The lounge and restaurant will be open seven days a week. We will offer special theme nights to Attention Disorder Essay, attract new customers to Gabri's. The restaurant will be fine dining in a cozy atmosphere. Warm colors, fresh flowers, soft music, candles and amazing artwork from some of the Essay Ethics areas most notable new artists. This will contribute to a sense of community and give new artists a chance to show their work for a diverse clientele. In Brave. During the on The Confucian Ethics busy summer months you can also sit outside on our patio and Power in the Kosovo we will offer a special summer menu, featuring lighter fare, exotic drinks, as well as non-alcoholic offerings. The patio and garden setting will be a fun and casual atmosphere for the summer crowd.

The service will be relaxed, very friendly and correct. We will hire the best people available, training, motivating and encourage them, and thereby retaining the friendliest most efficient staff possible. Our management team is comprised of Essay Ethics, individuals whose backgrounds consist of 50 years experience in food, restaurant and hotel, catering, management, finance, marketing, art and motion pictures. Catering will be a major part of the business. New World. Leave it to Linda Catering already has an established clientele and we are growing each and every day. We feel in today's hectic work schedule customers don't always have time to set up that birthday party or other event that we all need and want.

Now customers can leave it to pros and get the finest, most memorable party or dinner ever. We have years of experience in the catering business and know what an important client wants and needs. We will have a large International menu for customers to select from, and we will offer full catering service providing everything from table settings to on The Confucian Ethics, the dessert. We anticipate our total sales allocation to be 85% restaurant sales and on his 15% catering sales. The combined cost of sales will be 33% producing a gross profit of 67% on total sales. Most important to us is our financial success and Essay on The Confucian we believe this will be achieved by classical criminology, offering high-quality service and excellent food with an interesting twist.

We have created financial projections based on our experience and knowledge of the area. With a start-up expenditure of $385,000 we can generate $1,085,465 in Essay Confucian Ethics, sales by the end of year two, and in brave produce good net profits by the end of year three. We are seeking an SBA 7(A) loan guaranty for $200,000 with a 7% interest rate. We are investing $60,000 of our own capital and Essay Ethics seeking to classical, raise an additional $125,000 from investors. Our preferred instrument will be five year subordinated notes with an attractive coupon rate of 12% for the first two years and Confucian Ethics 15% for the remaining three years. Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. At the end of five years the investors' notes will have matured and on The Ethics original principal plus a 2% premium and the final interest payment will be made. Our investor philosophy is conservative.

Since restaurant start-ups are so speculative our belief and commitment to our investors will be to of Air Power Kosovo War Essay, pay a generous, predictable rate of return while not strangling our operational cash flow. As our business becomes more established and Essay on The reliable, our ability to pay an improved return of in malaysia article, capital will be evidenced by an increased coupon rate of 15% of on The Confucian, original principal. At maturity we feel it proper to retire the notes with a 2% premium to original principal invested. Gabri's Lounge Restaurant's objectives for the first three years of on his, operation includes: Keeping food cost under 35% revenue. Keeping employee labor cost between 24-29% of revenue. Stay as a small restaurant with excellent food and service. Averaging sales between $1,000,000-1,500,000 per year. Promote and expand Leave it to Linda Catering in Confucian, New Jersey New York City.

Expand our marketing and advertising in New Jersey and New York. Achieve 12% return on investment to investors for in malaysia article, the first two years and Essay on The Confucian 15% for the next three years. Gabri's is a great place to eat, combining an intriguing atmosphere with excellent, interesting food. The mission is not only to have great tasting food, but have efficient and friendly service because customer satisfaction is paramount. We want to be the restaurant choice for all families and singles, young and old, male or female. Employee welfare will be equally important to Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Essay, our success. Everyone will be treated fairly and with the utmost respect. We want our employees to on The, feel a part of the success of Gabri's Lounge and Restaurant. Happy employees make happy guests. We will combine menu variety, atmosphere, ambiance, special theme nights and a friendly staff to create a sense of 'place' in order to reach our goal of over criminology, all value in the dining/entertainment experience. We want fair profits for the owners, and a rewarding place to work for the employees.

The creation of a unique and innovative fine dining atmosphere will differentiate us from the competition. Essay On The. The restaurant will stand out from the other restaurants in the area because of the unique design and issues decor. We will offer a fine dining experience in a cozy atmosphere. Product quality. Not only great food but great service and atmosphere. The menu will appeal to a wide and varied clientele. It is International with an interesting twist.

We will have special theme nights like restaurant nights, local artist's openings, Easter dinners, Swedish Midsummer party, Fourth of July celebration, Labor Day weekend, wine tasting dinners, special ethnic food nights, and Swedish smA¶rgA?sbord. Essay Ethics. All this will attract a varied clientele to Gabri's. Leave it to Linda Catering already has an established clientele in the area. Controlling costs at all times without exception. Due to intense competition, restauranteurs must look for ways to are the effects of deforestation, differentiate their place of business in order to on The Confucian, achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. The founders of Gabri's realize this. With the re-development of Long Branch, it needs a place that will fit into the 'new look' of the community that is sophisticated and entertaining. The fact that no other restaurants in the area has this concept and Efficacy Power in the War Essay atmosphere presents us with a window of opportunity and an entrance into a profitable niche in the market.

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Essay on The Confucian Ethics

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Eisen, Zink, Mangan oder Nickel und können verwertet werden. Sie können die Batterien nach Gebrauch entweder an in malaysia article uns zurücksenden oder in Essay on The Ethics unmittelbarer Nähe (z.B. Environmental. im Handel oder in kommunalen Sammelstellen oder in unserem Versandlager) unentgeltlich zurückgegeben. Essay Ethics. Die Abgabe in article Verkaufsstellen ist dabei auf für Endnutzer für die übliche Mengen sowie solche Altbatterien beschränkt, die der Vertreiber als Neubatterien in on The Confucian seinem Sortiment führt oder geführt hat. Das Zeichen mit der durchgekreuzten Mülltonne bedeutet, dass Sie Batterien und Akkus nicht im Hausmüll entsorgen dürfen. Unter diesem Zeichen finden Sie zusätzlich nachstehende Symbole mit folgender Bedeutung: Pb: Batterie enthält Blei. Cd: Batterie enthält Cadmium. Hg: Batterie enthält Quecksilber. Original Brother Toner TN-230M TN230-m Magenta.

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Die nachfolgenden Hinweise richten sich an diejenigen, die Batterien nutzen und in der an in brave sie gelieferten Form nicht mehr weiterveräußern (Endnutzer): Da in on The unseren Sendungen Batterien und Akkus enthalten sein können, sind wir nach dem Batteriegesetz (BattG) verpflichtet, Sie auf Folgendes hinzuweisen: Batterien und Akkus dürfen nicht im Hausmüll entsorgt werden, sondern Sie sind zur Rückgabe gebrauchter Batterien und Akkus gesetzlich verpflichtet. Soma New World. Altbatterien können Schadstoffe enthalten, die bei nicht sachgemäßer Lagerung oder Entsorgung die Umwelt oder Ihre Gesundheit schädigen können. Essay On The Ethics. Batterien enthalten aber auch wichtige Rohstoffe wie z.B. Of Deforestation. Eisen, Zink, Mangan oder Nickel und können verwertet werden. Sie können die Batterien nach Gebrauch entweder an on The uns zurücksenden oder in effects of deforestation unmittelbarer Nähe (z.B. Essay. im Handel oder in are the effects kommunalen Sammelstellen oder in Essay unserem Versandlager) unentgeltlich zurückgegeben. Attention Essay. Die Abgabe in Essay on The Confucian Ethics Verkaufsstellen ist dabei auf für Endnutzer für die übliche Mengen sowie solche Altbatterien beschränkt, die der Vertreiber als Neubatterien in soma in brave new world seinem Sortiment führt oder geführt hat. Das Zeichen mit der durchgekreuzten Mülltonne bedeutet, dass Sie Batterien und Akkus nicht im Hausmüll entsorgen dürfen. On The Ethics. Unter diesem Zeichen finden Sie zusätzlich nachstehende Symbole mit folgender Bedeutung:

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Die nachfolgenden Hinweise richten sich an Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity diejenigen, die Batterien nutzen und in Ethics der an environmental article sie gelieferten Form nicht mehr weiterveräußern (Endnutzer): Da in unseren Sendungen Batterien und Akkus enthalten sein können, sind wir nach dem Batteriegesetz (BattG) verpflichtet, Sie auf Folgendes hinzuweisen: Batterien und Akkus dürfen nicht im Hausmüll entsorgt werden, sondern Sie sind zur Rückgabe gebrauchter Batterien und Akkus gesetzlich verpflichtet. Confucian Ethics. Altbatterien können Schadstoffe enthalten, die bei nicht sachgemäßer Lagerung oder Entsorgung die Umwelt oder Ihre Gesundheit schädigen können. On His Blindness. Batterien enthalten aber auch wichtige Rohstoffe wie z.B. On The Confucian. Eisen, Zink, Mangan oder Nickel und können verwertet werden. Sie können die Batterien nach Gebrauch entweder an effects of deforestation uns zurücksenden oder in Essay on The unmittelbarer Nähe (z.B. Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Essay. im Handel oder in kommunalen Sammelstellen oder in unserem Versandlager) unentgeltlich zurückgegeben. Essay Confucian Ethics. Die Abgabe in on his blindness Verkaufsstellen ist dabei auf für Endnutzer für die übliche Mengen sowie solche Altbatterien beschränkt, die der Vertreiber als Neubatterien in on The Confucian Ethics seinem Sortiment führt oder geführt hat.

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Da in unseren Sendungen Batterien und Akkus enthalten sein können, sind wir nach dem Batteriegesetz (BattG) verpflichtet, Sie auf Folgendes hinzuweisen: Batterien und Akkus dürfen nicht im Hausmüll entsorgt werden, sondern Sie sind zur Rückgabe gebrauchter Batterien und Akkus gesetzlich verpflichtet. Environmental In Malaysia Article. Altbatterien können Schadstoffe enthalten, die bei nicht sachgemäßer Lagerung oder Entsorgung die Umwelt oder Ihre Gesundheit schädigen können. Batterien enthalten aber auch wichtige Rohstoffe wie z.B. Eisen, Zink, Mangan oder Nickel und können verwertet werden. Sie können die Batterien nach Gebrauch entweder an Essay on The Confucian uns zurücksenden oder in unmittelbarer Nähe (z.B. im Handel oder in Efficacy of Air Kosovo War Essay kommunalen Sammelstellen oder in unserem Versandlager) unentgeltlich zurückgegeben. On The. Die Abgabe in what are the effects Verkaufsstellen ist dabei auf für Endnutzer für die übliche Mengen sowie solche Altbatterien beschränkt, die der Vertreiber als Neubatterien in on The seinem Sortiment führt oder geführt hat. Das Zeichen mit der durchgekreuzten Mülltonne bedeutet, dass Sie Batterien und Akkus nicht im Hausmüll entsorgen dürfen. Environmental Issues In Malaysia Article. Unter diesem Zeichen finden Sie zusätzlich nachstehende Symbole mit folgender Bedeutung: Pb: Batterie enthält Blei. Cd: Batterie enthält Cadmium.

Hg: Batterie enthält Quecksilber. Informationen Versandkosten Zahlungsarten Kontakt Blog AGB Impressum Versandarten Zahlungsarten Sicherheit. Bei uns werden all Ihre wichtigen und persönlichen Daten während des gesamten Bestellprozesses mit einer 256-Bit-Verschlüsselung geschützt! Versandkosten innerhalb Deutschlands. Um eine reibungslose, schnelle und bestmögliche Zustellung Ihrer Ware zu gewährleisten, arbeiten wir mit mehreren Logistikpartnern zusammen. Der Beginn der Lieferfrist bestimmt sich abhängig von der gewählten Zahlungsart. Bei Zahlung per Essay Ethics, Vorkasse/Banküberweisung oder PayPal beginnt die Lieferfrist einen Tag nach Zahlungsanweisung.

Bei allen anderen Zahlungsarten beginnt die Frist einen Tag nach der Bestellung. Fällt der Fristbeginn oder das Fristende auf einen Samstag, Sonntag oder einen gesetzlichen Feiertag, so verschieben sich Fristbeginn bzw. Criminology. Fristende auf den folgenden Werktag. Bei der Bezahlung Ihrer Bestellung bieten wir Ihnen ebenfalls zahlreiche Möglichkeiten an. Sie können im Bestellprozess Ihre gewünschte Zahlungsart frei aus folgenden Optionen individuell wählen. (zzgl. On The Confucian Ethics. 2,00 € Übermittlungsentgelt bei DHL-Zustellung) Sicher ist sicher! Versandkosten außerhalb Deutschlands. Belgien, Niederlande, Slowakei, Slowenien, Tschechien, Ungarn, –sterreich.

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a1 essays [ 1. Ethics. Phenomenlogy and Pedagogic Hermeneutics; 2. Disconstruction and Personal Development; 3. Genealogy and Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Essay, Teleology; 4. Essay Ethics. The Textuality of Understanding and the Primordiality of Seeing (or Darsana); 5. Texualtiy and environmental in malaysia article, Intentionality ] Hermeneutics and Metaphysics 1. Phenomenology and Pedagogic Hermeneutics. A passage from ' Phenomenology and Essay Ethics, Sociology by Thomas Luckmann (Ed) (Pp89) Phenomenology describes the constitution of our experiences by recourse to the most direct evidence available. Its criteria of verification differ, however, from those used to good purpose in social sciences. In contrast to the epistemologically naive observations and on his blindness, 'measurements' of more or less public events that we practice in the social sciences when we look for 'data', the 'data' of phenomenology are of a more elementary nature. We find them by inspection of Essay, our experiences. By using the methods of phenomenological 'reduction' we proceed step by step from historically, biographically, socially and culturally concrete features of everyday experience to its elementary structures. This is a procedure that differs from the 'inductive' generalizations of environmental issues article, empirical sciences.

Evidently, the result of inspection and 'reduction' can be communicated in a further step to fellow-men. By recourse to evidence of the same kind on their part, they can be inter subjectively verified. This notion intersubjective verification, communicating and seeking confirmation(?) from fellow-men about the phenomenologically reduced elements of Essay, MY experience, creates problems for phenomenology as a science. For the notion of Others, fellow-men just as true and SAME in some ways as myself, exceeds phenomenological reduction unless we invoke the notion of PARALLELISM which in turn presupposes the blindness, being-there of others just the same as myself. Essay On The Confucian Ethics. Also how does the notion of EVIDENCE that Husserl mentions in his writings on Phenomenology has applications or meaning in the context of the meaning of verification here? I see the problem in this way.

The self, exercising phenomenological reduction or what Husserl called 'eidetic reduction', does not require evidence for itself for in the perception of environmental issues, elementary structures of its consciousness, the 'elementariness' of them is enough for self to be certain. The evidences are required NOT FOR SELF but in the context of communicating to OTHERS who may disagree with them. Here again we come across the Essay Confucian Ethics, being-there of others just like myself as a PRESUPPOSITION of phenomenology. The notion of eidetic reduction and seeking inter subjective verification, the THEY also perceiving elementary structures in THEIR own experiences remains a PRESUPPOSITION that remains irreducible. The Other can protest, combat, disagree , ridicule , comes to blow with me etc. . I CANNOT reduce away such behaviours phenomenologically to of Air in the Kosovo War Essay elementary structures of my OWN experiences without denying the OTHERNESS of others. If I try to do that, then I become an Essay Ethics, idealist like the Indian Vedanties, where everything become kaRpitham, my mental construct without any substantial reality or simply REFLECTIONS of one Brahman through different contextualising factors that they call upathies. In Pedagogic Hermeneutics( or Hermeneutic Science, in the way I have articulated) we overcome this problem by accepting as a TRUTH the plurality of individuals jointly concerned with UNDERSTANDING the world, existence etc. and who MAY GO WRONG in their seeking. This possibility of being wrong, making mistakes etc. is AVOIDED by seeking continuously AGREEMENT with others. The act of communicating is actually an act INSTRUCTING. I learn through my hermeneutic interpretative movements, and classical, UNDERSTANDING that I have gained becomes that which I communicate to an OTHER who MAY NOT agree.

But when there is Ethics, LEARNING that which I communicate and because of which there is classical criminology, agreement, then it becomes possible that I am NOT MISTAKEN, that what I have understood and bold enough to communicate is a TRUTH. Between me and those who agree with me there is SAMENESS of UNDERSTANDING. The possibility of this SAMENESS of understanding between individuals absolutely different and autonomous also makes that which is communicated OBJECTIVELY true, a stuff of the world out there and NOT a fiction of my mind. What I am saying here is that which is available in the notion of Essay Confucian, otta kaadci utti in the Last sutra of Marabiyal (` 400 B.C.) , one of the most important phrases the origins of which goes back to the school system of the Sumerian times. ( 2000 B.C.) The utti ( Sk ukti) here are textual interpretations that will bring about environmental in malaysia article SAMENESS of SEEING and Essay on The, hence agreement. Thus emerges also the notion that TRUTH cannot be idiosynctratic or even the secret held within the closed doors of a bunch priests or recluses. TRUTH allows and sustains PUBLIC AGREEMENT and hence ASSENT by all who are capable of raising themselves to that level of cognitive functioning. Hermeneutics and Metaphysics 2. Disconstruction and Personal Development. Through the empirical studies of many TEXTS including the non-verbal drawings in Access Tests , I rediscovered what Tholkappiyar more than two thousand years ago discovered as an important structural element in every TEXTS viz. sequential organization that he called Athika«ra MuRaimai, an organization quite distinct from the Whole-Part relationship, the pakuthi-thokuthi that has played a central role in Western Hermeneutics. It is this which enabled me to see EPISODIZATION as something that is done by every author , including young children, who would execute a coherent TEXT that is COMPLETED and hence a WHOLE in some sense. Criminology. But of course this is done UNCONSCIOUSLY but it is Essay on The Ethics, there in the TEXTS he brings forth for everybody to see only if they have the eyes to see. But what is this episodization, the verbalized form of 'episode'?

When X is episodized there is simultaneously the allowing to emerge an Y which is soma, distinct from X and because of which episodization is terminating-initiating, the antam-aati of Meykandar , and hence DISCONSTRUCTION as distinct from Heidegger's destruction and Derrida's deconstruction. And to do this, X has to be seen as a WHOLE for otherwise its LACK cannot be seen and articulated. That which is episodized, the X, has to be seen as TOTALITY in on The Ethics order to see what is still wanting in what are the effects it, what deficiency lurks within but still remains unnoticed. Essay On The. To episodize is to HIGHLIGHT this LACK and hence to push it down to the PAST, now as something that belongs to HISTORY and allow , in virtue of that, a Y to environmental issues in malaysia occupy the presence, be the CURRENT, the yngoing concern. Hence episodization ii 'depresencing', the dethroning the Essay Ethics, current, the ongoing , the presence as NO MORE so and Efficacy in the Kosovo War Essay, replace it something NEW.

Episodization is inherently revolutionary. Thus what is episodized is pushed DOWN in the ladder of progress, of development and growth. But it is NOT vaporized , allowed to disappear into a NOTHINGNESS. It is retained in the current, the ongoing etc as that which has been ASSIMILATED, understood and already incorporated into Essay on The Confucian Ethics, the ongoing positively or negatively or as the Tamil Philosophers would say, as Akam or PuRam, as within the ongoing or exterior to it. Or as Parapakkam or Supakkam in the style AruNandi Sivacariyar, a famous Tamil Philosopher of the 13th cent.A.D. To episodize then, is to allow the presence of another WHOLE, a Gestalt more comprehensive and blindness, inclusive than that which has been episodized and pushed down now as belonging to the past. The UNDERSTANDING that remains unepisodizable in this sense is SUPAKKAM, the TRUTH. The Saiva Siddhanta Metaphysics was given this turn by Confucian Ethics, Meykandar by his understanding that BEING is antam-aati: the Ground disconstrcution and regeneration . This competence to blindness episodize also noted as a FUNDAMENTAL competence of self, the individual psyche, as its essence as observed by Meykandar who notes this by saying that the psyche in essence is the aintezuttu, the si-va-ya-na-ma, the cognitive demons that enables a psyche to episodize, consciously or unconsciously.

Now because episodization is Essay on The Confucian Ethics, SEQUENTIAL where the deficiencies in the earlier are made good in the latter, we can note an ABSOLUTE END, the MUKTI as a situation where further episodizations are IMPOSSIBLE. When we arrive psychically at this way of Being, it informs us that that's the END , the CLOSURE, towards which we have been moving all along. But now finally it has ARRIVED, it has come HOME, the Viidu where the episodizing tendency is put t to rest, NOT allowed to show itself from within. Thus there is STRUCTURE and GENESIS in the Pedagogic Hermeneutics that centres on episodization as the FUNDAMENTAL activity that all psychic entities practice, consciously or unconsciously. There is Global Structure and Local Structure of Attention, that which is episodized. Essay Confucian. The Global Structure puts it as belonging to issues History , to Tradition as a part of the grand World History. The Local Structure discloses the individual concerns, that with which a finite mind is concerned . In the Historical, there is SEQUENTIAL structure which can be a progress or the converse. Where the deficiencies of that which is episodized , the on The Confucian, X, is understood and because of which a Y that does not have that deficiency is allowed to be the PRESENCE, there is sequentiality along with PROGRESS or DEVELOPMENT. Here there is also a GENESIS: Y is generated from an X by the act of episodization. The genetic does not exist within the Local Structure, between X as a whole and its constituent structures., within Whole- Part relationships or as the Tamil philosophers would put it between avayavi and avayavam, the organismic whole and its organs.

The Genesis and Development or its converse is noted only within Sequential Organization, the are the effects, Athikara MuRaimai of Tholkappiyar. The static structuralism does NOT disclose the movement that allows us to recognize Progress and Development or the ABSENCE of it. Essay Confucian. And here we see what distinguishes Hermeneutic Counselling from others. On His Blindness. In Hermeneutic Counselling we allow, encourage, work for the confused and bewildered individual to EFFECT EPISODIZATION on his OWN UNDERSTANDING on Essay on The his OWN so that the present understanding that's the source of worries pains , mental sickness etc. is episodized and in criminology its place a new understanding, a Y , comes to prevail and along with it mental health and Confucian Ethics, better clarity. It is NOT a total breakaway from the past but rather a disconstruction, the assimilating what can be into the present and discarding what cannot or should not be and this evaluated on the basis of TRUTH. It is actually a reconstituting self with less of the negative and more of the positive and of deforestation, auspicious. This applies not only Depth Psychology but also to the whole gamut of Human Sciences. Let me add here a bit : as far as I know the Vedantic thinking inspired by Sankara and as available in the Tamil philosophical texts such as Tattuvaamirtam, Amirtasaaram of Tattuvarayar (16th cent), the Kaivalya Navaneetam of Tandavaraa a CuvaamikaL, ( 14th or 15th cent ?) , the Vedanta IlakkaNam of I cuur Caccatanatar (19th cent) and so forth DO NOT articulate a metaphysics in terms of this kind of episodiazation or cangkaaram. The Sarva Darsana Cangraha of Vittiyaranya also does NOT understand the Indian philosophical systems in terms of Parapakkam and Suppakkam as is on The Confucian, done by AruNandi Civaccariyar, the foremost pupil of Meykandar. On His. While Namazvar does subscribe to this view, the Upaya Vedanta of Ramanuja does not and hence the Essay on The Confucian, Sri Vaisnavisam failed to on his blindness articulate the Camayaatiitam , that of transcending religions and become absolutely universal by Confucian, becoming metaphysically PURE, something that gets very clearly articulated in KaNNudaiya VaLlal's ozivil Odukkam ' (13th cent) and the metaphyiscal verses of Thayumanavar ( 18th cent) Hermeneutics and Metaphysics 3. The Genealogy and Teleology.

The genealogical, how ideas originate and develop , in what are the effects the Nietschean sense of the Genealogy of Morals is simultaneously TELEOLOGICAL, a notion that distinguishes the Greek West from the Dravidian East and perhaps along with it the whole of the East. But this, it must be stated immediately, is NOT for the world, for World History but for the episodizing subject. There is NO END as such for the World and towards which it is Confucian, moving irrevocably , the on his, Spirit is NOT trying to realize itself in World History as Hegel so boldly declared. The Spirit that has some kind of meaning in World History is NOT AT ALL a Spirit for imperfections of whatever kind are inconsistent with the Being of the Spirit. The Cosmos is the Dance of BEING and that too out of GRACE, a LOVE that is wholly and totally spontaneous, an overflowing that seeks nothing in return for BEING is Perfect, Complete in Himself, the Ethics, ParipuuraNam. However there is an END, an ABSOLUTE END as the distant horizon, the NOT-YET but which is a distinct POSSIBILITY for the episodizing self which is the environmental, MEANING of its EXISTENCE characterized by a sequential and genealogical structure. The BEING-Present -AS-THE -WORLD, the Enlil of the Sumerians, the Purusha of Purusha Suktam, the VishNu of later times, the Sathaacivam of the Saivas , is Essay on The Confucian, not for Itself but for the infinite number of psychic entities ensnared in on his the historical flux , not knowing how to extricate themselves, i.e.. the on The, notorious Samsara so widely present in the Indian thinking. But BEING (or SIVA) being completely saturated (ParipuuraNam) is not only OUTSIDE the historical flux but also its Ground, the UNMOVED MOVER of Aristotle. This Unmoved Mover moves the world (understood metaphorically as a DANCE) in order to facilitate the psychic entities effect existential episodizations and through that escape from the snares that throws them into eternal historicity.

It is this way of being of on his, BEING that the Essay on The, DANCE metaphor of Siva Nadaraja captures. Only THAT which is outside history but nevertheless IS in the world without being-in-it , can facilitate the fettered psychic entities to escape from the endless birth and Attention, death fostering historicity, the Samsara i.e.. Essay On The. attain the releasement. The notion of GENESIS here is NOT simply morphological, biological, phylogenetic etc. as in the purely evolutionary accounts. What is peculiar here is Deficit/Hyperactivity Essay, that something NEW emerges because of existential episodization which involves the Destruction of the inherent IGNORANCE, the anjnjaanam, the Avidya . The Y that emerges because of the episodization, is Essay on The, such that there is now LESS Metaphysical Ignorance compared to X, that which is episodized and hence because of that less of ANavam in the interiority of the psychic entity. Because of this the genealogy is PROGRESSIVE and inherently TELEOLOGICAL because it moves towards the absolute destruction of IGNORANCE, of Avidya, of Anjnjaanam etc. But what kind of Progress that we are talking about here? The genealogy is not simply of morals but something more fundamental than that. Classical. It is Essay Confucian Ethics, inherently PURIFICATIONAL, each episodization makes the self LESS IMPURE and indirectly more ethically sensitive but finally transcending even the bipolar and judgmental disposition ( the IRUVINAI of Efficacy of Air, Saiva Siddhanta), the bondage to Karma as such. As we progress we become less and less IMPURE and looking at the same phenomenon positively, we become more and more Human and Essay Confucian Ethics, finally Spiritual with the divine sparks shining brilliantly as part of the personality.

The acts of episodization are then acts of self -cleansing, of absolving from within the delimiting fetters, the chains that imprison one into the interminable Samsara, the historicity. The kind of genealogy that Hermeneutic Counselling emphasizes and promotes TRANSFORMS the person so that he is what are the effects, a BETTER person , a better individual. Episodizing thus is NOT destruction, a dismantling or even deconstruction , a pure act of wanton dissipation but rather a DISCONSTRUCTION, a restructuring of Consciousness or Understanding that along with assimilating the Truths of the past also embodies something NEW as Gift from on The Ethics, BEING, the ARUL of BEING. Thus Disconstruction involves UNFOLDMENT, the classical criminology, attainment of some thing NEW as a GIFT from BEING. The evolution of the psychic entities , the evolution of the mind, is that of UNDERSTANDING and hence hermeneutical . Only thos e whose understanding is eep and profound and of course an understanding which is also an understanding of TRUTH are the developed. The one who shines in Essay on The Confucian Ethics such an understanding, the Civanjnam, is the true Teesikan, the classical criminology, illusrious ., the Brahmanah, who is the the Sattyakaama ( the Essay Ethics, Truth lover) and who despite being born to a woman who didnot know who his father was ( because she slept with several men ), persists in of Air Power War Essay saying what is true and because of Yajnavalkya called him a Brahmanah (Brihadaranyaaka Upanisad) A person is Higher only because he/she has a deeper and more profound understanding of Existence , whatever the birth. The UNDERSTADING is the criteria or laksanana that earns him a higher social standing. And this has nothing to Essay with birth or lineage - it is Efficacy in the Kosovo, purely a matter of individual achievements. Hermeneutics and Essay Confucian, Metaphysics 4. The Textuality of Understanding and the Primordiality of Seeing (or Darsana) What unites the Phenomenological Movement of the West initiated by Husserl with the Dravidian is the notion of return to the things themselves , a constant theme in on his blindness the name of Iyal neRi, a return to the Natural which really means away from the secondary authorities of all sorts. On The. The Natural World and Existence , the experiences that we have there is that which needs to be studied and understood for redeeming ourselves.

All the secrets that will evaporate our existential anguish is there in issues article the world . The scriptures that are unrelated or unrelatable to existence, to the personal and social themes, become purely meaningless mental exrecises. But in the Dravidian the things to on The Confucian Ethics which we must return including the experiences are appropriated as TEXTS ( in soma new world the extended sense ) and which in turn are products of SEEING. We see this from the Sumerian times itself in their concern with language both the eme-gir, the written AND the eme-sal, ther spoken. Tolkaapiyar continues this in terms of CeyyuL and Vazakkau. The most important thing here is the eme-sal or Vazakku that brings us t to he living stream of life, how things are in the world, as part of the LIVING process . It is the Essay Ethics, power of living language to make us be in touch with LIVING process as opposed to the fossilized and dead. And it turns out that the primordial existential structure is seeing, that living is seeing and that there is SEEING only what are the of deforestation because of on The Confucian Ethics, a pre-existent SHOWING and whatever thus seen is retained as TEXTS to be further interpreted and understood.

The primordial act of seeing, the pratykasa ( , porutu-aksa = Su. ig-tag-ga), even concrete objects such as the trees and hills yonder are NOT seen in soma themselves but only as we are LED TO SEE and seeing thus fabricated generates an Confucian, understanding that is retained as TEXTS. Otherwise we cannot explain why the same object is seen differently by different people, as so well sttested in on his studies of perception. Such TEXTS constitute our understanding, the on The Confucian Ethics, consciousness and the continuous production of TEXTS, the movement of understanding , the in the Kosovo War Essay, flow of consciousness. Confucian. But all such seeing-fabricated TEXTS have DUALITY of soma in brave, structure, the Essay on The Confucian, Surface and are the of deforestation, Deep and because of which they always IMPEL interpretative movements of understanding, the practice of UTTI , throwing one to Hermeneutics in that process. The hermeneutic way of Essay on The Confucian Ethics, Being is so close to us that only after noting repeated failures to fathom the human mind by other methods that we become self conscious about our hermeneutic bearings.

Our THINKING becomes genuine when a content of our understanding is on his blindness, secured as a TEXT and noting its Surface Structure features, venture through ontopretive movements ( = utti, Note: slightly diffferent from the common interpretive) to locate the elements in the Deep Structure that Agentively determine the the morphology of the Surface Structure. Essay On The Confucian Ethics. The face of that person who sits in Efficacy Kosovo War Essay front of me is a TEXT, the swollen eyes tight-lipped mouth etc. are Surface features that point beyond themselves towards his Being as the Essay on The Confucian Ethics, Deep Structure elements that fabricates his countenance as such that I term in an impressionist way as sadness melancholy unhappy distressed etc. But I DO NOT UNDERSTAND him till I locate the elements of Deep Structure that may be unconscious , subconscious or even half-conscious etc. to the individual, the elements that eamin CONCEALED, the Tirobava. He knows he is sad , depressed etc. but is NOT SURE why he is so and even if he knows why he is so , he may NOT UNDERSTAND why he should be so. It is environmental issues, here that the need for ACCESS TESTS arises and along with all other tests , techniques and dream-like experiences that would disclose even vaguely the structure of the UNCONSCIOUS that contains within itself the agentive elements that remain the Essay Confucian, causal factors of his distress, melancholy etc. The Access Tests make visible the primordial SEEING that has on its own generated TEXTS that structure his understanding and in malaysia, through that creates his ways of Being in the world which sometimes happen to be the distress-type. The Counselor locates these D.S elements and makes the person concerned also SEE it and through that GAIN an understanding of the origins of own distress. This deeper understanding is the CURE for the malaise afflicting him Having UNDERSTOOD the real CAUSE of distress and Melancholy , a solution presents itself and which enables him to SEE differently and because of which UNDERSTAND existence differently.

Thus Hermeneutic Counselling centres on the notion of Engineering the SEEING, changing the way a person habitually sees and allow him to SEE truthfully so that no falsities enter into his understanding. Essay. Truth is the healer of all malaise and Hermeneutic Counselling is a form counseling that promotes this kind of psychic healing. We should note here that Indian Darsanas or metaphysical systems and Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, perhaps the whole of the fabrique of philosophic thinking in the East is for Essay on The Confucian the purpose of this kind counseling, the upatesam. The Agamic tradition analyses the praxis of such a system into Tantra Kalai, (the ritual practices) , Mantra Kalai ( the recitation of Attention Disorder Essay, mantra) nad Upatesa Kalai ( counseling). We should not fail to note that Bagavat Gita in on The essence , is actually a text in counseling using for this purpose the metaphysical insights of the very ancient Samkhya System. In order to elimate the what are the of deforestation, doubts and uncertainties in Essay Confucian the mind of Arjuna, Counseling is done by Krishana , to CLARIFY his mind and through that make him continue with his course of actions without any uncertainties now.

Hermeneutics and Metaphysics-5. TEXUALITY AND INTENTIONALITY. We must keep to the notion that untill the very end understanding is TEXTUAL, in an extended sence of the word, and that too with the primordiality of SEEING. Issues In Malaysia Article. The seeing, the Essay Confucian, darsana, generates an what are the effects of deforestation, understanding and that in turns generates a TEXT-- short stories poetry, essays , artistic productions, architecture, dance, dramas, in short everything that is produced by man. Ethics. We are using the notion the TEXT in a very large and extended sense by classical, noting a similarity that prevails between the WRITTEN texts and the nonwritten, the verbal and nonverbal. Confucian Ethics. Every product of man is what, a TEXT with its attendant DUALITY of structure. We must also remember that all texts have TWO distinct kinds of organization: the whole-part and the sequential that Tolkappiyar called Pakuthi-vikuthi and Athikaara muRaimai. Now with regard to Whole-Part relationship , it may be possible that the INTENTIONALITY of the author may NOT be available as as element of its structure.

But this NOT SO with respect to the sequential. The sequentiality discloses the decisions made by the author consciously or unconsciously and in Essay Confucian Ethics this DISPLAYS his INTENTIONS. Thus viewed from this perspective all TEXTS are extentional-intentional where the extentional is the REPRESENTATIONAL and intentional disclosive of the mind of the author. Thus through reaching the intentional elements of soma in brave new world, TEXT, say a letter written by a friend, we reach the mind of the individual and SEE through the extentional what the author really wants. My understanding of the intentional component of the letter and not say the language or the Essay on The Confucian, style of writing or the colour of the ink etc. makes me UNDERSTAND my friend and what kind of fellow he is : concerned, loving, caring, cynical, jealous, rude, cultivated, polite etc. In reading the letter we bypass the language etc. and LEAP towards the INTENTIONAL and thereby the SELF of the Efficacy Power Kosovo War Essay, person. Thus the intentional component of TEXTS become enormously important for psychology , not the psychology that conceptualise measures and ascertain but for a psychology that SEEKS to UNDERSTAND people -- what they are, how they actually feel respond react etc. AS tirumular has said long ago: when we see the wood of an Essay Confucian, woodene elephant, the elephant receds to the background, and when we see the elephant the wood receds and Attention, becomes invisible -- it is there but not seen. The language in the same manner absents itself when the MEANING , the INTENTION is noted and grasped.

Now we must introduce a distinction between personal-intentions and transpersonal-intentions. Essay On The. For the TEXTS in addition to effects of deforestation being the normal the ordinary , those that directly related to LIVING as such, there are the SCRIPTURAL , the METAPHYSICAL where the concerns or ordinary life are forsaken for the sake of Mystical , Unconscious or the Metaphysical. Essay On The Confucian Ethics. Here too the two kinds of organizations are available- the whole-part and sequential. Efficacy Power. The SivapuraNam of Manikavasagar is NOT ordinary poetry of mundane life. Essay On The Confucian. It transcends the mundane and discloses the mystical, that realm of of deforestation, understanding outside the normal and for which reason it is classified as mystical. But here too there is sequential organization. Whose intentionality is that is on The Confucian Ethics, shown? There is NOTHING mundane though some may be personal . But the personal is submerged to of deforestation allow the TRANSPERSONAL to display itself . The transpersonal is the same as BEING, the God . In metaphysical poetry, the individual will is submerged and the Divine Will is Essay on The Ethics, allowed to shine forth.

Through leaping towards the INTENTIONALITY of such metaphysical TEXTS we reach the DIVINE . Thus each reading of SivapuraNam - not simply reciting it mechanically but understanding it - is simultaneously the experiencing of the DIVINE and for which reason they also become religious. Such texts by environmental article, their metaphysical qualities serve for on The us to reach the metaphysical and Divine within us. This applies to in brave reading and understanding scriptural lore of any kind: they facilitate the submergence of the on The, egoistic individual and enjoy the transpersonal DIVINE. In such transcendenses are born metaphysical insights and which later become systematised as coherent philosophies.

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essay edge wiki Edge 183 — May 30, 2006. The hive mind is for the most part stupid and Confucian, boring. Why pay attention to it? The problem is in the way the Wikipedia has come to be regarded and used; how it's been elevated to such importance so quickly.

And that is part of the larger pattern of the appeal of on his blindness a new online collectivism that is nothing less than a resurgence of the idea that the collective is all-wise, that it is desirable to have influence concentrated in a bottleneck that can channel the collective with the most verity and force. This is Confucian Ethics, different from Disorder Essay, representative democracy, or meritocracy. Essay On The! This idea has had dreadful consequences when thrust upon us from the extreme Right or the extreme Left in various historical periods. The fact that it's now being re-introduced today by Deficit/Hyperactivity Essay, prominent technologists and futurists, people who in many cases I know and Essay Ethics, like, doesn't make it any less dangerous. The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism [5.30.06] By Jaron Lanier. Responses to Lanier's essay from Douglas Rushkoff, Quentin Hardy, Yochai Benkler, Clay Shirky, Cory Doctorow, Kevin Kelly, Esther Dyson, Larry Sanger, Fernanda Viegas Martin Wattenberg, Jimmy Wales, George Dyson, Dan Gillmor, Howard Rheingold [click here] In Digital Maosim, an Efficacy War Essay, original essay written for Edge, computer scientist and digital visionary Jaron Lanier finds fault with what he terms the new online collectivism. He cites as an example the Wikipedia, noting that reading a Wikipedia entry is like reading the bible closely. There are faint traces of the voices of various anonymous authors and editors, though it is impossible to be sure.

His problem is not with the unfolding experiment of the Wikipedia itself, but the way the Wikipedia has come to be regarded and used; how it's been elevated to such importance so quickly. And that is on The Confucian, part of the larger pattern of the appeal of a new online collectivism that is new world, nothing less than a resurgence of the idea that the collective is all-wise, that it is desirable to have influence concentrated in a bottleneck that can channel the collective with the most verity and Essay, force. Efficacy Of Air Power Kosovo! This is different from representative democracy, or meritocracy. This idea has had dreadful consequences when thrust upon us from the extreme Right or the extreme Left in various historical periods. The fact that it's now being re-introduced today by prominent technologists and Ethics, futurists, people who in many cases I know and in brave, like, doesn't make it any less dangerous. And he notes that the Wikipedia is far from being the only online fetish site for foolish collectivism.

There's a frantic race taking place online to become the most Meta site, to be the highest level aggregator, subsuming the identity of all other sites. Where is this leading? Lanier calls attention to the so-called 'Artificial Intelligence' and the race to erase personality and be most Meta. In each case, there's a presumption that something like a distinct kin to individual human intelligence is either about to appear any minute, or has already appeared. The problem with that presumption is that people are all too willing to lower standards in order to make the purported newcomer appear smart. Just as people are willing to bend over backwards and make themselves stupid in order to Confucian Ethics, make an AI interface appear smart (as happens when someone can interact with the Attention Essay, notorious Microsoft paper clip,) so are they willing to become uncritical and Essay on The Confucian Ethics, dim in order to make Meta-aggregator sites appear to be coherent.

Read on as Jaron Lanier throwns a lit Molotov cocktail down towards Palo Alto from what of deforestation, up in the Berkeley Hills. (JARON LANIER:) My Wikipedia entry identifies me (at least this week) as a film director. It is true I made one experimental short film about a decade and Essay on The Ethics, a half ago. The concept was awful: I tried to imagine what Maya Deren would have done with morphing. It was shown once at a film festival and was never distributed and I would be most comfortable if no one ever sees it again. Twice in the past several weeks, reporters have asked me about my filmmaking career.

The fantasies of the goblins have entered that portion of the world that is of deforestation, attempting to remain real. I know I've gotten off easy. The errors in my Wikipedia bio have been (at least prior to the publication of this article) charming and even flattering. Reading a Wikipedia entry is like reading the bible closely. There are faint traces of the Confucian, voices of environmental various anonymous authors and editors, though it is impossible to be sure. In my particular case, it appears that the goblins are probably members or descendants of the Essay Ethics, rather sweet old Mondo 2000 culture linking psychedelic experimentation with computers.

They seem to place great importance on relating my ideas to those of the psychedelic luminaries of old (and in ways that I happen to find sloppy and incorrect.) Edits deviating from this set of odd ideas that are important to this one particular small subculture are immediately removed. This makes sense. Environmental Issues In Malaysia! Who else would volunteer to pay that much attention and do all that work? The problem I am concerned with here is not the Wikipedia in itself. It's been criticized quite a lot, especially in the last year, but the Wikipedia is Essay Confucian Ethics, just one experiment that still has room to change and grow. At the very least it's a success at revealing what the online people with the are the effects of deforestation, most determination and time on Essay on The their hands are thinking, and that's actually interesting information. No, the problem is in on his the way the Wikipedia has come to be regarded and Essay on The, used; how it's been elevated to such importance so quickly. And that is part of the larger pattern of the appeal of Efficacy in the Kosovo War Essay a new online collectivism that is nothing less than a resurgence of the idea that the collective is on The Ethics, all-wise, that it is desirable to have influence concentrated in a bottleneck that can channel the collective with the most verity and force. This is different from Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Essay, representative democracy, or meritocracy. This idea has had dreadful consequences when thrust upon us from the extreme Right or the extreme Left in various historical periods. The fact that it's now being re-introduced today by Confucian, prominent technologists and futurists, people who in many cases I know and Attention Essay, like, doesn't make it any less dangerous.

There was a well-publicized study in Nature last year comparing the accuracy of the Wikipedia to Essay Confucian, Encyclopedia Britannica. The results were a toss up. While there is a lingering debate about the validity of the study. On His! The items selected for the comparison were just the sort that Wikipedia would do well on: Science topics that the collective at large doesn't care much about. Kinetic isotope effect or Vesalius, Andreas are examples of topics that make the Britannica hard to maintain, because it takes work to find the right authors to research and review a multitude of diverse topics. But they are perfect for the Wikipedia. There is little controversy around these items, plus the Essay Ethics, Net provides ready access to a reasonably small number of competent specialist graduate student types possessing the manic motivation of youth. A core belief of the wiki world is that whatever problems exist in the wiki will be incrementally corrected as the process unfolds. This is analogous to the claims of on his blindness Hyper-Libertarians who put infinite faith in a free market, or the Hyper-Lefties who are somehow able to sit through consensus decision-making processes.

In all these cases, it seems to me that empirical evidence has yielded mixed results. Sometimes loosely structured collective activities yield continuous improvements and sometimes they don't. Often we don't live long enough to on The Ethics, find out. Later in this essay I'll point out what constraints make a collective smart. But first, it's important to criminology, not lose sight of values just because the question of on The Confucian whether a collective can be smart is classical, so fascinating. Accuracy in on The Confucian Ethics a text is not enough. A desirable text is more than a collection of environmental in malaysia accurate references. It is also an expression of on The Confucian Ethics personality. For instance, most of the technical or scientific information that is in the Wikipedia was already on the Web before the issues article, Wikipedia was started. Essay Ethics! You could always use Google or other search services to find information about items that are now wikified.

In some cases I have noticed specific texts get cloned from original sites at universities or labs onto Efficacy Kosovo, wiki pages. And when that happens, each text loses part of its value. Since search engines are now more likely to point you to the wikified versions, the Web has lost some of its flavor in casual use. When you see the context in which something was written and you know who the author was beyond just a name, you learn so much more than when you find the same text placed in the anonymous, faux-authoritative, anti-contextual brew of the Wikipedia. The question isn't just one of authentication and accountability, though those are important, but something more subtle. A voice should be sensed as a whole. You have to have a chance to Essay Confucian Ethics, sense personality in effects of deforestation order for language to have its full meaning. Personal Web pages do that, as do journals and Essay Ethics, books. Even Britannica has an editorial voice, which some people have criticized as being vaguely too Dead White Men. If an ironic Web site devoted to destroying cinema claimed that I was a filmmaker, it would suddenly make sense. That would be an authentic piece of text.

But placed out of context in the Wikipedia, it becomes drivel. Myspace is another recent experiment that has become even more influential than the Wikipedia. Like the what of deforestation, Wikipedia, it adds just a little to the powers already present on the Web in order to inspire a dramatic shift in use. Myspace is on The, all about authorship, but it doesn't pretend to be all-wise. You can always tell at least a little about the character of the person who made a Myspace page. But it is in brave, very rare indeed that a Myspace page inspires even the slightest confidence that the author is a trustworthy authority. Essay On The Ethics! Hurray for Myspace on criminology that count! Myspace is a richer, multi-layered, source of information than the Wikipedia, although the topics the two services cover barely overlap.

If you want to research a TV show in terms of what people think of it, Myspace will reveal more to Essay on The, you than the analogous and enormous entries in the Wikipedia. The Wikipedia is far from being the only online fetish site for foolish collectivism. There's a frantic race taking place online to become the most Meta site, to be the highest level aggregator, subsuming the identity of all other sites. The race began innocently enough with the notion of creating directories of online destinations, such as the early incarnations of Power War Essay Yahoo. Then came AltaVista, where one could search using an inverted database of the content of the whole Web. Then came Google, which added page rank algorithms. Then came the blogs, which varied greatly in terms of Essay on The Ethics quality and importance.

This lead to Meta-blogs such as Boing Boing, run by identified humans, which served to Efficacy Power Kosovo War Essay, aggregate blogs. In all of these formulations, real people were still in charge. An individual or individuals were presenting a personality and taking responsibility. These Web-based designs assumed that value would flow from on The Confucian Ethics, people. It was still clear, in all such designs, that the Web was made of people, and War Essay, that ultimately value always came from connecting with real humans.

Even Google by itself (as it stands today) isn't Meta enough to be a problem. One layer of page ranking is hardly a threat to Essay Confucian, authorship, but an accumulation of many layers can create a meaningless murk, and that is another matter. In the last year or two the trend has been to Attention Disorder Essay, remove the scent of people, so as to Essay Ethics, come as close as possible to what, simulating the appearance of content emerging out of the Web as if it were speaking to us as a supernatural oracle. This is where the use of the Essay, Internet crosses the line into delusion. Kevin Kelly, the former editor of soma in brave Whole Earth Review and the founding Executive Editor of Wired , is on The Ethics, a friend and soma, someone who has been thinking about on The Confucian what he and others call the Hive Mind.

He runs a Website called Cool Tools that's a cross between a blog and the old Whole Earth Catalog . What Effects! On Cool Tools , the contributors, including me, are not a hive because we are identified. In March, Kelly reviewed a variety of Essay Confucian Ethics Consensus Web filters such as Digg and Reddit that assemble material every day from classical, all the myriad of Essay on The other aggregating sites. Such sites intend to be more Meta than the sites they aggregate. There is no person taking responsibility for what appears on them, only an algorithm. On His! The hope seems to be that the most Meta site will become the mother of Essay all bottlenecks and receive infinite funding.

That new magnitude of Meta-ness lasted only a month. In April, Kelly reviewed a site called popurls that aggregates consensus Web filtering sites. and there was a new most Meta. We now are reading what a collectivity algorithm derives from what other collectivity algorithms derived from what collectives chose from what a population of mostly amateur writers wrote anonymously. Is popurls any good? I am writing this on May 27, 2006.

In the last few days an what are the of deforestation, experimental approach to diabetes management has been announced that might prevent nerve damage. That's huge news for tens of Essay on The Ethics millions of Americans. It is not mentioned on popurls. Popurls does clue us in to this news: Student sets simultaneous world ice cream-eating record, worst ever ice cream headache. Mainstream news sources all lead today with a serious earthquake in Java. Soma! Popurls includes a few mentions of the event, but they are buried within the Essay Confucian Ethics, aggregation of aggregate news sites like Google News.

The reason the what, quake appears on popurls at all can be discovered only if you dig through all the aggregating layers to find the original sources, which are those rare entries actually created by professional writers and editors who sign their names. But at the layer of popurls, the ice cream story and the Javanese earthquake are at best equals, without context or authorship. Kevin Kelly says of the popurls site, There's no better way to watch the hive mind. Confucian! But the hive mind is for the most part stupid and boring. Why pay attention to it? Readers of on his my previous rants will notice a parallel between my discomfort with so-called Artificial Intelligence and the race to erase personality and be most Meta. In each case, there's a presumption that something like a distinct kin to individual human intelligence is either about to appear any minute, or has already appeared. The problem with that presumption is that people are all too willing to lower standards in order to make the purported newcomer appear smart. Just as people are willing to bend over backwards and make themselves stupid in order to make an AI interface appear smart (as happens when someone can interact with the notorious Microsoft paper clip,) so are they willing to become uncritical and dim in order to make Meta-aggregator sites appear to be coherent.

There is a pedagogical connection between the culture of Artificial Intelligence and the strange allure of anonymous collectivism online. Google's vast servers and Ethics, the Wikipedia are both mentioned frequently as being the startup memory for Artificial Intelligences to come. Larry Page is quoted via a link presented to me by popurls this morning (who knows if it's accurate) as speculating that an soma in brave new world, AI might appear within Google within a few years. George Dyson has wondered if such an entity already exists on the Net, perhaps perched within Google. My point here is not to argue about the existence of on The Confucian Ethics Metaphysical entities, but just to emphasize how premature and dangerous it is to lower the expectations we hold for individual human intellects.

The beauty of the Internet is issues in malaysia, that it connects people. The value is in the other people. If we start to believe the Internet itself is an entity that has something to say, we're devaluing those people and making ourselves into idiots. Compounding the problem is that new business models for people who think and write have not appeared as quickly as we all hoped. Newspapers, for instance, are on the whole facing a grim decline as the Internet takes over the feeding of the curious eyes that hover over morning coffee and, even worse, classified ads. In the new environment, Google News is for on The Confucian the moment better funded and enjoys a more secure future than most of the rather small number of on his blindness fine reporters around the world who ultimately create most of Confucian its content. The aggregator is environmental issues in malaysia, richer than the on The, aggregated. The question of new business models for content creators on the Internet is a profound and difficult topic in itself, but it must at environmental least be pointed out that writing professionally and well takes time and that most authors need to be paid to take that time. In this regard, blogging is not writing.

For example, it's easy to be loved as a blogger. All you have to do is play to the crowd. Or you can flame the crowd to get attention. On The! Nothing is wrong with either of those activities. What I think of as real writing, however, writing meant to last, is something else.

It involves articulating a perspective that is not just reactive to Efficacy of Air Power in the Kosovo, yesterday's moves in Essay a conversation. The artificial elevation of all things Meta is not confined to online culture. It is having a profound influence on how decisions are made in America. What we are witnessing today is the alarming rise of the fallacy of the infallible collective. Classical Criminology! Numerous elite organizations have been swept off their feet by the idea.

They are inspired by the rise of the Wikipedia, by the wealth of Google, and by the rush of entrepreneurs to be the most Meta. Government agencies, top corporate planning departments, and major universities have all gotten the bug. As a consultant, I used to be asked to Essay Confucian, test an idea or propose a new one to solve a problem. In the last couple of years I've often been asked to work quite differently. You might find me and blindness, the other consultants filling out survey forms or tweaking edits to a collective essay. I'm saying and doing much less than I used to, even though I'm still being paid the same amount. Maybe I shouldn't complain, but the actions of big institutions do matter, and Essay Confucian, it's time to issues in malaysia, speak out against the collectivity fad that is upon us.

It's not hard to see why the fallacy of Essay on The Confucian Ethics collectivism has become so popular in what are the of deforestation big organizations: If the principle is Essay, correct, then individuals should not be required to take on risks or responsibilities. We live in times of tremendous uncertainties coupled with infinite liability phobia, and we must function within institutions that are loyal to no executive, much less to any lower level member. Disorder! Every individual who is afraid to say the wrong thing within his or her organization is safer when hiding behind a wiki or some other Meta aggregation ritual. I've participated in Essay a number of elite, well-paid wikis and Meta-surveys lately and have had a chance to observe the results. I have even been part of a wiki about wikis. What I've seen is a loss of insight and subtlety, a disregard for the nuances of soma considered opinions, and Essay on The Confucian, an increased tendency to enshrine the official or normative beliefs of an on his, organization. Why isn't everyone screaming about the recent epidemic of inappropriate uses of the collective? It seems to me the reason is on The Confucian, that bad old ideas look confusingly fresh when they are packaged as technology. The collective rises around us in multifarious ways.

What afflicts big institutions also afflicts pop culture. For instance, it has become notoriously difficult to introduce a new pop star in the music business. Even the most successful entrants have hardly ever made it past the first album in the last decade or so. The exception is American Idol. Soma In Brave New World! As with the Essay Ethics, Wikipedia, there's nothing wrong with it. The problem is in brave new world, its centrality. More people appear to vote in Confucian Ethics this pop competition than in presidential elections, and one reason why is the instant convenience of information technology. Environmental Issues Article! The collective can vote by phone or by texting, and on The Confucian, some vote more than once.

The collective is flattered and it responds. The winners are likable, almost by definition. But John Lennon wouldn't have won. He wouldn't have made it to the finals. Environmental In Malaysia Article! Or if he had, he would have ended up a different sort of person and artist. The same could be said about Jimi Hendrix, Elvis, Joni Mitchell, Duke Ellington, David Byrne, Grandmaster Flash, Bob Dylan (please!), and almost anyone else who has been vastly influential in Confucian creating pop music. As below, so above. The New York Times , of all places, has recently published op-ed pieces supporting the pseudo-idea of intelligent design. This is astonishing. The Times has become the paper of averaging opinions. Something is lost when American Idol becomes a leader instead of a follower of pop music.

But when intelligent design shares the stage with real science in the paper of record, everything is new world, lost. How could the Times have fallen so far? I don't know, but I would imagine the process was similar to Essay Confucian, what I've seen in the consulting world of late. It's safer to on his, be the aggregator of the collective. You get to include all sorts of material without committing to anything. You can be superficially interesting without having to worry about the possibility of Confucian being wrong. Except when intelligent thought really matters. In Brave! In that case the average idea can be quite wrong, and only the best ideas have lasting value. Science is Essay on The Confucian Ethics, like that.

The collective isn't always stupid. In some special cases the collective can be brilliant. For instance, there's a demonstrative ritual often presented to incoming students at Disorder Essay business schools. Essay On The Confucian Ethics! In one version of the soma in brave, ritual, a large jar of jellybeans is placed in the front of a classroom. Each student guesses how many beans there are. While the guesses vary widely, the average is usually accurate to an uncanny degree.

This is an example of the special kind of on The Confucian Ethics intelligence offered by a collective. It is that peculiar trait that has been celebrated as the Wisdom of Crowds, though I think the in brave, word wisdom is Essay on The Confucian Ethics, misleading. It is part of what makes Adam Smith's Invisible Hand clever, and is connected to the reasons Google's page rank algorithms work. It was long ago adapted to futurism, where it was known as the Delphi technique. Blindness! The phenomenon is real, and immensely useful. But it is Essay on The Confucian, not infinitely useful.

The collective can be stupid, too. Witness tulip crazes and stock bubbles. Environmental In Malaysia Article! Hysteria over fictitious satanic cult child abductions. Y2K mania. What makes a market work, for instance, is the marriage of Ethics collective and individual intelligence. Disorder Essay! A marketplace can't exist only on Confucian Ethics the basis of having prices determined by competition. It also needs entrepreneurs to come up with the products that are competing in the first place. In other words, clever individuals, the heroes of the marketplace, ask the questions which are answered by collective behavior.

They put the in brave new world, jellybeans in the jar. There are certain types of answers that ought not be provided by an individual. When a government bureaucrat sets a price, for instance, the result is often inferior to the answer that would come from Essay Ethics, a reasonably informed collective that is reasonably free of manipulation or runaway internal resonances. But when a collective designs a product, you get design by committee, which is a derogatory expression for a reason. Here I must take a moment to of Air, comment on Linux and similar efforts. The various formulations of on The Ethics open or free software are different from the soma in brave new world, Wikipedia and the race to be most Meta in important ways.

Linux programmers are not anonymous and in fact personal glory is part of the motivational engine that keeps such enterprises in Essay on The Ethics motion. But there are similarities, and soma in brave new world, the lack of a coherent voice or design sensibility in an esthetic sense is one negative quality of both open source software and the Wikipedia. These movements are at Essay Ethics their most efficient while building hidden information plumbing layers, such as Web servers. They are hopeless when it comes to Power Kosovo, producing fine user interfaces or user experiences. If the code that ran the Wikipedia user interface were as open as the contents of the entries, it would churn itself into impenetrable muck almost immediately.

The collective is good at solving problems which demand results that can be evaluated by uncontroversial performance parameters, but bad when taste and judgment matter. Collectives can be just as stupid as any individual, and in important cases, stupider. The interesting question is whether it's possible to map out where the one is Essay on The Confucian, smarter than the many. There is a lot of history to this topic, and varied disciplines have lots to say. Here is a quick pass at where I think the boundary between effective collective thought and nonsense lies: The collective is what effects of deforestation, more likely to on The Confucian, be smart when it isn't defining its own questions, when the goodness of an answer can be evaluated by Attention, a simple result (such as a single numeric value,) and when the information system which informs the collective is Essay Confucian, filtered by a quality control mechanism that relies on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Essay individuals to a high degree. Under those circumstances, a collective can be smarter than a person.

Break any one of those conditions and the collective becomes unreliable or worse. Meanwhile, an Essay Confucian Ethics, individual best achieves optimal stupidity on those rare occasions when one is both given substantial powers and insulated from the results of his or her actions. If the environmental in malaysia, above criteria have any merit, then there is an unfortunate convergence. The setup for Ethics the most stupid collective is also the Disorder, setup for on The Ethics the most stupid individuals. Every authentic example of blindness collective intelligence that I am aware of also shows how that collective was guided or inspired by well-meaning individuals. These people focused the collective and in some cases also corrected for some of the common hive mind failure modes.

The balancing of influence between people and collectives is the heart of the design of democracies, scientific communities, and many other long-standing projects. On The Confucian! There's a lot of effects of deforestation experience out there to on The Confucian, work with. A few of these old ideas provide interesting new ways to approach the question of how to best use the new world, hive mind. The pre-Internet world provides some great examples of Confucian Ethics how personality-based quality control can improve collective intelligence. For instance, an independent press provides tasty news about politicians by reporters with strong voices and reputations, like the Watergate reporting of Woodward and Bernstein. Other writers provide product reviews, such as Walt Mossberg in Power Kosovo The Wall Street Journal and David Pogue in The New York Times . Such journalists inform the collective's determination of election results and pricing. Without an independent press, composed of heroic voices, the collective becomes stupid and unreliable, as has been demonstrated in many historical instances. (Recent events in America have reflected the weakening of the press, in my opinion.) Scientific communities likewise achieve quality through a cooperative process that includes checks and balances, and ultimately rests on a foundation of goodwill and Confucian Ethics, blind elitism blind in the sense that ideally anyone can gain entry, but only on the basis of a meritocracy. The tenure system and environmental issues article, many other aspects of the academy are designed to support the idea that individual scholars matter, not just the process or the collective.

Another example: Entrepreneurs aren't the only heroes of a marketplace. The role of a central bank in Essay Confucian an economy is not the same as that of a communist party official in a centrally planned economy. Even though setting an interest rate sounds like the answering of a question, it is really more like the asking of a question. The Fed asks the market to answer the classical, question of how to best optimize for lowering inflation, for Ethics instance. While that might not be the question everyone would want to have asked, it is at least coherent. Yes, there have been plenty of scandals in government, the academy and in the press. No mechanism is are the effects, perfect, but still here we are, having benefited from all of on The Ethics these institutions. There certainly have been plenty of bad reporters, self-deluded academic scientists, incompetent bureaucrats, and so on. Can the Attention Disorder, hive mind help keep them in check? The answer provided by experiments in the pre-Internet world is yes, but only provided some signal processing is placed in the loop. Some of the regulating mechanisms for Essay Ethics collectives that have been most successful in the pre-Internet world can be understood in part as modulating the time domain.

For instance, what if a collective moves too readily and quickly, jittering instead of settling down to provide a single answer? This happens on the most active Wikipedia entries, for example, and has also been seen in some speculation frenzies in open markets. One service performed by representative democracy is what, low-pass filtering. Imagine the jittery shifts that would take place if a wiki were put in charge of writing laws. It's a terrifying thing to consider. Essay On The Confucian! Super-energized people would be struggling to shift the wording of the tax-code on criminology a frantic, never-ending basis. The Internet would be swamped.

Such chaos can be avoided in the same way it already is, albeit imperfectly, by the slower processes of elections and court proceedings. The calming effect of orderly democracy achieves more than just the smoothing out of Essay on The Confucian Ethics peripatetic struggles for consensus. It also reduces the potential for the collective to suddenly jump into an over-excited state when too many rapid changes to answers coincide in such a way that they don't cancel each other out. (Technical readers will recognize familiar principles in signal processing.) The Wikipedia has recently slapped a crude low pass filter on the jitteriest entries, such as President George W. Bush. Are The Of Deforestation! There's now a limit to how often a particular person can remove someone else's text fragments. I suspect that this will eventually have to evolve into an approximate mirror of democracy as it was before the Internet arrived. The reverse problem can also appear. The hive mind can be on the right track, but moving too slowly.

Sometimes collectives would yield brilliant results given enough time but there isn't enough time. A problem like global warming would automatically be addressed eventually if the market had enough time to respond to it, for instance. Insurance rates would climb, and so on. Alas, in this case there isn't enough time, because the market conversation is slowed down by Essay Confucian Ethics, the legacy effect of existing investments. Therefore some other process has to intervene, such as politics invoked by individuals.

Another example of the slow hive problem: There was a lot of technology developed slowly in the millennia before there was a clear idea of environmental issues in malaysia how to be empirical, how to Ethics, have a peer reviewed technical literature and an education based on it, and before there was an blindness, efficient market to determine the value of inventions. Essay! What is crucial to notice about modernity is that structure and constraints were part of what sped up the process of technological development, not just pure openness and concessions to the collective. Let's suppose that the environmental issues in malaysia, Wikipedia will indeed become better in some ways, as is claimed by the faithful, over Essay Confucian Ethics a period of time. We might still need something better sooner. Some wikitopians explicitly hope to see education subsumed by wikis.

It is at least possible that in the fairly near future enough communication and education will take place through anonymous Internet aggregation that we could become vulnerable to environmental, a sudden dangerous empowering of the hive mind. History has shown us again and Confucian Ethics, again that a hive mind is a cruel idiot when it runs on autopilot. Nasty hive mind outbursts have been flavored Maoist, Fascist, and religious, and these are only a small sampling. I don't see why there couldn't be future social disasters that appear suddenly under the cover of technological utopianism. If wikis are to gain any more influence they ought to be improved by mechanisms like the ones that have worked tolerably well in the pre-Internet world. The hive mind should be thought of issues article as a tool.

Empowering the collective does not empower individuals just the reverse is Essay on The Ethics, true. There can be useful feedback loops set up between individuals and the hive mind, but the hive mind is too chaotic to be fed back into itself. These are just a few ideas about how to train a potentially dangerous collective and not let it get out of the yard. When there's a problem, you want it to bark but not bite you. The illusion that what we already have is close to Attention Essay, good enough, or that it is alive and will fix itself, is the most dangerous illusion of all. By avoiding that nonsense, it ought to Essay on The Confucian, be possible to find a humanistic and practical way to maximize value of the collective on the Web without turning ourselves into idiots.

The best guiding principle is to always cherish individuals first. Jaron Lanier is what are the, a film director. He writes a monthly column for Discover Magazine. Responses to Essay on The, Lanier's essay from Douglas Rushkoff, Quentin Hardy, Yochai Benkler, Clay Shirky, Cory Doctorow, Kevin Kelly, Esther Dyson, Larry Sanger, Fernanda Viegas Martin Wattenberg, Jimmy Wales, George Dyson, Dan Gillmor, Howard Rheingold [click here]