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Last/Ats-W: How to Prepare for cassius quotes, the Liberal Arts and Sciences Test Assessment of Teaching Skills-Written, with an Introduction to t (Barron#039;s NYSTCE) Book by Postman, Robert D. not at all like the real LAST and hill riots 1958 full of cassius quotes egregious errors. A Customer on Nov 03, 1999. I read every section of cassius quotes this book pertaining to the LAST exam and took all the practice quizzes and tests. Not only did I find the book frustrating (because of numerous errors in the practices quizzes/tests and some truly absurd statements in the review material) but once I took the quotes actual exam I felt like I had wasted a whole lot of time using the book. The actual test is far more intense than any of the sample questions in Postman's book would lead you to believe. I daresay the LAST is a test that you really can't study for -- you just have to have payed attention throughout all of your schooling and had better have a really good command of the English language in all its subtleties. The LAST is, more than anything else, a test of your ability to read carefully and draw insightful, logical conclusions about a huge array of cassius topics. All those high school math topics that I agonized over while studying this book didn't help me one iota when I took the test.

The brief test preparation guide that I ordered directly from the NYS Education Department was what really prepared me for the type of questions I would see on the LAST. (As for the kind of errors I found. Riots! see for instance page 244: a piano is a percussion instrument! like a symbol is! I sincerely hope that, for the sake of quotes their own credibility, Barron's will send this book back through the editorial process before publishing any further editions.) Pased with a Nearly Perfect Score. A Customer on Aug 10, 2001. I used this book to , successfully pass the cassius LAST with a nearly perfect score. The multiple choice part of the LAST is primarily a test of reading comprehension in subject areas like social studies and science, with some art, graphing and a few other things thrown in. It is not test of your knowledge. The practice tests in the book were very much like the actual test I took. This book gives excellent study tips and steps for writing the is non price essay. The subject review chapters emphasize that they should be used to learn how to read and answer questions in these subject areas.

I think this is the quotes key to this test. Is Non Price! I recommend this book if you are preparing for the LAST. By Deliutz on Sep 10, 2002. I used this book to cassius quotes, prepare for LAST and ATS-W, and I passed with very good scores. It took me about a month to what is non competition, prepare for quotes, both at the same time. I liked especially the reviews and essay writing instructions - you have there everything you need to commedia, dante through, know, clearly stated, without unnecessary embellishments. Very easy to digest and memorize. Cassius! The book also contains two practice LAST tests and two practice ATS-W tests (elementary and secondary, respectively). All tests have explained answers. The actual LAST test I took was very much like the practice tests in this book. The actual ATS-W test, however, differed from the know jack practice test; it was more situation-oriented, and also harder.

I knew immediately after I finished the LAST that I would pass comfortably. However, after the ATS-W I found myself for the first time in the unenviable position of having no idea how I did: I wouldn't have been surprised by a score of 100, or 300. In order to prepare for the tests, I also used a second book called The best coaching study guide for the NYSTCE, ISBN 0-87891-404-8. The reviews in it were unnecessarily verbose and complicated, I think. That is why I didn't use them. It DOES have an advantage, though: the practice ATS-W tests are very much like the real thing. The ATS-W answer explanations are stated in a truly logical manner and are superior to those in the Barron's. The study guides from the commedia, dante NY State Education Department are of NO value except for the 5 sample questions you can find in there, and the essay examples and essay scoring explanations. They offer no more than a tiny taste of the real thing.

In conclusion, Barron's is well worth buying if you want to study for these tests. Quotes! This Book Nails the LAST ATS-W Teacher Tests. A Customer on Nov 27, 1998. I got this book just before the October test and it was a life saver. It is the that grins best book to cassius, prepare for the LAST ATS-W. Notting Hill 1958! The practice tests are very realistic and quotes you get just the right amount and type of review. The steps for writing passing essays, and steps for answering the multiple choice questions are great. This book just nails these tests and the back of the book shows you how look for a job in New York State and lists EVERY school district in the state with the neutralization number of schools enrollment and cassius phone numbers. Great Review for the LAST and we wear the mask that the ATSW. A Customer on Nov 01, 1999. I took the LAST and the ATSW this past Saturday.

This book has just the right amount of review and fantastic tips for taking these tests. The practice tests in the book were very similar to the real tests. Barrons must have a new printing or a new edition of the book because I did not find the errors mentioned by other reviewers. I recommend this as the best book for cassius quotes, these tests. Dante Hell?! Preparing for the LAST-Teacher Examinations by cassius quotes, Postman. By Dr. Joseph S. Notting Hill Riots! Maresca on Apr 29, 2005. Overall, this work is cassius understandable. The exam has a number of lengthy paragraphs followed by in the commedia, who guided dante hell?, a single question.

Such a format requires that you read the question first and then read the cassius paragraph utilizing a highlighter. The visual questions aren't much different from a standard intelligence test on spatial forms. We Wear Grins And Lies! The math and science are very straight-forward. The grammar can get confusing with the presentation of very awkward sentence structures requiring correction. Questions on art and cassius culture can get tricky with very discriminating differences between architectural forms. Some of the fine arts questions require that you be able to distinguish between classic forms; such as, Romanesque, Baroque, Byzantine, Greek etc. This test will measure very general knowledge in the arts and sciences. The format gets very awkward in spots. It will be necessary to do a fair number of problems to develop experience with the material.

The Postman work is well organized. The problems are challenging. A criticism of the work is that the the mask grins and lies problem sets are somewhat limited in number although the level of we wear the mask grins difficulty is appropriate. This book should be utilized in conjunction with others on the subject. I would utilize other review texts for weak areas in order to develop a representative set of problems in unfamiliar subject areas. Testing on amorphous spatial forms and problems contrasting classic architectural differences typify new or unfamiliar material for the candidate reviewing the material for the first time. The volume will benefit test candidates provided that they make a real attempt at the problems with a view toward studying very discriminating differences between the model answer and slight variations from it.

This volume is not a reader. Notting Riots! It contains numerous problems which depict the material to cassius, be tested. Therefore; candidates must utilize the book as though it represented a series of test problems to in the who guided dante through, be encountered on the live examination. Stick with the NYS Preparation Guides. By Jennifer on May 09, 2001. The Barron's LAST and ATS-W book was not at all helpful in preparing for the exams. The questions on the exams were much more comprehension-based than content. Cassius! The review books I ordered when signing up for the exams were much more useful in preparing me for the exams. Stick with those! Many errors detract from the usefulness of this book.

A Customer on Jul 22, 1999. I purchased this book in preparation for the NYS Teacher Certification Exams. I was hoping for it to be as good as the other reviewers said it was. The main reason I was disappointed in this book is due to the number or errors I found. A friend of mine, who was also taking the tests at the same time, found the same errors so I know it's not just me. Some of the errors are actual mistakes in computation while others are errors in logic. In some cases the answer given is correct but the explanation is wrong or vice versa. These errors made me doubt the competition type of preparation I was receiving for these tests.

Hopefully Barrons' will correct these errors and issue a new addition soon. A Customer on Jul 23, 1999. This book is well worth the cassius quotes money spent - but beware of mistakes in the answer keys! One blatant error is on an art related question. There are five possible answers (a-e) but only hill four options (a-d). Cassius! (e) is clearly the right answer, the written explanation even says so. I recommend purchasing this or any other study guide to prepare for neutralization, the exams but don't expect an exact replication of the quotes test. This study guide, aside from the mistakes, gives helpful general guidelines and informative practice tests. The actual tests, however, require you to use the competition information gained from cassius, these practice exams in more abstract ways.

A very good helpful book. By Ellen on Sep 29, 2000. Quotes! I used this book to successfully prtepare for thesew tests. I gave that book away and I came back here to , get new copy to work with a friend. This book deserves praise. The copies I have was error free. The two chapters in the Introductory section gave me all the quotes strategies I needed to pass the tests. The Reading chapter shows a specific approach for answering reading questions and these tests are reading tests. Hill Riots 1958! The English and Writing chapter shows how to cassius, write the essays. The Mathematics chapter in this new copy recommends a short cut review. Is Non! The ATSW chapter gives a very good review for that test.

There are four realistic practice tests. I found the chapter on getting a job very helpful with contact info for every public school in the state. The only real weakness in my first copy of the book was the practice LASTs did not have the longer complex readings found on the actual test. Is Non! The tests in this new copy include those longer readings. I like it that the publisher keeps up with the tests and updated an already excellent book. A Customer on May 26, 2003. I got this book because the Education advisor said students who used this book did better on the tests than students who bought the Kaplan book and quotes because the. salesperson said this book outsold the Kaplan book about 5 to 1. Still it ended up that I got both books. I can see why this book sells better and why people do better. This book prepared me for the LAST and the Kaplan book did not. The ATSW tests in this book are as helpful as the price competition tests in the Kaplan book. But the ATSW tests are not anywhere near as important as classroom experience and common sense.

There is a very helpful review in the Barron's that shows you how to prepare from just a little to a lot. But the cassius Kaplan book has no review but and it is filled Internet links that do not work. My advice is that the Barrons is the only book you need. ! It is best for the LAST and just as good for ATSW. This book with real classroom experience should get you through these tests.

By Miss Felicity on Mar 29, 2005. A good education, a solid review of cassius this book and what is non price competition a dose of common sense should help you easily pass both tests on the first try. Heed the advice about having an early night before the test date. Bring a bunch of #2 pencils, and dress very comfy in layers. These things make a big difference. El Chapo! I saved about an hour for cassius quotes, the essay, which I needed, and scored 300 on it. Use the first few hours going through the multiple choice questions. No need to rush. I hope it goes well for you!

I leave you with this quote: Chance favors the prepared mind. Louis Pasteur. I WAS VERY HAPPY TO HAVE THIS BOOK. A Customer on Oct 29, 2003. I was very happy to meaning, have this book. The book says the test is mainly reading comprehension and that is right. Quotes! The book did a good job preparing me to answer those types of riots 1958 questions and the tests in the book were a lot like the test I took. The book also has very clear steps for writing an essay that helped me prepare for that part of the test. The test taking strategies were very good and very helpful.

The book did not put an emphasis on knowing content. What the book did empasize was to learn how to meaning el chapo, read and answer questions about different subjects and NOT to learn the subjects. Cassius! It says it right there in the book. A lot of the passages on the test were in different subject areas and that part of the book helped too. I almost completely sure I passed and cassius quotes I would not have done as well without this book. I think it will probably help you too if you follow the instructions in the book. LAST OK, but ATS-W far off base. A Customer on May 13, 2003. I just took the LAST exam and used this book as a review. Meaning El Chapo! The LAST review was overly thorough but I guess better to be over prepared.

The LAST is just reading comprehension. There is no need to quotes, retain information on social studies, math, or specific sciences. One problem is incorrect answers are not explained so if you get a practice answer wrong, tough. The BIG PROBLEM in this book is the ATS-W which I have yet to take, but I have heard from people who own the book that Barron's was so far off base it was like they never saw an ATS-W. It was strongly suggested to me that I buy the Kaplan book which is much more specific, and especially helpful for the ATS-W.

I wish I had know this before I bought the Barron's book because now I have to go purchase another book which I will do because I want to be prepared for cassius, this exam.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Formalism in aesthetics has traditionally been taken to refer to the view in the philosophy of art that the properties in virtue of which an cassius quotes artwork is an neutralization examples artworkand in virtue of which its value is determinedare formal in cassius, the sense of being accessible by direct sensation (typically sight or hearing) alone. While such Formalist intuitions have a long history, prominent anti-Formalist arguments towards the end of the hill riots 1958, twentieth century (for example, from Arthur Danto and Kendall Walton according to which none of the aesthetic properties of a work of art are purely formal) have been taken by many to be decisive. Yet in the early twenty-first century there has been a renewed interest in quotes, and defense of Formalism. Contemporary discussion has revealed both extreme and more moderate positions, but the most notable departure from traditional accounts is the move from Artistic to Aesthetic Formalism. One might more accurately summarize contemporary Formalist thinking by noting the complaint that prominent anti-Formalist arguments fail to accommodate an important aspect of our aesthetic lives, namely those judgements and experiences (in relation to art, but also beyond the art-world) which should legitimately be referred to as aesthetic but which are accessible by direct sensation, and quotes, proceed independently of ones knowledge or appreciation of a things function, history, or context. The presentation below is divided into what is non competition, five parts. Part 1 outlines an historical overview. It considers some prominent antecedents to Formalist thinking in the nineteenth century, reviews twentieth century reception (including the anti-Formalist arguments that emerged in the latter part of this period), before closing with a brief outline of the main components of the twenty-first century Formalist revival.

Part 2 returns to the early part of the twentieth century for a more in-depth exploration of one influential characterisation and defense of Artistic Formalism developed by art-critic Clive Bell in quotes, his book Art (1913). Critical reception of Bells Formalism has been largely unsympathetic, and some of the more prominent concerns with this view will be discussed here before turningin Part 3to the Moderate Aesthetic Formalism developed in the early part of the twenty-first century by Nick Zangwill in his The Metaphysics of Beauty (2001). Part 4 considers the application of Formalist thinking beyond the cassius quotes, art world by considering Zangwills responses to anti-Formalist arguments regarding the in the commedia, dante, aesthetic appreciation of nature. The presentation closes with a brief conclusion (Part 5) together with references and suggested further reading. When A. G. Baumgarten introduced the term aesthetic into the philosophy of art it seemed to be taken up with the cassius, aim of recognising, as well as unifying, certain practices, and perhaps even the concept of beauty itself.

It is of note that the phrase lart pour lart seemed to gain significance at roughly the same time that the term aesthetic came into wider use. Much has been done in competition, recognition of the cassius, emergence and consolidation of the hill 1958, lart pour lart movement which, as well as denoting a self-conscious rebellion against Victorian moralism, has been variously associated with bohemianism and Romanticism and characterises a contention that, for some, encapsulates a central position on art for the main part of the nineteenth century. First appearing in Benjamin Constants Journal intime as early as 1804 under a description of Schillers aesthetics, the initial statement: Lart pour lart without purpose, for all purpose perverts art has been taken not only as a synonym for the disinterestedness reminiscent of Immanuel Kants aesthetic but as a modus operandi in its own right for a particular evaluative framework and corresponding practice of those wishing to produce and cassius quotes, insomuch define the you dont know, boundaries of artistic procedure. These two interpretations are related insofar as it is suggested that the emergence of this consolidated school of quotes thought takes its initial airings from a superficial misreading of Kants Critique of Judgement (a connection we will return to in Part 3). Kants Critique was not translated into French until 1846, long after a number of commedia, who guided dante through hell? allusions that implicate an understanding and certainly a derivation from Kants work. John Wilcox (1953) describes how early proponents, such as Victor Cousin, spoke and wrote vicariously of Kants work or espoused positions whose Kantian credentials can besomewhat undeservedly it turns outimplicated. The result was that anyone interested in the arts in the early part of the cassius, nineteenth century would be exposed to a new aesthetic doctrine whose currency involved variations on notting hill 1958, terms including aesthetic, disinterest, free, beauty, form and cassius quotes, sublime.

By the 1830s, a new school of aesthetics thus accessed the diluted Kantian notions of notting hill 1958 artistic genius giving form to the formless, presented in Schellers aesthetics, via the notion of quotes beauty as disinterested sensual pleasure, found in Cousin and his followers, towards an understanding of a disinterested emotion which constitutes the apprehension of beauty. All or any of which could be referred to by the expression Lart pour lart ; all of which became increasingly associated with the what price competition, term aesthetic. Notable adoption, and thus identification with what may legitimately be referred to as this school of thought included Victor Hugo, whose preface to cassius quotes, Cromwell, in 1827, went on to constitute a manifesto for the mask that grins and lies, the French Romantic movement and certainly gave support to the intuitions at issue. Theophile Gautier, recognising a theme in Hugo, promoted a pure art-form less constrained by religious, social or political authority. In the preface to his Premieres poesies (1832) he writes: What [end] does this [book] serve? - it serves by being beautiful In general as soon as something becomes useful it ceases to quotes, be beautiful. This conflict between social usefulness versus pure art also gained, on the side of the price, latter, an association with Walter Pater whose influence on quotes, the English Aesthetic movement blossomed during the 1880s where the adoption of sentimental archaism as the ideal of beauty was carried to extravagant lengths. Here associations were forged with the likes of Oscar Wilde and Arthur Symons, further securing (though not necessarily promoting) a connection with aestheticism in general. Such recognition would see the influence of lart pour lart stretch well beyond the second half of the nineteenth century.

As should be clear from this brief outline it is not at notting riots 1958, all easy, nor would it be appropriate, to suggest the cassius quotes, emergence of a strictly unified school of thought. There are at least two strands that can be separated in what has been stated so far. At one extreme we can identify claims like the following from the preface of we wear that and lies Wildes The Picture of Dorian Gray : There is no such thing as a moral or an cassius quotes immoral book. Books are well written or badly written. Here the emphasis is initially on the separation of the value of art from riots, social or moral aims and values. The sentiment is clearly reminiscent of Gautiers claim: Only those things that are altogether useless can be truly beautiful; anything that is quotes useful is ugly; for dante hell?, it is the expression of some need. Yet for Wilde, and many others, the claim was taken more specifically to cassius quotes, legitimise the production and , value of amoral, or at least morally controversial, works. In a slightly different direction (although recognisably local to the above), one might cite James Whistler: Art should be independent of cassius all claptrapshould stand alone [] and appeal to the artistic sense of eye or ear, without confounding this with emotions entirely foreign to it, in devotion, pity, love, patriotism and the like. While the meaning, second half of this statement seems merely to cassius, echo the examples, sentiments expressed by Wilde in the same year, there is, in the first half, recognition of the contention Whistler was later to voice with regard to his painting; one that expressed a focus, foremost, on the arrangement of line, form and quotes, colour in the work. Here we see an element of jack lart pour lart that anticipated the importance of formal features in the twentieth century, holding that artworks contain all the requisite value inherentlythey do not need to borrow significance from biographical, historical, psychological or sociological sources.

This line of thought was pursued, and can be identified, in Eduard Hanslicks The Beautiful in Music (1891); Clive Bells Art (1913); and Roger Frys Vision and Design (1920). The ruminations of which are taken to have given justification to various art movements from abstract, non-representational art, through Dada, Surrealism, Cubism. While marked here as two separable strands, a common contention can be seen to run through the above intuitions; one which embarks from, but preserves, something of the meaning el chapo, aesthetic concept of disinterestedness, which Kant expressed as purposiveness without purpose. Lart pour lart can be seen to encapsulate a movement that swept through Paris and England in the form of the new Aesthetic (merging along the way with the Romantic Movement and bohemianism), but also the central doctrine that formed not only the movement itself, but a well-established tradition in the history of aesthetics. Lart pour lart captures not just a movement but an aesthetic theory; one that was adopted and cassius quotes, defended by is non, both critics and artists as they shaped art history itself.

Towards the end of the cassius, twentieth century Leonard Meyer (in Dutton, 1983) characterised the meaning el chapo, intuition that we should judge works of art on the basis of their intrinsic formal qualities alone as a common contention according to which the work of art is said to have its complete meaning within itself. On this view, cultural and stylistic history, and cassius quotes, the genesis of the artwork itself do not enhance true understanding. Meyer even suggests that the separation of the aesthetic from religion, politics, science and so forth, was anticipated (although not clearly distinguished) in Greek thought. It has long been recognised that aesthetic behaviour is different from ordinary behaviour; however, Meyer goes on to argue that this distinction has been taken too far. Citing the Artistic Formalism associated with Clive Bell (see Part 2), he concludes that in actual practice we do not judge works of art in terms of meaning el chapo their intrinsic formal qualities alone.

However, Artistic Formalism, or its close relatives, have met with serious (or potentially disabling) opposition of the quotes, kind found in Meyer. Gregory Currie (1989) and David Davies (2004) both illustrate a similar disparity between our actual critical and appreciative practices and we wear the mask that grins and lies, what is (in the end) suggested to be merely some pre-theoretical intuition. Making such a point in his An Ontology of Art, Currie draws together a number of familiar and cassius quotes, related aesthetic stances under the term Aesthetic Empiricism, according to which. [T]he boundaries of the aesthetic are set by what is non price competition, the boundaries of vision, hearing or verbal understanding, depending on which art form is in quotes, question. (Currie, 1989, p.18) Currie asserts that empiricism finds its natural expression in aesthetics in the view that a worka painting, for instanceis a sensory surface.

Such a view was, according to Currie, supposed by David Prall when he said that Cotton will suffice aesthetically for snow, provided that at our distance from it it appears snowy. It is the assumption we recover from Monroe Beardsley (1958) in the view that the limits of musical appreciation are the limits of what can be heard in a work. Currie also recognises a comparable commitment concerning literature in Wimsatt and hill riots, Beardsleys The Intentional Fallacy (1946). We can add to Curries list Clive Bells claim that. To appreciate a work of art we need bring with us nothing from life, no knowledge of its ideas and affairs, no familiarity with its emotions we need bring with us nothing but a sense of cassius form and colour and a knowledge of three-dimensional space. Alfred Lessing, in commedia, who guided dante through hell?, his What is Wrong with Forgery? (in Dutton, 1983), argues that on the assumption that an cassius quotes artwork is commedia, dante through hell? a sensory surface it does seem a natural extension to claim that what is aesthetically valuable in a painting is a function solely of how it looks. This surface terminology, again, relates back to Prall who characterised the aesthetic in terms of an exclusive interest in the surface of cassius quotes things, or the thing as seen, heard, felt, immediately experienced. It echoes Frys claim that aesthetic interest is constituted only by cassius quotes, an awareness of order and variety in the mask that, the sensuous plane. However, like Kendall Walton (1970) and Arthur Danto (1981) before him, Curries conclusion is that this common and influential view is nonetheless false. Waltons anti-formalism is presented in his essay Categories of cassius Art in which he first argues that the aesthetic properties one perceives an artwork as having will depend on which category one perceives the work as belonging to notting riots, (for example, objects protruding from a canvas seen under the category of paintingrather than under the category of collagemay appear contrary to cassius, expectation and thus surprising, disturbing, or incongruous). Secondly, Walton argues that the aesthetic properties an we wear grins artwork actually has are those it is perceived as having when seen under the category to cassius quotes, which it actually belongs.

Determination of meaning correct categories requires appeal to such things as artistic intentions, and cassius quotes, as knowledge concerning these requires more than a sense of form, color, and you dont know, knowledge of cassius three-dimensional space, it follows that Artistic Formalism must be false (see Part 3 for a more in-depth discussion of Waltons anti-formalist arguments). Similarly, Dantos examplesthese include artworks such as Marcel Duchamps Readymades, Andy Warhols Brillo Boxes , and what, Dantos hypothetical set of indiscernible red squares that constitute distinct artworks with distinct aesthetic properties (indeed, two of which are not artworks at all but mere things) are generally taken to provide insurmountable difficulties for traditional Artistic Formalism. Danto argues that, regarding most artworks, it is possible to imagine two objects that are formally or perceptually indistinguishable but differ in cassius quotes, artistic value, or perhaps are not artworks at all. Despite the prominence of these anti-formalist arguments, there has been some notable resistance from the dante, Formalist camp. In 1983 Denis Dutton published a collection of articles on forgery and the philosophy of art under the title The Forgers Art . Here, in an article written for the collection, Jack Meiland argues that the value of originality in art is not an aesthetic value. In criticism of the (above) position held by you dont jack, Leonard Meyer, who defends the value of originality in artworks, Meiland asks whether the quotes, original Rembrandt has greater aesthetic value than the copy? He refers to the appearance theory of aesthetic value according to which aesthetic value is independent of the non-visual properties of the , work of art, such as its historical properties. On this view, Meiland argues, the cassius quotes, copy, being visually indistinguishable from the original, is equal in aesthetic value.

Indeed, he points to an arguable equivocation in the sense of the what is non price competition, word original or originality. The originality of the work will be preserved in the copyit is rather the level of creativity that may be surrendered. We might indeed take the latter to devalue the copied work, but Meiland argues that while originality is a feature of cassius quotes a work, creativity is commedia, dante a feature applicable to cassius quotes, the artist or in this case a feature lacking in the copyist, it therefore cannot affect the aesthetic quality of the work. Thus we cannot infer from the lack of you dont know creativity on the part of the cassius, artist that the work itself lacks originality. This distinction between artistic and aesthetic value marks the transition from Artistic to Aesthetic Formalism. Danto, for example, actually endorsed a version of the latter in maintaining that (while indistinguishable objects may differ in terms of their artistic value or art-status) in being perceptually indiscernible, two objects would be aesthetically indiscernible also. Hence, at its strongest formulation Aesthetic Formalism distinguishes aesthetic from non-aesthetic value whilst maintaining that the former is restricted to those values that can be detected merely by attending to what can be seen, heard, or immediately experienced. Values not discerned in this way may be important, but should not be thought of as (purely) aesthetic values. Nick Zangwill (2001) has developed a more moderate Aesthetic Formalism, drawing on neutralization, the Kantian distinction between free (formal) and dependent (non-formal) beauty. In relation to the value of art, Zangwill accepts that extreme formalism (according to which all the quotes, aesthetic properties of a work of art are formal) is false. But so too are strongly anti-Formalist positions such as those attributable to Walton, Danto, and Currie (according to neutralization, which none of the aesthetic properties of a work of art are purely formal).

Whilst conceding that the cassius quotes, restrictions imposed by Formalism on those features of an artwork available for consideration are insufficient to deliver some aesthetic judgements that are taken to be central to the discourse, Zangwill maintains that there is nonetheless an important truth in formalism. Many artworks have a mix of formal and non-formal aesthetic properties, and at least some artworks have only formal aesthetic properties. Moreover, this insight from the Aesthetic Formalisist is not restricted to the art world. Many non-art objects also have important formal aesthetic properties. Zangwill even goes so far as to endorse extreme Aesthetic Formalism about inorganic natural items (such as rocks and sunsets). In Part 1 we noted the translation of the Lart pour lart stance onto pictorial art with reference to Whistlers appeal to the artistic sense of eye and ear . Many of the accounts referred to above focus on pictorial artworks and we wear that, the specific response that can be elicited by these.

Here in particular it might be thought that Bells Artistic Formalism offers a position that theoretically consolidates the attitudes described. Formalism of this kind has received largely unsympathetic treatment for its estimation that perceptual experience of line and cassius quotes, colour is uniquely and notting hill, properly the domain of the cassius quotes, aesthetic. Yet there is some intuitive plausibility to elements of the view Bell describes which have been preserved in , subsequent attempts to re-invigorate an interest in cassius, the application of formalism to hill, aesthetics (see Part 3). In this section we consider Bells initial formulation, identifying (along the way) those themes that re-emerge in contemporary discussion. a. Clive Bell and Significant Form The claim under consideration is that in cassius quotes, pictorial art (if we may narrow the scope for know jack, the purposes of this discussion) a works value is quotes a function of its beauty and beauty is to be found in the formal qualities and arrangement of paint on canvas. Nothing more is required to judge the value of cassius quotes a work. Here is Bell:

What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giottos frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one answer seems possible - significant form. In each, lines and colours combined in that grins, a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions. These relations and in the commedia, who guided hell?, combinations of quotes lines and colours, these aesthetically moving forms, I call Significant Form; and Significant Form is the one quality common to all works of visual art. (1913, p.5) These lines have been taken to summarise Bells account, yet alone they explain very little.

One requires a clear articulation of what aesthetic emotions are, and what it is to have them stirred. Also it seems crucial to note that for Bell we have no other means of recognising a work of art than our feeling for el chapo, it. The subjectivity of such a claim is, for Bell, to cassius quotes, be maintained in any system of aesthetics. Furthermore it is the exercise of bringing the viewer to feel the aesthetic emotion (combined with an cassius quotes attempt to account for the degree of what competition aesthetic emotion experienced) that constitutes the function of criticism . [I]t is cassius useless for a critic to tell me that something is in the commedia, who guided through hell? a work of art; he must make me feel it for cassius quotes, myself. This he can do only by making me see; he must get at my emotions through my eyes. Without such an emotional attachment the subject will be in no position to legitimately attribute to the object the meaning, status of artwork. Unlike the quotes, proponents of the , previous century Bell is not so much claiming an ought (initially) but an is . Significant form must be the measure of artistic value as it is the only thing that all those works we have valued through the cassius, ages have in common. For Bell we have no other means of recognising a work of el chapo art than our feeling for it.

If a work is unable to engage our feelings it fails, it is not art. If it engages our feelings, but feelings that are sociologically contingent (for example, certain moral sensibilities that might be diminished or lost over time), it is not engaging aesthetic sensibilities and, inasmuch, is you dont jack not art. Thus if a work is unable to stir the viewer in this precise and uncontaminated way (in virtue of its formal qualities alone), it will be impossible to ascribe to quotes, the object the status of artwork. We are, then, to understand that certain formslines, colours, in particular combinationsare de facto producers of some kind of aesthetic emotion. They are in this sense significant in a manner that other forms are not.

Without exciting aesthetic rapture, although certain forms may interest us; amuse us; capture our attention, the object under scrutiny will not be a work of grins art. Bell tells us that art can transport us. [F]rom the world of mans activity to a world of aesthetic exaltation. For a moment we are shut off from human interests; our anticipations and memories are arrested; we are lifted above the stream of life. The pure mathematician rapt in his studies knows a state of mind which I take to cassius quotes, be similar if not identical. Thus the significance in question is a significance unrelated to meaning el chapo, the significance of life. In this [the aesthetic] world the emotions of life find no place. It is cassius quotes a world with emotions of its own. Bell writes that before feeling an aesthetic emotion one perceives the rightness and necessity of the combination of form at issue, he even considers whether it is this, rather than the form itself, that provokes the emotion in question. Bells position appears to echo G. E. Moores intuitionism in the sense that one merely contemplates the object and recognises the significant form that constitutes its goodness.

But the spectator is not required to know anything more than that significant form is exhibited. Bell mentions the question: Why are we so profoundly moved by forms related in a particular way? yet dismisses the matter as extremely interesting but irrelevant to aesthetics. Bells view is that for cassius quotes, pure aesthetics we need only consider our emotion and its objectwe do not need to pry behind the object into the state of mind of examples him who made it. For pure aesthetics, then, it need only be agreed that certain forms do move us in certain ways, it being the business of an artist to cassius quotes, arrange forms such that they so move us. Central to Bells account was a contention that the response elicited in the apprehension of significant form is one incomparable with the emotional responses of the rest of experience. The world of human interests and what price, emotions do, of course, temper a great deal of cassius quotes our interactions with valuable objects, these can be enjoyable and beneficial, but constitute impure appreciation. The viewer with such interests will miss the full significance available. He or she will not get the best that art can give.

Bell is scathing of the mistaken significance that can be attributed to representational content, this too signifies impure appreciation. He suggests that those artists too feeble to create forms that provoke more than a little aesthetic emotion will try to eke that little out by meaning el chapo, suggesting the emotions of life. Such interests betray a propensity in artists and viewers to merely bring to art and take away nothing more than the ideas and associations of their own age or experience. Such prima facie significance is the significance of a defective sensibility. As it depends only on what one can bring to the object, nothing new is we wear added to ones life in its apprehension. For Bell, then, significant form is able to quotes, carry the viewer out of life and into ecstasy. The true artist is capable of feeling such emotion, which can be expressed only in form; it is this that the subject apprehends in the true artwork. Much visual art is concerned with the cassius, physical worldwhatever the emotion the artists express may be, it seemingly comes through the contemplation of the familiar. Bell is careful to state, therefore, that this concern for the physical world can be (or should be) nothing over and above a concern for the means to the inspired emotional state. Any other concerns, such as practical utility, are to be ignored by art.

With this claim Bell meant to differentiate the use of artworks for documentary, educational, or historical purposes. Such attentions lead to a loss of the feeling of emotions that allow one to get to the thing in itself. These are interests that come between things and cassius quotes, our emotional reaction to them. In this area Bell is dismissive of the commedia, who guided through, practice of intellectually carving up our environment into quotes, practically identified individuations. Such a practice is superficial in requiring our contemplation only to in the dante through hell?, the extent to which an object is to be utilised. It marks a habit of recognising the label and neutralization examples, overlooking the cassius quotes, thing, and is indicative of a visual shallowness that prohibits the price, majority of cassius quotes us from seeing emotionally and from grasping the we wear the mask that grins and lies, significance of form. Bell holds that the discerning viewer is concerned only with line and colour, their relations and cassius, qualities, the the mask that, apprehension of which (in significant form) can allow the viewer an emotion more powerful, profound, and genuinely significant than can be afforded by cassius, any description of facts or ideas.

Thus, for you dont jack, Bell: Great art remains stable and unobscure because the feelings that it awakens are independent of cassius quotes time and place, because its kingdom is not of this world. To those who have and hold a sense of the significance of form what does it matter whether the forms that move them were created in Paris the day before yesterday or in Babylon fifty centuries ago. The forms of art are inexhaustible; but all lead by the same road of aesthetic emotion to the same world of what price aesthetic ecstasy. (1913, p.16) What Bell seems to be pushing for is a significance that will not be contingent on peculiarities of one age or inclination, and it is certainly interesting to see what a pursuit of this characteristic can yield. However, it is unclear why one may only reach this kind of significance by looking to emotions that are (in some sense) out of this world. Some have criticised Bell on his insistence that aesthetic emotion could be a response wholly separate from the cassius quotes, rest of a persons emotional character. Thomas McLaughlin (1977) claims that there could not be a pure aesthetic emotion in Bells sense, arguing that the aesthetic responses of a spectator are influenced by her normal emotional patterns. On this view the spectators emotions, including moral reactions, are brought directly into play under the control of the artists technique.

It is difficult to cassius, deny that the significance, provocativeness and interest in riots, many works of art do indeed require the spectator to bring with them their worldly experiences and sensibilities. John Carey (2005) is equally condemning of Bells appeal to in the commedia, who guided through, the peculiar emotion provided by works of cassius quotes art. He is particularly critical of Bells contention that the same emotion could be transmitted between discreet historical periods (or between artist and latter-day spectator). On the one hand, Bell could not possibly know he is experiencing the same emotion as the Chaldean four thousand years earlier, but more importantly to experience the same emotion one would have to share the we wear grins, same unconscious, to have undergone the same education, to have been shaped by the same emotional experiences. It is important to note that such objections are not entirely decisive. Provocativeness in general and cassius, indeed any interests of this kind are presumably ephemeral qualities of a work. These are exactly the kinds of transitory evaluations that Bell was keen to sidestep in characterising true works and the properties of lasting value. The same can be said for all those qualities that are only found in a work in hill riots 1958, virtue of the spectators peculiar education and emotional experience.

Bell does acknowledge such significances but doesnt give to them the importance that he gives to formal significance. It is when we strip away the interests, educations, and the provocations of a particular age that we get to those works that exhibit lasting worth. Having said that, there is no discernible argument in support of the claim that the lasting worth Bell attempts to is non competition, isolate should be taken to cassius quotes, be more valuable, more (or genuinely) significant than the neutralization examples, kinds of ephemeral values he dismisses. Even as a purported phenomenological reflection this appears questionable. In discussion of much of the criticism Bells account has received it is important not to meaning, run together two distinct questions. On the one hand there is the cassius quotes, question of whether or not there exists some emotion that is peculiar to the aesthetic; that is otherworldly in grins and lies, the sense that it is cassius quotes not to be confused with those responses that temper the rest of our lives. The affirmation of this is certainly implicated in Bells account and is rightly met with some consternation. But what is liable to become obscured is that the suggestion of such an inert aesthetic emotion was part of cassius quotes Bells solution to the more interesting question with which his earlier writing was concerned. This question concerns whether or not one might isolate a particular reaction to certain (aesthetic) objects that is sufficiently independent of time, place and what is non competition, enculturation that one might expect it to cassius quotes, be exhibited in subjects irrespective of their historical and social circumstance. One response to this question is indeed to posit an emotional response that is unlike all those responses that are taken to be changeable and contingent on time, culture and so forth. Looking at the changeable interests of the art-world over time, one might well see that an interest in representation or subject matter betrays the spectators allegiance to the gross herd (as Bell puts it) of some era.

But it seems this response is unsatisfactory. As we have seen, McLaughlin and Carey are sceptical of the kind of inert emotion Bell stipulates. Bells response to such criticisms is to claim that those unable to accept the postulation are simply ignorant of the emotion he describes. While this is philosophically unsatisfactory the issue is potentially moot. Still, it might be thought that there are other ways in which one might characterise lasting value such as to capture the notting 1958, kind of quality Bell pursued whilst dismissing the more ephemeral significances that affect a particular time.

Regarding the second question, it is cassius tempting to see something more worthwhile in Bells enterprise. There is at least some prima facie attraction to Bells response, for, assuming that one is trying to distinguish art from non-art, if one hopes to know, capture something stable and unobscure in drawing together all those things taken to be art, one might indeed look to quotes, formal properties of works and one will (presumably) only include those works from any time that do move us in the relevant respect. What is lacking in cassius quotes, Bells account is some defense of the claim, firstly that those things that move Bell are the meaning el chapo, domain of cassius true value, and secondly that we should be identifying something stable and unobscure. Why should we expect to identify objects of antiquity as valuable artworks on the basis of 1958 their stirring our modern dispositions (excepting the cassius, claimBells claimthat such dispositions are not modern at all but timeless)? Granted, there are some grounds for pursuing the kind of we wear the mask that and lies account Bell offers, particularly if one is interested in capturing those values that stand the test of quotes time. However, Bell appears to motivate such a pursuit by making a qualitative claim that such values are in some way more significant, more valuable than those he rejects. And it is difficult to meaning el chapo, isolate any argument for such a claim. c. Aesthetic versus Non-Aesthetic Appreciation. The central line of Bells account that appears difficult to accept is that while one might be able to cassius, isolate a specifically perceptual response to artworks, it seems that one could only equate this response with all that is notting riots valuable in art if one were able to qualify the centrality of this response to the exclusion of others. This presentation will not address (as some critics do) the question of whether such a purely aesthetic response can be identified; this must be addressed if anything close to Bells account is to be pursued. But for cassius, the time being all one need acknowledge is that the mere existence of this response is not enough to legitimise the work Bell expected it to do.

A further argument is required to justify a thesis that puts formal features (or our responses to these) at centre stage. Yet aside from is non price, this aim there are some valuable mechanisms at work in Bells theory. As a corollary of know his general stance, Bell mentions that to understand art we do not need to know anything about art-history. It may be that from hill riots 1958, works of art we can draw inferences as to the sort of people who made them; but an intimate understanding of an artist will not tell us whether his pictures are any good. This point again relates to Bells contention that pure aesthetics is concerned only with the question of whether or not objects have a specific emotional significance to us. Other questions, he believes, are not questions for aesthetics: To appreciate a mans art I need know nothing whatever about the artist; I can say whether this picture is better than that without the help of history, but if I am trying to account for the deterioration of his art, I shall be helped by knowing that he has been seriously ill To mark the quotes, deterioration was to meaning, make a pure, aesthetic judgement: to account for it was to become an cassius quotes historian. (1913, pp.44-5, emphasis added)

The above passage illustrates an know jack element of Bells account some subsequent thinkers have been keen to preserve. Bell holds that attributing value to a work purely on the basis of the position it holds within an art-historical tradition, (because it is by Picasso, or marks the advent of cubism) is not a pursuit of aesthetics. Although certain features and relations may be interesting historically, aesthetically these can be of no consequence. Indeed valuing an commedia, who guided through hell? object because it is old, interesting, rare, or precious can over-cloud ones aesthetic sensibility and puts one at cassius quotes, a disadvantage compared to the viewer who knows and cares nothing of the object under consideration. Representation is, also, nothing to do with arts value according to Bell. Thus while representative forms play a part in many works of art we should treat them as if they do not represent anything so far as our aesthetic interest goes. It is fairly well acknowledged that Bell had a non-philosophical agenda for these kinds of claims.

It is easy to see in Bell a defense of the value of abstract art over other art forms and this was indeed his intention. The extent to which Renaissance art can be considered great, for example, has nothing to do with representational accuracy but must be considered only in light of the formal qualities exhibited. In this manner many of the values formerly identified in artworks, and indeed movements, would have to be dismissed as deviations from the sole interest of the aesthetic: the pursuit of significant form. There is a sense in which we should not underplay the role of the critic or philosopher who should be capable of challenging our accepted practices; capable of refining or cultivating our tastes. To this end Bells claims are not out of place. However, while there is some tendency to reflect upon cassius quotes purely formal qualities of know a work of art rather than artistic technique or various associations; while there is a sense in which many artists attempt to depict something beyond the evident (utility driven) perceptual shallowness that can dictate our perceptual dealings, it remains obscure why this should be our only interest. Unfortunately, the exclusionary nature of Bells account seems only to notting 1958, be concerned with the aesthetic narrowly conceived, excluding any possibility of the development of, or importance of, other values and interests, both as things stand and in future artistic development. Given the qualitative claim Bell demands concerning the superior value of significant form this appears more and more troubling with the increasing volume of works (and indeed values) that would have to be ignored under Bells formulation. As a case in point (perhaps a contentious one but there are any number of cassius related examples), consider Duchamps Fountain (1917) . In line with much of the criticism referred to in Part 1, the problem is that because Bell identifies aesthetic value (as he construes it) with art-hood itself, Artistic Formalism has nothing to say about a urinal that purports to be anti-aesthetic and yet art. Increasingly, artworks are recognised as such and valued for reasons other than the presence (or precisely because of cassius quotes their lack) of aesthetic properties, or exhibited beauty.

The practice continues, the works are criticised and valued, and formalists of this kind can do very little but stamp their feet. The death of Artistic Formalism is apparently heralded by the departure of practice from theory. d. Conclusions: From Artistic to (Moderate) Aesthetic Formalism. So what are we to take from Bells account? His claims that our interactions with certain artworks yield an emotion peculiar to the aesthetic, and not experienced in our everyday emotional lives, is rightly met with consternation. It is unclear why we should recognise such a reaction to be of a different kind (let alone a more valuable kind) to those experienced in other contexts such as to discount many of our reactions to ostensible aesthetic objects as genuine aesthetic responses. Few are prompted by Bells account to , accept this determination of the aesthetic nor does it seem to satisfactorily capture all that we should want to in this area. However, Bells aim in producing this theory was (ostensibly) to capture something common to aesthetic objects.

In appealing to a timeless emotion that will not be subject to the contingencies of any specific era, Bell seemingly hoped to cassius, account for neutralization examples, the enduring values of works throughout time. It is easy enough to recognise this need and cassius quotes, the place Bells theory is hill 1958 supposed to hold in satisfying what does appear to be a sensible requirement. It is less clear that this path, if adequately pursued, should be found to be fruitless. That we should define the realm of the quotes, aesthetic in virtue of those works that stand the test of commedia, time has been intuitive to quotes, some; how else are we to draw together all those objects worthy of theoretical inclusion whilst characterising and discounting failed works, impostors, and anomalies? Yet there is something disconcerting about this procedure. That we should ascribe the label art or even aesthetic to a conjunction of el chapo objects that have, over time, continued to impress on us some valuable property, seems to invite a potentially worrying commitment to relativity.

The preceding discussion has given some voice to a familiar enough contention that by indexing value to our current sensibility we stand to cassius, dismiss things that might have been legitimately valued in riots 1958, the past. Bells willingness to acknowledge, even rally for, the importance of abstract art leads him to a theory that identifies the value of works throughout history only on the basis of their displaying qualities (significant form) that he took to be important. The cost (although for examples, Bell this is no cost) of quotes such a theory is that things like representational dexterity (a staple of the Renaissance) must be struck from the list of aesthetically valuable properties, just as the , pursuit of such a quality by artists must be characterised as misguided. The concern shared by those who criticise Bell seems to cassius, stem from an outlook according to which any proposed theory should be able to we wear that and lies, capture and accommodate the moving trends, interests and evaluations that constitute art history and drive the very development of quotes artistic creation. This is what one expects an art theory to be able to do. This is where Artistic Formalism fails, as art-practice and art theory diverge.

Formalism, as a theory of art , is ill suited to make ontological distinctions between genuine- and non-art. A theory whose currency is perceptually available value will be ill-equipped to cassius, officiate over a practice that is governed by, amongst other things, institutional considerations; in fact a practice that is able to develop precisely by identifying recognised values and then subverting them. For these reasons it seems obvious that Formalism is not a bad theory of art but is no theory of art at all. This understood, one can begin to see those elements of Bells Formalism that may be worth salvaging and those that must be rejected. For instance, Bell ascribes a particular domain to aesthetic judgements, reactions, and evaluations such as to distinguish a number of other pronouncements that can also be made in commedia, who guided through, reference to the object in question (some, perhaps, deserve to be labelled aesthetic but somearguablydo not). Bell can say of Picassos Guernica (1937) that the cassius quotes, way it represents and you dont jack, expresses various things about the Spanish Civil War might well be politically and historically interesting (and valuable)and might lead to the ascription of various properties to the work (being moving, or harsh). Likewise, the cassius, fact that it is by Picasso (or is a genuine Picasso rather than a forgery) will be of interest to in the who guided dante hell?, some and cassius quotes, might also lead to the ascription of meaning el chapo certain properties. But arguably these will not be aesthetic properties; no such property will suggest aesthetic value. Conversely, the fact that a particular object is a fake is often thought to devalue the work; for many it may even take away the status of work-hood. But for Bell if the cassius quotes, object were genuinely indistinguishable from the original, then it will be capable of displaying the same formal relations and will thus exhibit equal aesthetic value.

It is this identification of aesthetic value with formal properties of the work that appearsfor someto continue to hold some plausibility. However, there have been few (if any) sympathisers towards Bells insistence that only if something displayed value in meaning, virtue of its formal features would it count as art, or as valuable in an aesthetic . A more moderate position would be to ascribe a particular domain to cassius quotes, formal aesthetic judgements, reactions and evaluations, while distinguishing these from both non-formal aesthetic judgements, and non-aesthetic (for example, artistic, political, historical) judgements. On this kind of approach, Bells mistake was two-fold: Bell ran into difficulties when he (1) attempted to tie Formalism to the nature of art itself, and (2) restricted the that grins, aesthetic exclusively to a formal conception of beauty. By construing formalism as an quotes aesthetic theory (as an account of what constitutes aesthetic value ) or as part of an aesthetic theory (as an account of know one kind of quotes aesthetic value), whilst at the same time admitting that there are other values to be had (both aesthetic and non-aesthetic), the Formalist neednt go so far as to ordain the priority or importance of is non price competition this specific value in the various practices in cassius, which it features. In this way, one can anticipate the stance of the Moderate Formalist who asserts (in terms reminiscent of Kants account) there to be two kinds of beauty: formal beauty, and know, non-formal beauty. Formal beauty is an aesthetic property that is entirely determined by narrow non-aesthetic properties (these include sensory and cassius quotes, non-relational physical properties such as the what is non price competition, lines and colours on the surface of a painting). Non-formal beauty is determined by broad non-aesthetic properties (which covers anything else, including appeals to the content-related aspects that would be required to ascertain the aptness or suitability of certain features for the intended end of the painting, or the accuracy of a representational portrait, or the category to which an artwork belongs). While these notions require much clarification (see Part 3), a useful way to express the aspirations of is non competition this account would be to note that the Moderate Formalist claims that their metaphysical stance generates the only theory capable of accommodating the aesthetic properties of all works of art. Unlike Bells extreme Formalism, maintaining all aesthetic properties to be narrowly determined by sensory and intrinsic physical properties; and unlike anti-Formalism, according to which all aesthetic properties are at least partly determined by broad non-aesthetic properties such as the artists intentions, or the artworks history of cassius quotes production; the Moderate Formalist insists that, in the context of the philosophy of art, many artworks have a mix of formal and non-formal aesthetic properties; that others have only non-formal aesthetic properties; and that at least some artworks have only formal aesthetic properties. 3. Nick Zangwills Moderate Aesthetic Formalism. The issue of formalism is introduced on the assumption that aesthetic properties are determined by certain non-aesthetic properties; versions of price competition formalism differ primarily in their answers to the question of which non-aesthetic properties are of interest.

This part of the presentation briefly outlines the central characterisations of form (and their differences) that will be pertinent to an understanding of twenty-first century discussions of Formalism. For present purposes, and in light of the quotes, previous discussion, it will be satisfactory to focus on formal characterisations of artworks and, more specifically visual art. a. Extreme Formalism, Moderate Formalism, Anti-Formalism. Nick Zangwill recognises that arrangements of lines, shapes, and colours (he includes shininess and glossiness as colour properties) are typically taken as formal properties, contrasting these with non-formal properties which are determined, in part, by the history of 1958 production or context of creation for the artwork. In capturing this divide, he writes: The most straightforward account would be to say that formal properties are those aesthetic properties that are determined solely by sensory or physical propertiesso long as the physical properties in question are not relations to quotes, other things or other times. This would capture the intuitive idea that formal properties are those aesthetic properties that are directly perceivable or that are determined by properties that are directly perceivable. (2001, p.56) Noting that this will not accommodate the claims of some philosophers that aesthetic properties are dispositions to provoke responses in human beings, Zangwill stipulates the word narrow to include sensory properties , non-relational physical properties , and dispositions to provoke responses that might be thought part-constitutive of aesthetic properties; the word broad covers anything else (such as the extrinsic property of the history of production of a work). We can then appeal to a basic distinction: Formal properties are entirely determined by narrow nonaesthetic properties, whereas nonformal aesthetic properties are partly determined by broad nonaesthetic properties. (2001, p.56)

On this basis, Zangwill identifies Extreme Formalism as the view that all aesthetic properties of an artwork are formal (and narrowly determined), and Anti-Formalism as the view that no aesthetic properties of an artwork are formal (all are broadly determined by history of production as well as narrow non-aesthetic properties). His own view is a Moderate Formalism , holding that some aesthetic properties of an artwork are formal, others are not. He motivates this view via a number of strategies but in riots 1958, light of earlier parts of cassius this discussion it will be appropriate to focus on Zangwills responses to those arguments put forward by the anti-formalist. b. Responding to Kendall Waltons Anti-Formalism. Part 1 briefly considersed Kendall Waltons influential position according to which in order to know, make any aesthetic judgement regarding a work of art one must see it under an art-historical category. This claim was made in cassius, response to various attempts to you dont know, purge from criticism of works of art supposedly extraneous excursions into matters not (or not directly) available to inspection of the works, and to focus attention on the works themselves (See, for example, the discussion of Clive Bell in Part 2). In motivating this view Walton offers what he supposes to be various intuition pumps that should lead to the acceptance of his proposal.

In defense of a moderate formalist view Nick Zangwill has asserted that Waltons thesis is at best only partly accurate. For Zangwill, there is a large and significant class of cassius works of art and aesthetic properties of works of art that are purely formal; in Waltons terms the aesthetic properties of what competition these objects emerge from the configuration of colours and shapes on a painting alone. This would suggest a narrower determination of those features of a work available to inspection than Walton defends in his claim that the history of production (a non-formal feature) of a work partly determines its aesthetic properties by determining the category to which the work belongs and must be perceived. Zangwill wants to resist Waltons claim that all or most works and values are category-dependent; aiming to vindicate the quotes, disputed negative thesis that the application of aesthetic concepts to a work of art can leave out of consideration facts about its origin. Zangwill is in the commedia, who guided dante through keen to point out that a number of the intuition pumps Walton utilises are less decisive than has commonly been accepted. Regarding representational properties, for example, Walton asks us to consider a marble bust of a Roman emperor which seems to us to cassius quotes, resemble a man with, say, an aquiline nose, a wrinkled brow, and an expression of grim determination, and about which we take to represent a man with, or as having, those characteristics. The question is why dont we say that it resembles or represents a motionless man, of uniform (marble) colour, who is severed at , the chest? We are interested in representation and it seems the object is in more respects similar to the latter description than the former. Walton is able to cassius quotes, account for the fact that we are not struck by what price, the similarity in the latter sense as we are by the former by appeal to his distinction between standard, contra-standard and cassius, variable properties: The busts uniform color, motionlessness, and abrupt ending at the chest are standard properties relative to hill, the category of busts, and cassius, since we see it as a bust they are standard for us. [] A cubist work might look like a person with a cubical head to someone not familiar with the we wear the mask that grins, cubist style. But the standardness of such cubical shapes for people who see it as a cubist work prevents them from making that comparison. (1970, p.345)

His central claim is that what we take a work to cassius, represent (or even resemble) depends only on the variable properties , and not those that are standard, for the category under which we perceive it. It seems fairly obvious that this account must be right. Zangwill agrees and is hence led to accept that in the case of representational qualities there is nothing in the objects themselves that could tell the viewer which of the cassius quotes, opposing descriptions is appropriate. For this, one must look elsewhere to such things as the history of production or the conventionally accepted practices according to which the objects intentional content may be derived. Zangwill argues that while representational properties might not be aesthetic properties (indeed they are possessed by , ostensibly non-aesthetic, non-art items such as maps, blueprints, and road signs) they do appear to be among the base (non-aesthetic) properties that determine aesthetic properties. Given that representational properties of a work are, in part, determined by the history of production, and assuming that some aesthetic properties of representational works are partly determined by what they represent, Zangwill concludes some aesthetic properties to examples, be non-formal. This is no problem for quotes, the Moderate Formalist of course; Waltons intuition pump does not lead to an anti-formalist argument for it seems equally clear that only a subclass of riots artworks are representational works. Many works have no representational properties at all and are thus unaffected by cassius, the insistence that representational properties can only be successfully identified via the presence of art-historical or categorical information.

Given that Zangwill accepts Waltons claim in respect only to neutralization, a subclass of aesthetic objects, Moderate Formalism remains undisturbed. However, Walton offers other arguments that might be thought to have a more general application and thus forestall this method of tactical retreat on the part of the would-be Moderate Formalist. The claim that Walton seems to hold for cassius quotes, all artworks (rather than just a subclass) is that the art-historical category into what is non competition, which an artwork falls is cassius aesthetically relevant because ones belief that a work falls under a particular category affects ones perception of itone experiences the work differently when one experiences it under a category. Crucially, understanding a works category is a matter of cassius understanding the degrees to which its features are standard, contra-standard and variable with respect to that category. Here is Waltons most well-known example: Imagine a society which does not have an established medium of what is non price painting, but does produce a kind of work called guernicas. Guernicas are like versions of Picassos Guernica done in quotes, various bas-relief dimensions. All of grins them are surfaces with the colours and shapes of Picassos Guernica, but the surfaces are moulded to protrude from the wall like relief maps of different kinds of cassius quotes terrain. [] Picassos Guernica would be counted as a guernica in this society - a perfectly flat one - rather than as a painting. Its flatness is variable and the figures on its surface are standard relative to the category of guernicas . [] This would make for a profound difference between our reaction to Guernica and theirs. (1970, p.347) When we consider (as a slight amendment to Waltons example) a guernica in this society that is physically indistinguishable from Picassos painting, we should become aware of the hill riots, different aesthetic responses experienced by members of cassius their society compared to ours. Walton notes that it seems violent, dynamic, vital, disturbing to us, but imagines it would strike them as cold, stark, lifeless, restful, or perhaps bland, dull, boringbut in any case not violent, dynamic, and vital.

His point is that the object is only violent and disturbing as a painting , but dull, stark, and so forth as a guernica , hence the thought experiment is supposed to price, prompt us to agree that aesthetic properties are dependent on (or relative to) the art-historical categories under which the observer subsumes the object in question. Through this example Walton argues that we do not simply judge that an cassius artwork is dynamic and a painting. The only sense in which it is appropriate to claim that Guernica is dynamic is in claiming that it is dynamic as a painting , or for people who see it as a painting. This analysis has been variously accepted in the literature; it is competition particularly interesting, therefore, to recognise Zangwills initial suspicion of Waltons account. He notes that a plausible block to this intuition comes in the observation that it becomes very difficult to make aesthetic judgements about whole categories or comparisons of items across categories. Zangwill stipulates that Walton might respond with the claim that we simply widen the categories utilised in our judgements. For example, when we say that Minoan art is (in general) more dynamic than Mycenean art, what we are saying is that this is how it is cassius when we consider both sorts of works as belonging to the class of prehistoric Greek art. He continues:

But why should we believe this story? It does not describe a psychological process that we are aware of when we make cross-category judgements. The insistence that we are subconsciously operating with some more embracing category, even though we are not aware of it, seems to be an artefact of the neutralization examples, anti-formalist theory that there is no independent reason to believe. If aesthetic judgements are category-dependent, we would expect speakers and thinkers to be aware of quotes it. But phenomenological reflection does not support the category-dependent view. (2001, pp. 92-3) In these cases, according to price competition, Zangwill, support does not appear to be sourced either from phenomenology or from our inferential behaviour. Instead he argues that we can offer an alternative account of cassius what is in the who guided dante going on when we say something is cassius elegant for a C or an elegant C . This involves the we wear the mask that grins, claim that questions of goodness and elegance are matters of degree. We often make ascriptions that refer to a comparison class because this is a quicker and easier way of cassius quotes communicating questions of degree. But the formalist will say that the meaning el chapo, precise degree of cassius quotes some C -things elegance does not involve the elegance of neutralization examples other existing C -things.

And being a matter of degree is quite different from being category-dependent. So Zangwills claim is that it is pragmatically convenient, but far from essential, that one make reference to cassius, a category-class in offering an in the commedia, dante through hell? aesthetic judgement. We are able to make category-neutral aesthetic judgements, and crucially for Zangwill, such judgements are fundamental: category-dependent judgements are only possible because of category-neutral ones. The formalist will hold that without the ability to make category-neutral judgements we would have no basis for comparisons; Walton has not shown that this is not the case. In this way Zangwill asserts that we can understand that it is appropriate to say that the flat guernica is lifeless because it is less lively than most guernicas but this selection of objects is a particularly lively one. Picassos Guernica is meaning appropriately thought of as vital because it is more so than most paintings; considered as a class these are not particularly lively.

But in fact the painting and the guernica might be equally lively, indeed equivalent in respect of their other aesthetic propertiesthey only appear to differ in respect of the comparative judgements in which they have been embedded. It is for cassius quotes, this reason that Zangwill concludes that we can refuse to have our intuitions pumped in the direction Walton intends. We can stubbornly maintain that the two narrowly indistinguishable things are aesthetically indistinguishable. We can insist that a non-question-begging argument has not been provided. On this view, one can allow that reference to art-historical categories is a convenient way of classifying art, artists, and art movements, but the fact that this convenience has been widely utilised need not be telling against alternative accounts of you dont know aesthetic value. Zangwills own distinction between formal and non-formal properties is derived (broadly) from Immanuel Kants distinction between free and cassius, dependent beauty.

Indeed, Zangwill has asserted that Kant was also a moderate formalist, who opposed extreme formalism when he distinguished free and dependent beauty in you dont know, 16 of the Critique of Judgement (2005, p.186). In the section in cassius, question Kant writes: There are two kinds of beauty; free beauty ( pulchritudo vaga ) , or beauty which is merely dependent ( pulchritudo adhaerens ). The first presupposes no concept of what the object should be; the second does presuppose such a concept and, with it, an answering perfection of the object. On the side of free beauty Kant lists primarily natural objects such as flowers, some birds, and crustacea, but adds wallpaper patterns and musical fantasias; examples of dependent beauties include the beauty of a building such as a church, palace, or summer-house. Zangwill maintains that dependent beauty holds the what price, key to understanding the cassius quotes, non-formal aesthetic properties of artwithout this notion it will be impossible to understand the aesthetic importance of pictorial representation, or indeed any of the art-forms he analyses. A work that is intended to meaning el chapo, be a representation of a certain sortif that intention is successfully realisedwill fulfil the representational function the quotes, artist intended, and notting hill riots 1958, may (it is claimed) do so beautifully . In other words, some works have non-formal aesthetic properties because of (or in virtue of) the way they embody some historically given non-aesthetic function. By contrast, Kants account of free beauty has been interpreted in line with formal aesthetic value. At 16 and 17, Kant appears to place constraints on the kinds of objects that can exemplify pure (that is, formal) beauty, suggesting that nature, rather than art, provides the proper objects of (pure) aesthetic judgement and that to the extent that artworks can be (pure) objects of tastes they must be abstract, non-representational, works. If this is notting hill riots a consequence of Kants account, the strong Formalist position derived from judgements of pure beauty would presumably have to be restricted in application to judgements of quotes abstract art and, perhaps in quotidian cases, the objects of nature.

However, several commentators (for example, Crawford (1974) and you dont jack, Guyer (1997)) have maintained that Kants distinction between free and dependent beauty does not entail the classification of cassius quotes art (even representational art) as merely dependently beautiful. Crawford, for example, takes the distinction between free and dependent beauty to turn on the power of the judger to what is non, abstract towards a disinterested position; this is because he takes Kants distinction to be between kinds of judgement and not between kinds of object. This is not the cassius, place for a detailed exegesis of neutralization examples Kants aesthetics, but it is pertinent to at least note the suggestion that it is nature (rather than art) that provides the cassius, paradigm objects of formal aesthetic judgement. In the next part of this presentation we will explore this possibility, further considering Zangwills moderate, and cassius quotes, more extreme Formalist conclusions in the domain of nature appreciation. 4. From Art to the Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature. Allen Carlson is well known for his contribution to the area broadly known as environmental aesthetics, perhaps most notably for notting hill riots, his discussion of the aesthetic appreciation of nature (2000). Where discussing the value of art Carlson seems to adopt a recognisably moderate formalist position, acknowledging both that where formalists like Bell went wrong was in presupposing formalism to be the quotes, only valid way to appreciate visual artworks ( pace Part 2), but also suggesting that a proper perspective on the application of formalism should have revealed it to , be one among many orientations deserving recognition in art appreciation ( pace Part 3). However, when turning to the appreciation of the natural environment Carlson adopts and defends a strongly anti-formalist position , occupying a stance that has been referred to cassius quotes, as cognitive naturalism. This part of the presentation briefly discusses Carlsons rejection of formalism before presenting some moderate, and stronger formalist replies in this domain.

Carlson has characterised contemporary debates in the aesthetics of el chapo nature as attempting to distance nature appreciation from theories of the appreciation of art. Contemporary discussion introduces different models for the appreciation of nature in place of the inadequate attempts to apply artistic norms to an environmental domain. For example, in his influential Appreciation and the Natural Environment (1979) he had disputed both object and landscape models of nature appreciation (which might be thought attractive to the Moderate Formalist), favouring the natural environmental model (which stands in cassius, opposition to the other two). Carlson acknowledged that the object model has some utility in the art-world regarding the appreciation of non-representational sculpture (he takes Brancusis Bird in Space (1919) as an example). Such sculpture can have significant (formal) aesthetic properties yet no representational connections to the rest of neutralization examples reality or relational connections with its immediate surroundings. Indeed, he acknowledges that the formalist intuitions discussed earlier have remained prevalent in the domain of cassius quotes nature appreciation, meeting significant and sustained opposition only in the domain of art criticism. When it comes to what is non competition, nature-appreciation, formalism has remained relatively uncontested and popular, emerging as an cassius assumption in many theoretical discussions. However, Carlsons conclusion on the object and landscape models is that the former rips natural objects from their larger environments while the latter frames and flattens them into scenery.

In focussing mainly on meaning el chapo, formal properties, both models neglect much of our normal experience and understanding of nature. The object model is inappropriate as it cannot recognise the organic unity between natural objects and their environment of creation or display, such environments areCarlson believesaesthetically relevant. This model thus imposes limitations on our appreciation of natural objects as a result of the removal of the object from cassius quotes, its surroundings (which this model requires in order to address the questions of what and notting 1958, how to appreciate). For Carlson, the natural environment cannot be broken down into discrete parts, divorced from their former environmental relations any more than it can be reduced to a static, two-dimensional scene (as in the landscape model). Instead he holds that the natural environment must be appreciated for quotes, what it is, both nature and an environment . On this view natural objects possess an organic unity with their environment of creation: they are a part of and have developed out of the elements of their environments by cassius, means of the forces at what is non price competition, work within those environments. Thus some understanding of the environments of creation is relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of cassius natural objects. The assumption implicit in the above rejection of Formalism is know jack familiar from the objections (specifically regarding Walton) from Part 3. It is the suggestion that the appropriate way to appreciate some target object is via recourse to the kind of thing it is; taking the target for something it is quotes not does not constitute appropriate aesthetic appreciation of that thing.

Nature is natural so cannot be treated as readymade art. Carlson holds that the target for the appreciation of nature is also an environment, entailing that the appropriate mode of appreciation is active, involved appreciation. It is the appreciation of a judge who is in the environment, being part of and reacting to it, rather than merely being an external onlooker upon a two-dimensional scene. It is this view that leads to his strong anti-formalist suggestion that the natural environment as such does not possess formal qualities. For example, responding to the landscape model Carlson suggests that the natural environment itself only appears to have formal qualities when a person somehow imposes a frame upon it and thus formally composes the resultant view.

In such a case it is the meaning, framed view that has the qualities, but these will vary depending upon the frame and the viewers position. As a consequence Carlson takes the formal features of nature, such as they are, to be (nearly) infinitely realisable; insofar as the natural environment has formal qualities, they have an indeterminateness, making them both difficult to cassius, appreciate, and of little significance in the appreciation of nature. Put simply, the natural environment is what price not an object, nor is it a static two-dimensional picture, thus it cannot be appreciated in ways satisfactory for quotes, objects or pictures; furthermore, the rival models discussed do not reveal significant or sufficiently determinate appreciative features. In rejecting these views Carlson has been concerned with the questions of what and how we should appreciate; his answer involves the necessary acknowledgement that we are appreciating x qua x, where some further conditions will be specifiable in relation to the nature of the x in neutralization, question. It is in relation to this point that Carlsons anti-formalist cognitive naturalism presents itself.

In this respect his stance on cassius, nature appreciation differs from Waltons, who did not extend his philosophical claims to aesthetic judgements about nature (Walton lists clouds, mountains, sunsets), believing that these judgements, unlike judgements of jack art, are best understood in terms of a category-relative interpretation. By contrast, Carlson can be understood as attempting to extend Waltons category dependent account of cassius art-appreciation to the appreciation of nature. On this view we do not need to treat nature as we treat those artworks about whose origins we know nothing because it is not the case that we know nothing of nature: In general we do not produce, but rather discover, natural objects and riots, aspects of nature. Why should we therefore not discover the correct categories for their perception? We discover whales and meaning el chapo, later discover that, in spite of somewhat misleading perceptual properties, they are in fact mammals and not fish. (Carlson, 2000, p.64) By discovering the correct categories to which objects or environments belong, we can know which is the correct judgement to make (the whale is quotes not a lumbering and what, inelegant fish). It is in virtue of this that Carlson claims our judgements of the aesthetic appreciation of nature sustain responsible criticism in the way Walton characterises the appreciation of art. It is for this reason that Carlson concludes that for the aesthetic appreciation of nature, something like the knowledge and experience of the naturalist or ecologist is essential.

This knowledge gives us the cassius, appropriate foci of aesthetic significance and the appropriate boundaries of the setting so that our experience becomes one of aesthetic appreciation. He concludes that the absence of such knowledge, or any failure to perceive nature under the correct categories, leads to aesthetic omission and, indeed, deception. We have already encountered some potential responses to this strong anti-formalism. The moderate formalist may attempt to deploy a version of the aesthetic/non-aesthetic distinction such as to deny that the naturalist and ecologist are any better equipped than the rest of cassius quotes us to price, aesthetically appreciate nature. They are, of course, better equipped to we wear the mask, understand nature, and to evaluate (in what we might call a non-aesthetic sense) the quotes, objects and environments therein. This type of response claims that the ecologist can judge (say) the perfectly self-contained and undisturbed ecosystem, can indeed respond favourably to her knowledge of the rarity of such a find. Such things are valuable in that they are of natural-historical interest. Such things are of interest and riots 1958, significance to natural-historians, no doubt. The naturalist will know that the whale is not lumbering compared to quotes, most fish (and will not draw this comparison), and will see it as whale-like, graceful, perhaps particularly sprightly compared to most whales. One need not deny that such comparative, cognitive judgements can feel a particular way, or that such judgements are a significant part of the appreciation of nature; but it may be possible to deny that these (or only these) judgements deserve to be called aesthetic. However, Carlsons objection is not to the existence of formal value, but to the appropriateness of know consideration of such value.

Our knowledge of an quotes environment is supposed to allow us to el chapo, select certain foci of aesthetic significance and quotes, abstract from, or exclude, others such as to characterise different kinds of we wear that grins appropriate experience: we must survey a prairie environment, looking at cassius, the subtle contours of the land, feeling the wind blowing across the open space, and smelling the mix of prairie grasses and el chapo, flowers. But such an act of cassius quotes aspection has little place in competition, a dense forest environment. Here we must examine and scrutinise, inspecting the detail of the forest floor, listening carefully for the sounds of birds and smelling carefully for competition, the scent of spruce and pine. (Carlson, 2000, p.64) Clearly knowledge of the terrain and environment that is targeted in each of these cases might lead the subject to be particularly attentive to signs of certain expected elements; however, there are two concerns that are worth highlighting in closing. Firstly, it is unclear why one should, for all ones knowledge of the expected richness or desolation of know some particular landscape, be in a position to cassius, assume of (say) the prairie environment that no detailed local scrutiny should yield the kind of interest or appreciation (both formal and non-formal) that might be found in other environments. It is unclear whether Carlson could allow that such acts might yield appreciation but must maintain that they would not yield instances of aesthetic appreciation of that environment , or whether he is denying the cassius quotes, availability of such unpredicted valuesin either case the point seems questionable. Perhaps the what is non competition, suspicion is one that comes from proportioning ones expectation to ones analysis of the proposed target. The first concern is notting riots 1958 thus that knowledge (even accurate knowledge) can be as potentially blinding as it is potentially enlightening. The second concern is related to the first, but poses more of a direct problem for Carlson.

His objection to the object and landscape models regards their propensity to limit the potentiality for aesthetic judgement by taking the target to be something other than it truly is. Part of the problem described above relates to worries regarding the reduction of environments to quotes, general categories like prairie landscape , dense forest , pastoral environment such that one enlists expectations of those attentions that will and will not be rewarded, and limits ones interaction accordingly. While it might be true that some understanding of the kind of environment we are approaching will suggest certain values to expect as well as indicating the act of aspection appropriate for delivering just these, the worry is that this account may be unduly limiting because levels of appreciation are unlikely to exceed the estimations of the theory and the acts of engagement and interaction these provoke. In nature more than anywhere else this seems to the mask that grins, fail to do justice to those intuitions that the target really is (amongst other things) a rich, unconstrained sensory manifold. To briefly illustrate the quotes, point with a final example, Zangwill (2001, pp.116-8) considers such cases (which he doesnt think Carlson can account for) as the unexpected or incongruous beauty of the polar bear swimming underwater. Not only is this the last thing we expected, but our surprise shows that. it is not a beauty that we took to hill 1958, be dependent in cassius, some way upon our grasp of its polar-bearness.

We didnt find it elegant as a polar bear. It is a category-free beauty. The underwater polar bear is a beautiful thing in beautiful motion The suggestion here is cassius quotes that to do justice to and thus fully appreciate the target one must be receptive not simply to the fact that it is nature, or that it is an environment, but that it is, first and foremost, the , individual environment that it (and not our understanding of cassius it) reveals itself to be. This may involve consideration of its various observable features, at different levels of observation, including perhaps those cognitively rich considerations Carlson discusses; but it will not be solely a matter of these judgements. According to the (Moderate) Formalist, the true reality of things is quotes more than Carlsons account seems capable of capturing, for el chapo, while a natural environment is not in fact a static two-dimensional scene, it may well in fact possess (amongst other things) a particular appearance for us, and that appearance may be aesthetically valuable. The Moderate Formalist can accommodate that value without thereby omitting acknowledgement of price other kinds of values, including those Carlson defends. Finally, it should be noted that when it comes to inorganic nature , Zangwill has argued for a stronger formalist position (much closer to Bells view about visual art). The basic argument for this conclusion is that even if a case can be made for claiming that much of organic nature should be understood and know, appreciated via reference to some kind of history of production (typically in quotes, terms of the mask grins and lies biological functions, usually thought to depend on cassius, evolutionary history), inorganic or non-biological nature (rivers, rocks, sunsets, the rings of Saturn) does not have functions and therefore cannot have aesthetic properties that depend on functions. Nor should we aesthetically appreciate inorganic things in is non competition, the light of functions they do not have. In relation to both art and nature we have seen that anti-formalists argue that aesthetic appreciation involves a kind of connoisseurship rather than a kind of childlike wonder.

Bells extreme (artistic) formalism appeared to recommend a rather restricted conception of the art-connoisseur. Waltons and Carlsons anti-formalism (in relation to art and nature respectively) both called for the expertise and knowledge base required to identify and apply the correct category under which an item of appreciation must be subsumed. Yet the plausibility of cassius quotes challenges to what is non, these stances (both the strong formalism of Bell and the strong anti-formalism of Walton and quotes, Carlson) appears to be grounded in more moderate , tolerant proposals. Zangwill, for example, defends his moderate formalism as a plea for is non, open-mindedness under the quotes, auspices of attempts to recover some of is non our aesthetic innocence . This presentation began with an historical overview intended to help situate (though not necessarily motivate or defend) the intuition that there is some important sense in which aesthetic qualities pertain to the appearance of things . Anti-formalists point out quotes, that beauty, ugliness, and other aesthetic qualities often (or always) pertain to neutralization, appearances as informed by our beliefs and quotes, understanding about the reality of things. Contemporary Formalists such as Zangwill will insist that such aesthetic qualities alsooften and legitimatelypertain to mere appearances , which are not so informed. On this more moderate approach, the aesthetic responses of the connoisseur, the art-historian, the ecologist can be acknowledged while nonetheless insisting that the cassius quotes, sophisticated aesthetic sensibility has humble roots and we should not forget them.

Formal aesthetic appreciation may be more raw, na i ve, and uncultivated (Zangwill, 2005, p.186), but arguably it has its place.

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essay on cassius economy However, the you dont know jack, problem is that economists may often disagree on the best solution to these challenges. For example, at the start of the great depression in 1930, leading economists in the UK Treasury suggested that the UK needed to balance the budget; i.e. higher taxes, lower unemployment benefits. But, this made the recession deeper and led to a fall in demand. The over quotes production of negative externalities (e.g. pollution/congestion) The underproduction of notting riots, goods with positive externalities (e.g. education, health care, public transport). Cassius? Non-provision of commedia, who guided dante through hell?, Public Goods - (national defence, law and order) In recent years, behavioural economics has looked at the diverse range of factors that influence people's decisions. For example, behavioural economists have noted that individuals can exhibit present-bias focus.

This means placing excess importance on the current time period and making decisions our future self may regret. This includes over-consumption of demerit goods like alcohol and tobacco and failure to save for a pension. What may cause a run on the Pound? A run on the pound is more likely in a semi fixed exchange rate. Cassius Quotes? e.g. when the Government is neutralization examples committed to trying to keep the Pound at a certain level. If markets feel this level is unsustainable they may keep selling Pounds until the government is forced to devalue. For example, in 1992, the UK tried to maintain value of cassius quotes, Sterling in ERM, but, ultimately markets forced the UK out and we had to devalue. Commedia, Who Guided Dante Hell?? The graph above shows the cassius quotes, near 20% devaluation in 1992. We also had a run on the pound in the late 60s, causing the you dont, Wilson government to devalue pound. (In 1967, Wilson devalued pound by 15% after selling many foreign currency reserves trying to maintain value of Pound) In 1976, there was another on the Pound as markets feared the UK's fiscal position. Financial crisis depreciation. Quotes? The credit crunch of 2008 hit the UK economy hard because it was more reliant on the financial sector than most other economies.

Other potential causes of we wear the mask grins, a run on the Pound. High inflation - high inflation reduces the value of Pound Sterling. Foreign investors will be nervous of holding UK assets if the UK has high inflation. Threat of sovereign debt default . Cassius Quotes? If markets feel government borrowing is too high and unsustainable then there is a risk of foreigners losing their government bonds. Hill Riots 1958? Therefore, the market will sell bonds causing an outflow of foreign currency and fall in value of sterling. This can build up a momentum effect.

As the fall in cassius the currency can alarm other investors. Large current account deficit. Is Non Price Competition? A large current account deficit implies we rely on capital flows to quotes, finance the current account deficit. Therefore, the UK would be more vulnerable to capital flight. In this circumstance a run on the Pound would be stronger. However, the UK has run a persistent current account deficit since the meaning, 1980s. Cassius? (See: Current account deficit) Is the UK at risk from a Run on the Pound?

Would membership of Euro protect against a run on the Pound? Link between inflation and interest rates. Interest rates can influence the rate of inflation and the rate of economic growth. The Bank of England change the 'base' interest rate to try and target the government's inflation rate of 2% +/-1 Generally, an increase in inflation leads to higher interest rates. A fall in the inflation rate and lower growth leads to lower interest rates. Graph Showing Inflation and Interest Rates in the UK. Real Interest Rates.

Typically, nominal interest rates are 1 - 2 % higher than inflation. When interest rates are higher than inflation, it means savers are protected against the effects of inflation. However, in what 2008 and 2011, we had a period of negative real interest rates. This meant the inflation rate was higher than the base rate. Cassius Quotes? A negative real interest rate is bad news for savers, but good news for borrowers. Response to Rising Inflation. If inflation rises, generally, the hill, Bank of England increases interest rates to cassius quotes, reduce inflationary pressure. Higher interest rates tend to reduce consumer spending. This is because homeowners see an increase in the cost of their mortgage payments and have less disposable income. Therefore, they spend less.

Also, higher interest rates increase the incentive to save and reduce the incentive to , borrow. Therefore, an increase in interest rates tends to quotes, reduce the rate of economic growth and prevent inflationary pressures. See more on: Effects of Higher interest rates on economy Response to Fall in Inflation Rate. Lower interest rates increase motivation to borrow Lower interest rates mean cheaper mortgage payments and increase disposable income. Why A Cut in Interest Rates May Not Work. The recession was so sharp that investment and consumption have fallen dramatically and so the cuts in interest rates have only mitigated the riots 1958, extent of the downturn House Price falls provide a powerful negative impact on spending. Lower interest rates should boost spending. But, with house prices falling 20% since the peak, this has reduced consumer wealth and therefore reduced spending. Global downturn.

Even sharp depreciation has been unable to boost export growth because of the extent of the economic downturn. Time Lags. A cut in interest rates can take a long time to have an effect. Cassius Quotes? For example, people with a two-year fixed rate mortgage won't notice for quite a long time. (until they re-mortgage. Also, commercial banks may be reluctant to pass the interest rate cut onto consumers. In some circumstances, the Central Bank may not increase interest rates, despite an increase in in the commedia, dante inflation. For example, in cassius quotes 2008 and 2011, we had a rise in inflation to 5%, but, the Central Bank kept interest rates low.

Why? They kept interest rates low because: They felt inflation was just due to temporary cost-push factors like higher taxes and volatile food prices increasing They felt economy was at that, risk of inflation. Therefore, it was more important to tolerate a temporarily higher inflation rate, than increase interest rates and push the cassius quotes, economy back into recession. Related. UK Exchange Rate Mechanism Crisis 1992. In October 1990, the UK made the decision to join the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) The ERM was a semi-fixed exchange rate mechanism. The value of the price, Pound was supposed to be kept at a certain level against the DM.

Keep inflation low Provide stability for exporters encouraging trade Enable countries to join the single currency - the cassius quotes, Euro. In the late 1980s, the chancellor, Nigel Lawson was keen to jack, join the ERM. But, Mrs Thatcher with her euro-sceptic views wanted to stay out. The late 1980s saw an extraordinary economic boom - boosted by cassius, booming house prices, tax cuts and low interest rates. Growth reached record levels of we wear the mask grins, 5-6% a year. Enthusiastic government ministers talked of an cassius quotes economic miracle - hoping Government policies had enabled, at long last, to catch up with other countries like Germany. However, this miracle was an illusion.

High growth was unsustainable and led to inflation.(see: Lawson Boom) With inflation of 10%, Nigel Lawson was able to convince Mrs Thatcher that the UK would benefit from joining the el chapo, ERM to help reduce inflation. Therefore, the UK joined in October 1990. at a rate of DM 2.95 to the Pound. Increasing interest rates - this attracts hot money flows - it is more attractive to save in UK with high interest rates. Buying pounds with foreign exchange reserves. However, these policies of protecting the value of the quotes, Pound was causing a serious economic downturn. High interest rates particularly hit the housing market.

With rising house prices, many had taken out large mortgages to get on the property ladder. But, now interest rates were increasing, mortgage repayments became unaffordable and default rates increased. Combined with rising unemployment from the neutralization, recession, the housing market saw a dramatic fall in prices that was to last 4 years. It was increasingly clear to the financial markets that the Pound was overvalued. The government was exhausting its foreign currency reserves in buying pounds. But, more problematically, the high interest rates was causing a serious recession and misery for homeowners. For a long time, the British government fought a losing battle.

But, the foreign currency reserves of the British government were no match for the trillions of Pound Sterling traded on the foreign currency and quotes the pound kept sliding. It is know estimated that the Treasury used ?27 billion of cassius quotes, foreign currency reserves trying to prop up the Pound. The Treasury estimated the who guided hell?, final cost to cassius, the taxpayer was estimated at ?3.4 billion. An overvalued currency can lead to lower economic growth, due to uncompetitive exports. Trying to keep currency at a level which is that too high, may require high real interest rates - which can cause economic downturn. Quotes? It is hard to buck the market. Even government intervention on foreign currency markets is not sufficient to prevent depreciation if this is what reflects market fundamentals. A devaluation of the currency can be beneficial for the economy - under certain circumstances. This devaluation did not cause significant inflation, because the economy was depressed.

UK Recession of 1991-92 UK devaluation of 1967 - many similarities UK Economic history Factors influencing exchange rate UK Crashes out of ERM in 1992 at BBC Unemployment is A Price well Worth Paying for lower inflation - Norman Lamont commenting on his own policies. European harmony - European Union countries are no longer at loggerheads like they were in the past. With the exception of civil war in Yugoslavia (which wasn't in notting riots the EU at the time), Europe has managed to cassius quotes, heal the divisions which were so painfully exposed in the two World Wars in the Twentieth Century. The EU was awarded the what price, Nobel Peace Prize in 2012 for helping to promote peace and international co-operation. Many Eastern European countries are keen to join the EU because they feel it will help promote economic and political stability. Legal and cassius human rights. The EU has a strong commitment to human rights, preventing discrimination and in the dante through the due process of quotes, law. What Is Non Competition? This makes the EU attractive to cassius quotes, countries, such as the Ukraine who wish to share in competition similar legal and human rights. Prospect of membership has helped modernise countries, such as Turkey. Cassius? The Copenhagen Criteria for EU membership enshrine a commitment to human rights, the rule of law and in the commedia, dante a market economy.

The prospect of gaining membership of the EU, encourage countries to implement human rights legislation. Economic benefits. EU is one of strongest economic areas in cassius quotes the world. With 500 million people, it has 7.3% of the world's population but accounts for 23% of what is non price competition, nominal global GDP. Free trade and removal of non-tariff barriers have helped reduce costs and prices for consumers.

Increased trade with the EU creates jobs and higher income. Over 52% of UK exports are to cassius, the EU. Trade within the EU has increased 30% since 1992. We Wear That And Lies? According to one study - over ten years (1993-2003), the cassius quotes, Single Market has boosted the EUs GDP by 877 billion [?588 billion]. El Chapo? This represents 5,700 [?3,819] of extra income per household. A paper, Campos, Coricelli, and cassius Moretti (2014) used the synthetic counterfactuals method (SCM) pioneered by Abadie and Gardeazabal (2003). The red dotted line shows estimated GDP if the country had not been a member of the what is non competition, EU. This shows that even more prosperous EU countries, such as the UK have benefited from higher GDP as a result of being in the EU. Free movement of labour and capital have helped create a more flexible economy. For example, UK and quotes Ireland have benefited from the immigration of Eastern European workers to fill labour market shortages in certain areas, such as plumbing, nursing and cleaning. ? Far from 'taking jobs', migration has helped increase productive capacity and makes a net contribution to tax revenues. (see impact of net migration) Free movement of labour also enables British people to live and work in Europe.

Roughly 1.6 million British citizens live in the EU outside the UK ( UNCTAD World Investment Report 2010 ) EU migrants are net contributors to UK Treasury. EU migrants tend to be young. Therefore they pay taxes, but use a relatively small share of the cassius quotes, NHS and pensions. See: Fiscal effects of immigration. Net migration has helped deal with the UK's demographic timebomb. EU has enabled people to jack, travel freely across national boundaries making trade and tourism easier and cheaper. According to the European Commission, more than 15 million EU citizens have moved to other EU countries to cassius, work or to enjoy their retirement. In The Commedia, Dante Through Hell?? 1.5 million young people have completed part of their studies in another member state with the help of the Erasmus programme.

The possibility to study abroad is considered positive by 84% of EU citizens. Cassius Quotes? (benefits of EU) Easier to use qualifications in meaning el chapo different member countries. This makes it easier to work abroad without having to retrain in cassius different national qualifications. Mutual recognition of safety standards and rules have helped reduce costs for firms. This has encouraged the jack, development of small and medium business who rely on the low cost of exports. Social charter enshrines protection for workers such as a maximum working week, right to collective bargaining and fair pay for employment. European Arrest Warrant (EAW) scheme has made it easier to track criminals across the European continent. Environmental benefits of the EU. The EU has raised the quality of sea water and beeches, by implementing regulations on cassius quotes water standards 'Bathing Water Directive'. 92% of tourist locations now meet minimum water quality standards. (Clean water at Europa.eu) Tackling global warming.

In 2006, the (EU) committed to reducing its global warming emissions by at least 20 percent of 1990 levels by 2020. The EU has also committed to spending $375 billion a year to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 percent by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. (global warmingpdf) Tackling acid rain. Environmental treaties which have sought to deal with European wide environmental problems such as acid rain. The EU has set strict restrictions on emissions of in the through, pollutants, such as sulphur , and other causes of quotes, acid rain. (BBC Link) Consumer benefits of the EU. EU competition policy has harmonised regulation of monopoly and cartel power within Europe. The EU competition policy seeks to the mask that, avoid abuses of cartels / monopoly / dominant market power and protect the interest of the consumer. There has been successful deregulation of airlines, electricity and gas markets.

The EU has reduced the price of making mobile phone calls abroad. In 2007 EU legislation set maximum charges for making and receiving calls. The EU also agreed with 14 mobile phone manufacturers to create a standard design for cassius quotes chargers from 2011 in order to make life easier for consumers and reduce wastage. In 2014, it is has voted to scrap roaming charges which will drastically reduce the cost of using a mobile phone abroad. (BBC link) Consumers are free to shop in any EU countries without paying any tariffs or excise duties when they return home. So what have the EU ever done for us, apart from straightening all those pesky bananas? Recent posts on Brexit and Europe.

Unemployment - A price worth paying for lower inflation? To some extent N.Lamont will claim to be vindicated by events. Neutralization? Although unemployment rose to 3 million in quotes the early 1990s, inflation was reduced and since then the economy has experienced a long period of uninterrupted growth without inflation and unemployment has fallen. 2. Costs of inflation. 1. Unemployment can last for a long time. Yet, this period of undoubted prosperity and rising living standards helped to mask a decline in neutralization examples the relative competitiveness of the UK economy. UK economic growth in the 1960s. There were brief dips in output, but these were not sustained. Lack of willingness / ability to quotes, innovate Poor industrial relations with a growing number of days lost to examples, strike action.

There was often a break down between owners and managers and increasingly militant trade unions. Some argue this was exacerbated by cassius, Britain's class system. Whilst Japanese workers sang company songs with zest and loyalty, British workers were more likely to meaning, be working to rule or considering strike action. Barbara Castle as Labour minister tried a moderate reforms of trades unions, through her white paper 'In Place of Strife '. Quotes? However, the notting 1958, unions effectively lobbied Labour ministers and the reform bill was blocked. Complacency. Some argue that in the post-war period, the UK was affected by complacency of being a global power. This complacency was in stark contrast to the defeated countries of Germany and Japan, who put greater energy into cassius business. The UK was also hampered by coming to terms with letting go its Empire and trying to join Europe.

In the 1960s, two applications to , join the EEC were vetoed by the French. Lack of public sector infrastructure. Burdened by high post-war debt, the cassius, UK struggled to invest in 1958 new transport and technologies. Cassius Quotes? For example, the UK was still relying on steam trains until the mid 1960s - later than many other countries who made switch to examples, cheaper and more efficient electricity and diesel. Balance of Payments. In the 1960s, the trade deficit was seen as a vitally important economic statistic, with important politically considerations. Unfortunately, for the Harold Wilson government of the 1960s, the cassius, UK trade deficit was embarrassingly large - a result of the , decline in competitiveness and a wish to retain a strong pound. Campaigns like 'Buy British' were surprisingly prominent, but, ultimately failed to make any real dent in the trade deficit.

The problem was that if you wanted a car or electrical good that worked - you were much better off buying from overseas. If we made jokes about Skodas and Ladas in the 1980s, British Leyland was the butt of many jokes during 60s and 70s. Despite the economic weaknesses of the 1960s, it was still an quotes era of full employment and el chapo rising real wages. Compared to the rest of the Twentieth Century, the 1950s and 60s were a rare period of full employment. In fact, there were serious labour shortages in industries, such as manufacturing and transport, leading to the mass immigration from Commonwealth countries.

Devaluation of 1967. It does not mean that the cassius quotes, pound here in Britain, in your pocket or purse or in your bank, has been devalued. (BBC) But, it did cause the price of imports to rise and contribute to rising inflation. It was also hoped the grins, devaluation would tackle. Our decision to quotes, devalue attacks our problem at the root and that is we wear the mask that grins and lies why the international monetary community have rallied round. However, although it proved a temporary boost in competitiveness.

It could not tackle the fundamental issues, such as productivity and cassius quotes labour relations. After the the mask, Second World War, the UK was left with huge debts. National debt as a % of GDP exceeded 200% of GDP in cassius quotes the early 1950s. Britain was reliant on loans from the United States. Meaning El Chapo? Despite growth and a steady reduction in debt to GDP during the 1960s, the UK still required US help. The Lawson Boom of the late 1980s. The Lawson boom of the late 1980s was a classic example of a 'boom and bust' economic cycle. The late 1980s were a period of rapid economic expansion.

This was caused by rising house prices, tax cuts, lower interest rates and cassius quotes high confidence. We Wear Grins And Lies? However, the boom caused a rise in inflation and quotes a larger current account deficit. Policies to tackle this inflation caused the recession of 1991-92. The Lawson boom followed from the recession of 1981. The Mask Grins? This recession particularly affected the quotes, manufacturing sector and caused unemployment to rise to 3 million.

By 1985, unemployment was still over 2.5 million people. However, from 1986 the government made various decisions which helped to riots 1958, inflate the economy causing an inflationary boom. Economic growth in the 1980s. In 1987 as a whole, output grew by getting on for 4? per cent., rather more than the rate of inflation which averaged 4.2 per cent. At the cassius quotes, same time, unemployment fell faster than in examples any other year since the war, in every region of the country, and more than in cassius any other major nation. The plain fact is that the British economy has been transformed. Prudent financial policies have given business and industry the confidence to expand, while supply side reforms have progressively removed the barriers to enterprise. Hill 1958? (source) However, this was not the case and economic growth of 4%, led to a growing current account deficit and rising inflation rate.

4. Cassius? The housing boom. The low-interest rates and the high consumer confidence sparked a housing boom. During the boom years, house prices rose by 300% (and more in what is non price places like London). Q4 1988 was the quotes, peak of the boom period with house prices rising over 30% at an annual rate. This boom in house prices caused a rise in household wealth and increased confidence. Notting Hill Riots? Equity withdrawal rose to record levels, which helped increase consumer spending. By 1988 and 1989, the economy was growing at 5% a year (almost double the quotes, long run trend rate) Despite signs of we wear the mask, overheating, the government were reluctant to react.

Interest rates were increased, but not as quickly as they could have. Partly they believed there had been an economic miracle - enabling a higher long run trend rate of economic growth. But, also Nigel Lawson, didn't want higher interest rates to boost the value of the Pound above the 'unofficial exchange rate' he was following. This was a policy known as shadowing the D-Mark. However, the quotes, fast growth meant that inflation started to creep up, eventually reaching over 8% in 1990. A widening current account deficit in the late 1980s was evidence of the economic boom. High consumer spending led to a rise in import spending causing a deterioration in the current account. It was also in the 1980s, that we saw rapid financial deregulation, which at the time was considered beneficial.

However, the , financial deregulation of building societies was a factor behind the UK credit crunch of 2008. The Lawson Boom also saw a period of widening inequality - helped by cuts to tax rates for quotes high earners. One interesting outcome of the Lawson Boom was that it encouraged later governments to give responsibility of Monetary Policy to the Bank of England. The argument was that an independent Bank of that grins and lies, England would avoid the political pressure to keep interest rates too low to achieve high growth. Quotes? Related. How does austerity affect the economy?

However, austerity, during a time of economic weakness often leads to further falls in aggregate demand, higher unemployment and lower economic growth. In some cases, austerity to examples, reduce a budget deficit can be self-defeating, with sharp falls in real GDP, causing debt to GDP ratios to continue to rise. However, in certain cases, 'fiscal austerity' can reduce budget deficits without causing negative economic growth. Lower inflation . Spending cuts will tend to lead to lower inflation. Firstly, the cassius quotes, fall in aggregate demand (AD) will lead to el chapo, lower inflationary pressures in cassius quotes the economy. Also, if the government limits public sector wages, this will put downward pressure on the mask grins wages.

Lower wage growth plays a key role in reducing underlying inflationary pressure. Ireland has been one of cassius quotes, more 'successful' countries which has embarked on austerity, but this shows GNP is still significantly below pre -crisis levels (when real GNP was growing at an average rate of close to 5% a year) The UK's budget deficit fell slower than expected. You Dont? This was partly because growth forecasts proved overly-optimistic. The austerity measures led to a slowdown in growth. What determines the impact of austerity? Exchange rate . Austerity is not as damaging if a country can devalue the exchange rate. This devaluation helps to restore competitiveness much quicker than relying on internal devaluation. The depreciation helps boost export demand. Countries in the Euro, can't devalue and quotes so have to rely solely on what price competition internal devaluation to restore competitiveness.

Should we worry about national debt? It is worth bearing in mind that in the 1940s, as well as paying for post war reconstruction, the UK set up the NHS and cassius welfare state. There was no austerity panic in notting riots the 1940s! The high government debt levels of the cassius, 1940s and 1950s were not a barrier to hill riots, the post war boom years of the 1950s and 1960s which saw record levels of economic growth. An analogy. Cassius? When I took out a mortgage loan of ?140,000, I was left with mortgage payments of ?800 a month.

In 2004, this was nearly 40% of my income. However, if my income increases by 3% a year. We Wear Grins And Lies? In 20 years time, it will be much easier to pay that mortgage payment of ?800, it will hopefully be 15% of my income. To buy a house, it makes sense to borrow a mortgage and cassius quotes pay back over 30-40 years. However, although national debt can be effectively managed, there are concerns when debt grows faster than National Income.

For example, in Greece debt to GDP has risen so quickly that it has proved very difficult to stop the ratio of debt to GDP rising. (partly because spending cuts to reduce the deficit, caused lower GDP) As UK debt rose from 35% of GDP to 80% of GDP. Bond yields fell from 5% to el chapo, 2% In other-words as debt rose, borrowing costs fell. This is because in cassius quotes economic downturn, there is greater demand for government bonds. In some cases (such as Eurozone economies) higher levels of public debt pushed up bond yields. Higher bond yields are damaging to the economy. It increases the cost of debt interest payments and is a reflection investors are nervous about the liquidity of government debt.

It forced the economies into austerity which caused a prolonged recession. The UK has seen a fall in bond yields during the recession of 2008-12. This is because, in a recession, private sector saving rises. Therefore, there is demand for safe investments, such as government bonds. In a recession, people don't want to take risks, therefore demand for shares and private investment tends to fall. In a recession, government borrowing doesn't tend to cause crowding out.

Government borrowing is merely mopping up private sector saving. Possible reasons to be concerned about government borrowing. However, an ageing population can be resolved without just increasing tax on young workers. In The Dante? The retirement age can be increase to cassius quotes, keep the same% of population in workforce. 3. Inflationary Pressure. There is a concern that higher levels of is non price competition, national debt can cause inflation. If debt becomes too high, there may be insufficient investors to cassius, buy the we wear the mask that and lies, government securities (the usual way of financing the debt). Therefore, the cassius quotes, government may be tempted (or forced) to neutralization, fill the shortfall in revenue by printing money. Printing money and increasing the money supply, will lead to inflation. The problem with inflation, is cassius that it devalues the value of bonds, people will sell bonds, leading to higher interest rates on bonds and higher debt interest payments. If investors see inflation is getting out of control, people will not want to hold bonds.

Foreign investors will sell their securities and this will cause a devaluation in the currency. This is particularly a problem for the US, where foreign countries hold a high % of the national debt.The hyperinflation of Germany in 1922-23 was caused by the government printing money to finance reparation payments to the allies. However, it should be pointed out, this hyperinflation is quite rare and only occurs if the government prints money recklessly without regard to we wear that grins and lies, the fundamental economic situation. Quantitative easing in 2009-12 didn't cause inflation in the UK and US. The increase in the monetary base was very large, but the inflationary impact minimal. - Inflation and quantitative easing. 4. Crowding Out . It is argued that if government borrowing increases, it will cause crowding out of the private sector.

If the private sector buy bonds it means the cassius quotes, private sector has less funds for private sector investment. Also, if borrowing increases, interest rates may rise. Higher interest rates also reduce private sector spending and investment. However, in a recession, crowding out doesn't occur because the private sector want to buy government bonds 5. Neutralization Examples? As National Debt increases as a % of quotes, GDP, it means that the interest payments as a % of GDP may increase. Therefore, higher levels of taxes have to be spent on just financing the national debt. If the government increases debt during a period of economic growth - the higher borrowing is likely to crowd out the private sector and lead to a decline in private sector investment. If there is a structural deficit caused by spending commitments which can't be met by tax revenues. If the and lies, government responds to higher debt by printing money; this can cause inflation. e.g. case of Zimbabwe, Germany 1920s.

But, note QE of 2008-12, didn't cause inflation in UK and US because of liquidity trap. How to deal with an cassius ageing population. How UK Pension spending as a % of GDP has increased in recent decades.