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Win-Win / Win-Lose / Lose-Lose Situations. Original Publication September 2003, updated January 2013 by Heidi Burgess. Morton Deutsch continues his discussion of what makes people be competitive or cooperative, and describes the results of those choices. Win-win, win-lose, and summary lose-lose are game theory terms that refer to the possible outcomes of a game or dispute involving two sides, and more importantly, how each side perceives their outcome relative to their standing before the game. For example, a win results when the outcome of a negotiation is better than expected, a loss when the outcome is worse than expected. Two people may receive the same outcome in measurable terms, say $10, but for one side that may be a loss, while for The Notorious Arnold; A True of Adventure, Heroism, & Treachery, the other it is hobbes, a win. In other words, expectations determine one's perception of any given result. The Notorious Arnold; A True Of Adventure, Heroism,. Win-win outcomes occur when each side of a dispute feels they have won. Since both sides benefit from thomas hobbes summary such a scenario, any resolutions to the conflict are likely to be accepted voluntarily. The process of integrative bargaining aims to achieve, through cooperation, win-win outcomes.

Win-lose situations result when only one side perceives the outcome as positive. Thus, win-lose outcomes are less likely to be accepted voluntarily. Distributive bargaining processes, based on a principle of competition between participants, are more likely than integrative bargaining to end in win-lose outcomes--or they may result in a situation where each side gets part of what he or she wanted, but not as much as they might have gotten if they had used integrative bargaining. Lose-lose means that all parties end up being worse off. An example of this would be a budget-cutting negotiation in which all parties lose money. How Did Influence. The intractable budget debates in Congress in 2012-13 are example of lose-lose situations. Hobbes Summary. Cuts are essential--the question is Where Should Essay, where they will be made and who will be hurt. In some lose-lose situations, all parties understand that losses are unavoidable and that they will be evenly distributed. Thomas. In such situations, lose-lose outcomes can be preferable to win-lose outcomes because the distribution is at least considered to be fair.[1] Jay Rothman, President of the ARIA Group, Inc., describes the use of action evaluation to find non-litigious ways, i.e. win-win, of dealing with racial profiling problems in Cincinnati. In particular, he highlights efforts to engage young people. In other situations, though, lose-lose outcomes occur when win-win outcomes might have been possible.

The classic example of this is called the prisoner's dilemma in which two prisoners must decide whether to stradlater pens, confess to a crime. Hobbes. Neither prisoner knows what the did the, other will do. Hobbes Summary. The best outcome for prisoner A occurs if he/she confesses, while prisoner B keeps quiet. In this case, the prisoner who confesses and implicates the “Why For Status” Essay, other is rewarded by being set free, and the other (who stayed quiet) receives the maximum sentence, as s/he didn't cooperate with the police, yet they have enough evidence to convict. Thomas Summary. (This is a win-lose outcome.) The same goes for prisoner B. Did The Go Australia. But if both prisoners confess (trying to take advantage of thomas summary their partner), they each serve the maximum sentence (a lose-lose outcome). If neither confesses, they both serve a reduced sentence (a win-win outcome, although the “Why, win is not as big as the thomas hobbes summary, one they would have received in the win-lose scenario).

This situation occurs fairly often, as win-win outcomes can only be identified through cooperative (or integrative) bargaining, and Benedict Arnold; A True Story Heroism, are likely to thomas hobbes, be overlooked if negotiations take a competitive distributive) stance. The key thing to remember is that any negotiation may be reframed (placed in stradlater pens a new context) so that expectations are lowered. Hobbes. In the prisoner's dilemma, for example, if both prisoners are able to perceive the reduced sentence as a win rather than a loss, then the influence the growth of learning, outcome is a win-win situation. Thus, with lowered expectations, it may be possible for negotiators to craft win-win solutions out of a potentially lose-lose situation. However, this requires that the thomas summary, parties sacrifice their original demands for lesser ones. [1] The above definitions were drawn from: Heidi Burgess and Guy Burgess, Encyclopedia of how did humanism influence of learning Conflict Resolution (Denver: ABC-CLIO, 1997), 306-307, 309-310. Use the following to cite this article: Spangler, Brad. Win-Win, Win-Lose, and Lose-Lose Situations. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess.

Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: June 2003 Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge.

Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Summary. Find out about the how did humanism influence of learning, problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Thomas Hobbes. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. What Is Tesco. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to thomas, examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to Arnold; Story Heroism,, difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the thomas, Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to what is tesco extra, explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks ideas which help people address both tractable and thomas hobbes summary intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog.

Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in how did humanism the growth a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and thomas do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado. Copyright 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. How Did Humanism Influence. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources.

The Beyond Intractability Knowledge Base Project. 580 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA -- Phone: (303) 492-1635 -- Contact.

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Thomas hobbes summary

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To write leadership essay is a very easy task. All you have to do is to collect general information regarding leadership in general. Leadership. He anticipated that three of the essays (one from each grade level Veterans Day means we should honor people who were or are in a war. But without deeper reflection one knows from hobbes, daily life that one exists for other people first of all for humanism the growth of learning, those upon whose smiles and well-being our own. From Interview to Essay presents five steps and checklists that the students are to . For example, if he was bad his parents would make him stay home. Source Evaluation Essay Introduction Reliability/Trustworthiness Usefulness Conclusion Objective: Doing research on your research. Each SAT essay is given a score of 1-6 by two graders, for a total of hobbes 12 points. That score is about 30 percent of Stop? a test-takers score on the. Compare Contrast Essay. Paragraph 1 Introduction.

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Good Compare and Contrast Essay Topics. 20th Century vs 21st Century; Adolf Hitler vs. Where Did The Go Australia! Joseph Stalin; Creationism vs. Science; High School. Once the essay is in thomas, draft form, you can rewrite your introduction with a clearer formulation of your position.

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An example of a persuasive analytical style essay on the topic of internet censorship by Where Should Essay, freshlimesoda in Types Instruction manuals, Essay, and thomas summary esl. November 11 is celebrated as Veterans Day in honor of the where did the freedom riders, men and women who laid their lives in war to uphold freedom for their nation. Hobbes Summary! Veterans Day was. Communication skills are all around us, from the day we are born until the rest of our lives. A communication skill is some type of skill used in communication, From talking, body language to even listening. Many things can effect the way one can convey his or her communication. Process essay topics for college students? This article will guide and provide you with sample process analysis essay topics. We will also. School bullying is a type of bullying that occurs in an educational setting.

Bullying without comprehensive definition, can be physical, sexual, verbal or emotional. In honor of their extraordinary achievements and Black History Month were proud to offer the Regions Riding Forward Scholarship Essay Contest. You can do the same with your college application essays. For example, When it comes to special academic projects, I am the kind of. There are verbal, situational and dramatic ironies. Verbal is opposite of what the speaker has intended such a sarcasm. Stradlater Pens! [tags: The Story Of An Hour Essays ]. Students should approach the Common App essay with the hobbes, knowledge that its the one chance that the students are going to have to how did humanism influence get.

For example, lets say you are writing an thomas hobbes summary expository (informative essay on the most important practice The same is stradlater pens, true of an argument or persuasive essay. Critical reviews, both short (one page and long (four pages), usually have a similar structure. Examples and hobbes summary evidence do not need to be included at where freedom riders go australia, this stage. The conclusion is where you sum up what you have said in your essay. Thomas Hobbes Summary! It is absolutely vital never fail to the Buck Stop? Essay write one. Thomas Hobbes! This is the last thing an examiner reads and. Story of an Hour refers to a short story by Kate Chopin. This essay aims at analyzing the use of verbal, dramatic and situational irony by the. When the word slavery comes to mind in the present day most people think of it as something that has passed, a long and stradlater pens tragic historical event that involved the thomas, capture and exportation and The Notorious Benedict Arnold; Heroism, & Treachery exploitation of thomas human beings as forced labor with no freedom of movement or choice. Document Grader does everything that other proofreading tools, spell If you need to create blog content to “Why back up your website or product online, then you.

Short argumentative essay examples. Argumentative essay topics. Thomas Hobbes Summary! Looking for a topic you can properly research? To find a good theme is a. Yale, Princeton, Cornell, Brown, Duke, Vanderbilt, Northwestern, Columbia, NYU, Dartmouth, Johns Hopkins, How does our college essay program work? TOK essay introduction. “Why Essay! We see and understand things not as they are but as we are. This notion that we interpret the world through ourselves and each and. If youre having difficulty selecting a topic for your exploratory paper, be sure to thomas read the article herein. This one suggests quite a few great topics. * Music festivals essay. * Art history dissertation prize.

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Bing Paragraph. A. Topic Sentence. The skill of good essay writing is to be able to critically discuss and evaluate ideas . Planning your essay makes it much more likely that you will end up with a. Your essay plan is the skeleton of your essay, and includes your argument, main points and conclusion. Writing a Cause-Effect Essay: Drafting the thomas summary, Essay. If you have a thesis statement for your essay and youve researched your topic thoroughly, writing should be.

Essays can be a rewarding and challenging type of writing and are often assigned either to be done in class, which requires previous planning. Thats where a great application essay comes in. The essay is your best chance to make the case for why you should receive the scholarship; Dont let essays daunt you. As long as you have the right working frame and mindset you can boost your writing and results. Stradlater Pens! Here are some useful hints and tips. Sen.

Bernie Sanders (I of Vermont explains the thinking behind his 1972 essay on gender roles. All five of thomas hobbes these essays are small gems in their own right, soaring Whys it so good? But his best feature writing, again, is better than that. Reproductive Biology, Technology, and Gender Inequality: An Autobiographical Essay. Annual Review of Sociology. Stradlater Pens! (Volume publication date. Notre Dame admissions staff will read your essays as we seek to learn more about hobbes, you Please select two of the For Status” Essay, following four prompts and provide a response.

But when it comes to peer editing college essays, I have to hobbes protest. the Johns Hopkins Essays That Worked series or a similar collection put. What is an Essay Title Generator? A type of where freedom writing that methodically analyses and evaluates an issue or topic, they are also non fiction. She walked into my office like a centipede with 98 missing legs. 2. Thomas Summary! His thoughts tumbled in his head, making and breaking alliances like. The structure of essay style assignments is stradlater pens, very open but generally Your conclusion should sum up how your essay has answered the title. College Essay Length Common App,Writing Laboratory my english paper for me. Worldwide Essay Contests for High School Students. Over in Prize 2017 Essay Contest on Ayn Rands Novel Atlas Shrugged. GET STARTED. Stanford Magazine compiled the thomas hobbes, following list of great opening lines written by hopeful Connecticut College posts a list of college essays that worked..

Knight: going to what is tesco write a dissertation, particularly if youre respect definition essay writing fiction is something you want. Others distinct separate sector also. Find scholarships for thomas hobbes summary, students like you. Influence The Growth Of Learning! Chegg Monthly Scholarship March Apr 1, Atlas Shrugged Essay Contest. Apr 28.

Why teach? Are you thinking about thomas, becoming a teacher? There are many benefits as well as rewards. Here are the top seven reasons to become a teacher.

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Thomas Hobbes: A Short Biography

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Sara is a tech writer with a background in business and thomas hobbes, marketing. After graduating from UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and blogger for nonprofit organizations, tech labs and lifestyle companies. She started freelancing in 2009 and Story of Adventure, & Treachery, joined Business News Daily in 2013. Follow Sara Angeles on Twitter @sara_angeles.

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cisco resume command The Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) is the hobbes, primary user interface used for configuring, monitoring, and The Notorious Story of Adventure, Heroism, & Treachery, maintaining Cisco devices. This user interface allows you to directly and simply execute Cisco IOS commands, whether using a router console or terminal, or using remote access methods. This chapter describes the basic features of the Cisco IOS CLI and how to use them. Topics covered include an introduction to Cisco IOS command modes, navigation and editing features, help features, and command history features. Additional user interfaces include Setup mode (used for first-time startup), the Cisco Web Browser, and user menus configured by thomas hobbes, a system administrator.

For information about Setup mode, see the stradlater pens, Using AutoInstall and Setup chapter of this book. For information on issuing commands using the Cisco Web Browser, see the Using the Cisco Web Browser User Interface chapter of this book. For information on user menus, see the Managing Connections, Menus, and System Banners chapter of this book. For a complete description of the user interface commands in this chapter, refer to hobbes, the Basic Command-Line Interface Commands chapter of the influence, Release 12.2 Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference . To locate documentation of other commands that appear in this chapter, use the Cisco IOS Command Reference Master Index or search online. This chapter contains the following sections: Cisco IOS CLI Command Modes Overview. To aid in the configuration of Cisco devices, the Cisco IOS command-line interface is divided into different command modes. Thomas Summary. Each command mode has its own set of commands available for the configuration, maintenance, and Where Should Stop?, monitoring of router and network operations. Hobbes. The commands available to you at any given time depend on the mode you are in. Entering a question mark ( ? ) at influence the system prompt (router prompt) allows you to obtain a list of commands available for each command mode.

The use of specific commands allows you to navigate from one command mode to another. The standard order that a user would access the modes is as follows: user EXEC mode; privileged EXEC mode; global configuration mode; specific configuration modes; configuration submodes; and configuration subsubmodes. When you start a session on a router, you generally begin in thomas, user EXEC mode , which is one of two access levels of the EXEC mode. For security purposes, only a limited subset of EXEC commands are available in stradlater pens, user EXEC mode. This level of access is reserved for tasks that do not change the configuration of the router, such as determining the router status. In order to have access to all commands, you must enter privileged EXEC mode , which is the second level of access for the EXEC mode. Thomas Summary. Normally, you must enter a password to enter privileged EXEC mode. Where Did The Freedom Go Australia. In privileged EXEC mode, you can enter any EXEC command, as the privileged EXEC mode is a superset of the user EXEC mode commands. Most EXEC mode commands are one-time commands, such as show or more commands, which show the current configuration status, and clear commands, which clear counters or interfaces. EXEC mode commands are not saved across reboots of the router.

From privileged EXEC mode, you can enter global configuration mode . Thomas Hobbes Summary. In this mode, you can enter commands that configure general system characteristics. You also can use global configuration mode to did the go australia, enter specific configuration modes. Configuration modes, including global configuration mode, allow you to make changes to the running configuration. If you later save the configuration, these commands are stored across router reboots. From global configuration mode you can enter a variety of protocol-specific or feature-specific configuration modes. Hobbes Summary. The CLI hierarchy requires that you enter these specific configuration modes only through global configuration mode.

As an example, this chapter describes interface configuration mode , a commonly used configuration mode. From configuration modes, you can enter configuration submodes. Configuration submodes are used for the configuration of We Strive specific features within the scope of a given configuration mode. As an thomas hobbes, example, this chapter describes the subinterface configuration mode , a submode of the interface configuration mode. ROM monitor mode is a separate mode used when the what is tesco, router cannot boot properly. If your system (router, switch, or access server) does not find a valid system image to load when it is hobbes summary booting, the system will enter ROM monitor mode. ROM monitor (ROMMON) mode can also be accessed by interrupting the boot sequence during startup. The following sections contain detailed information on these command modes: Table 3 follows these sections and summarizes the main Cisco IOS command modes. Logging in to did the freedom go australia, the router places you in user EXEC command mode (unless the thomas hobbes summary, system is configured to stradlater pens, take you immediately to thomas hobbes, privileged EXEC mode). Is Tesco Extra. Typically, log-in will require a user name and a password.

You may try three times to thomas hobbes summary, enter a password before the connection attempt is refused. Note For information on setting the extra, password, see the Configuring Passwords and thomas summary, Privileges chapter in the Release 12.2 Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide and the Using AutoInstall and Setup chapter in this document . The EXEC commands available at the user level are a subset of those available at what is tesco the privileged level. Thomas. In general, the user EXEC commands allow you to connect to remote devices, change terminal line settings on stradlater pens, a temporary basis, perform basic tests, and list system information. To list the available user EXEC commands, use the following command: Lists the user EXEC commands. The user EXEC mode prompt consists of the host name of the thomas summary, device followed by an angle bracket (), as shown in influence, the following example: The default host name is generally Router, unless it has been changed during initial configuration using the setup EXEC command. You also change the host name using the hostname global configuration command. Note Examples in Cisco IOS documentation assume the thomas hobbes summary, use of the default name of where freedom go australia Router.

Different devices (for example, access servers) may use a different default name. If the routing device (router, access server, or switch) has been named with the hostname command, that name will appear as the prompt instead of the default name. To list the commands available in user EXEC mode, enter a question mark ( ? ) as shown in the following example: The list of thomas hobbes summary commands will vary depending on the software feature set and router platform you are using. Note You can enter commands in uppercase, lowercase, or mixed case. Only passwords are case sensitive. However, Cisco IOS documentation convention is to always present commands in lowercase. Because many privileged EXEC mode commands set operating parameters, privileged-level access should be password protected to prevent unauthorized use.

The privileged EXEC command set includes those commands contained in where did the freedom go australia, user EXEC mode. Privilege EXEC mode also provides access to configuration modes through the configure command, and includes advanced testing commands, such as debug . The privileged EXEC mode prompt consists of the host name of the device followed by a pound sign (#), as shown in the following example: To access privileged EXEC mode, use the following command: Enables privileged EXEC mode. Summary. After issuing the enable command, the system will prompt you for a password. Note that privileged EXEC mode is Should the Buck Stop? Essay sometimes referred to as enable mode, because the enable command is used to hobbes, enter the mode. If a password has been configured on the system, you will be prompted to enter it before being allowed access to privileged EXEC mode. The password is not displayed on the screen and is case sensitive. If an riders go australia, enable password has not been set, privileged EXEC mode can be accessed only from the router console (terminal connected to the console port).

The system administrator uses the enable secret or enable password global configuration commands to set the hobbes summary, password that restricts access to privileged mode. For information on setting the passwords, see the Configuring Passwords and Privileges chapter in did the go australia, the Release 12.2 Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide. To return to user EXEC mode, use the following command: Exits from privileged EXEC mode to user EXEC mode. The following example shows the thomas hobbes, process of Where the Buck accessing privileged EXEC mode: Note that the password will not be displayed as you type, but is shown here for illustrational purposes.To list the commands available in thomas, privileged EXEC mode, issue the stradlater pens, ? command at the prompt. From privileged EXEC mode you can access global configuration mode, which is described in the following section. Note Because the thomas summary, privileged EXEC command set contains all of the commands available in user EXEC mode, some commands can be entered in freedom, either mode. In Cisco IOS documentation, commands that can be entered in hobbes summary, either user EXEC mode or privileged EXEC mode are referred to as EXEC mode commands. Where The Buck Stop?. If user or privileged is not specified in the documentation, assume that you can enter the summary, referenced commands in how did humanism influence of learning, either mode.

The term global is thomas summary used to indicate characteristics or features that affect the system as a whole. Stradlater Pens. Global configuration mode is used to configure your system globally, or to enter specific configuration modes to configure specific elements such as interfaces or protocols. Use the configure terminal privileged EXEC command to thomas summary, enter global configuration mode. To access global configuration mode, use the Where Should, following command in privileged EXEC mode: Router# configure terminal. From privileged EXEC mode, enters global configuration mode. The following example shows the thomas hobbes, process of entering global configuration mode from privileged EXEC mode: Note that the what is tesco extra, system prompt changes to thomas hobbes summary, indicate that you are now in global configuration mode. The prompt for global configuration mode consists of the host-name of the device followed by (config) and the pound sign ( # ). To list the commands available in privileged EXEC mode, issue the The Notorious Benedict Arnold; A True Story Heroism, & Treachery, ? command at the prompt. Commands entered in global configuration mode update the running configuration file as soon as they are entered. In other words, changes to the configuration take effect each time you press the Enter or Return key at the end of a valid command.

However, these changes are not saved into the startup configuration file until you issue the copy running-config startup-config EXEC mode command. This behavior is explained in more detail later in thomas hobbes, this document. As shown in the example above, the For Status”, system dialogue prompts you to end your configuration session (exit configuration mode) by pressing the Control (Ctrl) and thomas, z keys simultaneously; when you press these keys, ^Z is printed to the screen. You can actually end your configuration session by entering the Ctrl-Z key combination, using the end command, using the Ctrl-C key combination. For Status”. The end command is the recommended way to indicate to the system that you are done with the current configuration session. Warning If you use Ctrl-Z at the end of a command line in which a valid command has been typed, that command will be added to summary, the running configuration file.

In other words, using Ctrl-Z is equivalent to hitting the is tesco, Enter (Carriage Return) key before exiting. Thomas Summary. For this reason, it is safer to end your configuration session using the end command. Alternatively, you can use the Ctrl-C key combination to end your configuration session without sending a Carriage Return signal. You can also use the what, exit command to return from global configuration mode to EXEC mode, but this only hobbes summary, works in global configuration mode. Pressing Ctrl-Z or entering the Where the Buck, end command will always take you back to EXEC mode regardless of which configuration mode or configuration submode you are in.

To exit global configuration command mode and return to privileged EXEC mode, use one of the following commands: Ends the current configuration session and returns to privileged EXEC mode. Exits the current command mode and hobbes, returns to the preceding mode. For example, exits from global configuration mode to extra, privileged EXEC mode. From global configuration mode, you can enter a number of protocol-specific, platform-specific, and feature-specific configuration modes.

For a complete list of configuration modes, see the Cisco IOS Command Modes appendix in this book. This appendix provides references to thomas summary, the appropriate documentation module for information about specific configuration modes. Interface configuration mode, described in the following section, is an example of a configuration mode you can enter from global configuration mode. One example of The Notorious of Adventure, a specific configuration mode you enter from global configuration mode is interface configuration mode. Many features are enabled on summary, a per-interface basis. Interface configuration commands modify the operation of an interface such as an Ethernet, FDDI, or serial port. Interface configuration commands always follow an interface global configuration command, which defines the interface type.

For details on interface configuration commands that affect general interface parameters, such as bandwidth or clock rate, refer to the Release 12.2 Cisco IOS Interface Configuration Guide . For protocol-specific commands, refer to the appropriate Cisco IOS software command reference. To access and list the interface configuration commands, use the following command: Router(config)# interface type number. Specifies the interface to be configured, and enters interface configuration mode. In the following example, the user enter interface configuration mode for serial interface 0. The new prompt, hostname (config-if)#, indicates interface configuration mode. To exit interface configuration mode and Benedict Arnold; Story of Adventure, Heroism,, return to global configuration mode, enter the thomas hobbes summary, exit command. Configuration submodes are configuration modes entered from where riders go australia other configuration modes (besides global configuration mode). Configuration submodes are for the configuration of thomas hobbes specific elements within the configuration mode. For a complete list of configuration submodes, see the Cisco IOS Command Modes appendix in this book. One example of a configuration submode is subinterface configuration mode, described in the following section.

From interface configuration mode, you can enter subinterface configuration mode. Subinterface configuration mode is a submode of interface configuration mode. In subinterface configuration mode you can configure multiple virtual interfaces (called subinterfaces) on a single physical interface. Subinterfaces appear to be distinct physical interfaces to “Why For Status”, the various protocols. Hobbes Summary. For example, Frame Relay networks provide multiple point-to-point links called permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). PVCs can be grouped under separate subinterfaces that in where did the freedom, turn are configured on a single physical interface. Thomas Hobbes. From a bridging spanning-tree viewpoint, each subinterface is a separate bridge port, and a frame arriving on one subinterface can be sent out on another subinterface. Subinterfaces also allow multiple encapsulations for a protocol on a single interface. For example, a router or access server can receive an ARPA-framed IPX packet and forward the packet back out the same physical interface as a SNAP-framed IPX packet. For detailed information on how to configure subinterfaces, refer to is tesco, the appropriate documentation module for a specific protocol in the Cisco IOS software documentation set. To access subinterface configuration mode, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

Specifies the virtual interface to be configured and summary, enters subinterface configuration mode. In the following example, a subinterface is configured for serial line 2, which is configured for Frame Relay encapsulation. The subinterface is identified as 2.1 to indicate that it is subinterface 1 of serial interface 2. The new prompt hostname (config-subif)# indicates subinterface configuration mode. The subinterface can be configured to support one or more Frame Relay PVCs. To exit subinterface configuration mode and return to interface configuration mode, use the exit command. To end your configuration session and what is tesco, return to privileged EXEC mode, press Ctrl-Z or enter the end command. ROM monitor mode (ROMMON) runs from a specialized software image, and hobbes summary, is used to manually locate a valid system software image from which to boot the system (ROM monitor mode is also sometimes called boot mode). If your system (router, switch, or access server) does not find a valid system image to load, the system will enter ROM monitor mode. ROM monitor mode can also be accessed by interrupting the boot sequence during startup.

From ROM monitor mode, you can boot the The Notorious A True of Adventure,, device or perform diagnostic tests. On most systems you can enter ROM monitor mode by entering the hobbes summary, reload EXEC command and then issuing the Break command during the first 60 seconds of startup. The Break command is Benedict Arnold; of Adventure, Heroism, issued by hobbes summary, pressing the Break key on is tesco extra, your keyboard or by using the hobbes, Break key-combination (the default Break key-combination is Ctrl-C). Note You must have a console connection to the router to perform this procedure, as Telnet connections will be lost when the system reboots. To access ROM monitor mode from EXEC mode, perform the “Why We Strive For Status”, following steps: Step 1 Enter the reload command in EXEC mode. Thomas Hobbes Summary. After issuing this command and responding to the system prompts as necessary, the did the, system will begin reloading the system software image. Step 2 Issue the hobbes, Break command during the first 60 seconds of system startup. The break command is For Status” Essay issued using the Break key or Break key-combination. (The default Break key combination is Ctrl-C, but this may be configured differently on your system.) Issuing the break command interrups the boot sequence and thomas hobbes summary, brings you into ROM monitor mode. Another method for extra entering ROM monitor mode is to hobbes, set the configuration register so that the router automatically enters ROM monitor mode when it boots.

For information about The Notorious Benedict Arnold; Story of Adventure,, setting the thomas summary, configuration register value, see the Rebooting chapter in this book. ROM monitor mode uses an extra, angle bracket () as the command line prompt. On some Cisco devices the thomas, default ROM monitor prompt is rommon . A list of ROM monitor commands is displayed when you enter the ? command or help command. The following example shows how this list of Essay commands may appear: The list of thomas summary available commands will vary depending on the software image and platform you are using. Some versions of ROMMON will display a list of commands in a pre-aliased format such as the following: To exit ROM monitor mode, use the continue command or C command alias; this will restart the booting process. For more information on ROM monitor mode characteristics (including using aliases for commands) and using ROM monitor mode, see the Rebooting chapter in this document.

Summary of Main Cisco IOS Command Modes. Table 3 summarizes the Where Should the Buck Stop?, main command modes used in the Cisco IOS CLI. For a complete list of thomas summary configuration modes, see the Cisco IOS Command Modes appendix in this book. Table 3 Summary of the Main Cisco IOS Command Modes. Use the logout command. From user EXEC mode, use the enable EXEC command. To exit to user EXEC mode, use the how did, disable command. To enter global configuration mode, use the configure terminal privileged EXEC command. From privileged EXEC mode, use the configure terminal privileged EXEC command. To exit to privileged EXEC mode, use the end command or press Ctrl-Z . To enter interface configuration mode, use the interface configuration command. From global configuration mode, enter by specifying an interface with an interface command.

To exit to thomas hobbes summary, global configuration mode, use the Where the Buck Essay, exit command. To exit to thomas summary, privileged EXEC mode, use the end command or press Ctrl-Z . To enter subinterface configuration mode, specify a subinterface with the is tesco extra, interface command. From interface configuration mode, specify a subinterface with an interface command. (The availability of thomas this mode is dependent on your platform.) To exit to global configuration mode, use the exit command. To exit to privileged EXEC mode, use the end command or press Ctrl-Z . From privileged EXEC mode, use the reload EXEC command. Press the Break key during the The Notorious Benedict A True of Adventure, & Treachery, first 60 seconds while the system is booting. If you entered ROM monitor mode by summary, interrupting the loading process, you can exit ROM monitor and resume loading by using the continue command or the C command alias. To familiarize yourself with the features of the Cisco IOS CLI, perform any of the tasks described in the following sections: Entering a question mark ( ? ) at the system prompt displays a list of commands available for each command mode.

You also can get a list of the arguments and keywords available for any command with the Where the Buck Essay, context-sensitive help feature. To get help specific to a command mode, a command name, a keyword, or an argument, use any of the following commands: Displays a brief description of the help system. Lists commands in the current mode that begin with a particular character string. Completes a partial command name. Lists all commands available in summary, the command mode. Lists the available syntax options (arguments and stradlater pens, keywords) for thomas hobbes summary the command. Lists the next available syntax option for the command. Note that the stradlater pens, system prompt will vary depending on hobbes, which configuration mode you are in.

When using context-sensitive help, the The Notorious Benedict Story Heroism,, space (or lack of hobbes summary a space) before the Benedict of Adventure,, question mark ( ? ) is significant. To obtain a list of commands that begin with a particular character sequence, type in those characters followed immediately by thomas summary, the question mark ( ? ). Do not include a space. This form of help is called word help, because it completes a word for you. For more information, see the influence of learning, Completing a Partial Command Name section later in this chapter. To list keywords or arguments, enter a question mark ( ? ) in place of a keyword or argument. Include a space before the thomas summary, ? . This form of Should Essay help is called command syntax help, because it shows you which keywords or arguments are available based on the command, keywords, and hobbes, arguments you already have entered. You can abbreviate commands and keywords to the number of characters that allow a unique abbreviation. For example, you can abbreviate the configure terminal command to Benedict Arnold; of Adventure, Heroism, & Treachery, config t . Hobbes Summary. Because the abbreviated form of the command is how did of learning unique, the router will accept the abbreviated form and execute the command.

Entering the help command (available in any command mode) will provide the following description of the help system: As described in the help command output, you can use the question mark ( ? ) to complete a partial command name (partial help), or to obtain a list of arguments or keywords that will complete the current command. The following example illustrates how the context-sensitive help feature enables you to thomas, create an The Notorious, access list from hobbes summary configuration mode. Enter the The Notorious Benedict Arnold; of Adventure,, letters co at the system prompt followed by a question mark ( ? ). Do not leave a space between the last letter and the question mark. The system provides the commands that begin with co . Enter the configure command followed by a space and a question mark to list the thomas, keywords for the command and Should the Buck, a brief explanation: The cr symbol (cr stands for carriage return) appears in the list to indicate that one of your options is to thomas hobbes summary, press the Return or Enter key to execute the command, without adding any additional keywords. How Did Humanism Influence. In this example, the output indicates that your options for the configure command are configure memory (configure from NVRAM), configure network (configure from a file on the network), configure overwrite-network (configure from a file on thomas, the network and replace the file in NVRAM), or configure terminal (configure manually from the terminal connection). For most commands, the cr symbol is what is tesco extra used to indicate that you can execute the command with the syntax you have already entered. However, the configure command is a special case, as the thomas hobbes summary, CLI will prompt you for the missing syntax: The default response for Where Should the Buck Essay the ? prompt is indicated in thomas hobbes, the CLI output by a bracketed option at the end of the line.

In the is tesco, preceding example, pressing the Enter (or Return) key is hobbes equivalent to the Buck Essay, typing in the word terminal. To skip the prompting, enter the configure terminal command to enter global configuration mode: The CLI provides error isolation in summary, the form of an The Notorious Benedict Arnold; A True of Adventure, & Treachery, error indicator, a caret symbol (^). Hobbes Summary. The ^ symbol appears at Where Should Essay the point in thomas hobbes, the command string where the user has entered incorrect or unrecognized command syntax. For example, the caret symbol in the following output shows the letter that was mistyped in the command: Note that an what is tesco extra, error message (indicated by the % symbol) is printed to the screen to alert you to summary, the error marker.

Enter the access-list command followed by a space and a question mark to list the available options for humanism influence the command: The two numbers within the hobbes, angle brackets represent an inclusive range. Enter the is tesco, access list number 99 and then enter another question mark to see the thomas hobbes, arguments that apply to the keyword and brief explanations: Enter the deny argument followed by a question mark ( ? ) to list additional options: Generally, uppercase letters represent variables (arguments). Enter the IP address followed by what extra, a question mark ( ? ) to thomas hobbes, list additional options: In this output, A.B.C.D indicates that use of a wildcard mask is allowed. The wildcard mask is a method for where matching IP addresses or ranges of IP addresses. For example, a wildcard mask of matches any number in the range from thomas 0 to 255 that appears in the fourth octet of an IP address.

Enter the wildcard mask followed by a question mark ( ? ) to Where Should the Buck Essay, list further options. The cr symbol by itself indicates there are no more keywords or arguments. Hobbes Summary. Press Enter (or Return) to execute the command. The system adds an entry to We Strive, access list 99 that denies access to all hosts on subnet, while ignoring bits for IP addresses that end in 0 to hobbes summary, 255. Displaying All User EXEC Commands. To configure the current session to stradlater pens, display the full set of user EXEC commands, use the following command in EXEC mode (user EXEC or privileged EXEC):

Router# terminal full-help. Configures this session to provide help for the full set of user-level commands. The system administrator can also configure the system to always display full help for connections made to a particular line using the full-help line configuration command. The full-help and terminal full-help commands enable the displaying of all help messages available in user EXEC mode when the show ? command is executed. The following example is output for thomas hobbes summary the show ? command with terminal full-help disabled and then enabled: Using the no and default Forms of Commands. Almost every configuration command has a no form. In general, use the no form to disable a feature or function. Use the command without the no keyword to reenable a disabled feature or to enable a feature that is disabled by default. Humanism Of Learning. For example, IP routing is enabled by hobbes, default. To disable IP routing, use the no ip routing form of the Arnold; A True Story of Adventure, Heroism, & Treachery, ip routing command.

To reenable it, use the plain ip routing form. Hobbes Summary. The Cisco IOS software command reference publications describe the function of the no form of the command whenever a no form is available. Many CLI commands also have a default form. By issuing the command default command-name , you can configure the command to stradlater pens, its default setting. The Cisco IOS software command reference publications describe the function of the default form of the command when the default form performs a different function than the plain and no forms of the command. To see what default commands are available on your system, enter default ? in the appropriate command mode. The Cisco IOS CLI provides a history or record of commands that you have entered. This feature is particularly useful for recalling long or complex commands or entries, including access lists. To use the command history feature, perform any of the tasks described in the following sections: Setting the Command History Buffer Size.

By default, the system records ten command lines in thomas, its history buffer. To set the number of command lines that the “Why, system will record during the thomas hobbes, current terminal session, use the stradlater pens, following command in EXEC mode: Router# terminal history [ size number-of-lines ] Enables the command history feature for the current terminal session. The terminal no history size command resets the number of lines saved in the history buffer to the default of ten lines. To configure the number of command lines the system will record for all sessions on a particular line, use the following command in thomas summary, line configuration mode: Router(config-line)# history [ size number-of-lines ] Enables the command history feature. To recall commands from the history buffer, use one of the following commands or key combinations: Recalls commands in what is tesco, the history buffer, beginning with the most recent command. Repeat the key sequence to recall successively older commands. Returns to more recent commands in the history buffer after recalling commands with Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow key. Repeat the key sequence to recall successively more recent commands.

Router show history. While in EXEC mode, lists the last several commands entered. 1 The arrow keys function only on ANSI-compatible terminals . Disabling the Command History Feature. The command history feature is thomas hobbes summary automatically enabled. To disable it during the current terminal session, use the following command in EXEC mode: Router terminal no history.

Disables command history for the current session. To configure a specific line so that the stradlater pens, command history feature is hobbes disabled, use the following command in line configuration mode: Router(config-line)# no history. Disables command history for the line. Using CLI Editing Features and Shortcuts. A variety of shortcuts and editing features are enabled for the Cisco IOS CLI. The following subsections describe these features: Moving the Cursor on did the, the Command Line. Table 4 shows the key combinations or sequences you can use to move the thomas hobbes summary, cursor around on the command line to make corrections or changes.

Ctrl indicates the Control key, which must be pressed simultaneously with its associated letter key. Esc indicates the Escape key, which must be pressed first, followed by its associated letter key. Keys are not case sensitive. Many letters used for CLI navigation and editing were chosen to stradlater pens, provide an easy way of remembering their functions. In Table 4 characters are bolded in the Function Summary column to indicate the relation between the letter used and the function. Table 4 Key Combinations Used to Move the Cursor. Moves the cursor one character to the left.

When you enter a command that extends beyond a single line, you can press the Left Arrow or Ctrl-B keys repeatedly to scroll back toward the system prompt and verify the beginning of the command entry, or you can press the Ctrl-A key combination. Moves the cursor one character to the right. Moves the cursor back one word. Moves the cursor forward one word. Beginning of line. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the line. Moves the cursor to the end of the command line.

Completing a Partial Command Name. If you cannot remember a complete command name, or if you want to reduce the thomas summary, amount of the Buck Essay typing you have to perform, enter the first few letters of the command, then press the Tab key. The command line parser will complete the thomas hobbes summary, command if the string entered is unique to the command mode. If your keyboard does not have a Tab key, press Ctrl - I instead. The CLI will recognize a command once you have entered enough characters to make the command unique. For example, if you enter conf in privileged EXEC mode, the CLI will be able to associate your entry with the configure command, because only the configure command begins with conf . In the following example the CLI recognizes the “Why We Strive Essay, unique string for hobbes summary privileged EXEC mode of conf when the Tab key is pressed: When you use the command completion feature the CLI displays the full command name. The command is The Notorious Benedict A True Story not executed until you use the Return or Enter key.

This way you can modify the command if the full command was not what you intended by the abbreviation. If you enter a set of characters that could indicate more than one command, the system beeps to indicate that the text string is not unique. If the CLI can not complete the hobbes, command, enter a question mark ( ? ) to obtain a list of commands that begin with that set of where freedom characters. Do not leave a space between the thomas summary, last letter you enter and the question mark ( ? ). For example, entering co? will list all commands available in the current command mode: Note that the characters you enter before the question mark are reprinted to the screen to where did the riders go australia, allow you to complete the command entry. Use any of the following keys or key combinations to delete command entries if you make a mistake or change your mind: Deletes the character to the left of the cursor. Deletes the character at the cursor. Deletes all characters from the cursor to the end of the thomas summary, command line. Deletes all characters from the cursor to the beginning of the command line.

Deletes the word to the left of the how did humanism the growth, cursor. Deletes from the cursor to the end of the thomas hobbes, word. The CLI stores commands or keywords that you delete in a history buffer. Only character strings that begin or end with a space are stored in the buffer; individual characters that you delete (using Backspace or Ctrl-D) are not stored. The buffer stores the last ten items that have been deleted using Ctrl-K, Ctrl-U, or Ctrl-X. To recall these items and paste them in how did humanism influence of learning, the command line, use the hobbes, following key combinations: Recalls the The Notorious Benedict Arnold; Story & Treachery, most recent entry in the buffer. (press keys simultaneously). Recalls the thomas hobbes, previous entry in the history buffer. (press keys sequentially). Note that the Esc, Y key sequence will not function unless you press the Ctrl-Y key combination first.

If you press Esc, Y more than ten times, you will cycle back to the most recent entry in the buffer. The CLI provides a wrap-around feature for commands that extend beyond a single line on the screen. When the cursor reaches the extra, right margin, the command line shifts ten spaces to the left. You cannot see the thomas summary, first ten characters of the line, but you can scroll back and The Notorious A True, check the syntax at the beginning of the thomas hobbes, command. To scroll back, press Ctrl-B or the left arrow key repeatedly until you scroll back to the beginning of the command entry, or press Ctrl-A to return directly to the beginning of the line. In the stradlater pens, following example, the access-list command entry extends beyond one line. Thomas Summary. When the cursor first reaches the end of the line, the line is shifted ten spaces to the left and redisplayed. The dollar sign ($) indicates that the line has been scrolled to the left. Each time the cursor reaches the end of the did the freedom riders go australia, line, the line is again shifted ten spaces to the left.

When you have completed the summary, entry, press Ctrl-A to check the complete syntax before pressing the Return key to execute the command. The dollar sign ($) appears at the end of the line to indicate that the line has been scrolled to the right: The Cisco IOS software assumes you have a terminal screen that is 80 columns wide. If you have a different screen-width, use the terminal width EXEC command to set the stradlater pens, width of your terminal. Use line wrapping in conjunction with the command history feature to recall and modify previous complex command entries. See the Recalling Commands section in this chapter for information about recalling previous command entries. Continuing Output at the --More-- Prompt.

When working with the Cisco IOS CLI, output often extends beyond the visible screen length. For cases where output continues beyond the bottom of the screen, such as with the hobbes, output of many ? , show , or more commands, the output is Arnold; A True Heroism, paused and a --More-- prompt is displayed at the bottom of the screen. To resume output, press the Return key to scroll down one line, or press the Spacebar to display the next full screen of output. Tips If output is hobbes summary pausing on your screen, but you do not see the We Strive, --More-- prompt, try entering a smaller value for the screen length using the length line configuration command or the terminal length EXEC command. Command output will not be paused if the length value is set to zero. For information about filtering output from the --More-- prompt, see the Searching and Filtering CLI Output section in this chapter. Redisplaying the Current Command Line.

If you are entering a command and the system suddenly sends a message to thomas, your screen, you can easily recall your current command line entry. To redisplay the current command line (refresh the screen), use either of the Should Stop? Essay, following key combinations: Redisplays the current command line. If you have mistyped a command entry, you can transpose the mistyped characters. To transpose characters, use the following key combination: Transposes the character to the left of the cursor with the thomas hobbes summary, character located at the cursor.

You can capitalize or lowercase words or capitalize a set of letters with simple key sequences. Note, however, that Cisco IOS commands are generally case-insensitive, and are typically all in lowercase. To change the capitalization of stradlater pens commands, use any of the following key sequences: Capitalizes the thomas hobbes, letter at the cursor. Changes the word at the cursor to lowercase. Capitalizes letters from the cursor to the end of the word. Designating a Keystroke as a Command Entry. You can configure the system to We Strive, recognize particular keystroke (key combination or sequence) as command aliases. In other words, you can set a keystroke as a shortcut for executing a command.

To enable the system to interpret a keystroke as a command, use the either of the following key combinations before entering the command sequence: Configures the system to accept the following keystroke as a user-configured command entry (rather than as an editing command). Disabling and Reenabling Editing Features. The editing features described in the previous sections were introduced in Cisco IOS Release 9.21, and are automatically enabled on summary, your system. However, there may be some unique situations that could warrant disabling these editing features. Benedict A True Story & Treachery. For example, you may have scripts that conflict with editing functionality. To globally disable editing features, use the following command in line configuration mode: Disables CLI editing features for a particular line.

To disable the editing features for the current terminal session, use the following command in EXEC mode: Router# terminal no editing. Disables CLI editing features for the local line. To reenable the thomas summary, editing features for the current terminal session, use the following command in EXEC mode: Router# terminal editing. Enables the CLI editing features for the current terminal session. To reenable the editing features for a specific line, use the following command in line configuration mode: Enables the CLI editing features. Searching and Filtering CLI Output. The Cisco IOS CLI provides ways of searching through large amounts of command output and filtering output to exclude information you do not need. These features are enabled for show and more commands, which generally display large amounts of data.

Note Show and stradlater pens, more commands are always entered in EXEC mode. When output continues beyond what is summary displayed on your screen, the Cisco IOS CLI displays a --More-- prompt. Pressing Return displays the next line; pressing the Spacebar displays the Where Should Stop? Essay, next screen of summary output. The CLI String Search feature allows you to search or filter output from --More-- prompts. Understanding Regular Expressions. A regular expression is a pattern (a phrase, number, or more complex pattern) the CLI String Search feature matches against show or more command output. Regular expressions are case sensitive and allow for complex matching requirements. Where Freedom Riders. Simple regular expressions include entries like Serial , misses , or 138 . Complex regular expressions include entries like 00210. , ( is summary ) , or [Oo]utput . A regular expression can be a single-character pattern or a multiple-character pattern. That is, a regular expression can be a single character that matches the stradlater pens, same single character in the command output or multiple characters that match the same multiple characters in the command output. Hobbes. The pattern in the command output is referred to as a string. Should The Buck Stop?. This section describes creating both single-character patterns and hobbes summary, multiple-character patterns.

It also discusses creating more complex regular expressions using multipliers, alternation, anchoring, and parentheses. The simplest regular expression is a single character that matches the same single character in Where the Buck Stop? Essay, the command output. You can use any letter (A-Z, a-z) or digit (0-9) as a single-character pattern. You can also use other keyboard characters (such as ! or. ) as single-character patterns, but certain keyboard characters have special meaning when used in thomas summary, regular expressions. Table 5 lists the keyboard characters that have special meaning. Table 5 Characters with Special Meaning. Matches any single character, including white space. Matchers 0 or more sequences of the pattern. Matches 1 or more sequences of the pattern.

Matches 0 or 1 occurrences of the Where Essay, pattern. Matches the thomas summary, beginning of the string. Matches the end of the string. Matches a comma (,), left brace ( ), left parenthesis ( ( ), right parenthesis ( ) ), the beginning of the string, the stradlater pens, end of the string, or a space. To use these special characters as single-character patterns, remove the special meaning by preceding each character with a backslash ().

The following examples are single-character patterns matching a dollar sign, an underscore, and a plus sign, respectively. You can specify a range of single-character patterns to match against command output. For example, you can create a regular expression that matches a string containing one of the following letters: a, e, i, o, or u. Hobbes. Only one of these characters must exist in the string for pattern matching to succeed. To specify a range of single-character patterns, enclose the single-character patterns in square brackets ( [ ] ). For example, [aeiou] matches any one of the five vowels of the lowercase alphabet, while [abcdABCD] matches any one of the first four letters of the stradlater pens, lower- or uppercase alphabet. You can simplify ranges by entering only the endpoints of the range separated by a dash (-).

Simplify the previous range as follows: To add a dash as a single-character pattern in your range, include another dash and precede it with a backslash: You can also include a right square bracket (]) as a single-character pattern in your range, as shown here: The previous example matches any one of the first four letters of the lower- or uppercase alphabet, a dash, or a right square bracket. You can reverse the matching of the thomas hobbes summary, range by including a caret (^) at the start of the range.

The following example matches any letter except the ones listed. The following example matches anything except a right square bracket (]) or the letter d: When creating regular expressions, you can also specify a pattern containing multiple characters. You create multiple-character regular expressions by joining letters, digits, or keyboard characters that do not have special meaning. For example, a4% is a multiple-character regular expression. Where Riders. Put a backslash before the keyboard characters that have special meaning when you want to indicate that the thomas summary, character should be interpreted literally. With multiple-character patterns, order is important. The regular expression a4% matches the character a followed by a 4 followed by a % sign. If the string does not have a4%, in that order, pattern matching fails. The multiple-character regular expression a. uses the special meaning of the & Treachery, period character to match the letter a followed by any single character. With this example, the strings ab, a!, or a2 are all valid matches for hobbes summary the regular expression.

You can remove the special meaning of the period character by putting a backslash in front of it. What. For example, when the expression a. is used in thomas hobbes, the command syntax, only the stradlater pens, string a. will be matched. You can create a multiple-character regular expression containing all letters, all digits, all keyboard characters, or a combination of letters, digits, and other keyboard characters. Summary. For example, telebit 3107 v32bis is the Buck a valid regular expression. You can create more complex regular expressions that instruct Cisco IOS software to match multiple occurrences of a specified regular expression. Summary. To do so, you use some special characters with your single-character and multiple-character patterns. Table 6 lists the special characters that specify multiples of a regular expression. Table 6 Special Characters Used as Multipliers. Matches 0 or more single-character or multiple-character patterns. Matches 1 or more single-character or multiple-character patterns. Matches 0 or 1 occurrences of a single-character or multiple-character pattern.

The following example matches any number of occurrences of the letter a, including none: The following pattern requires that at least one letter a be in the string to be matched: The following pattern matches the string bb or bab: The following string matches any number of asterisks (*): To use multipliers with multiple-character patterns, you enclose the pattern in how did humanism influence, parentheses. In the hobbes, following example, the pattern matches any number of the multiple-character string ab:

As a more complex example, the following pattern matches one or more instances of alphanumeric pairs, but not none (that is, an empty string is influence not a match): The order for matches using multipliers (*, +, or ?) is to thomas summary, put the longest construct first. How Did Influence The Growth. Nested constructs are matched from thomas summary outside to humanism of learning, inside. Concatenated constructs are matched beginning at the left side of the thomas hobbes summary, construct. Thus, the regular expression matches A9b3, but not 9Ab3 because the letters are specified before the numbers. Alternation allows you to freedom riders go australia, specify alternative patterns to match against thomas a string. You separate the alternative patterns with a vertical bar ( | ). Exactly one of the alternatives can match the string. For example, the regular expression codex | telebit matches the string codex or the stradlater pens, string telebit, but not both codex and telebit.

You can instruct Cisco IOS software to hobbes summary, match a regular expression pattern against the beginning or the end of the string. That is, you can specify that the beginning or end of a string contain a specific pattern. You anchor these regular expressions to a portion of the string using the the Buck Essay, special characters shown in thomas hobbes summary, Table 7. Table 7 Special Characters Used for Anchoring. Matches the beginning of the string. Matches the end of the string. For example, the regular expression ^con matches any string that starts with con, and $sole matches any string that ends with sole. In addition to indicating the beginning of a string, the ^ symbol can be used to indicate the logical function not when used in a bracketed range. For example, the expression [^abcd] indicates a range that matches any single letter, as long as it is not the letters a, b, c, or d. Contrast these anchoring characters with the special character underscore (_). Underscore matches the beginning of a string (^), the end of a string ($), parentheses (( )) , space ( ), braces (), comma (,), or underscore (_).

With the underscore character, you can specify that a pattern exist anywhere in the string. For example, _1300_ matches any string that has 1300 somewhere in the string. The string 1300 can be preceded by or end with a space, brace, comma, or underscore. So, while matches the regular expression _1300_ , 21300 and The Notorious Benedict Arnold; Story Heroism, & Treachery, 13000 do not. Using the underscore character, you can replace long regular expression lists. For example, instead of specifying ^1300( ) ( )1300$ ,1300, (1300 you can specify simply _1300_ . As shown in summary, the Multipliers section, you use parentheses with multiple-character regular expressions to multiply the occurrence of a pattern. How Did Humanism The Growth Of Learning. You can also use parentheses around a single- or multiple-character pattern to instruct the Cisco IOS software to remember a pattern for use elsewhere in the regular expression. To create a regular expression that recalls a previous pattern, you use parentheses to thomas, indicate memory of a specific pattern and a backslash () followed by a digit to reuse the remembered pattern. The digit specifies the Where Essay, occurrence of a parentheses in the regular expression pattern. If you have more than one remembered pattern in your regular expression, then 1 indicates the first remembered pattern, and 2 indicates the second remembered pattern, and so on. The following regular expression uses parentheses for recall:

This regular expression matches an a followed by any character (call it character no. Thomas Hobbes Summary. 1), followed by bc followed by any character (character no. 2), followed by character no. 1 again, followed by character no. Where The Buck Stop?. 2 again. So, the regular expression can match aZbcTZT. The software remembers that character no. 1 is summary Z and character no. Stradlater Pens. 2 is T and then uses Z and T again later in the regular expression.

Searching and Filtering show Commands. To search show command output, use the following command in EXEC mode: Router# show any-command | begin regular-expression. Begins unfiltered output of the show command with the first line that contains the regular expression . Note Cisco IOS documentation generally uses the thomas, vertical bar to did the freedom go australia, indicate a choice of thomas syntax. However, to search the output of show and more commands, you will need to enter the pipe character (the vertical bar). In this section the pipe appears in bold ( | ) to indicate that you should enter this character. To filter show command output, use one of the following commands in EXEC mode: Router# show any-command | exclude regular-expression.

Displays output lines that do not contain the Should Stop? Essay, regular expression. Router# show any-command | include regular-expression. Displays output lines that contain the regular expression. On most systems you can enter the Ctrl-Z key combination at any time to hobbes, interrupt the output and return to EXEC mode. For example, you can enter the show running-config | begin hostname command to start the display of the running configuration file at the line containing the hostname setting, then use Ctrl-z when you get to the end of the information you are interested in. Searching and Filtering more Commands. You can search more commands the Arnold; Story of Adventure, Heroism,, same way you search show commands ( more commands perform the hobbes, same function as show commands). To search more command output, use the following command in EXEC mode: Router# more any-command | begin regular-expression.

Begins unfiltered output of a more command with the We Strive Essay, first line that contains the regular expression. You can filter more commands the same way you filter show commands. To filter more command output, use one of the following commands in EXEC mode: Router# more any-command | exclude regular-expression. Displays output lines that do not contain the regular expression.

Router# more any-command | include regular-expression. Displays output lines that contain the regular expression. Searching and summary, Filtering from the humanism the growth of learning, --More-- Prompt. You can search output from --More-- prompts. Hobbes Summary. To search show or more command output from a --More-- prompt, use the We Strive, following command in EXEC mode: Begins unfiltered output with the first line that contains the regular expression. You can filter output from --More-- prompts. However, you can only specify one filter for each command. Hobbes. The filter remains until the show or more command output finishes or until you interrupt the output (using Ctrl-Z or Ctrl-6).

Therefore, you cannot add a second filter at what is tesco extra a --More-- prompt if you already specified a filter at the original command or at hobbes a previous --More--prompt. Note Searching and filtering are different functions. You can search command output using the begin keyword and specify a filter at the --More-- prompt for the same command. To filter show or more command output at a --More-- prompt, use one of the following commands in EXEC mode: Displays output lines that do not contain the Stop? Essay, regular expression. Displays output lines that contain the regular expression. The following sections provide examples of using the summary, CLI: Determining Command Syntax and Using Command History Example. The CLI provides error isolation in the form of an error indicator, a caret symbol (^). The ^ symbol appears at how did the point in the command string where you have entered an incorrect command, keyword, or argument.

In the following example, suppose you want to set the clock. Use context-sensitive help to hobbes summary, determine the correct command syntax for setting the Where the Buck Stop? Essay, clock. The help output shows that the set keyword is required. Determine the syntax for summary entering the time: Enter the Benedict Arnold; Story Heroism,, current time: The system indicates that you need to provide additional arguments to complete the command. Press Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow to automatically repeat the previous command entry. Then add a space and question mark ( ? ) to hobbes, reveal the additional arguments:

Now you can complete the the growth of learning, command entry: The caret symbol (^) and help response indicate an error at summary 01. To list the correct syntax, enter the command up to the point where the We Strive For Status”, error occurred and then enter a question mark ( ? ): Enter the year using the correct syntax and press Enter or Return to hobbes, execute the command: Router# clock set 13:32:00 23 February 2001. Searching and Filtering CLI Output Examples. The following is is tesco extra partial sample output of the more nvram:startup-config | begin EXEC command that begins unfiltered output with the first line that contain the regular expression ip . At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a filter to exclude output lines that contain the regular expression ip . The following is partial sample output of the more nvram:startup-config | include command.

It only displays lines that contain the regular expression ip . The following is hobbes summary partial sample output of the We Strive For Status”, more nvram:startup-config | exclude command. Thomas Hobbes Summary. It excludes lines that contain the regular expression service . At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a filter with the regular expression Dialer1 . Specifying this filter resumes the output with the first line that contains Dialer1 . The following is humanism of learning partial sample output of the show interface EXEC command with an thomas, output search specified. Riders. The use of the hobbes, keywords begin Ethernet after the pipe begins unfiltered output with the go australia, first line that contains the regular expression Ethernet . At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a filter that displays only the lines that contain the regular expression Serial . The following is partial sample output of the show buffers | exclude command. It excludes lines that contain the summary, regular expression 0 misses . The Growth Of Learning. At the --More-- prompt, the thomas, user specifies a search that continues the filtered output beginning with the humanism the growth of learning, first line that contains Serial0 . The following is partial sample output of the show interface | include command. The use of the include ( is ) keywords after the pipe (|) causes the thomas summary, command to display only what is tesco, lines that contain the regular expression ( is ) . The parenthesis force the inclusion of the spaces before and after is . Use of the parenthesis ensures that only thomas hobbes summary, lines containing is with a space both before and is tesco, after it will be included in summary, the output (excluding from the We Strive For Status”, search, for thomas example, words like disconnect ) . At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a search that continues the filtered output beginning with the first line that contains Serial0:13 :