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burch nun resume Margaret Brent (1601-1671) is most renowned today for requesting a vote in the Maryland Assembly in an age when women, queens excepted, were not allowed direct participation in political life. In company with her sister Mary and two brothers, Giles and Fulke, she arrived in Biography of Steve Essay, Maryland on November 22, 1638. The two sisters were armed with orders from Lord Baltimore that they were to be granted land on the terms he had offered to the first adventurers of List, 1634. The Brents were Catholics of noble descent and were distant cousins of the Proprietor. In Maryland they sought religious freedom and economic opportunity. Lord Baltimore, in of Steve Paul Essay, turn, clearly expected that they would be valuable to his colony. Lord Baltimore intended Maryland to be both a Catholic refuge and a profitable enterprise. To these ends, he needed Protestant as well as Catholic settlers. But how could Protestants and Catholics live peacably together in Maryand when they could not do so in England? To solve this problem, he promised toleration of all Christian religious practices and political participation to exile all settlers otherwise qualified without regard to religious preference.

The Brents were participating in an experiment extraordinary for the time. Margaret Brent's career in Biography of Steve Essay, Maryland was remarkable in The Life Essay, many ways, but one of the most striking things about it is that she and her sister never married. Their single status was more unusual than perhaps most people realize because in coming to Maryland they moved to a society in which, at this time, men outnumbered women about six to one. The pressures on them to marry must have been extreme, unless they were protected by vows of celibacy. Whether this explanation is Biography Paul Essay, possible is a question that deserves exploration. All the early investors in Maryland -- Jesuit priests included -- were entrepreneurs, who brought in settlers, developed land, and raised tobacco for an international market. Margaret Brent was no exception. She and her sister, who as unmarried women were legally able to own and manage property, took up land and established a household independent of their brothers. Of May Analysis? Fulke soon returned to England, but Giles immediately became a colony leader.

Margaret was active in importing and Biography of Steve Essay, selling servants and lending capital to incoming settlers. She appeared for herself in court to collect her debts and in general handled her business affairs as a man would have done and without assistance from and Schindler's List, her brothers. With Governor Leonard Calvert, she was joint guardian of the daughter of the Piscataway Emperor Kittamaquand. Were these achievments all there is to tell, Margaret Brent would attract our attention and Essay, admiration for if i, her enterprise under rugged conditions. It happens that there is much more to tell. Early in 1645, seven years after the Brents' arrival, a Protestant ship captain, Richard Ingle, raided the settlement on the St. Mary's river in the name of the English Parliament, which was carrying on a civil war with Charles I. Biography Of Steve Jobs Essay? Ingle took the colony by surprise, burned the the third painting, Catholic chapel, plundered the homes of Catholic settlers, and returned to of Steve Essay England with Giles Brent and the Jesuit priests in chains.

Governor Calvert fled to Virginia, and the Calverts came close to losing the colony entirely. Most of the Oskar and Schindler's Essay, Protestants left to become the first settlers in Virginia's Northern Neck, just across the Potomac river. The population of Maryland, perhaps 500-600 people at Ingle's raid, probably dropped to under 100, fewer than had come on Ark and Dove eleven years before. If Maryland was to recover, the province had to start anew. Leonard Calvert, for of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, reasons that remain mysterious, did not return to The Life Twain his colony until late November or December 1646. Arriving with a small band of soldiers, nearly half of whom were former settlers, he met with little resistance, except on Kent Island. He had paved the way with a promise to pardon all willing to swear fidelity to the Maryland Proprietor.

Then, on June 9, 1647, he died. On his death bed he appointed Thomas Green as governor, but made Margaret Brent the executor of Biography of Steve Jobs, his estate, with instructions to take all and pay all. There is no doubt that at of may 1808 painting, that moment Margaret Brent's courage and diplomacy were important to Maryland's survival. Without her, the Calverts might have lost their territory to Virginia and the experiment in religious toleration would have ended then and there. The soldiers were clamoring for their pay.

There was a shortage of food. New disorders seemed imminent. Leonard Calvert had pledged his whole Maryland estate and that of his brother, the Lord Baltimore, to pay the soldiers, but Leonard's movable assets were insufficient, and under English law, as executor, Margaret could not readily sell his land. She kept pacifying soldiers ready at times to mutiny. Finally, with no time to gain Lord Baltimore's consent, on January 3, 1648, the Provincial Court appointed her as his attorney-in-fact. She was replacing Leonard Calvert, to whomthe Proprietor had given power, jointly with John Lewger, the provincial Secretary, to dispose of Biography, his property in Essay, emergency without authorization. Biography Of Steve Paul Essay? At this point, Margaret made the move for which she is most famous today.

On January 21, 1648, she appeared before the Assembly to demand two votes, one for herself as a landowner and one as Lord Baltimore's legal representative. The Governor refused and she departed with the List Essay, statement that she Protested against all proceedings . unless she may be present and have vote as aforesaid. It is unlikely that she expected success, but she knew well that the of Steve, Assembly was unwilling to vote taxes to pay soldiers whom Governor Calvert had promised to pay himself. She may have hoped by her protest to cover herself as she faced the immediate necessity of selling the Proprietor's cattle without his knowledge. That day she began the sale, thereby averting a crisis that might have destroyed the colony and Essay on Preserve, its policy of Biography, religious toleration.

As it turned out, her tactic, if it was such, was of no avail. Lord Baltimore was furious at what he saw as confiscation of his property and he was suspicious of quotes, Margaret's motives. When Leonard Calvert had been away in England in 1644, she had allowed her brother Giles to marry her ward, the Piscataway empress Mary Kittomaquand, and Lord Baltimore evidently feared that Giles would claim Indian lands in her name. By 1650, his wrath had driven all the Brents to remove to Biography of Steve the Northern Neck of Virginia, where they brought in dozens of settlers and thereby took up and developed large grants of land. Oskar Schindler And Schindler's? Margaret lived on her plantation, named Peace, until her death about 1671. Some modern advocates of women's rights have interpreted Margaret Brent as an early feminist. Of Steve Paul? This she surely was not. Well born, exceptionally able, and entrusted with a heavy responsibility, she undoubtedly felt entitled to participate in making the decisions necessary to rescue the colony; but nothing indicates a belief that women generally should have the vote or that the patriarchal arrangements that deprived married women of independence were wrong. Dalai Lama? The Maryland Assembly expressed well the nature of of Steve Jobs, Margaret Brent's achievement. Essay? We do Verily Believe, they wrote Lord Baltimore, . that [your estate] was better for the Collonys safety at that time in her hands then in any mans else . for the Soldiers would never have treated any other with . Civility and respect . She rather deserved favour and thanks from your Honour for her so much Concurring to the publick safety then to be justly liable to . bitter invectives.

In their view, it was not only courage and diplomacy that enabled her to save the of Steve Jobs, day, but her womanliness, which demanded and received Civility. The men of her place and time would not give her the vote, but they openly acknowledged that her abilities and civilizing talents were of crucial importance to the publick safety. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT MARGARET BRENT. Margaret Brent's career presents many questions that can not be definitively answered. What follows addresses some of those frequently asked and adds some additional comments on The Life Essay, problems of interpretation that often arise. It is assumed that any one making use of these notes has a general familiarity with Margaret Brent's story. Appended is a time line of her career in Maryland that helps to establish what is certain about her life and contributions, what can be inferred or provide grounds for a reasonable guess, and what can not be known. Not every reference to Margaret Brent's activities in the courts is included.

The result would be unnecessarily repetitious. Anyone who wants to pursue more detail can use the indexes to William Hand Browne, et al., eds. Archives of Maryland , First Series, 72 vols. (1883-1972), 4 and 10 (the series hereafter is cited as Archives ), which print the Provincial Court proceedings to 1657. Numbered references are to numbered paragraphs of the time line. Jobs Essay? Question 1. The Life Of Mark Twain? What was Ingle's Rebellion? Ingle's Rebellion, 1645-1646, was an offshoot of the Civil War in England made possible in part by conflicts among Maryland leaders and in Biography, part by Essay, hostility between Catholic and Protestant settlers. The most detailed and best account is to be found in Timothy B. Riordan, The Plundering Time: Maryland in the English Civil War, 1642-1650, ms. in Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, possession of the author, Historic St. Mary's City, St. Mary's City, Maryland. Richard Ingle was a Protestant ship captain who had been trading for Essay, tobacco in Maryland and Virginia since 1642. In 1644, while Governor Leonard Calvert was in Jobs, England, Ingle had a falling-out with Acting Governor Giles Brent, who inadvisably arrested him briefly for treason against of may analysis King Charles I, by then literally at war with Parliament.

Ingle escaped trial, but early in the following year, he appeared in the Chesapeake armed with letters of marque from Parliament that allowed him to seize ships or goods belonging to supporters of the king. He may not have left England planning a raid on Maryland, but in Virginia he was told that Leonard Calvert, under a commission from King Charles, was going to seize debts owed to Ingle. Biography Jobs Essay? At that point, if not before, Ingle began to plan an attack on Maryland, perhaps in collaboration with William Claiborne, who had just made an abortive attempt to reclaim Kent Island. In Virginia Ingle picked up a few men willing to participate in his plans and on February 14, 1645, he surprised the settlement at wife, St. Mary's City. ([2]; [2a]; [3]; [4]; Riordan, chap. 8: 1-22; 9: 14-17, 23-28; 10: 10-23; 11: 6-23, 34-35.) There are only Biography Paul Jobs Essay scraps of information about what happened over the next several months, coming primarily from later law suits brought against or by Ingle in England; scattered depositions taken after proprietary authority was reestablished; and the drover's, archaeological excavations. Councillor Giles Brent was captured immediately. He was visiting the Essay, Dutch ship Looking Glass anchored in the river. Ingle seized the ship as a prize. Some Protestant settlers joined Ingle's men, and there was considerable disorder for a while, but no actual bloodshed, so far as is known. Governor Calvert managed to collect and Essay on Preserve or Outlaw?, arm supporters and Biography of Steve, create some sort of fortification called St.

Thomas's Fort, which was probably located on the properties of the Brents. (Giles Brent's town land property and that of if i, his sisters were referred to in some documents as St. Thomas's Lot.) The rebels fortified Calvert's own house near the of Steve Paul, original St. Mary's Fort, which was evidently too decayed for use. From these two temporary strongholds, both sides foraged in the community for corn and cattle, and Ingle's men, along with Protestant rebels, looted and sometimes burned the homes of leading Catholics. Essay On Preserve? Ingle even sailed to Kent Island and of Steve Paul Essay, looted and burned Giles Brent's estate there. (Riordan, Chap. 11: 6-23, 34-35; 12: 1-20; Richard Ingle in dalai lama, Maryland, Maryland Historical Magazine 1 [1906], 125-140.) Ingle sailed for Paul Jobs Essay, England in late March or early April of 1645, his vessel packed with plunder.

He carried with him as prisoners Giles Brent; John Lewger, the Provincial Secretary; and two Jesuit priests, Father Andrew White and Father Thomas Copley. Undoubtedly, he had hoped to Twain Essay carry Leonard Calvert, too, but had not succeeded in capturing him. Evidently Ingle believed that the identity of Biography of Steve Jobs, his prisoners supplied sufficient proofs that he had found Maryland in the hands of lama exile, a papist tyranny hostile to Parliament, and Paul, he expected vindication for his raid. The plundered goods and Looking Glass would be forfeit, making his adventure profitable indeed. These expectations proved false, but that is part of another story. (Riordan, Chap. 12: 26-34; 14: 1-31.) Ingle later claimed to have left Maryland in the hands of a Protestant government, and Riordan argues that the makings, at least, were on hand. How long after Ingle's departure Leonard Calvert remained in Maryland to lead his supporters is unclear. The Drover's Wife? At some point during the summer of 1645, he appeared in of Steve, Virginia, where he asked for help from Governor William Berkeley and the Virginia Council. (The evidence comes only from sparse notes taken before the council records were destroyed during the Civil War.) Since Berkeley, who had been in England, did not return to Virginia until June 7, Calvert probably left Maryland after that date.

Once he was gone, the rebels took the fort with armed force, but so far as is known, the worst disorders then came to an end. Riordan argues that even during the time of plunder a cadre of able Protestant leaders is if i, visible and an organized pattern of anti-proprietary and of Steve, anti-Catholic activity can be detected. All was not chaos and chance. Some kind of provisional government was established. If I Should Die Tonight? In the words of the 1649 Assembly, the rebel leaders assumed the Government . of . the Province unto themselves. (Riordan, Chap. 13: 1-31; quote, p. 30.) Calvert may have hoped to return to St. Jobs? Thomas's Fort with new men and arms, but whether or not help from Virginia was possible, events had overtaken him for the moment. He made no effort that is known to List regain the colony until the middle of 1646. Was he ill? Had he arrived in Virginia with wounds that needed healing?

Was he occupied instead in efforts to finance and organize an invasion? No records remain to tell us or to inform us of Jobs Essay, what was happening in Maryland. A document Calvert signed on September 15, 1645 and witnessed by the rebel leader Nathaniel Pope suggests but does not prove Calvert's presence in Twain Essay, Maryland on that date. (5d.) Was he at that point a prisoner? Probably not, but such a meeting is of Steve Jobs Essay, mysterious. Not until July 30, 1646, does Leonard Calvert finally surface as an actor in dalai exile, Maryland affairs. Biography Jobs? That day he appointed one Captain Edward Hill of Virginia to be governor of Maryland. But in December, Calvert arrived in the colony with soldiers to subdue it. ([6]; [8]; Riordan, Chap. 15: 2-7.) There is no certain explanation for this sequence of events and The Life of Mark Essay, again no record of what was happening.

Later documents indicate that under Hill there was a functioning government. Courts heard cases, Hill appointed a sheriff and called for elections to an assembly, which met. Hill seems to have left abruptly but peaceably when Calvert arrived, although he later protested the Essay, loss of his office. (Riordan, Chap. 15: 7-9.) Calvert must always have intended to The Life resume the governorship and may have begun his preparations for return as early as August 5, 1646. On the of Steve Essay, basis of later documents, this is a likely date for his offering a pardon to all inhabitants of lama, St. Mary's who had been in rebellion, provided that they accepted Lord Baltimore's government. He arrived at St. Mary's, probably in late December, with a force of 28 soldiers, about half of them former inhabitants. It appears that he met with little resistance.

He quickly called up the Assembly that had been elected under Hill; he did not try to call elections for a new one. In the presence of this Assembly, six of his soldiers swore that Calvert had told them before leaving Virginia that if he found that the inhabitants of St. Mary's had accepted his pardon the soldiers were to expect no pillage; he would receive the inhabitants in peace and ask only Paul that they aid him in reducing Kent. With these reassurances, and doubtless feeling little appetite for violence, the Assembly sat for four days. It passed several laws, the most important being an act for collecting a custom of 60 pounds of tobacco per hogshead of tobacco exported from Maryland. This revenue was intended to support and pay the soldiers, although Leonard Calvert had to pledge payment from both his own and The Life of Mark Essay, his brother's estate should the Biography Paul Jobs Essay, custom prove insufficient. ([8]; [40]; Riordan, Chap. 15: 9-30.) It was another four months before Calvert had Maryland safely secured.

A group of Protestant dissidents fled to Chicacoan, a small settlement across the Potomac river in Virginia, and from there made efforts to raise resistance in 1808 painting, Maryland. Problems on Kent Island were even more dangerous. One Peter Knight had seized the Brent properties and led the inhabitants in refusal to accept Lord Baltimore's government. And William Claiborne had returned in a last ditch effort to end Calvert rule by inducing the Islanders to attack St. Mary's. In the end Claiborne failed, and Knight, seeing no hope of help from Virginia, departed for Chicacoan after looting the Brents' estate.

When Calvert arrived with his soldiers in early April of 1647 he had little difficulty persuading the few men who by then remained on the island to take the oath of fidelity and accept Lord Baltimore's government. On April 16, he pardoned all on Kent who had taken the oath, and on April 18, he reestablished the local government in the name of Lord Baltimore with the appointment of Biography Paul Essay, a commander and justices of a county court. Thus ended what Marylanders called the Time of Troubles and what historians have called Ingle's Rebellion. (Riordan, Chap. 17: 1-10.) Leonard Calvert achieved success, but Lord Baltimore might have lost his colony just the of may 1808, same had not the second half of the Biography of Steve Paul Essay, 1640s been a time of boom in the tobacco industry. When Ingle began his raid, there were probably between 500 and if i die tonight, 600 inhabitants; when Calvert returned there were probably only about 100. The others had left in search of peaceful rule and of Steve, opportunities to the drover's wife quotes achieve prosperity without constant threat of Biography, violence. Had poor economic prospects caused the population drain to continue, the Calvert colony would have come to an end.

Instead, however, once peace appeared to be established, the Maryland population grew rapidly. There would be future challenges to Calvert rule, but no lack of the third of may painting analysis, settlers to exploit the land. (Russell R. Biography Of Steve Paul Essay? Menard, Maryland's 'Time of Oskar Schindler, Troubles': Sources of Political Disorder in Early St. Mary's, Maryland Historical Magazine 76 (1981), 137; Riordan, Chap. 17: 4-5.) Question 2: How many soldiers had Leonard Calvert recruited to recover the colony? What payment did he promise them? There is no direct mention of how many soldiers Calvert brought with him, but Timothy Riordan has estimated the Biography of Steve Essay, number at 28, of Oskar and Schindler's List Essay, whom 13 had been living in Maryland before the Biography of Steve Jobs, rebellion. On Preserve Or Outlaw?? Riordan has calculated, from various payments Margaret made, that the Biography Paul Essay, wage owed each soldier was 1500 pounds of tobacco plus three barrels of corn, with more for officers. (Riordan, The Time of Plunder, chap. 15: 10-12.) Question 3: When exactly did Leonard Calvert die? Do we know what killed him? Why did he appoint Margaret Brent his executrix?

Leonard Calvert was alive on June 9, 1647 and lived for about six hours after making Margaret Brent his executrix on that day. Presumably he died on June 9, but possibly not until early on Essay, June 10. ([10], [11], [13].) As for of Steve Essay, the cause of Calvert's death, there is no information. However, he was not sick for long. Exile? On June 1, he was presiding in court. Biography Of Steve Paul Jobs? (11.) I have sometimes speculated that illness prevented his return to Maryland sooner and weakened him for whatever sickened him that June. One Doctor Waldron was called from dalai, Virginia to treat him. Biography Of Steve Paul Jobs Essay? (28.) Why did Calvert select Margaret Brent to be his executor? Why not ask her brother Giles, who had been acting governor in the past? Or, why not Thomas Green, whom Calvert did name governor?

As before, one can only speculate. The Calverts and the Brents were cousins, albeit very distant cousins going back eight generations. (Chart showing connections between the dalai exile, Calvert, Arundel, and Brent families, prepared by Aleck Loker, 1998.) This family connection may help account for the special terms on which Margaret and Mary Brent were granted land. The relationship may have counted in Leonard Calvert's choice. But why Margaret instead of Giles? First of all, Giles probably was not in St. Mary's City when Leonard was dying. After his brief appearance in Maryland in Paul, November 1646, he does not turn up in the Maryland records again until June 19, ten days after Calvert had expired. (13.) However, Calvert might not have selected Giles had he been on hand.

The Governor had reason to distrust him after his marriage to Mary Kittomaquand. He had not participated in the restoration of the drover's wife quotes, Lord Baltimore's government and may have been at Piscataway trying to establish his wife as the inheritor of her deceased father's position. Giles's behavior in the first assembly held after Calvert's death (see below, Question 4) suggests that distrust was an of Steve appropriate attitude. (39.) At the same time, Calvert knew Margaret Brent had the necessary ability and courtroom experience to carry out his instructions. He chose to rely on her. Question 4. Date and reasons for Margaret Brent's appointment as Lord Baltimore's attorney?

What were her powers? Who replaced her when she stopped? When did she lose the responsibility? On January 3, 1647[/8], it was moved in Court whether or noe Mr Leon: Calvert (remayning his Lps Sole Attorney within this Province before his death, then dying) the sd Mr Calvert's admistrator [sic] was to be received for his Lps Attorney wthin this province, untill such time as his Lp had made an new substitution, or tht some other remayning uppon the prnt Commisn were arryved into the province. The Governor demanding Mr Brent's opinion uppon the same Quere.

Hee answered tht he did conceive tht the the drover's, administrator ought to be lookd uppon as Attorney both for recovering of rights into the estate, taking care for the estates preservation: But not further, until his Lp shall substitute some other as afresd. Governor Thomas Green concurred and Paul Essay, it was ordered tht the Administrator of Mr Leon: Calvert aforesd should be received as his Lps Attorney to Oskar and Schindler's List the intents abovsd. (19.) This opinion does not say that Margaret had power to pay away anything belonging to the Proprietor without his consent. However, powers that Lord Baltimore had granted to Calvert and John Lewger on November 15, 1646 had included powers to demand and receive his rents, debts, and other dues and to dispose thereof as I shall from time to time direct, in default of such directions, according to yor best discretions, for my most advantage, until I shall give further orders therein. Biography Paul Essay? (7.) If Leonard Calvert had been granted such powers, then could Margaret as his substitute exercise them? Evidently she was not sure, nor was her brother. She did not sell any of Lord Baltimore's property until circumstances absolutely demanded it. It is suggestive, furthermore, that Lord Baltimore did not believe that he had given his brother such powers unless exercised with Lewger.

The Proprietor was furious with Leonard for promising the the drover's quotes, soldiers that the Proprietor's own estate would be liable if necessary. He stated in his letter to the Assembly in 1649 that he had not authorized Leonard to act alone and Jobs, that Lewger had denyed to us here that he had given his assent. Oskar Schindler List Essay? (39.) (Apparently, Lewger was in the colony at Calvert's arrival, but had left for England before Calvert's death.) Why did the Provincial Court -- which consisted at the moment of Governor Thomas Green, Giles Brent, and Thomas Gerard -- choose Margaret Brent? One can only offer speculations. She was already handling Leonard Calvert's estate and negotiating with the soldiers well. Diplomatic talents were essential.

Leonard Calvert had put his trust in her with the of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, words Take all pay all. And of course, the appointment was only until His Lordship could make his own. ([39], [13], [19].) One might have thought that Giles Brent would have wanted and been able to insist on the appointment, but the other men probably did not trust him. It is known from the Assembly's letter to Lord Baltimore on the third of may 1808, April 21, 1649, more than a year later, that Lord Baltimore was very angry at the appointment and at the sale of his cattle that began shortly afterwards. He was equally angry with Giles Brent, who, according to letters from Governor Greene and others, had led an anti-proprietary faction in the Assembly that met off and on from January 22 through March 4 1647[/8]. This Assembly had voted to repeal laws passed in Biography Jobs Essay, the Assembly of December 1646 -- including the act for tobacco custom intended to pay the soldiers -- and had sent the Proprietor a seditious Remonstrance. (39.) What is not known is just when all this news reached Lord Baltimore. Essay? In Maryland, Margaret continued to act as the His Lordship's attorney, and Paul Jobs, Giles continued to sit on the Council through at least December 10, 1648. The Third Of May 1808? ([31]; [31a]; [31b]; [33]; [34]; [35].) Thereafter Giles disappeared from the Council and Paul Essay, seems to have left the colony. Margaret appeared for the last time as His Lordships attorney at 1808 analysis, court on February 9, 1648[/9]. Biography Of Steve Paul? (35.) One can suppose that denunciations and Schindler and Schindler's Essay, orders from Lord Baltimore arrived soon thereafter. In the meantime, he had established new officers for Maryland.

On August 6, 1648, he commissioned Captain William Stone as governor, and replaced John Lewger with Thomas Hatton as secretary. Biography Paul Jobs Essay? (Both Stone and or Outlaw?, Hatton were Protestants.) But he seems not yet to have received news of the events of January-March 1647[/8]. In his instructions to Governor Stone and to a new Council, he declared null and voyd all laws passed under Governor Hill but made no mention of the acts and Biography of Steve Jobs, Remonstrance of March 1647[/8] that in his letter of August 26, 1649 he angrily denounced. (29, 39). In August 1648, he must have been ignorant of the spring's events. The new government was not established in Maryland until after March 15, 1648[/9], the day of the last Provincial Court to meet with Greene sitting as governor. On April 2, Governor Stone convened the Assembly, the on Preserve or Outlaw?, first that had met since March 4, 1647[/8].

It seems remarkable that seven months had passed from Stone's appointment to his installation in of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, Maryland and that more than a year had elapsed since the Essay, events of Paul Jobs Essay, January-March, 1647[/8]. Communications between Lord Baltimore in England and or Outlaw?, his settlers in Maryland clearly were often very slow, whether or not there were crises to of Steve Paul be settled. Undoubtedly it was very slow communications that kept Margaret Brent active for a year as His Lordship's attorney in fact. Lama Exile? ([36], [37].) Who replaced her? Likely it was Thomas Hatton, the new Provincial secretary, but there is no correspondence or other direct evidence to prove it. Indirect evidence suggests the probability. Letters in the Calvert Papers show that John Lewger had taken care of Lord Baltimore's estate when Lewger was secretary; and he and Leonard Calvert had shared Lord Baltimore's appointment as attorney for this purpose in Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, 1646. Wife? (John Lewger to Biography of Steve Paul Lord Baltimore, January 5, 1638[/9], The Calvert Papers Number One, Fund Publication No. 28 [Baltimore, Md., 1889], 194-201; [7].) Question 5: How soon did the mercenaries become hostile after Calvert's death?

Probably by October 6, 1647, when Captain John Price, in the name of the garrison, got the Provincial Court to attach all of Calvert's estate. (15.) The request stated the the soldiers were owed 46,500 pounds of tobacco and 100 barrels of corn for wages. Question 6: Did Margaret Brent sell all of Leonard Calvert's estate to settle his debts? How many mercenaries were paid directly from the estate? Were there arrangements other than direct payment (land, cattle, etc)? Margaret Brent recorded an administration account on June 6, 1648. Dalai Exile? (28) Although Calvert's lands and Biography, buildings were added into the inventory, under English law she could not sell these without a court order or a special act of the legislature. They were all available for Calvert's son William to occupy and develop when he arrived in Maryland in 1661 to claim them. The only exception was the 100-acre tract, The Governor's Field, which Governor William Stone believed he had purchased from Margaret Brent, although she denied the sale. See (51).

Margaret Brent's accounting of Leonard Calvert's estate showed. 56,142 pounds of tobacco in assets, but when the land, valued at ll,000 pounds of on Preserve or Outlaw?, tobacco, and Lord Baltimore's debt to Paul Essay his brother (18,548 pounds of tobacco to the estate layd out in Mr Calvert's life) are subtracted, there were only the third of may 1808 analysis 26,594 pounds of tobacco available to pay Calvert's debts. At the moment of Biography Jobs, this accounting, Margaret had paid out 23,440 pounds of tobacco and the remaining 3,154 pounds were under attachment for paying the soldiers. ([15]; [17]; [28].) Payments already made to the soldiers came to 9,522 pounds of tobacco. Dalai Exile? In the April 2-21, 1649, session, the Assembly finally passed a custom of ten shillings for every hogshead exported in a Dutch ship, of which half was to go to His Lordship and half to pay the soldiers. (37.) (This payment was smaller than dictated by the act of 1646.) Thereafter, Margaret referred any soldier applying for Paul Jobs, payment to his rights under this act. ([31a], [38].) How many soldiers she had paid off and how much, if any, of Leonard Calvert's movable Maryland estate remained by then I can not tell. The records show that she paid some of the claims with Lord Baltimore's cattle, but if the assertions of the Assembly are to be believed, there may not have been many available. ([21], [22], [24], [25], [27], [37].) Soldiers certainly were not paid in land. In the end, most had to await payments from the tobacco custom finally passed by The Life of Mark Essay, the Assembly in 1649. It is clear that Lord Baltimore lost most of his cattle during Ingle's Rebellion. Accounts sent to Paul Essay him late in The Life of Mark Twain Essay, 1644 showed 93 head, of which 37 were cows or heifers.

The Assembly averred that only 12 cows and Biography Paul Jobs, a bull were left after the depredations of the rebels, although there were unmarked animals in the woods, some of which might be his. ([37]; Archives 4: 276-277; 1: 240-241.) Question 8. What were the circumstances that surrounded Margaret Brent's request to vote in the Assembly of January-March, 1647/48? What did she hope to gain? There was a shortage of food, the soldiers were hungry, and they had lost the leader who had promised to pay them. Less than three weeks before the Assembly met, Margaret Brent had been given charge of Lord Baltimore's property, which -- apart from land and of Mark, ordnance that she would not dare touch -- consisted mostly of livestock, much depleted during the time of plunder. Undoubtedly, she would have preferred not to of Steve Paul sell the animals without his knowledge and consent, but this would take months to obtain.

She had to act quickly. Unless the Assembly would agree to keep the tax on and Schindler's List, tobacco passed by the Assembly of of Steve Essay, 1646 or would make some other public assessment, she would have to of may analysis pay the soldiers with cattle. She doubtless knew the burgesses wanted to repeal the tobacco tax and hoped to persuade them to desist. ([12-19]; [37]; [39].) The very day her request to have voice in of Steve Paul Essay, the Assembly was refused, she paid a soldier with a cow. (21.) Question 9. Why did Margaret Brent ask for the third of may painting analysis, two votes? Perhaps she hoped that by providing two reasons for eligibility she would increase her chances of gaining admission to the Assembly. Question 10. Biography Of Steve Jobs? Did Lord Baltimore offer any assistance towards the costs of recovering his colony? Why did the assembly resist paying the the third, soldiers? The Assembly members of April 2-21, 1649 argued that -- given the destruction during the rebellion and their consequent poverty -- their efforts to reestablish Lord Baltimore's government were contribution enough. (37.) Lord Baltimore argued that an Equall Assessment upon all the Inhabitants . Biography Of Steve Paul Jobs Essay? is the justest and usuall way in all Civill Kingdomes and Commonwealths for defraying of publick charges. Quotes? Princes were not expected to carry the burden of public defense from their private fortunes. They would be ruined and made unable to protect their subjects. (39.) Both sides made a concession. In 1649, the Assembly passed an Biography of Steve Paul Jobs act that gave His Lordship and heirs for wife quotes, seven years a custom of 10 shillings per hogshead on tobacco shipped from Maryland in Dutch ships, of which half was to go to claims arising from the recovery and Biography Paul, defense of the painting, Province. (37) These provisions were evidently similar to those of the act passed in 1646 and repealed by the Assembly of 1647/48.

In addition, the of Steve Essay, act of 1649 raised an assessment on every inhabitant to pay His Lordship within two years 16 cows and a bull in Schindler List Essay, consideracon of of Steve Jobs, his Lopps former stock of cattell distributed and disposed of towards the Schindler and Schindler's List, defence and prservacon of the Province. Of Steve Paul Jobs? (39.) The following summer, the Proprietor agreed to lama exile this arrangement, provided that 1) the Assembly did in fact provide the promised cattle and 2) that it would pass sixteen acts he had sent to the Assembly of 1647[/8] in expectation that it would accept them all without alteration (which it had not done). (39.) Whether any or all of these laws were ever passed without alteration is not clear; we do not know what his contained. Probably some that the Assembly did pass were essentially those Lord Baltimore had sent. Whether or not Lord Baltimore got all that he had demanded, he made no further objection to this inroad on a tax that he might have insisted on keeping for himself. Question 11: If Margaret Brent had been granted vote and of Steve Jobs Essay, voice, how would that have changed things? Probably not much, at of may 1808 painting, least with respect to her own position and that of her brother. She might have persuaded the Biography of Steve Essay, Assembly not to repeal the the third of may painting analysis, act for tobacco custom passed in 1646, which was supposed to Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay be used to pay the the drover's wife quotes, soldiers, and thereby saved herself from Lord Baltimore's wrath on the score of Paul Essay, her selling property without his consent. Oskar Schindler And Schindler's List? But he would still have been suspicious of her. He was furious with Giles for his role in the Assembly of March 4, 1647[/8], which 1) refused to recognize the Jobs, Assembly of wife quotes, 1646 or any of the laws it had passed on the grounds that Leonard Calvert had not called for a new election; 2) refused to pass sixteen acts the Proprietor had sent with orders to pass them as a body unaltered; and 3) prepared a remonstrance that Governor Greene had refused to sign. Biography Of Steve Paul Essay? From what Lord Baltimore said about this documment, one can infer that it had criticized the Act for Recognition and the act laying down the wording of the should die tonight, oath of fealty, two of the sixteen acts. The words objected to were Absolute Lord and Proprietary, from which some inferred a slavery in the people to us, and Royall Jurisdiction, seen as exceeding the power intended to us by the . charter. Lord Baltimore interpreted the remonstrance and rejection of the acts as indications of possible conspiracy against his auhority and as efforts to alienate the people from the present government. (39.) He may also have interpreted Giles's marriage to Paul Mary Kitomaquund as positioning to Essay or Outlaw? acquire Indian lands without a proprietary grant.

In 1685, Lord Baltimore's nephew George Talbot said as much to William Penn. ([30]; Conference between Penn and Talbot, at New Castle in Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, 1684, Maryland Historical Magazine 3 [1908]) The fall of the Brents from if i die tonight, grace was undoubtedly inevitable, no matter how conscientious Margaret may have tried to be. SOME COMMENTS ON MARGARET BRENT. 1. The Brents as Catholics. Jobs Essay? According to Bruce E. Steiner, Margaret Brent was not a Catholic until a younger sister, Catherine, converted to Catholicism about 1619 and brought the rest of her family along with her. (The Catholic Brents of the third analysis, Colonial Virgina: An Instance of Practical Toleration, Virginia Magazine of Paul Jobs, History and Biography 70 (1962), 392-393 and of Mark Twain Essay, note 21.) If true, Margaret must have been at least age nineteen at her own conversion. Of her six sisters, four, including Catherine, became nuns; only one of the sisters married. Biography Of Steve Jobs? And when Margaret and her sister Mary, the next oldest, went to Maryland, they remained unmarried in an extraordinarily woman-short society. 1808? This history strengthens my conjecture that Margaret and of Steve Paul, Mary were protected from marriage by vows of celibacy, possibly temporary but regularly renewed. Recent investigations by Jeanne Cover (Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary) question part of this story. Twain? Some Catholic records indicate that the Catherine Brent who entered the English Abbey of Our Lady of Consolation at Cambrai in 1629, aged 27, was the daughter of William Brent of Larkstoke in. County Gloucester. Biography Paul? ( Publications of the Catholic Record Society 13 (London, l993), 42.) Perhaps the name William is a recordation error, but if not, then Catharine was not the sister of Margaret Brent, whose father was Richard Brent of Twain Essay, Lark Stoke and Admington, nor were Catharine's sisters Elizabeth and Eleanor, who also joined the abbey at Cambrai. Paul? These three women could have been cousins of should die tonight, some sort to Margaret and Mary Brent, but I can not find on any genealogical charts what William could have fathered them.

They were certainly not the children of Margaret and Mary's brother William, since Catharine was born about 1602 and Richard and Paul Jobs Essay, Elizabeth Reed Brent were not married until 1594. (French, The Brent Family, charts 3-5.) It seems to me likely but not certain that Catharine and her sisters were indeed the Oskar and Schindler's List, children of Richard and Elizabeth Brent. Aleck Loker in a recent study questions whether there is any real basis for the story of Catherine's converting her family. Paul? Many English Catholics, especially among the men, conformed just enough to avoid the penal laws. Richard Brent began to quotes be labeled a recusant and get into trouble shortly after his daughters broke the family cover by entering convents. By this view, the Brents did not suddenly break into Catholicism but, like George Calvert about the same time, elected to go public with their religion. (Margaret Brent: Attorney, Adventurer, and America's First Suffragette [ms. in of Steve Essay, possession of the author], 2-3.) I have long given thought to the idea that Margaret and Mary Brent had been members of Mary Ward's Institute, an unenclosed order of women who undertook to propagate the faith and strengthen belief through education. This Institute functioned in England, among other places, beginning about 1618, but was finally banned by the Pope in should, 1631. He gave the nuns three choices: to enter enclosed orders, live together under vows to local bishops, or marry. The English Jesuits had been much opposed to Mary Ward and her Institute, but individual Jesuits, among them Father Andrew White, had been sympathetic. (See Jeanne Cover, Love, the Driving Force: Mary Ward's Spirituality , Its Significance for Moral Theology [Marquette University Press, Milwaukee, WI, 1997], 9-24, 160-161.) It seems possible that the Brent sisters had been part of Mary Ward's Institute. In Maryland, could they have been living together under vows to an English bishop but working with the local Jesuits, among whom was Father White? If so, the sisters escaped mention in the surviving reports sent to Paul Jobs Rome by the English Provincial before Ingle's Rebellion temporarily destroyed the mission. Wife Quotes? (Extracts from the Annual Letters of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, 1634, 1638, 1639, 1640, 1643, 1654, 1656, 1681, in Clayton Coleman Hall, ed., Narratives of Biography of Steve Essay, Early Maryland, 1633-1684 [New York, 1910), 118-140].) Or were arrangements possible then, as now, for women to take temporary but renewable vows and remain unenclosed? Mary Ward was clearly a woman of great spiritual power as well as organizational skills.

If Margaret and Mary Brent were a product of of Mark Twain Essay, her work, they must have carried great spiritual authority where ever they went, whether or not they were still bound to celebacy by vows. Paul Essay? 2. Margaret Brent as a landholder. It is often said that Margaret and Mary Brent had vast landholdings in Maryland, and often implied that Margaret was active in management of these resources. This statement is dalai lama, untrue. The two sisters actually took up and developed only the 70½ acres of Sister's Freehold, plus an adjacent 50 acres that came to be known as St. Andrew's. What they had in addition were headrights that entitled them to about 2000 acres of land. ([1], [1a], [1b], [1d], [51.3].)

On the other hand, Margaret early had responsibility for her brother's manor on Kent Island and eventually for all of Leonard Calvert's land. In 1642, Giles Brent turned over his 1000-acre Kent Fort Manor (all the land he had taken up) to his sister Margaret in return for payment of debts he owed: £73 English money owed her; £30 to £40 English money owed to his uncle Mr. Richard Reed; and some large tobacco debts in Virginia. (1f.) Nevertheless, it is likelly that Giles did not cease to Biography Paul Essay manage the Kent Fort Manor so long as he lived in Maryland. As a councillor he needed to act and be seen as a manor lord. Not until after Ingle's Rebellion does one find mention that Margaret was ever present on Schindler and Schindler's List, Kent. With the return of proprietary government, she handled the Paul Essay, litigation for recovering the extensive damage to a mill and a house and for loss of equipment and cattle, and this took her to the island on the third painting, occasion. Until he moved to Virginia, Giles acted for himself in seeking damages for of Steve Paul Jobs, loss of his cattle and the burning of dalai lama exile, his books. (Margaret still held title to the manor, but not to livestock that Giles had acquired since, and not to his personal library.) The Kent County court records show little additional. Late in 1648, Margaret was at Kent long enough to supply sugar, spice, and strong waters to William Cox in Paul Jobs Essay, his last sickness and for a funerell Diner for him.

And on the drover's quotes, January 13, 1648[/9] she gave Zachary Wade power of attorney to recover her debts and collect rent corn due the proprietor. Probably neither she or her brother attempted to rebuild the plantation he had lost. ( Archives 4: 132-133, 394-395, 417, 419, 434, 435, 436-438, 440-441, 449, 454-56, 489, 517; Archives 10: 4-5; Archives 54: 3, 98 [quote].) After Margaret joined her brother across the Potomac, there are only Biography Paul Essay two more references to her interest in the manor. The first is in her will, written in 1663, eight years before her death. She left my lease of Kent Fort Mannor in Maryland to her nephew Richard, a fact that shows conclusively that she had never surrendered it to Giles. The second is a document in 1808 painting analysis, the Kent County records of 1669 granting power of attorney to an agent to collect rents and debts. Evidently by this time, and probably since Giles left Maryland, all the manor had been divided into tenements. ([51.6 (quote)]; French, The Brent Family, 144-145, 184; Kent County Court Proceedings printed in Archives 54: 273.) There is some evidence to suggest that after 1651 -- or in Biography Paul Jobs, Giles's case, 1652 -- neither Giles or Margaret ever dared to lama exile visit Maryland again to manage their affairs there. Instead, Mary Brent acted for them. In 1651 Mary was reported to be on Kent Island killing unmarked bulls and sending the meat to St.

Mary's to be sold. Secretary Hatton found the meat badly deteriorating in Jobs Essay, the custody of Thomas Matthews. He seized it and resalted it, and then brought an Schindler information against Mary Brent on the grounds that wild cattle belonged to the Proprietor. She defended herself in court, arguing that the cattle on the island were of Giles Brent's stock. The court ordered the Biography of Steve Jobs, sale of the meat, but otherwise postponed judgment to the next meeting of the assembly, which, because of the Oskar Schindler and Schindler's, disruptions after the arrival of the Parliamentary Commissioners early in 1652, did not occur until 1654, when the matter was long forgotten. On two other occasions, both early in Biography Essay, 1654, Mary appeared for Giles in actions brought against him in the Maryland Provincial Court. Although Mary appeared in the records but little, she evidently could take action and be a public figure when necessary.

She died in 1658, leaving her property to Margaret and after her death to Giles. (French, The Brent Family, 44-45; Archives 10: 149-152, 164, 327, 335, 348.) As Leonard Calvert's executor, Margaret held responsibility for his lands, but we know little of how active her management was. With regard to his manor lands, there are few references. At the Twain Essay, Provincial Court in December 1648, she asked the Biography Jobs, opinion of the judges whether Calvert's patents for these lands gave him forfeiture of the tenements that belonged to the rebels. The answer was yes on Essay, the grounds that such rights usually belonged to the lords of manors in of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, England. (32.) What action Margaret then took, if any, is unknown. Twain Essay? The following February she sold 90 acres in Trinity Manor; the buyer was to pay a yearly rent of 9 bushells of corn and do service at the manor court. (35a) A year later, on February 15, 1649[/50], Thomas Sturman brought action against her for disturbing his possession of house and land that he had purchased in good faith. The land -- 1000 acres -- Leonard Calvert had originally granted to Thomas Passmore, but it turned out to be at least partly on one of Calvert's manors. Margaret argued that she had evidence to of Steve Paul prove that Sturman had agreed with Calvert to accept part of the land rendring a Rent and the rest in dalai lama, some other place. She asked and got postponement of the case until November, 1650, so that she could make her proofs, but in November Court she lost. Of Steve Paul Jobs? (35b) The last instance arose in March of dalai, 1656[/7], after the Brents were long gone from Maryland, and Biography Essay, once more Mary Brent, not Margaret, acted.

On May 8 , 1654, Henry Potter sold half of his tenement in St. Gabriels's Manor -- thirty-seven and a half acres -- to Essay Martin Kirke for of Steve Jobs Essay, 600 pounds of tobacco plus a yearly payment of 1) half a barrell and 5 pecks of corn and 2) one poultry and should die tonight, a halfe, to of Steve Paul be paid yearly at Essay, Christmas at Potter's house. On March 7, 1656[/7], Att a Court Baron held . by James Gaylord Steward of Mrs Mary Brent, Kirke took of the of Steve Paul, Lady here in full Court . Essay? according to the Custome of the sayd Mannor, One Messuage or tenemt, Thirty Seaven Acres halfe of Lande, paying rent as described in Potter's deed to Kirke. However, no mention is here of attending the manorial court. Of Steve Paul Jobs? (51.4.) It is likely that the Brents did not try to do more than keep track of tenements and collect rents, if that. Margaret Brent's long dispute with Governor William Stone over his attempt to purchase the Governor's Field and its house suggests that she was. unclear about her legal position in caring for Calvert's estate.

Once the assembly had finally agreed to the drover's wife quotes use a tax on tobacco exports to pay the soldiers, Calvert's estate was no longer liable for their claims. Biography Of Steve? The question then apparently became, what powers did Margaret as executor have over his land, given that Calvert had not specified any legacies? She had used all of his personal estate to pay his debts, but the land remained. It was to Stone's immediate interest to obtain Leonard Calvert's house and land at St. Mary's. Here at the capital was a tract of very good land with a very large house, although probably not in dalai lama exile, very good repair after its use as a fort during the years of trouble. He could move in with his family at once. It was in Margaret's interest to Paul Essay sell the property rather than have to expend energy and Twain Essay, resources on its upkeep, especially given Lord Baltimore's hostility towards her. She seems at first to Jobs have supposed that she had title to the drover's it and therefore could sell it with full warranty. Presumably she did not expect to keep the proceeds for her self but to save them or invest them for Leonard's heirs.

Stone took possession of the property in expectation of receiving a conveyance and offered her a major part of the price in Biography of Steve Essay, goods, which she delayed to accept until she could send her shallop. However, doubts about this transaction were already assailing her. On July 22, 1650, she wrote to remind the Governor that she had told him she would advise with my brother before she would put a guarantee in writing. I further told you, she wrote, that if my title were not good I would return the of Mark Twain, house into the Inventery, and would not intangle my Self in Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, Maryland because of the Ld Baltemore's disaffections to me and the Instruccons he Sends agt us. I doe not refuse to make you Security for any doubt I have of my title, but because I know it will be more the avoyding of trouble both to you and me to disinterest my Self in it. I will at my comeing down bring with me the Coppy of the Statute to Justifie my right to Mr Calverts Land, and I hope to have a tryall for them in your own Court, and Soe make an end with you to your own content. She then asked Stone to sell the goods he had offered in payment and send her the tobacco. The Third 1808? (43,) This tryall was postponed and never took place. Of Steve Paul Essay? Instead, on dalai lama exile, July 10, 1651, Margaret wrote again, changing the terms of the sale. My Conveyance of Biography of Steve Jobs Essay, my title unto you which I am now ready to make . is but that of Mr. Calvert's Admr and which I will not fortify by any bond or warranty.

She demanded notice in writing within 20 days whether or not he accepted these terms. ([48c]; [50]; [51.2b].) Stone's reply was to bring action against Margaret in November Court, 1651, for if i should, refusal to give him a conveyance of the land, even though he had offered her the major part of what was due in the form of Biography of Steve Paul Essay, goods which she had refused to accept unil he agreed in writing to her demands. He was ready to pay the rest. The Maryland Provincial Court -- which included the dalai, Governor -- was frustrated by its inability to force Margaret to Biography Essay appear to answer the List, complaint. It declared that the Governor and his heirs and assigns could have hold and enjoy the property forever, paying Margaret the remainder of what was due, unless she appeared at the next court. ([41], [51.2c,d].) The result was an impasse. On Janurary 5, 1651[/2], Giles Brent, acting as his sister's attorney, in writing warned Stone off the property, but from Virginia he had no way to enforce the command. Stone answered on January 23 by making tender to Margaret Brent of full payment of the 4500 pounds of tobacco. Four witnesses certified to the Provincial Court that 2800 pounds was paid per Biography Essay, account Shewed us under the Governor's own Hand by Ordr of dalai, Mrs Margaret Brent, . the other Seventeen hundred being now paid and tendred by Edmond Wormell. The tender was made in Maryland, not in Virginia, and Margaret seems to have ignored it.

In consequence, Stone had no title. When in 1661 Leonard Calvert's son, William, arrived in Maryland to take up his inheritance, Margaret sent to the Provincial Court a deposition that I never did make any Conveyance of the howse and land of of Steve Jobs Essay, St Marys which formerly was Leonard Calvert's Esqr. to Captaine William Stone and . neither he nor the heires of the aforesaid William Stone hath any right or tytle to the aforesaid house or Lands. ([51.2e], f[quote], g[quote]). Die Tonight? Margaret Brent evidently had been content to let Stone use the property rather than undergo further legal struggle. As the Governor's residence, it was certain to be maintained and without expense to her. In the Essay, end, she was able to help the rightful owner retrieve it. Painting? The upshot for Stone was less desirable. His widow, Verlinda, lost The Governor's Field and its house, which he had willed to her. Leonard Calvert's heir, William, obtained it; but this outcome was probably sweetened by his marriage to Stone's daughter Elizabeth. (Wills 1: 89, ms., Maryland State Archives, Annapolis, Md.; William Stone in Edward C. Papenfuse, et al., eds., A Biographical Dictionary of Maryland Legislators, 1635-1789, 2 [Baltimore, Md., 1985], 788.) William Calvert promptly sold the Biography of Steve Paul Essay, house and land to an innkeeper, Hugh Lee, who apparently had already been operating an ordinary there. Of Mark Essay? Soon afterwards Lee died and in Biography Paul Jobs, 1662, his widow sold the property to the Province. The house became a combined ordinary and capitol building for meetings of the courts and assembly, and around it began the development of St.

Mary's City. Quotes? (51.2g.) So far as we know, William took up his other lands without argument and he brought no complaints against Biography Jobs Essay his father's executrix. One may wonder why Lord Baltimore had not tried to get Margaret removed from her office, given his suspicions of Oskar and Schindler's List, her loyalty. Evidently, he did not think it desirable to try to overturn his brother's will. The manors probably remained mostly undeveloped, although there may have been squatters. Paul Jobs Essay? Rents may have gone uncollected. Nevertheless, William received from Margaret Brent a mostly intact landed inheritance.

3. Margaret Brent in court. Most people who discuss Margaret Brent speak of Essay on Preserve or Outlaw?, her as the Biography Paul, first women lawyer in Maryland and Essay on Preserve, emphasize the extent of her participation in legal actions in the courts. This is a misleading picture of what she was doing. She was not a lawyer. Jobs Essay? Indeed, there were no lawyers admitted to practice in Maryland courts before the 1660s. From the beginning, people were allowed to plead their own cases, and women could do so if they were unmarried. Dalai? Margaret made loans and brought actions for repayment; she was the defendant also on occasion.

As Leonard Calvert's executrix, she used the courts as necessary to collect debts owed him and Paul Essay, pay those he owed. Oskar List? She accepted commissions to act for others as attorney-in-fact, most often for her brother Giles and for Lord Baltimore. None of her cases involved complex technical procedures. ([1e], [6a], [17], [18], [19], [27a], [30], [31], [31a], [31b], [31c], [31d], [35], [35b], [48], [48a], [48b], [51.2]; Archives 4: 149, 169, 181, 191, 192, 213, 214 224, 227, 229.) Basicly, Margaret Brent was a business woman. That she was far and away the most active woman in litigation is certainly true, and that she was usually successful is also true, but she was not the only woman to Paul Essay act for herself. For example, in the year 1643, the recently widowed Mary Lawn Courtney, formerly Margaret Brent's servant, brought two actions to collect debts owed her and defended herself against two actions. ( Archives 4: 178, 196, 226, 279.) If Mary had remained a widow longer, she undoubtedly would have appeared as a principal in or Outlaw?, more cases, but she soon married Daniel Clocker. (Biographical File of Biography of Steve Essay, Seventeenth-Century St. Mary's County Residents, ms., Maryland State Archives, Annapolis, Md.) Very few free women in early Maryland were unmarried for any length of dalai exile, time, a fact that in of Steve Jobs, itself can account for the general absence of women appearing for themselves. But Margaret Brent never married. 4. Margaret Brent as guardian to Mary Kitomaquund. In 1640, Father Andrew White converted the Piscataway Tayac to Christianity, and in February of 1641, the the drover's, Tayac brought his seven-year-old daughter to be educated among the Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, English at St. Dalai Exile? Mary's. Of Steve Paul? ([1b], [1c]).

Margaret Brent and wife, Governor Leonard Calvert became her joint guardians. Sometime between May 8, 1644 and January 7, 1644[/5], Giles Brent married the little girl. (1g). This event probably occurred before October, 1644, when Leonard Calvert returned from England, where he had gone in the spring of 1643 to confer with his brother, the Lord Baltimore. ( Archives 3: 130, 160.) It is hard to believe that, if present, Leonard Calvert would have agreed to the marriage, given subsequent events. During the weeks after his return but before Ingle attacked, the court records show him in bitter conflict with Giles. Indeed, not long before Ingle's raid, the Governor ordered the of Steve Paul Jobs, St.

Mary's County sheriff to dalai lama exile arrest the Body of Giles Brent Esq, and keepe him in safe custody in the house of John Cook in St Georges hundred, untill I shall call him to make answer to severall crimes agst the dignity dominion of the right horle the Lord Proprietary of this Province. On the other hand, a few days later, Brent was sitting as a justice again. ( Archives 4: 301 (quote), 302.) Margaret's agreement to the marriage raises several questions. Why did she let her brother marry an 11 years old, who probably had not yet even reached menarche? To our modern eyes, this age seems extraordinary. However, we do find a handful of of Steve Paul, marriages of 12-year olds in the early Maryland records, the 1808 painting, result of the extraordinarily skewed sex ratio. (Russell R Menard and Lorena S Walsh, The Demography of Somerset County, Maryland: A Progress Report, Newberry Papers in Family and Community History , 81-2 [1981].) Was her decision affected by her brother's ambitions? A statement made forty years later by Biography of Steve Paul, Leonard Calvert's cousin George Talbot hints at what these might have been.

At a conference with William Penn in 1684 at what is now Newcastle, Delaware, Talbot was making the third Lord Baltimore's case for lands that he and William Penn both claimed. Talbot mentioned in passing Capt Brent who in right of if i should, his wife the of Steve Paul, Piscataway Emperors daughter and only Child pretended a right to the most part of Maryland but could doe noe good on't after a great bustle about it. This comment suggests the origins of Lord Baltimore's wrath against of Mark Essay the Brents. The comment may be hearsay based on reports of the Biography Paul Jobs Essay, Proprietor's fears more than actual actions of Giles or Margaret, but the considerable conflict between Leonard and Giles indicates the Calverts' distrust. In addition, although Giles was in analysis, Maryland by November 6, 1646, he does not appear again in the Maryland records until after Leonard Calvert's death. Apparently Brent did not participate in the recovery of Biography Jobs Essay, Maryland or share in the pacification of Kent Island. Were he and his wife living with the Piscataway Indians and perhaps trying to garner support there for a claim to dalai lama exile Indian lands? Or was Giles in Virginia, scouting out opportunities there? ([6a]; [13]; Conference Between Penn and Paul Jobs, Talbot, at New Castle in 1684, Maryland Historical Magazine , 3 [1908], 30 [quote]). As yet there are no answers to these questions.

TIME LINE FOR DOCUMENTATION. 1. Aug. 2, 1638 Letter, Lord Baltimore to Leonard Calvert, orders that Margaret and Mary Brent shall have a grant of as much Land in and about the Town of Schindler and Schindler's List Essay, St. Maries and elsewhere in Biography Essay, that Province in as ample manner and with as large priviledges as any of the first adventurors have in Schindler and Schindler's List, respect of Biography, four maid servants besides them selves that came with them and in respect of the Essay on Preserve, transportation thither of five men in the first year of that Plantation. In the Margine of the last foregoing Instruction is thus Entred vizt This warrant was assigned over by Mrs Margarett Brent unto James Clifton October 12th 1663, vide Lib AA: fo: 324.

Brought into the Province of Maryland the 22th Novemb 1638 . 4 maid servants, 4 men servants Thomas Ged Samuel Pursall Francis Slaver John Stepens Mary Taylor Elizabeth Guesse Mary Lawne Elizabeth Brooks. 1a. Of Steve Paul Jobs? Nov. 22, 1638 Came into the Province, 22th Novr 1638 . Mr. Giles Brent and Mr.Fulke Brent who returned in March following. Mrs Margaret Brent Mrs Mary Brent, who transported Mary Taylor, Elizabeth Guest Mary Lawne Elizabeth Brooks maid Servants, John Robinson Goodwin blacksmith.

Patents 1: 18. 1b. Oct. 6, 1639 Mr Surveyor I would have you to Essay Set forth a Portion of Town Land for Mrs Margarett and Mrs Mary Brent containing to the quantity of Seventy acres or thereabouts lye nearest together about the Biography Paul, house where they now dwell. Oct. 7, 1639 Survey of 70½ acres of should die tonight, Town Land, on the north bounding on. Giles Brent's land etc. Oct. 10, 1639 Patent for above. 1c. After Feb.

15, 1640[1/]. The King of the Piscataway brought his daughter, seven years old . to be educated among the English at St. Biography Paul? Mary's, and when she shall well understand the Christian mysteries, to be washed in the sacred font of baptism. Annual Letters of the Jesuits; from the Annual Letter of 1640 in of Mark Twain Essay, Clayton Coleman Hall ed., Narratives of Early Maryland, 1633-1684 (New York, 1910, reprinted 1946), 132. 1642 Not long after, the young Empress (as they call her) of Pascataway was baptized in of Steve Paul Essay, the town of St. Mary's and is being educated there, and is now a proficient in of may 1808 painting, the English language.

A Narrative derived from the Biography of Steve Essay, Letters of Ours, out of Maryland [1642] in Hall, ed., Narratives of Early Maryland , 133-134. Note: This child is the ward of Margaret Brent. See below (1g). Dalai Lama? 1d. April 25, 1642 Margaret and Mary Brent demand 1000 acres of of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, Land Due by Conditions of Plantation for transporting 5 men into the Province aforesaid the 25th march last vizt Thomas Gidd Samuell Pursall Francis Slower John Stephens John Delahey. Vide Margarett Brents assignment to John Brooke Lib GG fol 241 Note: These are the same men mentioned in (1) but she had not yet claimed them as head rights.

1e. Aug. 4, 1642. Lama Exile? Margaret Brent brings five actions in the Provincial Court. Archives 4: 118-119. Note. These are her first appearances in court to bring actions in Biography of Steve Paul, her own name, but this fact does not mean she had never acted for Essay or Outlaw?, herself in court before. Paul? Nearly all court proceedings, except those in probate, are missing before 1642.

1f. Oct. 18, 1642. Giles Brent conveys to Margaret Brent all lands, goods, debts, cattle, and servants for payment of £73 in English money he owes her, plus £40-£60 he owes to Essay his uncle Mr. Richard Reed, 14,000 pounds of tobacco he owes to Biography of Steve Mr. William Blunt, 4,000 pounds of tobacco he owes to Mrs. Purfrey of Virginia, plus other smaller debts. Archives 4: 132-133. On Preserve Or Outlaw?? 1g.

March 14, 1643[4]. Biography Of Steve? Court orders attachment of 7,000 pounds of tobacco worth of chattels of die tonight, Leonard Calvert until he or his attorney answers the suit of Margaret Brent guardian to Mrs. Mary Kitomaqund in an action of of Steve, debt on March 16. Archives 4:259-260. March 16, 1643[4]. Margaret Brent guardian of the third of may 1808, mary Kitomaqund orphan p attorn Francis anthill demands of Leonard Calvert Esq 7000 pounds of tobacco for the price of 4 kine 4 yong cattell 3. calves due to Paul Jobs Essay the said orphan by the assumption of the said Leonard, for so much of her estate remaining in his hands upon acct of his guardianship. Archives 4: 264.

May 8, 1642 Sold unto Mrs Mary Kitomaquund, foure kine, three yearling heifers, one yearling bullock, two bull calves, 2. cow calves of if i, his Lops stock, now being in the possession of mrs Margarett Brent; for the price of five thousand seven hundred wt of tob cask, received by Biography Paul Jobs, us of the said mary Kitomaquund to his Lops use afore the signing hereof. And we does hereby on dalai exile, his Lops behalfe warrant the said Kine their encrease unto the said mary and her assignes against all men. Signed by Giles Brent, John Lewger and of Steve, William Brainthwait. Archives 4: 271-272. Note: These court entries are the Essay, first direct evidence that Margaret Brent and Leonard Calvert were guardians to Mary Kitomaquund. At this time, Leonard Calvert is in England. Jan., 9 1644[/5]. Lewger delivers to Biography Essay Leonard Calvert the petition of Giles Brent Esq, and the drover's wife quotes, of mary his wife to the horle the Biography Jobs Essay, Counsell of the Province.

Asks Calvert to deliver to the Brents Mary's cattle or the value thereof to The Life of Mark 5700 pounds of tobacco. Archives 3: 162. Note: This is the first evidence that the Brents are married. Mary was only eleven years old. Calvert evidently refused to acknowledge the of Steve, arrangements made in his absence for supplying Mary with a dowry. Essay Or Outlaw?? Doubtless the marriage, which must have taken place between May 8 and this date, upset and angered him. 2. After Jan.

8, 1644[5]. Ingle arrives in the St. Mary's river, but departs for Biography of Steve Paul Essay, Virginia. Timothy B. Riordan, The Plundering Time: Maryland in the English Civil War, 1642-1650 (ms. in possession of the author, Historic St. Mary's City, St. Mary's City, Md.), chap. Dalai Lama Exile? 11: 6-8.

2a. Jan. 9, 1644[5]. Last date in Council records before Ingle attacks. Archives 3: 103. 3. Biography Paul? Feb. 4, 1644[/5]. Last day business is the third of may, conducted in the Provincial Court before Ingle attacks. 4. Feb. 11, 1644[5]. Last assembly before Ingle attacks.

Only business. recorded was passage of an Act for the Defense of the Province dealing with a garrison at Piscataway for protection against Indians. Archives 1: 205. Feb. 13, 1644[/5]. Above act published. Archives 1: 205. Note: No indication here that an attack from Ingle is expected. 5. Feb.

14-15, 1644[/5]. Reformation , under Captain Richard Ingle, sails up the St. Biography Of Steve Paul Jobs Essay? Mary's river. The crew captures the the drover's wife quotes, Dutch ship Looking Glass , with Giles Brent aboard and loots and Biography Paul, sacks Thomas Cornwaleys plantation. Cornwaleys himself is in England; his servant Cuthbert Fenwick is in charge. Riordan, The Plundering Time, ch.

11: 9-21; Richard Ingle in Maryland, Maryland Historical Magazine 1 (1906), 125-140; HCA 13/60 /sections G, K, L, Public Record Office, London, photocopy at Historic St. Mary's City and typed transcript at Historic St. Mary's City and dalai, History Office, Maryland State Archives, Annapolis, MD.; Richard Ingle in Maryland. Of Steve Paul Essay? Note: These are the first steps of the Rebellion. 5a. Dalai Exile? February until after April 10, 1645.

Leonard Calvert and Jobs Essay, his supporters build St. Thomas's Fort, probably around the The Life Twain Essay, buildings of Giles, Margaret, and Mary Brent on the St. Mary's river. Calvert operates from here until Ingle's departure. The Maryland rebels take the fort sometime afterwards, but Leonard Calvert has escaped to Virginia. Riordan, The Plundering Time, chap.

12. Note: If St. Thomas's fort was at this location -- archaeological investigation is needed to confirm the of Steve Paul Jobs, site -- the the third of may 1808 painting analysis, Brent sisters must have been to some degree active in Biography of Steve Jobs, the colony's defense. Essay? 5b. April 10, 1645. Ingle takes on 70 hogsheads of tobacco in Virginia.

Riordan, The Plundering Time, chap. 12: 32; Susie Ames, ed., County Court Records of Accomack-Northampton , Virginia, 1640-1645 (Charlottesville, Va., 1973), 437. Note: Ingle has left Maryland. 5c. June 13, 1645. Earliest depositions taken in Ingle vs. Looking Glass show that Ingle is now in England.

Riordan, The Plundering Time, chap. 12: 33; chap. 14: 10; HCA 13/60, Section E, June 13, 1645, Public Record Office, London (photocopy at Historic St. Mary's City, typed transcript at HSMC and of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, HSMC History Office, Maryland State Archives, Annapolis, MD.) 5d. Sept. 15, 1645. These presents doe testify that I Leon: Calvert Esqr doe assigne make over dalai, all my right, tytle interest, in two thowsand powned Weight of good Merchble leafe Tob: Cask.

Remayning due unto mee from Mr. Tho: Gerrard of St. Clemts hundd in the province of of Steve Essay, Mary-Land gent, uppon acct unto Edw: Packer lately imployed in received Tob: for mee in the foresd province. Witnes my hand this 15th Septembr 1645. L. Calvert. Signed delivered in Essay on Preserve or Outlaw?, the prnce of. The mk N of Nathaniel Pope Query: Where was Calvert when he made this assignment? In Maryland?

Nathaniel Pope was a leader of the rebels. Note: This document was recorded on Dec. 3, 1647 in connection with Margaret Brent vs. Thomas Gerard. Archives 4: 348-352 (document above is on 351-352). 6. July 30, 1646.

Leonard Calvert in Virginia appoints Captain Edward Hill as temporary governor of Maryland and revokes all earlier commissions under his powers from Lord Baltimore to appoint a governor when in His Lordship's service he had to be out of the Province. Archives 3: 171-172. 6a. Nov. 6, 1646. Biography Jobs Essay? Giles Brent appoints Margaret Brent as his attorney to demand sue for and recover all debts, goods, and cattell appertayning to mee in Maryland or due from any persons there unto mee with full power to give discharg for the sume received and to the said effects to appoint constitute any other party to bee my lawfull Attorney. The Drover's Wife? Witness my hand. In the Biography of Steve, presence of Richard Powers, Mary Brent. Archives 10: 19.

Note: The above was not entered into and Schindler's, the Maryland records until June 24, 1650. Since this document was witnessed by Mary Brent, Giles must have been in Maryland when he created it. Whether he remained there is unclear. He does not appear in the records again until June 19, 1647, after Leonard Calvert's death. Biography Of Steve Paul? The records between November 6 and the drover's wife, June 19 are too few to prove Brent's absence. He may have been at his manor at Kent, but actions brought later in the Provincial Court for damages to the Brents' property at Paul Jobs Essay, Kent suggest deep unrest there without indicating Brent's presence. Archives 4: 399, 417, 454-456. Of Mark Twain Essay? Aleck Loker has suggested to me that Brent went to Paul Essay Piscataway to negotiate territory with his wife's Indian family.

Or did he go to Virginia? Why did he not join in lama exile, Calvert's re-establishment of proprietary authority? There are mysteries here. Of Steve Jobs? 7. Nov. Should Die Tonight? 15, 1646.

Lord Baltimore grants Leonard Calvert and John Lewger power to Jobs demand and receive his rents, debts, and other dues and to the drover's quotes dispose thereof as I shall from time to time direct, in of Steve Paul Jobs, default of such direction, according to yor best discretions, for my most advantage, until I shall give further orders therein. 8. Dec. 29, 1646-Jan. 2, 1646[/7]. Governor Leonard Calvert calls an assembly, which meets at should die tonight, St. Inigoes Fort. He informs the members that they weare caled hither as Freemen to treat and advise in assembly touching all matters as freely and Biography Essay, boldly wthout any awe or feare and with the same Liberty as at any assembly they might have don heretofore, and wife quotes, that they weare now Free from all restraint of their persons and should be Free during the assembly Saveing only to Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay hymselfe after the end of the Assembly, such charge as he had or hath, against Schindler List any for any cryme committeed since the last generall Pardon. Calvert then has six witnesses sworn, who testify that the Governor afore their comeing upp out of Virginia declared to Biography all the the third, Souldiers in Biography, publicke and to dalai these deponents in particulr. that if he found the Inhabitants of St Maries had accepted his pardon for thier [sic] former rebellion and of Steve Paul Essay, weare in Essay or Outlaw?, obedience to his Lorp the Souldiers weare to expect no pillage there but he would receave the inhabitants in peace and only take aid from them to the reduceing of Kent. The pardon referred to probably explains the terminal date of the amnesty given in Biography Paul Jobs Essay, the Act for Oblivion passed on April 29, 1650.

Archives 1: 209 (quotes); (40). The assembly of 1646 passes two acts that we know of, one for customs and one for judicature. Archives 1: 210. Later correspondence between the Essay, Proprietor and the assembly shows that the Biography Paul Essay, members of this assembly were those still in Maryland who had attended an assembly earlier in Essay or Outlaw?, 1646 called by Captain Edward Hill. Of Steve Jobs? See above, (6) and below (37; 39). 9. Jan. Dalai Lama? 19, 1646[/7]. Biography Of Steve Essay? First entry for the Provincial Court since Ingle. Archives 4: 308. 9a.

Jan. 14-16, 1646[/7]. Proceedings to contain seditious activity of six anti-proprietary leaders who were spreading rumors that Parliament would soon send forces against Maryland. Archives 3: 175-78. April 16, 1647. Leonard Calvert pardons men at Kent who have taken oath of fidelity. Archives 3: 182. 10.

June 1, 1647. Leonard Calvert presides in court. Archives 4: 308. 11. June 10, 1647. Margaret Brent deposes before the council that on. June 9, Governor Calvert being lying on his death bed, did by word of mouth on the Ninth of if i should die tonight, this month nominate Thomas Greene Esq Governor of the Province of Maryland.

Archives 3: 187. 12. June 17, 1647. Captain John Price, captain of the fort at St. Inigoes, notifies the Governor of the shortage of corn. June 18, 1647. Of Steve Jobs Essay? Governor Greene orders impressment of 1808 painting analysis, any surplus corn in any household at Jobs Essay, 120 pounds of Schindler and Schindler's, tobacco per barrell within the Province on Biography of Steve Paul, the Proprietor's account for the maintenance of the fort.

13. June 19, 1647. Margaret Brent asks the Governor to give testimony. Under oath about Leonard Calvert's nuncupatory will. Greene asks Giles Brent, Esq. one of his Lops Councell to administer the oath. Greene states that about six hours before Calvert died, he said to Margaret Brent I make you my sole Exequutrix, Take all, pay all. The court then makes Margaret administrator of Calvert's estate.

Archives 4: 312-313. Note: Giles Brent was in Maryland on Nov. 6, 1646 (see above, 6a), but does not appear again in the third painting, any record until the above date, after Leonard Calvert's death. Biography Of Steve Jobs Essay? Was he in Virginia? or at Kent Island? If he had been at St.

Mary's when Calvert died, would Calvert have made Giles his executor? Or was Giles in fact on hand and ignored? This last I doubt. If he had been in St. Mary's he likely would have been present with his sisters at Calvert's death bed. See (6a) and Comment 4. 14.

June 30, 1647. Leonard Calvert's inventory is recorded. Archives 4: 320-321. 15. Oct. 6, 1647. Captain John Price on should die tonight, behalf of himself and all the of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, soldiers at the fort asks and receives an attachment on the whole estate of the late Governor Leonard Calvert. The estate owes for wages 45,600 pounds of tobacco and 200 barrels of corn. Archives 4: 338.

16. Nov. 8, 1647. On Preserve Or Outlaw?? Governor Greene issues a proclamation forbidding the export of corn because of shortages. Of Steve Essay? 17. Nov. Essay On Preserve Or Outlaw?? 18, 1647. Walter Beane vs. Margaret Brent, administrator of. Leonard Calvert.

Margaret Brent acknowledges the debt to be due. Judgmt respited till next Court, in respect of Mr. Calvert's estate tht is now in defts hands is allready attached att the suite of the garryson. Biography Paul? And tht shee can part wth noe part of it till shee hath made answere thereunto. Archives 4: 352. 18. Jan. 3, 1647[/8]. In Price v. Essay Or Outlaw?? Brent (see 15), Margaret Brent denies same is due and demands privilege of an administrator not to be troubled for a twelfth month and a day. Archives 4: 357. 19.

Jan. Biography Of Steve? 3, 1647[/8]. Moved in if i die tonight, Court whether or noe Mr Leon: Calvert (remayning his Lps Sole Attorney within this Province before his death, then dying) the sd Mr Calvert's admistrator [sic] was to be received for his Lps Attorney wthin this province, untill such time as his Lp had made an new substitution, or tht some othr remayning uppon the prnt Commisn were arryved into the province. The Governor demanding Mr Brent's opinion uppon the same Quere Hee answered tht he did conceive tht the administrator ought to Paul Jobs be lookd uppon as Attorney both for recovery of rights into the estate, taking care for the estates preservation: But not further, until his Lp shall substitute some other as aforesd And thereupon The Governr concur'd. And it was ordered tht the Administrator of Mr Leon: Calvert aforesd should be received as his Lps Attorney to Essay on Preserve or Outlaw? the intents abovesd.

Archives 4: 358. 20. Jan. 20, 1647[/8]. The assembly meets at St. John's. Archives 1:214. Jan. Biography Of Steve Paul? 21, 1647[/8]. Came Mrs Margaret Brent and requested to have vote in the howse for Oskar Schindler, herselfe and voyce allso for that att the last Court 3d Jan: it was ordered that the of Steve Paul Essay, said Mrs Brent was to be lookd uppon and the third of may painting analysis, received as his Lps Attorney. The Govr denyed that the sd Mrs Brent should have any vote in the howse And the sd Mrs Brent protested agst all proceedings in this pnt Assembly unlesse shee may have vote as aforesd.

Archives 1: 2154. 21. Jan. 21, 1647[/8]. Margaret Brent sold to William Whittle one cow of Lord Baltimore's stock as part paymt for wages. Archives 4: 449.

Note: This is Margaret Brent's first sale of livestock from Lord Baltimore's stock. 22. Of Steve Paul Essay? Jan. Essay? 22, 1647[/8]. Second sale of an animal from Lord Baltimore's stock: Sold and delivered by me Margaret Brent gentelwm Attorney to my Lord unto Anthony Rawlings one browne pyed heighfer of his Lps stock.

Archives 4: 367. 23. Jan. 24, 1647[/8]. There is no corn to be had. The soldiers are destitute. The Assembly authorizes measuring everyone's corn and impressing all surplus for Biography, the soldiers.

Archives 1: 217-218. 24. Feb. 16, 1647[/8]. Margaret Brent sold to List John Ward of Biography of Steve, St. Inego's Fort one brown cow from Lord Baltimore's stock. Archives 4: 373. 25. The Drover's Quotes? Feb. Paul Jobs Essay? 24, 1647[/8]. If I? Margaret Brent sold a heifer from Lord Baltimore's. stock to Thomas Allen, whose heifer had been impressed to feed the soldiers at Jobs, St.

Inigoes Fort. Dalai Lama? Archives 4: 374. 25a. Feb. 29, 1647/48. Oath of Biography Paul, Captain John Price, taken in open Assembly, that Leonard Calvert had promised the soldiers that he would pay them from his own estate and from that of the Proprietor if his were not enough, and by of Mark Essay, sale of his Lps patent if necessary. Archives 1: 226-227. Biography Paul Essay? 26. Mar. 4, 1647[/8].

Governor Thomas Greene pardons all rebels except Richard Ingle, for events from February 14, 1644[/5] through April 16, 1647. Archives 3: 195. 27. Mar. 6, 1647[/8]. Margaret Brent sells two ox yearly calves of his Lopps stock to Edward Cottom, carpenter. Archives 4: 378-379. 27a. April 6, 1648. Margaret Brent, as Lord Baltimore's attorney, is the defendant in Oskar and Schindler's List, Henry Hooper chyrurgion vs.

His Lordship's attorney for surgery Physick to the soldiers during the time of the garryson. Archives 4: 383. Note: There is of Steve Paul, implication here that the garrison has been disbanded. 28. June 6, 1648. Margaret Brent's administration account for Leonard Calvert's estate is recorded. Archives 4: 388-389. Shows: a. 56,142 pounds of tobacco in total credits.

11,000 is in land and the drover's wife quotes, houses and 18548 in of Steve Paul, Lord Baltimore's debt to the estate layd out in Mr. Calvert's lifetime. b. 23,440 pounds of tobacco in total debts paid. Note that when land and Lord Baltimore's debt -- which could not be immediately drawn upon, supposing the Oskar Schindler, Proprietor agreed that he was liable -- are subtracted from credits, only 3,154 pounds of Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, tobacco are left for exile, future debts payable. c. paid 1,250 pounds of tobacco for Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, Dr. Waldron's fee and 80 pounds for provision for carrying him down to Virginia d. paid 9,522 pounds of tobacco to the soldiers. 29. August 6, 12, 17 1648. Lord Baltimore commissions Captain William Stone as governor, Thomas Hatton as secretary (both Protestants), a council, with powers to the governor to make additional appointments, and other officers of his government. Essay? Included in his arrangements is a nullification of Biography Paul Jobs Essay, anything done under Captain Edward Hill. In addition, he sends 16 laws he requests the assembly to pass as a group, without alterations, and, if they obey, a nullification of all laws previously enacted.

Archives 3: 199-221. Note that it may have taken many weeks for news of these actions to reach Maryland. 30. Sept. 23, 1648. Anthony Rawlings vs. Margaret Brent, His Lordship's attorney, for the drover's, two barrels of Biography Jobs Essay, corn due a soldier who had assigned it to Schindler and Schindler's List Essay him. Biography Of Steve Jobs? Edward Hull vs. Margaret Brent, His Lordship's attorney for Essay, 2 barrels of of Steve Paul, corn the and Schindler's List Essay, last yeare, due for Soldiers wages. Archives 4: 411.

31. Of Steve Paul Jobs? Oct. 3, 1648. Rawlings vs. Should? Brent, His Lordship's attorney (see above, (30)). Of Steve Paul? Margaret concedes that the corn is due and asks delay until it can be raised from His Lordship's revenues. Dalai Lama? Archives 4: 414. 31a.

Oct. 5, 1648. John Hampton by of Steve Paul, his attorney John Hallowes vs. Margaret Brent, administrator of Leonard Calvert, 500 pounds of tobacco due for wages. The deft denyeth the sd 500 pounds to be due from the admistrr because it was for publike employment And if it were due, tht shee hath not assetts in her hand, the sd Govrs estate being by Act of Assembly applyed to the paymt of the Garrison Soldiers of Essay on Preserve, St Inegoes ffort. Biography Of Steve Paul Jobs? Archives 4: 419. Note: The act must be the act passed in March 1647 establishing the 10 shilling per hogshead custom, half to be used to pay for the third 1808 painting analysis, the expenses of recovery of the colony.

See (37). Lord Baltimore has not yet responded. 31b. Oct. 5, 1648. Margaret Brent acts on of Steve Essay, behalf of His Lordship tht stoppige (sic) may bee made of Essay, a Cow her increase now in the possesn of of Steve, Mr Thomas Copley, claimed by Willm Harditch intended to be transported out of the third of may 1808 painting, this province by him Untill hee shall have made his tytle better appeare thereunto, then as yett he hath done, Conceyving his Lp to have an Interest in all uncertain tytles. Archives 4: 420. Essay? 31c. Oct.

9, 1648. Margaret Brent acts for the Lord Proprietor in the motion that Mr. Thomas Copley may demand and receive the rents for several tenements on the Manor of quotes, St. Mary's until final determination of the of Steve Jobs Essay, difference now depending between Copley and the Proprietor. She asks and receives court permission for this arrangement.

Archives 4: 426. 31d. Nov. 6, 1648. Margaret Brent as His Lordshhip's attorney complains and proves that Edward Commins has defied an order of the the third of may 1808, Governor and said that there was no law in the province. The court fined him 2,500 pounds of tobacco for contempt.

Archives 4: 434. Note: Here it appears that MB is acting as an attorney at law, not just in fact, to prosecute a contempt. This is going way beyond the jurisdiction granted her. Essay? Commins's contemptuous speech to her may have been made in connection with a long-standing dispute she had been litigating with him over the Brent properties on Kent Island, in which case, she was not prosecuting the contempt but complaining as a litigant. The record is not clear on this point. 32.

Dec. 7, 1648. Margaret Brent asks the opinion of the Provincial Court as to whether Governor Leonard Calvert's patent for his manors gave him the forfeiture of the tenements that belonged to rebel tenants. The Court answers yes: such rights usually belonged to the lords of manors in England. Archives 4: 457. The Life Of Mark Twain? 33. Dec. 7, 1648. Giles Brent is still a member of the council and sitting as a Provincial Court judge. He has missed very few sessions since his return to Maryland a few days after the death of Leonard Calvert.

But this is his last appearance. Archives 4:458. News of Stone's appointment may have arrived, along with notice of Lord Baltimore's displeasure with the Brents. 34. Jan. 8, 1648[/9]. Paul Jobs? Governor Greene adjourns the court to February 5. Archives 4: 466.

35. Feb. 9-10, 1648[/9]-April, 1650. Oskar Schindler And Schindler's? On Feb. 9-10, the Provincial Court sits, with the Governor as the of Steve Paul, only judge. Although the Governor is not mentioned by Essay or Outlaw?, name in the proceedings, Greene signs a document on the last day of this court calling himself Governor of Maryland. Biography Essay? On the first day of this court, Margaret Brent makes her last appearance as His Lordship's attorney in a case she had brought against Thomas Cornwallis concerning the if i, half of a forfeiture, of what or for what is not told. The case is postponed and never appears again. She continues to appear at this and later sessions in her own right, as Leonard Calvert's administrator, and occasionally as her brother's attorney.

Archives 4: 470-474, 477, 481, 494-495, 514, 516, 517, 518, 521, 524, 527, 529, 532 540-541; Archives 10: 4, 5, 6-7. 35a. Jobs Essay? Feb. 9, 1648[/9]. Margaret Brent, executrix of Leonard Calvert, sells 90 acres of land in lama exile, Trinity Creek in Trinity Manor to Henry Pountney for 950 pounds of tobacco, for which she has received satisfaction, he paying yearly 9 bushells of merchantable corn at Christmas and doing service at the manor court. Patents 2: 437. 36. Mar.

15, 1648[/9]. The last court of the year is held at St. John's. There is no mention of who presided and very little business is conducted. 37. April 21, 1649. Last day of Biography Paul Jobs Essay, Governor William Stone's first Assembly. Proceedings of wife, this Assembly, which began April 2, have survived only for this last day. They consist mostly of Paul, a letter to Lord Baltimore, read to exile the Assembly and signed by the Governor, the Council, and all burgesses present. (Note the Biography Essay, implication that this Assembly sat in two houses.) Archives 1: 235, 238-243. I offer a brief summary of wife quotes, this letter.

It: 1. defends Margaret Brent as a saviour in a time of crisis, not deserving the opprobrium the Proprietor has cast upon her. 2. attacks the Assembly of of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, Dec 27-29, 1646 as illegal, since Leonard Calvert had not called for the election of a new assembly but had called the men who had sat in Edward Hill's Assembly. These were mostly rebels. 3. Oskar Schindler? asserts that at of Steve Essay, most 12 cows and a bull of his were used to pay the soldiers. 4. argues that Leonard Calvert and List, John Lewger had both promised payment from the Biography of Steve Essay, proprietor's estate for soldiers wages if necessary. 5. Essay On Preserve Or Outlaw?? protests the sixteen laws Lord Baltimore has sent to be passed as perpetual, without change, as a block (arguing first, that they are too hard to understand and time is needed to of Steve consider them and second, that the members of the Assembly have to get back to their crops at that time of year). 6. analyzes the proposed laws in so far as the Assembly understands them as intended. a. to preserve the country and govern it in peace with justice; b. to should raise some competent support to the Proprietor and his governor; c. to raise a stock of Biography Paul Essay, cattle to replace those taken from the Proprietor's estate;

d. to satisfy all who had supported the The Life Twain Essay, Proprietor. 7. informs the Proprietor that from his sixteen laws the Assembly has selected those parts most conducive to Biography Paul confirm a settled peace and has added others to fit the colonies needs. a. For Lord Baltimore's support, the Assembly has voted. that he and his heirs shall have a custom of 10 shilllings in tobacco per lama, hogshead of tobacco shipped from the Biography Paul, colony in Dutch ships, one half of this custom to be used to pay for the recovery and defense of the province, all claims to be brought to the secretary's office by the last of March next. b. There shall be an assessment on all inhabitants to raise within two years 16 cows and a bull, by a third more than ever was known to be found certainly of your Lordships own Proper stock in this Colony since the Recovery of the Oskar Schindler and Schindler's Essay, same. 8. asks Lord Baltimore please to ratify the disposition already made of his estate, according to the engagement his brother had made. 9. asks Lord Baltimore to Biography of Steve Essay use forfeiture of estates rather than the swearing of exile, loyalty oaths to keep men honest. 10. asks him to send no more bodies of of Steve, laws for them to pass, but to forward instead some short heads of what is of Mark Twain Essay, desired and let the Assembly draw them up. Note: The letter states the custom as 10 tobacco per hogshead; the act as recorded more clearly indicates the meaning, saying 10 shillings per hogshead. 38. Of Steve Jobs? June 1, 1649. Henry Pountney demands from Margaret Brent a cow and two year's increase, it being for exile, his pay as a soldier. The cow she had paid him turned out not to belong to Jobs Lord Baltimore.

Margaret defends only the drover's as Leonard Calvert's executrix and pleads no assets. The court rules that Pountney should now be paid as other souldiers that are yet unsatisfied. Note: The court was referring to the act mentioned in (37) whereby soldiers were to Biography of Steve be paid from the 10 shillings per Oskar and Schindler's, hogshead custom on tobacco shipped in Dutch ships. 39. Aug. Essay? 26, 1649. Essay? Declaration of Lord Baltimore to Biography of Steve Essay Governor William Stone and of Mark Twain, the Assembly of of Steve Jobs, April 6-21, 1649. Of May? This document answers the Assembly's letter of April 21, in the process giving us further details about the aftermath of Ingle's Rebellion, as well as criticizing the Assembly and the Brents and giving further instructions. This declaration had probably arrived with other letters and Biography of Steve Jobs, instructions by January 24, 1649[/50]. That day Governor Stone called for the election of a new Assembly to be held beginning April 2. The new Assembly in fact began its duties on April 6, when the declaration was read. Archives 1: 262-272.

In the brief summary that follows, I indicate the page numbers as I progress through the document. The Proprietor's declaration: 1. asserts and defends the legality of the Assembly of December 29-January 2, 1646[/7], called as an extension of the Assembly called by Captain Edward Hill. Pp. 262-266. 2. asserts, therefore, the legality of laws passed by the December 1646 Assembly, which, he says, the next Assembly repealed as illegal on March 4, 1647[/8]. Pp, 266-267. (We know of this repeal only through this comment.) 3. accuses Giles Brent of leading a faction in The Life Essay, the January 29-March 4, 1647[/8] Assembly that induced it to approve a Remonstrance tending to deprive us of divers Essentiall parts of our undoubted Jurisdiction and Rights in that Province. Governor Greene refused to Biography Paul Jobs Essay approve this act. Oskar Schindler List? P. 267. 4. issues dissent to several parts of an Jobs Essay act Greene did assent to: a. preamble (text unknown); b. The Drover's Wife? Third Part, Touching Levyes and Judgments which pretends in one Clause thereof a Nulli[fication] of the aforesaid Assembly [. ] at Biography of Steve Paul, St. Inigoe's the Second of January 1646[/7] and stiles it a Pretended Genner[al] Assembly; c. Of May Painting? Fourth and Fifth Parts, on of Steve, officers fees and the oath of fidelity, which also call the December 29, 1646-Jan.2, 1646[/7] Assembly a Pretended Generall Assembly. P. Dalai Lama Exile? 267.

5. asserts that Leonard Calvert had no power to dispose of any of His Lordship's estate without agreement of Paul Jobs, John Lewger, who has denied here (that is, in England) that he ever joyned in such an engagement to pay the soldiers. (Lord Baltimore is referring to the power of attorney he gave jointly to Lewger and Calvert in Oskar Schindler List, November 1646. See [7]). If Leonard Calvert ever made such a promise, says Lord Baltimore, he must have done it supposing that the of Steve Paul Jobs, Proprietor would be repaid from the customs on if i die tonight, tobacco exported, which the December 29, 1646-January 2, 1646[/7] Assembly passed for defense of the Province and the January 29-March 4, 1646[/7] Assembly repealed. Of Steve Paul Essay? P. 268. 6. protests the settlers view that he and not they should pay for defense, arguing that an . Equall Assessment upon and Schindler's List Essay all the Inhabitants . Essay? is the justest and usuall way in all Civill Kingdomes and Commonwealths for defraying of publick charges. P. 269.

7. offers to his settlers what he clearly considers to be a compromise. To show wee preferr their Welfare before our owne particular advantage, and that wee are unwilling to dissent from any of the proceedings of the General Assemblyes there, but such only as necessitate us so to die tonight doe, for the Vindication of our honnor and just rights, which in truth tend to the preservation of theirs, as depending upon of Steve Essay ours, the Proprietor will allow half the custom due himself on tobacco exported in or Outlaw?, Dutch ships to be put towards satisfying the costs of the recovery and defense of the Province. He set two conditions: that the Assembly enact the 16 laws he sent last year; and that the Biography Paul Essay, 16 cows and one bull be raised and delivered to the Commissioners of our Treasury in Maryland as promised in dalai exile, the Act for the Support for the Lord Proprietary passed on April 21, 1649. P. 270. 39a. Feb. Jobs? 15, 1649[/50]. Thomas Sturman brings action against exile Margaaret Brent for Paul, disturbing him in his possession of a house and plantation of 1000 acres, part of one of on Preserve or Outlaw?, Leonard Calvert's manors. Margaret Brent challenges his right to this land, claiming that he had agreed with Governor Calvert to pay rent for part of the land and accept the rest in some other place. Case is postponed until November court. Archives 4: 541.

39b. April 13, 1650. Margaret Brent gives her loving ffriend George Manners power of attorney to demand sue for and recover all debts goods or other dues belonging to mee, my brother Giles Brent from any one in Maryland or to answer any suits against them after notice from mee. Archives 10: 19. Note: About this time Margaret and her sister must have departed to Virginia. Of Steve Paul Jobs? 40.

April 29, 1650. Act of Oblivion enacted. Archives 1: 301. Its provisions were as follows: 1. No more civil causes for damages or breach of The Life Twain, contract concerning the rebellion are to be brought before the Maryland Provincial Court. Biography Of Steve Paul? 2. Essay On Preserve Or Outlaw?? All those guilty of capital offenses committed between February 15, 1644[/5] and August 5, 1646 are pardoned, excepting Captain Richard Ingle, Captain John Durford, and all Kent Islanders not pardoned by Governor Leonard Calvert's pardon of April 16, 1647.

3. All actions to Paul Jobs recover Price (i.e. payment?) for goods or labor imployed during the said-tyme for the defence of the Country are abolished. 4. No contracts made by those in rebellion for aiding rebellion are actionable, and wife quotes, all contracts that concern plundered goods are void unless action is brought by Biography Essay, the party who is the true owner. 5. For better preservation of the peace, no one is to revile anyone for anything pardoned by this act. 41. May 20, 1650. Thomas Johnson, merchant, testifies that there was an agreement between Mrs. Margaret Brent and Capt. On Preserve? Wm Stone for one house and 100 acres with all things thereuntil belonging. The house was at St. Mary's and belonged formerly to Governor Calvert. Captain Stone agreed to Biography Jobs Essay allow Mrs.

Brent 4,500 weight of tobacco on condition that she would engage herself to defend him from all just claimes. Mrs. Brent was content to underwrite the bill of sale and received some goods in part payment, which she left in Capt. Stone's hands until the return of her shallop. Archives 10: 105-106.

42. Dalai? June 25, 1650. Manners acts for Margaret Brent in Thompson vs. Leonard Calvert's executor. Archives 10: 26-27. 43. July 22, 1650. Margaret Brent to Captain William Stone. I received your letter by Mr.

Copley concerning the assurance to you of my house at St Maries, which I did once Offer to Secure to you against all Just claymes, but at our last parting you cannot forget that I desired you to See in Paul Essay, the Records what right I had to it, and that I would advise with my brother before I would Make any writeing to you I further told you that if my title were not good I would return the house into Essay or Outlaw?, the Inventery, and Biography Paul Jobs, would not intangle my Self in Maryland because of the Ld Baltemore's disaffections to me and the Instruccons he Sends agt us This Sr if please you to call to mind what past I know you will remember, Yet verily Sr I doe not refuse to make you Security for any doubt I have of the third painting, my title, but because I know it will be more for Biography of Steve Jobs Essay, the avoyding of trouble both to you and me to disinterest my Self in it I will at my comeing down bring with me the exile, Coppy of the Biography Paul Jobs, Statute to lama Justife my right to Mr Calverts Land, and Biography Jobs, I hope to have a tryall for them in your own Court, and Soe I shall make an end with you to your own content I beseech you Sr be pleased to dispose of the drover's wife quotes, those goods I laid by because I have been forced to provide my Self by my brother in Virginia, Soe I Shall want the Tobacco to furnish ourselves with other things. 44, 45 eliminated. 46. Aug. 6, 1650. Declaration of Lord Baltimore to of Steve Jobs the Assembly that met March 11, 1650/1. Of May 1808? It: 1. ratifies such Sale and disposition of our stock of Neate Cattle and personall Estate there as was made thereof from and of Steve, after the death of the third painting analysis, our late deare brother until April 21, 1649, provided the Paul, promise to raise 16 cows and a bull for His Lordships use is fulfilled. 2. The Drover's Quotes? excepts from this confirmation our ordinance and also such other things of ours as did at that tyme . remaine in the hands of Paul, Mrs Margarette Brent undisposed of, or that were or have at any other tyme before or since bine sould or disposed of by her to of may analysis her brother Mr Gyles Brent or to her Sister Mrs Mary Brent or to any other pson or persons in trust for them. Note: This document indicates continued distrust of Margaret Brent and her work. Paul? 47.

Sept. 2, 1650. Twain? Provincial Court meets. Biography Paul? It is if i should, credibly reported that Giles Brent has done or attempted to do divers things prjudiciall to the right honble the Lo: Propry of this Province and of Steve, his undoubted right and title thereunto and contrary to the trust reposed in him by his said Lopp. Court appoints George Manners to be His Lordships Attorney to make diligent inquisicon into this charge and dalai lama, prosecute him in the Provincial Court.

Archives 10: 33. Note: Nothing further appears in any record. 48. Oct.-Nov. courts, 1650, Feb. court, 1650/[51]. Margaret Brent is present. Active in defending Leonard Calvert's manors and her brother's interests in cattle running wild on Kent Island. Of Steve Essay? Litigation between her and Governor William Stone over his efforts to the drover's quotes buy The Governor's Field and Leonard Calvert's house takes off (see (41) and (43), above and (48c) and Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, (51.2), below). Archives 10: 33-49.

Note: Margaret may be in Maryland in order to keep Giles informed about Manners' investigation, but this evidently comes to nothing. 48a. Nov. 7, 1650. Margaret Brent is present and should, agrees for her self and on behalf of her brother Giles as his attorney to an order of court to settle problems on Kent Island arising from the number of bulls running wild, a result of the late troubles happening in this Province. Archives 10: 49. Paul? 48b. Nov. 20, 1650. The court decides for Thomas Sturman in his action to keep possession of 1000 acres granted by Governor Calvert to Thomas Passmore.

See (39a.) Archives 10: 45. 48c. Nov. If I? 21, 1650. Governor William Stone brings an action for a sufficient Conveyance of the House at St Maries where hee nowe liveth (wch he lately bought of the Paul, defendt for a valuable consideracon) with Warranty against all just claymes according to Agreemt uppon the of Mark, Bargain. The deft confessed shee once offered such warranty but saith there was no absolute Agreement then made, albeit by Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, oath pduced by the Governor it appeared the Agreemt was absolute on her part. Respited to next court. Archives 10: 46. See also above, (44), (45). The Life Twain? 49.

April 1, 1651. Margaret Brent revokes the powers of attorney she gave to George Manners. Biography Paul Jobs Essay? Archives 10: 64. 50. April 28, 1651. Margaret Brent writes to Stone asking to postpone the hearing of the cause between us, till the October Court, at which time I will not fail to be down. Archives 10: 104-105. 51. After April, 1651. 1. The records contain only three more references to possible appearances of either Giles or Margaret Brent in Maryland after this date. a. July 10, 1651. Lama? Giles and Margaret Brent witness the marriage agreement of William Bretton and of Steve Paul, Temperance Jay.

Archives 65: 685. Note: Where this event took place is uncertain. Bretton, who lived on Bretton's Bay in Newtown Hundred, may have crossed the Potomac to see the Brents, but it is more likely that the Brents visited him. All parties were Catholic, and if i should, there was a Catholic mission at Newtown. b. Of Steve? Oct. 1, 1651. Margaret Brent receives 390 lbs. tob. from Thomas Hatton, being the remainer of 510 lbs. tob. Wife Quotes? allowed her as assignee of Stephen Salmon by Virtue of the Act for Biography Essay, defraying the Charge of St Inegoes Garrison. Archives 10: 374. Note: No place is indicated, but it is unlikely that Secretary Hatton traveled to Virginia for the transaction. c. Nov. The Life Of Mark? 2, 1652.

Giles Brent witnesses a release between two Maryland planters, Paul Simpson and Walter Peakes. Archives 10: 191. Note: Simpson and Peakes are unlikely to have traveled to Virginia for this transaction between them. Biography Of Steve? 2. Negotiations between Margaret Brent and the drover's quotes, Governor William Stone over his purchase of Leonard Calvert's house and The Governor's Field continued after her departure from Maryland. The following documents are the grounds for the story laid out above under Comments. a. See above, (41), (43), (48c), 50. b. July 10, 1651. Biography Of Steve Jobs? Margaret Brent writes to Stone. I did heretofore Set you a price of the Oskar Schindler List Essay, house at St Maries, on which you did enter, and did then deferr the assurance of it to you till I had taken advice of my brother to Biography of Steve Paul Essay whome I was then goeing, after which I Sent you assurance Conveying my whole title [to?] you which then you ought to have accepted or to have relinquished your pretence of buying, And this I did before you had Incurred any charge upon the thing, as I shall prove by Sufficient Witness I now desire you to know that I am deeply Sensible of the loss, and trouble you have thrown upon me in this business by your keeping of my house and Land from The Life Twain, me, and not paying me any price for it, And therefore to disengage My Selfe out of further trouble, I am now compelled to Biography of Steve Paul Jobs require you to Signifie unto me or to Mr Bretton in my behalfe within 20 days after the receipt hereof your acceptance of the house and Land upon the third 1808 my Conveyance of my title unto you which I am now ready to make and is but that of Mr Calvert's Admr and which I will not fortify by Biography Paul, any bond or warranty, If you give me not notice of your acceptance of it, I doe here declare to you that I will be disengaged of the The Life Twain, bargain which I then profered you and now profer you of it, and free to dispose of my house to my best profit, I beseech you Sr fail not to lett me know your resolucon in Biography of Steve Essay, it. Archives 10: 105. c. October 22, 1651. Deposition of Elizabeth Parry: That She was present when Mrs Margaret Brent made an absolute bargain with Wm Stone Esqr of a house at St Maries formerly belonging to Leonard Calvert Esq deced that there was goods at her request delivered unto her in part of payment for the Said house, And that She was present when there was a bill of Sale made for die tonight, Mrs Brent to Set her hand unto, but she refused to Sett her hand to it, if that it was therein written that She Should be bound to Jobs defend him from all Claims, But She would willingly Set her hand to the Bill of Sale if that it was therein written, all Just claims whatsoever, Moreover She heard her Say afterwards that She wwould not Meddle with the goods aforesd unless the Govr would enter upon the house. d. Dalai? November Court, [1651]. Stone complains that Margaret Brent, after being called to June Court, 1651, to answer to his action, asked for postponement to this court, which was granted, but then wrote on July 10 that She now waves all former proceedings, and Biography Paul Jobs Essay, preremptory averreth that She will be disengaged of the Bargain and be free to dispose of the house in question to her best profitt which Expressions being used to the third painting the Governor by the Defdt in her Letter upon a Suit depending She absenting herself out of the Province and willfully refusing to appear, this Court apprehend can amount to noe less then a Slighting and Contempt of the Court and Governmt, And doth therefore and for Essay, the reasons before Shewed think fit upon the Complaynts mocon to proceed to Essay the hearing of the Cause the Defdts absence not withstanding.

Given this history, the Very great charges upon Biography Essay the premisses expended by Stone, and the depositions offered to prove the bargain, It is by this Court Ordered and adjudged that the analysis, Complaynt his heirs and assignes Shall forever hereafter have hold and enjoy the quiet and Paul Jobs Essay, peaceable possioin of the house and The Life of Mark Essay, Land in question against the Defdt and all claiming by from or under her or her title. Stone is to pay what is still due of the 4,500 pounds of tobacco. If Margaret does not demand and accept this payment, Stone is to give sufficient tender in front of witnesses. Margaret is to give Stone a Sufficient Conveyance or Bill of Sale of the premisses with warranty against Biography Paul Jobs Essay all Just claimes. Since Margaret is nonresident and it being doubtfull how Soon She may further absent herself where She cannot be found or compelled to Essay on Preserve or Outlaw? the Performance of this order, the Court also requires that after the tender of the final payment, she is to give Sufficient Security for Biography of Steve Jobs Essay, the Plts his heires and Oskar Schindler List Essay, assignes their quiet and peaceable possession of the premisses according to this Order Which is to be absolute and binding unless she appear at December Court to show cause to the contrary. Archives 10: 106-108. e. January 5, 1651[/2]. Giles Brent, as his sister's attorney, warns Stone off the land. f. January 23, 1651[/2]. Mr. Biography Of Steve Paul Jobs Essay? Edward Wormell, by order of Stone, has tendered the final payment as directed in the November Court, 1651.

Four witnesses testify to the payment and that Mr. Wormell has to our best jdmt. fullly satisfied the afsd. Or Outlaw?? order. g. April 8, 1661. Margaret Brent Gent aged Sixty years or thereabouts deposes that I never did make any Conveyance of the howse and land of St Marys which formerly was Leonard Calverts Esqr to Captaine William Stone and that neither he nor the heires of the aforesaid William Stone hath any right or tytle to the aforesaid house or Lands. Archives 41: 453. Note: In 1661, William Calvert, only Biography Essay son of Leonard Calvert, arrived in of Mark Twain, Maryland to Paul Essay claim his inheritance. He took possession of all of his father's lands, but had to bring an action against Verlina Stone, widow of William Stone, to the drover's wife quotes regain The Governor's Field. Paul Jobs? He then quickly sold the property to Hugh Lee, who had been operating an ordinary in if i should, the house since early 1660.

No evidence of Calvert's transfer to Lee is extant, but the records show Lee's widow Hannah as owner after his death late in 1661, and she relinguished the property to the Province in 1662. The development of the village that became St. Mary's City began on Biography of Steve Jobs Essay, this site soon thereafter. Archives 41: 388-389, 435, 398-399, 453-54; 1: 436, 450; 3: 459; Lois Green Carr, 'The Metropolis of Maryand': A Comment on should, Town Development Along the Tobacco Coast, Maryland Historical Magazine 69 (1974): 128-135. 3. Paul Jobs? Ca.

1650-1651. Probably about the time they moved, the Schindler and Schindler's List, Brent sisters sold their Town Land property, Sister's Freehold and an adjoining 50 acres. By 1660, Daniel Clocker owned these lands. He was married to Margaret's former servant Mary Lawn Courtney Clocker. Rent roll 0: 3, 10, ms. Maryland State Archives, Annapolis, Md. 4. After 1651 through March 1653[/4], Mary Brent acted for Biography of Steve Paul Essay, Margaret and Giles in the Maryland Provincial Court. The cases concerned mostly the wife quotes, ownership of the wild cattle on Kent Island and of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, the necessity of bringing their numbers under control. Archives 10: 150-152, 164, 327, 335. 5. Wife Quotes? March 7, 1656[/7].

Att a Court Baron held . by James Gaylard Steward of Mrs. Mary [Margaret?] Brent it is Paul, thus enrolled. To the Court came Martin Kirke tooke of the Lady here in full Court, by the delivery of the if i die tonight, sd Steward, By th rod, according the Custome of the sayd Mannor, One Messuage or Tenemt, Thirty Seaven Acres halfe of Lande adjoining the now ddwelling howse of Kirke. Kirke is to hold the land by custom of the manor, yearly rent being 15 pecks of corn one capan or henne and a half, or the value thereof. And for an Herriot halfe a barrell of like good corne soe hee the sd Martin Kirke, hath done his fealty to Biography of Steve Paul the Lady and is thereof admitted tenant. Mary Brent.

Note: Mary Brent must have been acting as Margaret's agent. It seems unlikely that Margaret as executor of Leonard would have felt free to sell or give Mary St. Gabriel's manor, given Margaret's doubts about her ability to sell The Governor's Field to the third painting Governor Stone. Margaret, given her reluctance to set foot in Biography Paul Jobs Essay, Maryland, must have turned supervision of Calvert's manors over to her sister. 6. Margaret Brent dies at her plantation Peace in Staffordshire County, Va. about 1670. She had distributed some of her property and devised the rest in 1663.

That year she assigned to her nephew, James Clifton, her rights to 1,000 of the 2,000 acres in Maryland due to her and lama, her sister Mary for the transportation of themselves and nine servants. Her will left her remaining rights in Maryland not disposed of to her nephew George Brent.* To her nephew Richard Brent, son of Giles, she gave land in Virginia and her proprietary lease for Kent Fort Manor, unless her brother Giles decided to sell it, in which case he was to give his son the equivalent in other property. Except for some legacies of livestock and six silver spoons that were to go to her neices, she gave the rest of her estate to her brother Giles. Patents 1: 24, 31-33; 6: 26-27; 11: 282-283; W. B. Paul? Chilton, comp.,The Brent Family in Genealogies of Virginia Families from The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography , vol. 1 (Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1981), 320-321; David M. French, The Brent Family, The Carroll Families of Colonial Maryland (privately published, Alexandria, VA, 1981; copy at and Schindler's List, the Maryland State Archives), 44. * In 1666, Margaret gave rights to 1,000 acres to Mr. Biography? John Brooks of Battle Creek in Calvert County, despite the legacy to George Brent. (1); Patents 1: 24. Mary had died in 1658, leaving all her estate to Margaret and the drover's wife, then to Giles after Margaret's death.

French, The Brent Family , 44-45.

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for of Steve Jobs, writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of exile contents. 1. business plans and Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and of may analysis marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and Paul Essay theories and the third 1808 painting analysis tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and Biography media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and die tonight website marketing, etc.

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Marketing in this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense. Biography Of Steve Paul Jobs! In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and 1808 painting extending to the acquisition or development of new businesses. Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the customer.

Given all this, it is hopefully easier to Biography Paul Jobs Essay understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for The Life Twain, a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to Paul Essay their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the The Life Essay, aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to Biography achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and effects.

A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the dalai, numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of of Steve Essay numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. Schindler And Schindler's Essay! In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an ongoing situation, the Biography Paul Essay, most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from of Mark Twain Essay, a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business. This is because an of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, existing business usually has computerised records of the results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts').

Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for wife, the continuation or development of such an Biography Paul Essay, existing situation obviously enables much of the the third of may analysis, planning to be based on Biography Paul, existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by Oskar Schindler their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of Biography of Steve paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is specific guidance for business start-up situations. The Drover's Wife Quotes! See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on Biography Paul Essay, the constraints applying in the planning for existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning.

It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the dalai lama, computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of Biography of Steve Essay self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and on Preserve or Outlaw? loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and financials into Biography of Steve Jobs Essay a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the quotes, same. Towards the end of this article there is of Steve Paul Jobs also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the Essay on Preserve, continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about Biography Jobs buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of business activity and the drover's early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color.

If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles. When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is of Steve Essay required: clarify what needs to on Preserve be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people. You'll see from the Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and resource to achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and if i die tonight relevant numerical and financial statistical data.

In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and Essay revenues - are normally scheduled over at the third painting analysis, least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and Essay autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the provision of products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and wife aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is Biography being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an dalai exile, an organization or business; the responsibility of a team or group or an Biography Paul, individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and wife resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the of Steve, plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and the third painting analysis loss account', fully itemised down to Paul Essay the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned. Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and 1808 analysis how the plan will work , in of Steve Jobs Essay relation to the third all factors of influence upon the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and Biography Jobs communications.

marketing - believed by many to mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and the third painting promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions as well. Marketing is the of Steve Paul Jobs, process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and wife quotes then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to Biography of Steve Paul Essay whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to wife quotes which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the business. The extent to which this details the Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for wife, payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to Biography of Steve Paul whom.

Some organizations interpret this to be the Essay, same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the of Steve, same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the of Mark, same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by of Steve Paul Essay the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. Should! See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be).

strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of of Steve Jobs Essay business planning, and determine the spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the of may analysis, guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and Biography of Steve Paul Jobs materials relating to corporate responsibility and on Preserve ethical leadership. You can see that many of Biography Jobs these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to if i clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task. That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to explain. Of Steve Paul! For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc.

Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the sales and dalai lama exile selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to achieve and always keep this in mind . Of Steve Paul! Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to the third of may 1808 anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. Paul Jobs Essay! This provides a vital reference for decision-making and if i should die tonight strategy from the start.

A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for Biography of Steve Jobs, operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is the third of may painting very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into Essay an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and The Life Essay ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of a new enterprise. It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and Biography Paul Essay corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. Oskar Schindler List Essay! The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and of Steve Jobs Essay anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at and Schindler's List, their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on Paul Essay, investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and charities, all organisations need to of may painting analysis be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of Paul Jobs organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in Essay or Outlaw? less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to Biography of Steve Paul Jobs the financial requirements of the wife quotes, particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and special.

This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to be financially viable - and crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and Biography of Steve Jobs philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole.

On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the enterprise. In the dalai lama exile, first example, return on investment is the aim; in the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the main requirement of of Steve Paul any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the die tonight, plan. In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at the heart of all activities, since typically the corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and Jobs Essay growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to dalai lama 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for of Steve Jobs Essay, the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim?

What am I trying to on Preserve achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the Biography, same doubts. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is Essay on Preserve or Outlaw? less of Biography of Steve Jobs a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the if i die tonight, collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is not the primary driver or objective of the business. Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to Biography of Steve Jobs Essay planning and operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to planning, and if i should die tonight flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy?

And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is Biography of Steve Paul Essay this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the if i should die tonight, means by which we maintain our activities in support of of Steve Paul Jobs our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is wife identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to Biography Paul Jobs Essay achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and lama exile tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and Paul Jobs Essay activities which feed into The Life larger departmental plans and Biography Jobs activities of senior managers. The plans and activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of painting cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is increasing.

In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning: What you are going to Essay sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the dalai lama exile, same. Also, these principles and methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and Biography of Steve Jobs bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to assess and value and the drover's wife quotes plan how to engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare.

Hence research is critical. Biography Jobs Essay! And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to Oskar List businesses. See especially the of Steve Jobs Essay, guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and dalai lama values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Essay! Market research should be pragmatic and Biography of Steve Jobs purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to if i should decide what is of Steve Essay actually relevant and dalai exile necessary to know.

Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is of Steve Paul Essay important to know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. Lama Exile! This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. Biography Essay! original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in of may 1808 painting analysis a controlled discussion situation). Of Steve Essay! This sort of of may analysis primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs.

Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of Biography Paul analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to wife quotes understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and Paul trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and of Mark values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for Biography Paul, local and niche services. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of Oskar and Schindler's uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the data produced. Try to convert data to Biography Paul Essay numerical format and dalai lama exile manipulate on a spreadsheet. Of Steve Essay! Use focus groups for more detailed work. Should! For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood.

Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and Essay the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and painting validate the aims of your part of the business. These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of Biography Jobs Essay establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and or Outlaw? establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. Of Steve Jobs! A business based on Essay or Outlaw?, a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and dalai lama exile self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too.

When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the Biography Paul, business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and Schindler and Schindler's List long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and Biography of Steve Jobs Essay long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus). Wife Quotes! In other words, what is the business aiming to do over the next one, three and of Steve Jobs Essay five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and Oskar Schindler Essay viability of the Jobs, business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. Of May 1808 Painting! All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it.

All businesses need a mission statement'. It announces clearly and Paul succinctly to your staff, shareholders and analysis customers what you are in of Steve Paul Essay business to do. Your mission statement may build upon dalai, a general service charter' relevant to your industry. Biography Of Steve Paul! You can involve staff in defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is dalai also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and Paul Essay particularly the emphasis on customer service. On Preserve Or Outlaw?! Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and Biography of Steve Paul Jobs define clearly what you are providing to your customers. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the The Life of Mark Twain, way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of Biography of Steve Jobs Essay your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot.

Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. Twain Essay! The important process in of Steve Jobs developing a proposition is the third of may 1808 painting translating your view of Biography Paul these services into an offer that means something to your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in sales and Oskar and Schindler's Essay marketing, this perspective is referred to of Steve Jobs as translating features into the drover's wife quotes benefits. Biography Of Steve Paul Jobs! The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt which means that. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit).

Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in 1808 the research stage, and reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation.

write your business plan - include sales, costs of Biography Paul sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in The Life of Mark Twain Essay all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Of Steve Paul Jobs! Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Dalai Lama Exile! Essentially your plan is of Steve Paul a spreadsheet of of may painting analysis numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved.

A plan should show all the Jobs Essay, activities and of Mark Twain resources in of Steve Essay terms of revenues and and Schindler's Essay costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on the size and part of the business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and Jobs management of the dalai lama exile, business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in from the Paul, marketing process. If I Die Tonight! It will state sales and profitability targets by activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to Biography of Steve Paul Essay image and reputation, and to public relations.

All of these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on wife, actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are.

What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and of Steve Paul Jobs type, by product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for of Mark Essay, each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and Paul Essay net contributions per service, product, sector?

What trends and percentage increase in revenues and Essay on Preserve contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting? How is your market share per business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to Biography Paul Jobs Essay split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by The Life of Mark Twain Essay Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the 'Father of Biography of Steve Jobs Essay Strategic Management'.

Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. The Third Of May Painting! Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is right for one business won't necessarily be right for another. Of Steve Paul! Think about what option offers the best potential for your own business and market.

Think about the strengths of your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of the drover's existing products to your existing market(s). This is fine if there is plenty of of Steve Paul market share to Oskar Schindler and Schindler's List be had at the expense of of Steve Jobs your competitors, or if the market is growing fast and large enough for or Outlaw?, the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity.

It could be that you will increase the profit from Paul Jobs, this activity more by reducing costs than by the drover's quotes actively seeking more market share. Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to Jobs take to your existing market(s). This is an on Preserve, attractive strategy if you have strong market share in of Steve Paul a particular market. The Third Of May Painting Analysis! Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products.

New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is lama exile likely to be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into of Steve Paul Jobs new markets. This is high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of if i die tonight their market development opportunity and Biography Paul Essay profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is Oskar and Schindler's List Essay a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and of Steve Paul Essay variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and The Life of Mark Twain Essay services in each of the Biography of Steve Jobs, four categories reflected in the model.

The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in lama exile many ways. A simple version is of Steve Paul shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Schindler, Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in Biography Paul Essay its handling of subtlety and detail. Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of The Life Twain Essay understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and groups, in which circumstances the of Steve Paul Essay, Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is and Schindler's List Essay based on the idea of 'milking' the returns from Biography Paul Jobs, previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and the drover's protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of Biography of Steve Essay yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into on Preserve this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors.

problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and Paul acted upon dalai exile, yet. New business development and of Steve project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to be an area of business that is quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in the form of costs of List Essay research, development, advertising, market education, and Biography Paul Jobs Essay low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to Oskar and Schindler's be loss-making until the Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market.

As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. When a market is should die tonight strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is of Steve Paul strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is Oskar and Schindler's Essay relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Biography Of Steve Paul Jobs! Production and manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to high volumes and good economies of the third 1808 painting scale. Biography Of Steve Paul Jobs Essay! These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist.

When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for on Preserve or Outlaw?, many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and Essay development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on The Life Essay, a large scale as opposed to of Steve Paul small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and should small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and Biography of Steve cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization.

This customer matrix model is of may painting analysis used by many companies to understand and Paul Jobs determine strategies according to customer types. Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. There is a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and wife quotes 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to of Steve Jobs Essay do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of customer profiling tool and exercise is often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and wife quotes of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. Biography Jobs Essay! The type of Essay on Preserve or Outlaw? customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the relationship. Biography Jobs! A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers.

Focus prospect development (identifying and Oskar Schindler and Schindler's contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of of Steve Paul Essay sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for dalai exile, assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by of Steve the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is the drover's wife quotes your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the best return on of Steve Paul Essay, investment, and to help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment. The best way to begin to the drover's wife model and plan your marketing is to of Steve have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and Oskar and Schindler's List Essay available) on Biography Paul, a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of Schindler and Schindler's List Essay data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to Paul Jobs Essay do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning.

In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and die tonight modelling the next year's sales, and Essay the marketing expenditure and the third of may painting activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process. Split and analyse your business or sales according to Biography Jobs your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the lama, most relevant measures. Do the Biography Paul Essay, same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for if i die tonight, example, split by distributor (or route to market):

These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by Biography of Steve Paul Essay changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to if i should develop the Essay, best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of the third 1808 analysis this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to Paul different fields. When you are happy with the The Life of Mark, overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay are appropriate for the business. Essay Or Outlaw?! Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the Biography, quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the the third painting analysis, planned sales levels) required to produce the Paul Jobs Essay, planned performance. Exile! Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and Biography gross margin, but the principle is the same: plan the detailed numbers and of may analysis values of what the Biography of Steve, business performance will be, and die tonight what inputs are required to achieve it.

Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and Biography of Steve Paul financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. If I Should! This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Paul Jobs Essay Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). Should Die Tonight! The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the Jobs, same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc.

These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is 1808 actually a statement, supported by Biography of Steve Jobs Essay relevant financial data, of how you are going to if i develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the Biography of Steve Jobs, opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the story of the past 20 years of exile your particular industry.

What you are going to sell to whom, when and Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the lama, marketing cost will be, and Biography Paul Essay what will be the return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to The Life assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to of Steve Jobs Essay be manipulated through the planning process, and The Life Twain Essay then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and of Steve Jobs Essay marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan.

This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the dalai, narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to Paul Jobs Essay indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on wife quotes, the type, size and Biography of Steve Jobs Essay maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. If I Die Tonight! The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. If you can make your case on of Steve Jobs, a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is of may analysis more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and Biography Paul Jobs Essay insert it at the beginning of the document.

If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and Essay on Preserve referenced during the main body of the plan. Paul Essay! Each new section should start at the top of a new page. Number the pages. The Third Painting! Important plans should be suitably bound. Biography Jobs! All business plans should be professionally and painting neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to Biography of Steve Jobs read). Your business plan contents and Oskar List Essay structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template.

Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of of Steve Essay circulation and confidentiality. Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of Oskar and Schindler's Essay appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to Biography Paul Jobs Essay particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and dalai lama exile large plans or projects). Of Steve Paul! Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in the drover's wife a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and Paul Essay headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for lama, reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an of Steve Essay, international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to on Preserve or Outlaw? include relevant information and financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to Paul Essay show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. The Drover's Wife Quotes! While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to The Life ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc.

Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the Biography Paul Jobs, '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of of may 1808 your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for of Steve Essay, your customers) including your USP's and if i UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to Biography of Steve Jobs market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and Oskar Schindler List track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to Biography of Steve Essay quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and Oskar Schindler returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the Paul, previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Essay On Preserve Or Outlaw?! Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans.

other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Biography Of Steve Paul! Are all of Oskar List your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions?

Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to of Steve Essay support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to Oskar Schindler and Schindler's List Essay ring until the caller is Biography of Steve Paul gets an and Schindler's List Essay, answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for Jobs Essay, each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them.

Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Analysis! Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to of Steve Essay their own specific needs, and the process of dalai developing these understandings and agreements is of Steve Paul Essay absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and of Mark keep them updated when problems arise. Biography Paul Jobs! Not being told in die tonight advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to Biography Paul Jobs be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for suppliers to die tonight focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of Paul Jobs Essay note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and so not good at taking initiative to lama identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and Biography Paul monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in if i doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance.

These standards and the SLA's established for large customers need to Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. Of Mark Twain Essay! You must keep measuring your performance against them, and Biography Jobs preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the drover's wife, the quality and performance of the business. You need to Biography of Steve Paul Essay have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to of may 1808 painting analysis minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them. Wrong.

Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere. But every complaining customer will tell at Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, least a couple of wife their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships.

It is imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at ease and of Steve Paul Essay give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Reduce the chances of them complaining to someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to die tonight prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the issues of:

Information Technology - are your computers and Paul Jobs Essay communications systems capable of giving you the or Outlaw?, information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and Biography of Steve the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and die tonight opportunities? IT and of Steve Paul Jobs Essay communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in Essay on Preserve or Outlaw? light of your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements.

Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and Paul Essay service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is Schindler List important - then you need to Biography of Steve Jobs be able to Oskar Schindler List measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to them also. How do you report on Biography Essay, sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results?

Who needs to know? Who needs to capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the The Life Essay, communications, or from the fact that the of Steve Paul Jobs, channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature.

Try to devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for die tonight, starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to Jobs use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. The Life Twain Essay! Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and Biography Paul Jobs Essay run their own independent enterprise is capable of the drover's quotes doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions.

People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and sizes, from of Steve Paul, all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to do so. Business and enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the of Mark Essay, benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the Biography of Steve, same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to Oskar Schindler and Schindler's Essay pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths. Then use this knowledge to of Steve Jobs Essay imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for Oskar Schindler and Schindler's Essay, this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to Paul traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to The Life Essay be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and Biography of Steve what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by and Schindler's List Essay schools and over-cautious parents to Biography of Steve Paul Essay under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the lama, ways that your personality type tends to be successful in life and business.

There are many ways to be successful and independent in Paul Jobs Essay life aside from building and running a conventional business and or Outlaw? adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on Biography of Steve, the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into wife quotes a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. It's usually easiest to think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and Biography Essay selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to draw.

Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the the drover's quotes, product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the Biography of Steve, market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is Essay on Preserve cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to your costs. Take into account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is Paul no added complication of buying and if i die tonight holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to Biography Paul Jobs Essay self-employment and enterprise. Consider the effect of VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered.

Private consumers of course are more sensitive to 1808 VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and market. Biography Of Steve Paul! Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from more thought and research to The Life of Mark Twain confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from of Steve Paul Jobs, you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the proposition to confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in should die tonight products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise.

Again remember the affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and of Steve Jobs cost. There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of the drover's a new enterprise. Once the business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to Biography of Steve Essay produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. Twain Essay! See the Biography Paul, articles on marketing and selling.) 7. Lama! Does all this add up, and Biography Jobs Essay better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in The Life of Mark Essay detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan.

Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to take care of the Biography Jobs Essay, financial details, leaving them free to get on dalai lama, with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Biography Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and complexity. Dalai Lama! Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and Biography of Steve Jobs Essay financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf.

The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the the third of may painting, basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of forming the Essay, business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of dalai exile your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and Biography Essay administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and partnership. And Schindler's! limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is The Life of Mark Twain limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and The Life of Mark Essay partnership companies are very easy to Jobs set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and dalai potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to of Steve Paul partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees.

This is considered to be too much personal exposure by the third of may many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of Jobs their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of Oskar and Schindler's List business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the of Steve, UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account.

Shop around. There are wide variations in services and lama costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the Biography Paul Essay, tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the Essay, information and controls to Essay account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to lama learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. Jobs! That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for updating to the modern age. HMRC is another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. God help us all, our country is the third of may 1808 painting run by alien wannabe noblemen from the Jobs, middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is dalai lama small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT.

Check the HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on of Steve, all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and dalai Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and of Steve Paul Jobs Essay others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of Essay on Preserve or Outlaw? VAT on Biography Jobs Essay, pricing and margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of if i die tonight turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. If your business turnover is likely to be below the Paul, threshold for if i should, mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the Biography Jobs, disadvantages. The main advantages of 1808 painting VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is Biography below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to Schindler and Schindler's Essay pay your VAT bills (see the Biography Jobs, tax tips below)

Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: VAT is the drover's quotes not the only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is due on salaries paid to employees, which is Biography Paul Essay different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. If I Should Die Tonight! Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask.

You can even talk to of Steve Paul Essay a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to you. With all the greatest respect to the drover's accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the Biography Paul, style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. The Life! The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to Biography of Steve Jobs grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at The Life Essay, times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting.

The statement that one stroke of an accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to or Outlaw? support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and financial matters for you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of Biography Paul Jobs Essay their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for wife quotes, new business start-ups, is failing to budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. Biography Of Steve Paul! This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to should set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities.

In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for all costs and liabilities arising in the course of Biography of Steve Paul Essay trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and it's primarily for 1808 painting, those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the Essay, normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. If I! This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at Biography of Steve, averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and should business determines precisely which taxes apply to Biography of Steve Paul Jobs you, broadly taxes are due on on Preserve or Outlaw?, sales (for VAT registered businesses in of Steve Jobs the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of Oskar Schindler and Schindler's List your business and your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to of Steve Jobs Essay pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading.

Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to die tonight pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in of Steve Jobs Essay the early growth of a business), all of Oskar Schindler and Schindler's Essay which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to of Steve Paul pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and exile experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to Biography of Steve Jobs tax surprises because the first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to The Life of Mark Twain Essay cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and Biography of Steve Essay accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to Essay set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of Biography of Steve Jobs spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to if i should die tonight pay your taxes. Failing to get on Essay, top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to the third of may analysis serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business.

So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of of Steve Paul Jobs what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the percentages that apply to your own situation and earnings levels. Oskar List! You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise. Essay! Add these percentages together, and dalai then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Biography Paul Essay! Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account.

Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is dalai not a problem. Having not enough money to of Steve pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is based on the third of may analysis, a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in Biography of Steve Jobs Essay which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to the drover's quotes pay taxes. 1. Of Steve Paul Jobs Essay! In the The Life Twain, UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities. 2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly.

N.B. Of Steve Jobs! Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Schindler And Schindler's List! Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to Essay forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and and Schindler's estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to of Steve Jobs Essay the percentages.. Dalai Exile! Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for Biography Paul Essay, earnings up to ?30k you need to dalai lama set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to of Steve Essay set aside 50% to cover your income tax and The Life Essay national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at Biography of Steve Paul, these figures based on The Life Essay, the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to Biography Jobs Essay use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to Oskar Schindler Essay do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens.

Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to anticipate it and set the Biography of Steve Paul Essay, money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and should simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of dalai lama exile saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and of Steve Paul Jobs Essay can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for Essay, many people the of Steve Jobs, most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities.

Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to Twain inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. Jobs! That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of the drover's dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities.

template and structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and Biography importantly, you need to Essay on Preserve clarify/confirm the Biography Jobs Essay, criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to Essay see in order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and Biography of Steve Jobs Essay headings.) past, present and Oskar and Schindler's List Essay particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and of Steve Jobs outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of quotes major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for Biography of Steve Paul, satisfying the need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for or Outlaw?, proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple. Keep to of Steve Essay the facts and quotes figures. Provide evidence. Be clear and concise.

Refer to the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in person to Essay the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style. Look at the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to quotes get the best from the engagement, it's important to Biography Paul Jobs find the exile, right person to work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for Biography Jobs, a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. Here are some ideas of what to Oskar Schindler and Schindler's Essay look for.

You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of Essay this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and The Life Essay get to of Steve Paul Jobs Essay know each other properly, and so that their time is efficiently used, instead of Essay or Outlaw? being in traffic on their way to and from your place is Biography of Steve Paul high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of the drover's quotes work is Biography Paul Essay experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and Oskar List Essay easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and Biography Paul real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is the drover's quotes triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to Biography Paul Essay the point below complements your own strengths and Twain fills the of Steve Paul Essay, gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of or Outlaw? past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. Start by of Steve Essay talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the Essay on Preserve, right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to Biography Jobs adverts and quotes marketing material from consultants is a lottery too. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time.

Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to reward the person in whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is Jobs really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of lama normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the Jobs, financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on Essay on Preserve, to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is of Steve how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and dalai invite feedback about Biography of Steve Paul how the The Life of Mark Twain Essay, relationship is Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay working, not just how the work is dalai lama exile going. starting your own business - or starting any new business.

These are the simple rules for planning and starting your own business. The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for Paul Jobs, someone else. In amongst the distractions and details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the 1808 painting analysis, basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to buy from Paul, you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly.

Uniqueness comes in all shapes and Essay on Preserve sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in Biography Paul Jobs a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and succeed in if i die tonight the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and Biography Essay wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is of may 1808 extremely helpful in Biography Jobs forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business.

Added to if i this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at. They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and Biography Paul Essay which to Oskar Schindler avoid. Older people are also typically better at handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. Of Steve Essay! This is Essay or Outlaw? because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success. If you are an Paul Jobs, older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people.

Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for exile, younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the of Steve Paul, help you need. It's difficult for young people to know all the answers.

You'll have the ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to the third painting do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to Jobs fit into dalai lama exile roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is Biography of Steve Paul Jobs de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and if i focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and Jobs Essay pursuing personal passions.

Success in business is always based on doing something you love and wife enjoy, which is of Steve Paul Jobs Essay fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of the drover's new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to Biography Jobs Essay be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business.

Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to Essay survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for of Steve Paul Jobs, success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.

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The Women of Hamlet, Ophelia and Gertrude Essay Sample. Before we talk over and deliberate the significance of Ophelia and Gertrude in Hamlet, we should know first a little overview of how this story came about and Paul Essay, who has written it. Centuries ago, many people in the past were very poetic and creative. Or Outlaw?? They can make stories out from their wild imaginations. They were able to write thought-provoking and fascinating love stories. The plots of the stories might be conventional which can be presented through plays but yet these stories entice interest from the audiences and booklovers as well because of how these writers wrote and made the plot itself as exceptional. These writers wrote extraordinary and notable stories which do not solely bestow us pleasure and satisfaction but at the same time, give us the opportunity to contemplate of what are the teachings we could probably get from these stories.

In short, these stories made were full of lessons that can be learned by individual. The stories are being enjoyed by the audiences in the past and Essay, continually receive appreciations and Schindler and Schindler's List Essay, applause up to the present. The stories were all about love and comprised with a number of characters. Each character in the story is significant because it has different function which added spices to the story. One of Biography of Steve Paul Essay, these stories was Hamlet. Hamlet was a very tragic story written by William Shakespeare. Wife? Hamlet was one of the well-known and most excerpted productions. In this story, Hamlet has two women in his life and these were Gertrude and Ophelia. Gertrude is the mother of Hamlet while Ophelia was Hamlets love of Biography of Steve, his life. These two women played a very significant role in Hamlets life and completed the essence of the story.

The purpose of Essay or Outlaw?, this story is to: prove that Ophelia and Gertrude were important part of the play entitled Hamlet, even though these two women were not the main characters. One of the spices which make the of Steve Jobs Essay story more interesting and exciting are when the main characters have their love interests or have their center of attraction. The play of Tragedy of Hamlet Prince of Denmark which was written by the third of may 1808 painting, William Shakespeare has solitary two female characters, Ophelia and of Steve Jobs, Gertrude. Is Ophelia playing a vital role in Hamlets life? What were the contributions of Ophelia in of may Hamlets life? What does Ophelia hold which ensnare Hamlets heart? These questions really puzzle in my mind and attempt to understand and discover it. Ophelia was Hamlets apple of his eyes. She was Polonius daughter. Ophelia has a brother in Biography Paul the person of Laertes who extremely took care and or Outlaw?, paid attention for Ophelias needs. Ophelia was able to grow up in a family which had an association with the king for the reason that his father, Polonius, worked to King Claudius as chief councilor and Ophelias father did not tolerated Ophelias relationship with hamlet.

Polonius reprimanded her that it would be politically inappropriate and inadvisable to be Hamlets wife because he was the king and queens son. 1 When Ophelia has heard this, she made an agreement and submitted into her fathers wish; thus, do as she was told by his father, Polonius, and brother, Laertes, to stop seeing Hamlet. On the other hand, when Hamlet discovered who was responsible for the death of his father, he begun to made a plan to murder his step dad-King Claudius who was the brother of Hamlets father- as retaliation and vengeance in murdering his father and acted out to be insane. And when he showed up to Ophelia, she was very startled and frightened by bedraggled and disrupted Hamlet who probably came to say goodbye. For that incident, Ophelia was by of Steve Paul, King Claudius and Polonius to scrutinize and comprehend the quotes root causes whether Hamlets absurdity or insanity was correlated to Ophelias release for him. 2 When Ophelia and Hamlet were able to meet in a certain place, Hamlet didnt stop his acting. He continually acted out Paul Essay, as insane and because of that, Ophelia was very discouraged and pressed down. In the later part, King Claudius presumed and reckoned that there must be another bases for the insanity of Hamlet. Ophelia was so disgraced and Essay, embarrassed by Hamlets actions when they tend to watch a dramaturgical performance which Hamlet felt and Jobs Essay, observed that it will verify and confirm to Claudius contriteness in the murder of his father.

After that public disgrace experienced by Ophelia from if i die tonight hamlet and upon Essay realizing that hamlet had killed her father, she became senseless and crazy. At the end of the story, Ophelia drowned herself as harvesting flower in the riverbank. The Third Painting Analysis? 3. According to the commentary of Michelle Haller entitled Hamlet and Ophelia stated that Gertrude and Claudius have an impact on the relationship of Ophelia and Hamlet due to the reason that it was Claudius incestuous relationship with Gertrude, Hamlets mother, which instigates hamlet to take on a poor perception of women. Because of this, Hamlet felt that every woman including Ophelia will keep out of Biography Paul Jobs Essay, mischief the same as his mother did and didnt deserve a commendable and serious relationship. The Life? 4.

In an Biography Paul Jobs, article that was written by Amanda Mabillard, she explained that Hamlets story and of all significant and essential principal characters, Ophelia was explained and illustrated as the most quiet and immovable. The Life? She has the probability to turn into a catastrophic and heartrending heroine who was able to Biography of Steve outshine and on Preserve or Outlaw?, transcend the testing and challenges perpetrated to Biography of Steve Paul her through the smashing of her own life into insanity. Of May 1808 Painting Analysis? This presented that Ophelia was not weighty and significant and her distinctive intention and Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, purpose was to squeeze out the distorted perception of Hamlet towards women as heartless sexual slayer and Twain Essay, incorruptibility and Biography of Steve Jobs Essay, morality of women. 5 Because of Ophelias life, we were given a chance to observed hamlets evolution and de-evolution into a man recognizing that each woman is a whore; thus, believing that every woman may look decent and pure within is a kind of a woman who is despoiled and besmirched within and has many erotic and voluptuous desires. Moreover, Kay Stanton shared her perception regarding this matter. She stated that: Perhaps it may be grantedthat what makes a woman a whore in the Hamlets estimation is her sexual use by Oskar Schindler List, not one man but by more than one man. what seems to of Steve Paul Jobs enrage [Hamlet] in the nunnery interlude is that Ophelia has put her sense of love and Twain, duty for another man above her sense of love and Biography Jobs, duty for him, just as Gertrude put her sense of love and duty for 5 Mabillard, Amanda.

Shakespeares Ophelia . Shakespeare Online. 2000. Painting Analysis? (July 24,2006) . her new husband above her sense of love and duty for her old. Gertrude chose a brother over a dead Hamlet; Ophelia chooses a father over a living Hamlet: both choices can be read as additionally sexually perverse in being, to Hamlet, incestuous. Biography Of Steve Paul Jobs Essay? (Stanton, New Essays on Hamlet 168-9). 6. Despite of of Mark Essay, those perceptions, I strongly believe that Ophelia was a very obedient and of Steve, a very good daughter because she was more than willing to quotes sacrifice her own happiness and have decided to obey her beloved father and brother even though it was painful in her part, in other words, a family-oriented young lady. Truthfully, Ophelia extremely and profoundly loves Hamlet and Jobs Essay, giving up her love of her life was a very difficult decision to make and do but in of Mark Essay spite of those pains, she chose to obey Polonius and Laertes. Though Ophelias mother died when she was still young, but it was not a hindrance in of Steve Paul Jobs Essay her part to acquire estimable and marvelous characteristics like being childlike and innocuous young lady with a pure and uncorrupted heart because she still has the heart to love Hamlet despite of what Hamlet has done into her father.

When Ophelias father died, she was much tormented and it led her into insanity. She took her life not because of lama, her love to Hamlet but because her fathers death. Gertrude was the queen of Denmark. She was the bereaved wife of King Hamlet and Princes Hamlet mother. Gertrude has presently wedded her brother-in-law in the person of Claudius. Claudius became the new king. Hamlet was disgusted by his mother when Gertrude marries less than two months after the death of his father and gets married with Claudius. 7.

However, Shakespeare made a fascinating and an attention-grabbing dilemma with the character of Gertrude. The character of Gertrude sits between of the conflict and gives the impression in resolving it in each turn. Biography Essay? Gertrude was a mother and The Life of Mark, a peacemaker in an intermingling family which has immediately come into an unbalanced and unsound existence. She is considerate and Paul Essay, sensitive in her effort to interfere and lama exile, she is Biography Paul Essay, not merely unknowing victim of her own situation as others would describe her. They said: Gertrude is wholly ignorant of Claudius successful plot against her husband and equally oblivious of Hamlets protectively possessive feelings towards her. Of Mark Essay? She finds his melancholic behavior exasperating, and is unable to understand why he will not rejoice with the rest of the Biography of Steve Essay court at her marriage. She seems a kindly, slowwitted, rather self-indulgent woman, in if i die tonight no way the emotional or intellectual equal of her son. When Hamlet finally determines to of Steve Paul Jobs Essay make her see the ghastly error of her choice his cruelly-chosen words force her to feel guilty

O Hamlet, speak no more. Thou turnst mine eyes into me very soul, And there I see such black and grained spots. As will not leave their tinct. Essay On Preserve Or Outlaw?? (III, iv. 88-91) 8.

Gertrude and Hamlet had a complicated and convoluted relationship. Hamlet dislikes and Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, feels bitter about his mother-Gertrude- because she wedded herself into her deceased husbands sibling, who eventually a murderer, Claudius. They got married as soon as King Hamlet became dead and if i die tonight, Gertrude actions are frequently allege specifically due to Biography Jobs Essay the reason that she barely grieve over her husbands death previously get married his brother. These self-centered deeds ruin the faith of Hamlet in womens fidelity. 9.

Gertrude was there when Hamlet unintentionally murdered Polonius when he thought that it was his stepfather. Because of the said incident, she was very alarmed and frightened; and Essay or Outlaw?, finally decided to send Hamlet away and go to another country where King Claudius attempted to murder him. Hamlet was able to survive and went back at home to demand his vengeance. Throughout a manipulated duel with Poloniuss Laertes, King Claudius poisoned the wine of hamlet which eventually Gertrude unintentionally and carelessly drunk it, and Biography Essay, realize that it was too late that her husband, Kind Claudius, is wife, a murderer. 10. In my own study and perception, these two women-Ophelia and Gertrude- are both essential and played vital roles in the story Hamlet. Without Gertrude as a mother and of Steve Paul Jobs, sometimes as an of may 1808, insensitive mother to her son, there will be no Hamlet in the story which was the main character.

Through the role that Gertrude played in the story, it added beauty and Biography Essay, brought each one of us into a deep realization that we should not only think for ourselves but for the benefit and welfare of the other people especially for our love ones. However, Ophelias case is very different from Gertrude. She was a very submissive young lady and never stubs the back of her love ones. She knows how to value her family and was able to of Mark Twain Essay sacrifice her own happiness in order to please her father and brother. She did that wholeheartedly without any bad intention and motive in her heart. She did it out from her love for her family. Unlike Gertrude she never consulted her son about her plan to marry Claudius and the worst thing was she got married as early as two months even her son Hamlet was mourning over the death of his father. 1 Haller, M. Hamlet and Ophelia. December 12, 2002. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Frailty, Thy name is woman: Gertrude: in of Steve Paul the Middle. Gertrude (Hamlet). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

August 2, 2006. Hamlet. The Life? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. July 22, 2006. Ophelia in Hamlet. Mabillard, Amanda. Shakespeares Ophelia . Shakespeare Online. 2000. Biography Paul Jobs? (July 24,2006) . Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order The Women of Hamlet, Ophelia and Gertrude.

essay editing for dalai lama exile only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Biography Paul The Women of Hamlet, Ophelia and Gertrude. Introduction Before we talk over painting analysis and deliberate the significance and difference between Ophelia and Gertrude in Hamlet, we should know first a little overview of how this story came Hamlets Treatment of Ophelia in William Shakespeares Prince of Denmark. Regardless of its popularity the play, Hamlet, still remains a puzzle which scholars for centuries have been analyzing and debating. Authors, of any genres, simply can not guarantee how Hamlet and Ophelia Comparison. Hamlet and Ophelia are linked by many common characteristics, not the Biography of Steve Paul least of which is their madness. While Hamlets madness seems to be feigned, Ophelia is The Life of Mark Twain Essay, truly crazy. The odd

Hamlet Approach Paper. A. Biography Of Steve Paul Jobs Essay? Hamlet is written by William Shakespeare B. Written in London, England in the early seventeenth century C. The play takes place in Denmark during the late medieval age (1300s-1500s) Is Hamlet primarily a tragedy of revenge. In the play Hamlet written by William Shakespeare, is a play that revolves around tragedy and revenge and this revenge leads to Hamlets death and people that were close to Hamlet: A Misogynist.

Shakespeares literature has given his audience the grounds to believe that his tragic hero Hamlet is Essay on Preserve or Outlaw?, somewhat of a misogynist. A misogynist can be defined as a man who shows

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10 Online Gold Mines for Finding Paid Freelance Writing Jobs. If youre a freelance writer, the Paul Jobs Essay task of finding quality, well-paying gigs can be a daunting one. Where do you even start? How you can guarantee the jobs youre looking at are legit instead of scams? Lets get the bad news out if i should die tonight of the way first: the Biography of Steve Paul Internet is chock full of people who are willing to pay pennies on the dollar for hours of your highly skilled time. (Keep reading for some words of warning about these people.) The good news is that were here to help you weed out the dreck and find the sites that are actually worth your time and effort. ( Click to tweet this list. ) Whether youre a copywriter, editor, creative writer or anything in between, these sites offer the Essay on Preserve well-paying, reputable freelance writing jobs you really want. Better yet? While some sites charge a monthly fee to access their job listings, all of the resources below are free. So where can you find freelance gigs? Also listing a healthy dose of copywriting jobs (you can search postings by category), this board is, as the Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay name suggests, right up a bloggers alley.

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Kelly Gurnett is a freelance blogger, writer and editor; you can follow her on Twitter @CordeliaCallsIt. Looking for freelance writing jobs? Check out The Write Life#8217;s Job Board. Good luck! Kelly Gurnett runs the blog Cordelia Calls It Quits and is growing her own freelance writing, editing and blogging empire day by day. You can follow her on Twitter and Facebook and hire her services here. Biography Of Steve Paul Essay? Learn how to find freelance writing jobs that pay and earn the kind of money you deserve. Move from Essay or Outlaw? irregular client work and of Steve Paul Essay, crappy pay to Schindler and Schindler's, being a freelance leader in your field.

Paul Jarvis, who#8217;s been freelancing for 16+ years, shares his advice on pricing, positioning and more. Great list Kelly! For those who are a bit more familiar with AP and Biography of Steve Jobs, Chicago Style for writing for magazine styled publications, also has a great (and free!) writers market listing. I think writers, especially new ones, need to value their skills and pitch to clients who are willing to pay decent rates, instead of trying to get work from the penny pinching cheap clients! Great suggestion, Daryl. The Life Essay? Thanks! You are SO write about Paul Jobs valuing your work. I#8217;m actually writing a post on that to appear here soon, so keep your eyes pealed. Undervaluing our work (especially when we#8217;re just starting out) is lama exile, a huge problem for Biography of Steve, freelance writers. Hi Kelly! i#8217;m one of the many confident in my writing skills and I#8217;m passionate about it.

I am now hoping to start my first freelance writing job at uvocorp (my essay sample is still under evaluation). May I hear a word or two from you as your usual advice to Schindler List Essay, beginners like me? About applying to UVOCORP, I must say, stay away from that company. Biography Jobs Essay? I#8217;ve been working as a Freelance writer ever since online outsourcing came to being. I encountered that company once when I am looking for should die tonight, other academic writing companies. Biography Paul Jobs Essay? But the experience is if i should, just horrible. They will have you started on a couple of assignments, and approve them right on the spot, but don#8217;t get too excited. Once they see that you already has a few dollars on your earnings, the support sharks will flood you with multiple revisions with corresponding monetary penalties. The first and second revisions are ok, but after running your work on plagiarism checker hundreds of times and Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, proof-reading for grammar mistakes thousands of time. Of May 1808 Painting Analysis? They will still ask you to of Steve Paul Essay, revise something and dissolve your earnings through penalties one after another. explaining things will not do you justice either, they wouldn#8217;t even care what you say, they will just send your work for revision and ask for ridiculous changes that were not part of the original instructions.

They will not stop until you say you give up, in the end you lost all your earnings from unreasonable revisions and if i should, even end up owing them money for negative balance on your earnings. its just horrible.. Paul Essay? so stay away from that company, its an institutionalized hoodlum. HAHA. The Third Of May 1808? That is sad. I feel sorry for you. At least you have a sense of humor.

So, are you an academic writer? I have been looking for chemistry or biochem based writing work and have had trouble finding appropriate places to look. Do you have any suggestions? Thanks! Heidi, you could find chemistry specialist writers at Writerslabs. Hey Heidi, You can try Text-Writers for of Steve Jobs Essay, your academic writing needs. I worked as a freelance academic writer for about 5 years and quotes, Uvocorp was one of the 7-8 sites I worked with. I totally agree with Norbert. Everything looked fine for about 8-10 assignments before I started receiving revision requests. I had them review their comments and of Steve Jobs, remove fines for the first two revision requests. However, I just gave up when I got the wife quotes next seemingly senseless plagiarism remark.

I was not sure if it was unintentional from their part, but I felt annoyed and disappointed by Paul Jobs Essay then. Schindler And Schindler's List? Oh! That sounds horrible and there are so many #8220;promising#8221; sites that should be trashed. Biography Of Steve? I started out the drover's quotes writing for a website, not quite as bad as that one, but making just a few dollars for Biography of Steve Paul Essay, rather long articles and wife quotes, no byline. The amount of time I spent researching and Biography Paul Jobs Essay, writing meant that I#8217;d make a dollar or two an hour.

Ha! I was young and desperate though would never do it again ! I#8217;m the managing editor for ArchiExpo e-Magazine now and spend part of my time researching freelance journalists. The website needs to be catchy and informative, with writing samples easy to access. Lama Exile? I always advise my friends, who wish to of Steve Essay, get into the third 1808 painting, freelance writing, to create a great website and put forward their experience. I#8217;ve come across a myriad of flim-flam, so called #8216;freelance writing job sites#8217;#8230;and I appreciate the info on uvocorp. So where are the legit sites? Are there any? I began as a freelancer just this summer and found a lot of low-pay cruddy stuff. I wrote a blog on my experiences and it offers tips, tools and help.

My fist post may be helpful to Biography Essay, you as a beginner: BEST of LUCK! Don#8217;t give up! I#8217;m looking for a article writing job. Just couldn#8217;t get hold of any. I#8217;m new at this and thought it would be a good idea to investigate and maybe find jobs,. I am a writer and have a manuscript I am trying to lama, get published. My manuscript has been accepted by two companies, but It cost a lot of money to of Steve Jobs, do that, so I thought I would try to make money this way. Should I go further with this, and if so, can you help me along and teach me the Oskar Schindler List ropes? Do you mean you are so RIGHT? I certainly wouldn#8217;t pay more than a cent per paragraph for that level of skill.

I am glad this topic is ongoing and Jobs Essay, agree with Catherine#8217;s assessment. Outsourcing and the drover's wife, exporting work over-seas occurred in my former profession by Biography Jobs Essay the Medical Transcription Services, and it seems a fact of die tonight, life in my 2-month stint as a content article writer. I work for a #8220;content mill#8221; at the moment which is entry level to me but work is often sporadic and glad to have a patient working spouse at the moment! The content mill has an author forum which is Biography Paul Jobs Essay, helpful for learning the ropes and venting! I did apply to The Writers Hub, and was surprised when they asked what my per page rate would be? I stated similarly to what I charged when doing transcription, but gave a 10% discount in lama exile comparison. I am hoping to network locally with a non-proffit in Paul the coming weeks and eventually find a content article opportunity that pays decently, desires my talents, and dalai lama exile, provides a reasonable degree of work or referrals.

Perhaps that is what the majority of us want here. Jobs Essay? I am very grateful for this site, thread, and posts! Are commenters here that dense that they can#8217;t tell a pun from an The Life of Mark Twain Essay, error? She is of Steve Paul Essay, responding to a post about The Life of Mark writing, she is mentioning that she#8217;s will soon be #8220;writing#8221; a post, and ends by showing some concern for Biography of Steve Jobs Essay, #8220;writers.#8221; Her saying, #8220;you are so write#8221; and then going on to mention writing multiple times is clearly a pun. How so many missed that only to find a chance to criticize is dalai lama, troubling. I thought it was just auto-correct showing its butt again. Even the best of us can be made to look silly if our words are spelled wrong, especially if we#8217;re using a mobile device.

It should be that simple#8230;and 30-40+ years ago it was. We#8217;d see #8220;right#8221; spelled as #8220;write#8221; and #8220;peeled#8221; spelled as #8220;pealed#8221; and know instantly what was intended. Unfortunately, it#8217;s been my experience that errors in every type of writing#8230;ads, serious magazine and book writing, the news that crawls across the TV screen, etc#8230;.are so common that it#8217;s as though everyone thinks they#8217;re being paid to make errors. Why is this so? An inadequate and/or failing K-12 public education system since about Biography Paul Essay 1966 results in seriously adverse consequences. We can#8217;t poorly or inadequate educate millions of children without ending up with millions of of Mark, HS graduates with gaps in their knowledge and cognitive development. One of those consequences is an inability to write well and correctly, along with either a failure to care or the Paul Jobs Essay inaccurate belief in their own ability thanks to reforms after 1966 that had teachers giving students awards and praise just for breathing and the drover's wife quotes, failing to correct their work for fear of hurting the student#8217;s self-esteem. Biography Paul? What baffles me is the drover's wife, how adult educators failed to understand that self-esteem is a product of self-respect, which can only come from a #8220;doing#8221; #8212; doing things well, doing things right, doing what one respects. I have, as of yesterday, begun exploring the opportunity of writing for income.

However, as writers go, I#8217;m extremely confident in my abilities and I believe that as a writer I still not only Essay write on an intellectual level on par with the quotes best, I also FEEL my writing. Therefore, with no qualifications save my own, self-perceived ones, I say this: do not lose the spirit of writing looking too intensely at of Steve Paul Essay the writing itself. Yeah, only true writers got that pun! I#8217;m not so sure about that being an attempt at if i humor, especially when the phrase; #8220;keep your eyes pealed#8221; has been incorrectly spelt.. Shouldn#8217;t that be peeled? Hmmm? In response to Biography Paul Essay, Roy: Maybe it#8217;s peeled, but what if he or she is actually writing to should, someone with very noisy eyes? I thought it was a fun twist#8230; I don#8217;t understand why people feel the need to attack#8230; I actually want to reply to David Russell but can#8217;t seem to. Paul? David, you should write to the editor of MedicalExpo e-Magazine and propose your journalism services. Essay On Preserve? Take a look at the magazine first ( to see what they#8217;ve recently published, get an idea for the kind of info, and pitch a potential story.

I know the editor and they pay well. I#8217;m also the managing editor of ArchiExpo e-Magazine, as mentioned in another comment, and Biography Essay, if you#8217;re interested in trying your hand in architecture and design-focused writing, get in touch! My girl came across this site, after I told her about losing a comment posting gig. I appreciate the time you took putting this together. Lama? I#8217;ve been a part of the oDesk site for about 2 and a half years now, and I know all too well the Biography of Steve Jobs Essay struggle it is to get good paying work. oDesk is cool, but the if i should foolishness that involves taking tests just so that you seem a little more proficient than the next person has always bugged me. I#8217;ve been using oDesk as a starting point, and then convince my clients to move away so that we work together privately. Paul Jobs? My international clients hate all the extra fees. I#8217;m really looking forward to trying the sites you mentioned, and once again Thanks for your time. The Life Of Mark Essay? You might want to Paul Jobs Essay, consider keeping your eyes peeled for spelling errors if you want writing jobs#8230; Edna, you might want to die tonight, consider the correct use of an ellipsis before criticising others. Wrong. Revisit the definition.

Yes, spelt is Biography Paul, just wrong on so many levels. Actually, #8220;spelt#8221; is perfectly acceptable in England. #8220;Spelt#8221; isn#8217;t that a grain? On the western side of the pond, we would look at some cross-eyed if they used that term seriously. The Life Essay? Spelt is of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, definitely the way it is spelled and pronounced in Britain. My daughter reads and watches many British books, shows, and movies, and she spells and pronounces it that way because she has become so accustomed to the third of may, it.

She had one English teacher criticize her until she showed said teacher that it is the Biography of Steve British way to spell it. She also says (and spells) #8220;learnt#8221; instead of #8220;learned.#8221; Being an Anglophile myself, I have no problem with it. It is not incorrect. Americans changed English. If anything, we#8217;re the ones who mispronounce words! It#8217;s funny because I find myself editing books that I am reading, ALL of the time. I wonder how these people got their jobs as editors, when I, the measly reader, can pick them out so quickly, without even trying and Essay, it drives me CRAZY to feel like I have to proofread books that I am paying over $20 a book for! I have so many stories and poetry and even a couple of novels that I have written or started writing and I always joke that when I die, someone will find my writing and only then, will I get famous for my writing. I, as the writer, would never turn something in, to have it read by anyone, without proofreading it myself either.

I also want to remind everyone that often times, when we are just writing a comment, we may often accidentally hit the wrong key and submit our comments, without proofreading what we have written#8230; it doesn#8217;t necessarily make anyone unintelligent#8230; thank you for a lot of Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, good info on here. Dalai? where can i get such paying jobs for writing books reviews and Essay, editing them? One of the posts reads: #8220;You are SO write about valuing your work. Im actually writing a post on that to appear here soon, so keep your eyes pealed. Undervaluing our work (especially when were just starting out) is a huge problem for Essay on Preserve or Outlaw?, freelance writers.#8221; Hopefully the author has already been advised of the, shall we say #8220;typos,#8221; and Biography of Steve, not #8220;senior moments#8221;? I am referring to #8220;write#8221; and dalai exile, #8220;pealed.#8221; Maybe Rule Number One for Paul, a writer would be to proofread first? I actually DID write a PULSE piece on LinkedIn, about how I dropped the should idea of Outsource ( ) with exactly that idea. Of Steve Jobs? The race to the bottom with pay to plays and such, simply isn#8217;t worth doing.

It might be that *somebody* is making $$ on those sites, but example of person wanting *150 original* descriptions for lama exile, some sort of fragrant oils on a budget of Biography of Steve Jobs, less than $500 is more often where those places go. If someone is speaking or writing accurately about Schindler and Schindler's List a subject, they are #8220;right.#8221; The information on your site is helpful. Biography Jobs? Any sites you can recommend off the top of Essay or Outlaw?, your head for someone starting out as a freelance academic essay writer? Should pay well too. Thanks in advance and keep up.

Question: What are fair prices for our work? Question: Has it been difficult to Biography Paul Essay, support yourself as a freelance writer? Thank you for the infomation. Painting Analysis? Its great to find a place that is really out to help not hurt. Hi Donna and others, The online writing lab at Biography Paul Jobs Purdue University has resources on the Chicago Manual of Style and the APA manual, as well as many articles related to English grammar usage that are user-friendly! Just type owl purdue university in your fave search engine and it should appear as a result. -I just got approved to start writing content for Text Broker but understand the quotes competition for of Steve Jobs Essay, getting jobs is stiff. Essay On Preserve Or Outlaw?? I got a fairly good rating but not tops. Glad to have joined this particular thread and sooo thankful for the supportive content on of Steve Essay, here. Schindler Essay? I am hoping to network locally with a non-proffit in the coming weeks and eventually find a content article opportunity that pays decently, desires my talents, and provides a reasonable degree of work or referrals.

Perhaps that is of Steve Jobs Essay, what the majority of us want here. I am very grateful for this site, thread, and posts! I#8217;m looking for someone who is going to pay me to publish a 1,000 word new prospective book. Essay On Preserve Or Outlaw?? And hopefully a movie. It is called Zombie Revelations and has the old with a real touch of reality.

1000 words is a short story. There are competitions you could enter it in, and you might find an anthology that#8217;s looking for stories. Try Where can I find job writing for Biography Paul Essay, 200 words only? Thanks for the insight! Great collection of resources, Kelly! Thanks, Susan.

I hope they help you! #128578; Did you ever use any of these sites? Success rate? Love this post #8212; So many great ideas here! Thanks, Lexi. I hope it can save some writers from if i going through the penny-a-word phase too many of us went through at one point!

P.S. Biography Of Steve Paul Jobs? LOVE the image you guys chose for should, this post. Too freakin#8217; cute. Kelly, I 100% agree with you about Paul Jobs staying away from the third 1808 content mills. I would add staying away from Yahoo! voices too for the low pay along with some of the shady posts on of Steve Paul Essay, Craigslist (although I do sometimes find gigs worth going for). The Life Of Mark Essay? I#8217;ve also had some luck with Ebyline, and a string of luck lately approaching businesses directly about blogging for of Steve Paul Jobs, them resulting in multiple and and Schindler's Essay, ongoing work for at least $50 per post. I#8217;ve never heard about Ebyline but will have to check them out. You#8217;re right; the majority of Paul Jobs Essay, what you#8217;ll find on Craigslist is dreck, so those job posts should always be evaluated cautiously.

Good for die tonight, you for of Steve Paul Essay, approaching businesses directly! That#8217;s a great approach but one many freelancers are afraid to take. I#8217;m glad it#8217;s been working so well for you! What is your approach in going to businesses directly? For example#8230;? I use totaljobs and the drover's wife, to Biography Jobs, find writing gigs from dalai lama exile companies and popular websites. Thanks so much Kelly for of Steve, taking the time to die tonight, research and put together this list. It will get some good use here! It#8217; so discouraging to #8216;beat the pavement#8217; only to find gigs offering $10 for of Steve Paul Essay, a 500 word article. Sheesh!

People don#8217;t get that we writers like to eat too! :o) I so hear you. Never accept those $10/500 word articles, no matter how hungry you are. The Drover's Quotes? OK, if you#8217;re really, REALLY hungry and need to make ends meet that month, and that#8217;s all you#8217;ve got currently, I#8217;ll allow it. Of Steve Paul Jobs Essay? But otherwise? Your skills and should, time are worth far more, and there ARE clients out there who will recognize and honor that. Hold out for the good ones. Of Steve Jobs Essay? (See: my upcoming article on how we writers need to on Preserve, learn to value (and insist on the value of) our own talents higher than we often do.) #128578; I am so glad to Paul Jobs Essay, run across fellow writers who value what they do and will stand up and say so. Far too often we get treated like the #8220;red headed step children#8221; of the creative industries and Oskar Schindler and Schindler's List, many of of Steve Essay, us allow it. I tried ODesk and was not only quotes appalled by the pay rates, but by the attitude of many clients.

One of them even said outright that we should be grateful to Biography of Steve Paul Essay, make five dollars an of may 1808, article (for well researched, 1,000 word pieces) and of Steve Paul, how their last writer was far too #8220;uppity#8221; for his tastes. Well now, I posted a response that I cannot quote in polite company. LOL. Dalai Exile? So, thank you, your voice is much appreciated. oDesk has put me under supervision based on negative feedback from clients even though my rating is 4.77. Of Steve Paul Essay? One client said that he already had 700 words. The Life Of Mark? When I looked at what he wrote, it was on a sixth-grade level. No research, statistics, compelling copy, SEO keywords, etc. So I had to of Steve Jobs Essay, start from scratch. I ended up acting like a tutor.

Another client loved my work but kept disappearing. I asked for her website address, information about her company, etc. She let another week go by then disappeared again. The Third 1808? I could go on and on. I think that clients who use the Biography Jobs Essay content mills do believe that they can get stellar writing for peanuts. I believe these incidents are blessings in disguise. I#8217;ve had my wake-up call. Dalai Exile? I follow top-notch bloggers and copywriters and hone my skills continually. It is Biography, up to exile, the freelancer to determine his standards and ultimately his worth. Biography Of Steve Jobs Essay? Hello Denita and others,

I am thankful for this site, thread and continued posts including yours. At present I am an IC with Textbroker International, and try to The Life Twain, look at most the jobs as blessings in disguise. Generally, I am a better conversationalist since starting this in late September, agree with you about of Steve Essay developing writing skills, and have kind of found my subject niche as it were. The big picture tells me I have it pretty good, given local opportunities and employment services for those of us who have a handicapability are inadequate in my place of residence. In a former profession I was under #8220;supervision#8221; before leaving and it was somewhat demeaning more than helpful. I hope your experience is dynamically different, but you sound quite capable and willing to improve where need be which says a lot favorably concerning what you bring to the proverbial table. All the best to you Denita, enjoyed the chance to talk shop! #8216;Never accept those $10/500 word articles, no matter how hungry you are#8217; hahahahaha. Avoid sites like, they pay 6 $ for 550 words paper and penalize you until you remain with 4 $ and the third of may 1808 analysis, gradually close your account. Dusman am a victim of reserachwritingcenter#8217;s indecency. This company is a fraud, they penalize your papers beyond 100%. #8221; PLEASE PROOF READ YOUR WORK#8221; They keep saying and they are the lowest payers on the planet. I love this list it is of Steve, helpful in not hitting dead ends when looking for analysis, work.

Hi Kelly (and others), This is my second day becoming nose deep in Biography Paul Jobs freelance writing, and I don#8217;t feel like I#8217;ve reached the wife point of knowing everything before submerging within. Can you please lead me to the right direction? Where do I begin? What do I need to start with? I have read the of Steve article, but it doesnt give me the nitty-gritty of, Brooke do this. What kind of articles should I be interested in? Copyright, Blogger, etc. The Drover's Wife? *Goal* Would be traveling and writing about new and exhilerating places. (I know it sounds much more glorious then it is, but that#8217;s why it is Paul Jobs Essay, a goal, right?) I think the better question is, what kind of writing do YOU want to Schindler and Schindler's List Essay, do? What topics interest you?

What style are you most comfortable writing in? Freelance writing is a huge industry, and you could be everything from a lifestyle blogger to a marketing copy writer. You need to determine what niche fits your skills and interests best; that will make it much easier for Jobs, you to locate specific, nitty-gritty advice. I am based out of India. I would like to write short stories. Could anyone guide me as how I should go about it. Should? Please recommend sites where I should register myself. I have registered myself in Freelancer.

Your post is a few weeks old , but if you#8217;re still looking for nitty-gritty, where do I start#8230; a friend, Rebecca Flansburg and I have put together some resources that deal with those basics. You can find them here: Might be something helpful for you. Link goes to an unused site. This article was quite helpful and the comments were too. I am. Of Steve Jobs Essay? just about to finish my English MA and I am broke as joke, living. at my parents, and Oskar Schindler and Schindler's List, finding writing work online is my priority for. the time being.

This shall be quite the adventure I am beginning. to see so I#8217;m trying to find a nice community online to help me. on my way. Best of luck to Biography Paul, everyone trying to survive out there! You can do it! You#8217;ve found a great resource here, so make yourself at home on the site! This is my second day becoming nose deep in the drover's quotes freelance writing, and I dont feel like Ive reached the point of knowing everything before submerging within#8230; Thank you for Biography of Steve Essay, this post. I just recently got into freelance writing and I feel so stupid already. Should? I found a blog that suggested odesk so I signed up with them and since I didn#8217;t have a portfolio yet I applied for a job paying $20 for 10 articles due in of Steve Paul Jobs Essay one week. I#8217;m halfway done but after reading this I don#8217;t even want to complete the rest.

I feel so cheated. I thought it would be a good way to dalai exile, get some experience under my belt but I have put so much time and energy in the articles I have done so far and Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, it doesn#8217;t even seem worth it. Should I even complete the job? Ugh. I#8217;m so sorry to hear that. Wife Quotes? You#8217;re not the only freelancer to have gotten lured into one of Jobs Essay, those sites. My rule of thumb, even as a newbie, was never to accept less than $10 for if i, every 100 words, unless it was a fantastic gig that would get me good exposure. Even if you don#8217;t have a portfolio, you should only take on projects you#8217;ll be proud to show to Biography of Steve, other people when they ask what you#8217;ve done.

It sounds like you are creating good work right now, but unfortunately, it#8217;s for a client who totally doesn#8217;t deserve it. It#8217;s a judgment call on whether to complete the Essay on Preserve project or not. There#8217;s something to be said for keeping your word, but at Biography of Steve Paul the same time? This is clearly a client who doesn#8217;t value a writer#8217;s worth, so in wife my book, you don#8217;t owe him much. He#8217;s paying for work that#8217;s worth $2 an article. In my book, $2 buys you a paragraph, maybe. Personally, I#8217;d cut and run.

If he winds up writing a bad review of you on odesk, it#8217;s not a huge loss #8212; you#8217;re better off getting the heck out of odesk anyway. Love your words of encouragement to of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, stay true to writing and get properly paid for your talent. I love writing and have been caught up in content mills since I decided to write online about a month ago. I must admit the pennies I have received for my time, talent and lama exile, dedication has been great to encourage me to seek something better. Are there any books or articles you recommend for Biography of Steve Jobs Essay, beginners looking to earn a living writing online? Glad to hear you#8217;re getting out!

Content mills are the worst trap #8212; there#8217;s no chance of advancement, no value of Essay or Outlaw?, what you#8217;re really worth, and the #8220;portfolio#8221; you wind up building through cheap jobs isn#8217;t usually the Paul Essay kind of portfolio that will help your career. The Write Life has actually put together a great list of resources to check out. You can find it here: Hey, kelly. This article was an dalai, actual eye opener.I#8217;m from India and being a novice writer, I didn#8217;t have any expectations which made me vulnerable to such clients. I#8217;ve worked for Biography Jobs, clients who have been paying rather poorly but require an #8216;outstanding#8217; quality of work from us. Dalai? I#8217;m amused and at the same time rather disappointed when I realize that I had been working for 0.16 cents per word !! Once again a big thank you for now I know what to expect and whom to deny. Take Care.

You#8217;re very welcome. You#8217;re not the first to be lured into low-paying jobs. I#8217;m glad we#8217;ve helped you realize you deserve much, much more! Thank you for the tips. I am handicapped and a fairly new mom at Biography 41 to our 9 month old first and only son. I have been wanting to start a blog so I can have more time for my son since I have heard that with patience you could earn okay from blogging but, I for now, I can#8217;t let go of my day job that pays $4.50 an or Outlaw?, hour because it still pays the bills. Biography Jobs? However, after the recent typhoon Yolanda/Haiyan hit the Philippines, I know I have to pursue blogging or find a better paying writing job that doesn#8217;t require me to sit in The Life Twain Essay front of the computer for 8-9 hours a day anymore. Can anyone give me additional tips on the best way I could start a blog aside from wordpress or blogger please? Thank you. First of Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, all, congrats on your new baby!

Second of all, my thoughts are with you and all your friends and loved ones #8212; are you located in exile the Philippines yourself? I hope you#8217;re all safe and well. Third, The Write Life has put together a great list of resources you can check out. Biography Paul Jobs? You can find it here: Of Mark Twain Essay? The very first section is on blogging, but there#8217;s also lots of other material to help you with all sorts of writing careers.

If there#8217;s ever anything else I or The Write Life can help you with, don#8217;t hesitate to Biography Jobs Essay, reach out! First off, congrats on your 1st son! Sounds like you come central Visayas too ( like me, am from on Preserve Bohol) Phils. If you are , here#8217;s hoping for of Steve Jobs, a better writing year for both of us. Yolanda (Haiyan) and the quake that hit our country and the economic woes they brought are really challenges we need to hurdle. Of May? Haven#8217;t much advice to give you on blogging except join as many writers#8217; forums at LInked In, if you haven#8217;t done yet. Biography? You see, I am more comfortable in writing articles than blogs. I have heard (from joining a lot of LI writing forums) of a lot of successful/well-paid bloggers there who might be able to help you to name a few Francesca Nicasio, a US-based Filipina blogger, Carol Tice (US), Bamidele Omnibalusi (Africa), and more. Wife Quotes? Also, writing websites that work like a vendo machines (like Xoobiz, in 2011, but now seems closed) where writers can draw writing jobs from a queue will also help, as we need not waste time in pitching for Paul Jobs, jobs. (please see my post somewhere in this forum re this you like me want writing jobs you can do anytime on your free time)

If you bump into business article writing gigs and Xoobiz-type sites, I#8217;d appreciate it too if you could let me know. @Karen de Guzman, sorry I missed saying that my comment was in reply to your post. Thank you for the great tips. I also get money writing for Bubblews and I. I also write for the third of may 1808 analysis, sendmeglobal where they only give award to a writer each month. I was able to of Steve Essay, win it once. You have opened my eyes to other relevant targets. Thanks.

I#8217;ve recently started blogging just for the love of it and am curious about paid gigs. There is soooo much info out there and this article has saved me from of may 1808 contentmills, not to mention wasted hours-thanks very, very much!! That was a good read! I guess you your words of wisdom are meant for US-based writers, knowing how much it costs to live there, this makes sense #8230; well, kinda. If you were writing for Paul Essay, a while before delving into the freelance world, i.e., well-versed in specific type of writing, then it would be a shame to get peanuts for your expertise. However, taking those low-paying gigs is what you really need if you got no clue what your niche is, and want to get experience. I started working on oDesk a little over a month ago, it#8217;s an amazing website. Although It#8217;s infested with low-paying gigs, I managed to land a couple of Schindler and Schindler's, good jobs on there. Since I write for of Steve Paul, my own amusement and because Jennifer (Oh dear Jennifer who gave me my first writing gig!) told me I write well, I continue to on Preserve, #8220;work#8221; on oDesk. It#8217;s funny that I consistently manage to get $5-$10 per 500 words, not so bad compared to the pittance most jobs pay. Of Steve Jobs Essay? I#8217;ll have to disagree with you on staying away from #8220;outsourcing platforms#8221;, because unless you#8217;re a seasoned writer, you shouldn#8217;t be starting anywhere else.

At least for the sake of getting good at your craft before pitching to high-paying clients. Speaking of High-paying clients, I stumbled upon your post as I was looking for should die tonight, them, but all I could find is Biography Paul Essay, advice, and of may painting analysis, advice only. Next thing will be a blogger telling me to be #8220;one with nature#8221; and those high-paying clients will come to me on their own. Great point that you have to start somewhere, Talal #8212; you#8217;re right that new freelance writers have to gain that somewhere, and that there can be good jobs hiding among the less-than-stellar ones. It just takes time to sort through and Biography Paul, separate the wheat from the chaff! I vehemently disagree with you here. Essay Or Outlaw?? Content mills horribly abuse writers and make it difficult for people who have spent years in this field to get a fair wage due to the expectation that companies can pay less to get more. Of Steve Paul Essay? Also, writers who start out Essay here often get stuck in a rut and can#8217;t evolve past the oDesk stage. All around bad news and not recommended for anyone who wants an actual career in writing. Paul Jobs? Thanks for sharing your thoughts, Alicia. To each their own opinion #8212; some people, like Talal said, enjoy using sites like oDesk because it works for their needs and goals.

Some don#8217;t enjoy these sites, or move on after building up a portfolio or a client roster. It#8217;s a choice each writer makes for her own career. TWL Assistant Editor. you can make money writing articles at the third of may they have an amazing platform for beginners to rise up the writing ranks. The pay is sustainable and you are able to begin your career well. Hello and thank you for proving such an interesting article! Even though I#8217;m not an of Steve Paul Jobs, English native speaker, I have managed to get some American and English clients so far, and they have been satisfied with my works.

Being a young, I started on Elance some weeks ago while at the same time trying oDesk. All of my clients come from the former, as for the latter I didn#8217;t bother to go back. What is your advice for me? I think Elance is or Outlaw?, good for building some portfolio and acquiring experience, but naturally I want to move on to something bigger and better. So where to start, or better to say what#8217;s the next step I should follow? Hi Matteo, thanks for Biography, your comment! We actually have a post coming up on Schindler Essay, what to look out for when using outsourcing sites like Elance and oDesk. Keep an eye out for Jobs Essay, that in the next few weeks!

I love everything you posted on quotes, freelancing for a better pay. Great informative post! I#8217;ve got a desk job and am seriously thinking of of Steve, a career change towards this direction. Dalai Lama? i do love writing and Biography Paul, am someone who loves working in her own time, her own hours anywhere in the world. It#8217;s a great list and gives people motivation to die tonight, get started. Usually to make a change in life its quite scary but your post is so straight forward and well written that it makes anyone feel ready to of Steve Paul Jobs Essay, take on wife, the world!

Thanks for this post and some of the other ones as well about freelance writing. Your blog is awesome #128512; Thanks for the kind words, Grace! I hope TWL can help motivate and support you in your career change. Biography Of Steve Essay? I#8217;m so glad I found this article. I will be graduating with a Professional Writing degree in die tonight May. I#8217;m trying to Biography of Steve Essay, see what types of writing jobs are out there, because I#8217;m nervous about the job market.

I just signed up to the third painting analysis, write articles on Hire, but the Biography of Steve Paul Jobs pay is so cheap and I work really hard on the articles. I got paid more writing for Schindler List Essay, my school#8217;s newspaper than I did writing for Jobs Essay, Hire I#8217;m curious as to where you got your Professional Writing degree. I was a technical writer before becoming a s-a-h mom. It#8217;s a really good gig and pays good. Now I#8217;m doing freelance writing while my child is in should school. It took me a long time to get my tech writing job (b/c I initially was in elementary ed), and Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, I#8217;m thinking it may take a long time to work may way up as a freelance writer. Wife? Whatever you do, when first out of college, it can take a long time to build up your experience. It can be a long, frustrating climb, but do have patience and try not to get frustrated when you keep hearing that you need experience to Biography of Steve Paul, get the job. It really, truly is character-building and most of if i should, us (whose dad doesn#8217;t own the Paul company!) have to go through it.

Best of luck! You#8217;ll also get a free copy of The Freelance Writers Pitch Checklist.

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Andres Martin's article On Teenagers and Tattoos he explains the Biography Essay significance and the third of may 1808 function of tattoos and piercings for teenagers . Dr. Martin explains the reasons that teenagers are so. Adolescence , Body art , Body modification 1425 Words | 4 Pages. Drug Use Among Teenagers While I was conducting my research, I located the of Steve Jobs actual survey results and Essay on Preserve decided to include them with this . essay . (I included them at the end of my essay ). The three main drugs that are used among teenagers are Marijuana, LSD, and a variety of inhalants. The use of these drugs seem to be of an astronomical amount according to the survey conducted by the University of Michigan. Marijuana is Paul Jobs, a green, brown, or gray mixture of dried, shredded flowers and The Life leaves of. Adolescence , Cannabis , Hashish 631 Words | 3 Pages. Discussive essay Teenagers should not change their appearance by making plastic surgery. ?Students name: Berdybayeva Nazira ID: 20131676 Essay Outline Topic: Teenagers should not change their appearance by making . plastic surgery. Biography Paul? Why teenagers should not go under the knife to change something that is Oskar and Schindler's, already perfect?

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However, there is. Adolescence , Conformity , Educational psychology 788 Words | 3 Pages. The Changes in Representation of of may 1808 Teenagers in the Media. Since the of Steve Paul Jobs birth of the subculture teenagers , these stereotypically rude, rebellious and dalai exile rowdy young adults have been included and represented . in movies, plays and any other type of entertainment. In studying two separate films from two separate time frames, I have found that they depict teens in Paul Jobs Essay, many different ways, although the Oskar Schindler Essay root of their problems, values and attitudes are very much the same. This essay will explore and discuss these changes in representation, and will strive to discover the. Adolescence , Audience , Entertainment 819 Words | 3 Pages. Stereotypical of Bruneian teenagers. Assignment (Major Essay ) Comments : Mark : Universiti Brunei Darussalam More often than not, particularly, teenagers come . to our attention as a result of their association with issues.

Technology advancement in Biography of Steve Paul Jobs, modern world is the most vital factor that may have largely influence todays teenagers . Lama? Specifically in Brunei, our teenagers seem to Paul Essay waste their times in Essay on Preserve, idle activities and only focus to outshine in social circle. Biography Essay? This essay will discuss some of our Bruneian teenagers ' contemporary social. Bandar Seri Begawan , Brunei , Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka 1130 Words | 5 Pages. Compare/Contrast Toddlers and Teenagers. Compare/Contrast of Toddlers amp; Teenagers This paper will compare/contrast toddlers and if i die tonight teenagers . If you do not have kids, . then you will most likely not understand the correlation between the Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay two. When most people think of toddlers, they think of potty training, toys galore, and dirty little hands. Exile? And when most people think of teenagers , they think of loud music, messy rooms, and attitudes.

But there are many similarities between these two that a lot of people would not think of Paul Jobs Essay because. Adolescence , Difference , Family 975 Words | 3 Pages. Teenagers lives revolve around technologically advanced items in Schindler and Schindler's Essay, the world. It is rare that a household does not contain at least one . technologically advanced product. Throughout the last decade, technology has created things that people 30 years ago would have never even imagined. These items start from as little as headphones to cell phones to Paul Jobs computers to even 3D TVs. Technology has a negative impact in teenagers lives.

This will be proven by taking a look at how technology interferes with. Comparison of instant messaging clients , Computer , Instant messaging 1336 Words | 4 Pages. An Evaluation on Working at McDonalds After reading this essay by Essay on Preserve, Amitai Etzioni, I could see why he is Biography Paul Jobs, promoting teenagers to . If I Should Die Tonight? pay more attention to their academics and education rather working at fast food restaurants like McDonalds. He provides many studies done to prove his thesis clearly. One of the few studies is Biography of Steve Paul, a 1984 study by Ivan Charper and Bryan Shore Fraser which says that teenagers do not pay attention to lama what skills they develop because they only care about finishing their working. Adolescence , Amitai Etzioni , Argument 1201 Words | 3 Pages. 2012-01-30 Essay Ruff Tennagers are ready for adulthood and Biography of Steve Jobs Essay the responbility it bring them.

In this essay i will talk about . why they are ready for the third of may 1808 the resbonbility also I will give you proof of their responbility. Working proves thie responblility because they have to concentrate on the job at Biography Jobs Essay, hand to get paid and they always have to be on time. Since they working for their own pocket they dont need to ask their parents for money and this to happen they have to be responbile and to my account. Adolescence , Automobile , Childhood 411 Words | 2 Pages. Negative Effects of Cell Phone on Teenagers.

of Facebook on on Preserve teenagers in Dhaka The Negative Effects of of Steve Essay Facebook On Teenagers in quotes, Dhaka Submitted to: Ms. Dilruba Jahan . Assistant Professor, Language Institute Submitted by: Kayafa Hossain ID-111 121 559 Sec-NJ Date of submission: 5.1.2013 5th January, 2013 Dilruba Jahan Asst.Professor Language Institute Subject: submission of Extended Essay Dear Madam I am pleased to Essay submit you the report on The Negative Effects of Facebook on Teenagers in lama exile, Dhka as the. Adolescence , Communication , Facebook 2128 Words | 7 Pages. Relations Between Teenagers And Adults. ?Relations between Teenagers and Biography of Steve Essay Adults A common phrase that adults can testify to hearing from any given teenager is, You . dont understand! This proves a struggle between the youth and Essay on Preserve or Outlaw? the adults that quite possibly is never-ending. Biography Of Steve Jobs? Adults make assumptions about dalai lama, kids, based on the way they dress, which pushes kids further and further away. In the essay , Goths in Tomorrowland by Thomas Hine (2001), he emphasizes the beliefs that adults began the idea of youth alienation from older societies. Adolescence , Childhood , Emotion 1086 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . Biography Of Steve? those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story.

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Internet technology, . Paul Jobs Essay? includes chatting online, video online, WIFI. In one way, Internet allows for quicker delivery of information. This means However, in modern society, it makes many social issues. One of if i should them is of Steve, its influence of of may 1808 teenagers and children. Some think that the Internet is Biography Jobs, a good approach which makes children learn. On the opposite side, conversely Internet has an unhealthy.

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TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Of Steve Paul Jobs? Send Code Napoleon and Declaration. Age of Oskar Schindler and Schindler's List Essay Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . Biography Of Steve Jobs? This is Twain Essay, not the only way to organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and of Steve Paul Essay purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already.

2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. Persuasive Essay on Recycling Coursework, Essay and Homework Help from Marked By HOW MBT WORKS part of the . student room group HOME GCSE essays AS AND A LEVEL essays MEET THE TEAM PRICING Log in Sign up my account | my saved essays INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE essays UNIVERSITY DEGREE essays Search Advanced search Home GCSE English English Language Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise Persuasive Essay on Recycling Persuasive Essay on Recycling . Elizabeth Barrett Browning , Essay , Homework 1076 Words | 5 Pages. A Stereotypical Teenager ? Loud, obnoxious, rebellious, out of Essay on Preserve control, and Biography of Steve Paul Jobs Essay up to no good these are just a few of a wide number of . stereotypes that are attributed to American teenagers . What is it about teenagers that make the rest of if i should die tonight society seem to turn against them? I believe that there are many misconceptions about teenagers . Many people in different generations sincerely believe that all teenagers are up to no good, and are guaranteed trouble no matter where they are. I am not arguing that. Adolescence , Facial hair , Hair 950 Words | 3 Pages. TEENAGERS TODAY The earthquake that hits Japan reminds me how fast things can change. The situation that Japan had to face now is just the . same as Malaysia handling teenagers issue.

The Japan government has to spend around 48 billion to build up all the buildings that collapse due to the earthquake. At the same time, Malaysian government has to Biography Jobs Essay spend millions of money for teenagers recovery planned. Malaysian teenagers change their lifestyle as the world becoming more modern. Or Outlaw?? Teenagers in Biography of Steve, 1940s. Adolescence , Constitution of Malaysia , Drug addiction 977 Words | 3 Pages. TEENAGERS TODAY BY : JASON SANJEEV KUMAR Mom.

Where is the drover's wife quotes, my school uniform? Mom. Jobs? Quick. 1808? I am late to school. Mom. Dad, where is Jobs Essay, . my pants? Oh, don't tell me; just help me to the third of may 1808 painting find it. OK? Feel strange hearing these? No! Teenagers nowadays are all very relying to their parents to help them to prepare everything.

School uniform, shoes and of Steve Paul even some parents have to help their prince' and princess' to prepare their school bags! What causes these bad phenomenons? Are these teenagers'. Help , Help me , Mother 1108 Words | 3 Pages. The Teenager Emerges: Canada in wife, the 1950s Abstract In the 1950s after WWII an age group emerged. Who . did this age group consist of? Well the age group consisted of teenagers . Biography Paul Jobs Essay? The teenagers started a demographic change, not for the bad but for the better.

They were the Baby Boomers they added and changed so many things in the world, in society. They were the ones that brought out new styles, music, behaviours, and the drover's wife more independence than ever, for a new. 1950s , Adolescence , Educational psychology 1291 Words | 4 Pages. ?Keeping Non-Medical Use Marijuana Illegal with Penalties and Fines Non-medical use Marijuana should not be legalized. The penalties should not be . lessened and any fines required should remain the same. Biography Paul Jobs? Marijuana, for description purposes in this essay will also be described as the drug, cannabis, pot or weed. I have only smoked the drug once. I did not feel high, and there was definitely no euphoria.

It made me nauseous and gave me a terrible headache. Admittedly, my personal experience is lacking. Cannabis , Cannabis sativa , Drug addiction 2433 Words | 9 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of of Mark this subject, student will . be able to: 1. Biography Paul? write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Die Tonight? Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for of Steve Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. categorize them and treat them accordingly. Teenager : teenager, [teen-ey-jer], noun- a person between the ages of 13 and 19 inclusive. How . could these two words, so opposite in meaning, make so much sense when put together?

Being a teenager doesnt just define your age, it classifies you into a pre-determined stereotype where people see you differently; you are no longer that sweet Jenny girl who lives down the street, you are now a reckless teenager who is clawing at a chance to rebel or throw. Adolescence , Connotation , Denotation 1411 Words | 4 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate.

For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. On Preserve Or Outlaw?? Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . Paul? I have never written an . essay in Schindler Essay, my life while I was living in India. It was really hard for Biography of Steve Essay me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is not good and grammar is worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didnt want to dalai lama tell anyone.

I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. Biography? After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. few, yet significant problems that teenagers face today. These problems could be a result of staying with friends and family, or even when . staying alone.

This article therefore aims to Oskar and Schindler's List highlight some of the Jobs Essay main problems and problem areas that teens face in the twenty first century. The problems are mentioned in point form for Oskar and Schindler's List easy reference and better understanding, and Biography of Steve are as follows; Weight problem, image and Essay or Outlaw? other health issues Most of the Jobs teenagers in today's world suffer from if i should a number. Adolescence , Human sexual behavior , Peer group 561 Words | 3 Pages. given a critical examination by James McBride in his essay Hip-Hop Planet. McBride provides the reader with direct insight into the influence . Biography? that hip-hop music has played in his life, as well as the Oskar Schindler and Schindler's Essay lives of the American society. From the capitalist freedom that hip-hop music embodies to the disjointed families that plague this country, McBride explains that hip-hop music has a place for everyone. Biography Of Steve Jobs? The implications that he presents in the drover's wife, this essay about of Steve Essay, hip-hop music suggest that this movement symbolizes. African American , Funk , Gangsta rap 930 Words | 3 Pages. Centre for if i should Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and you will need to write an Biography Jobs Essay essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of lama exile your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course. Please select a title from the list here: 1. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in terms of application, use and limitations.

2. Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is Essay, often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a danger in our water supply, a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. It is not easy to if i think of how to make someone want to read an essay about Paul, a novel. Its not even easy to. Essay , Good and Essay evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. thesis is never a question. Readers of academic essays expect to have questions discussed, explored, or even answered. A question (Why did . Of Steve Paul Jobs? communism collapse in or Outlaw?, Eastern Europe?) is of Steve Jobs, not an Oskar Schindler and Schindler's argument, and without an argument, a thesis is dead in Biography Paul Jobs, the water. 2. A thesis is never a list. For political, economic, social and cultural reasons, communism collapsed in dalai exile, Eastern Europe does a good job of of Steve telegraphing the reader what to expect in the essay a section about political reasons, a section about.

Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. Holden as the Typical Teenager of Today Holden Caulfield, portrayed in quotes, the J.D. Salinger novel Catcher in the Rye as an adolescent . struggling to Biography of Steve Jobs Essay find his own identity, possesses many characteristics that easily link him to the typical teenager living today. The fact that the book was written many years ago clearly exemplifies the timeless nature of the drover's this work. Holden's actions are those that any teenager can clearly relate with. The desire for of Steve Paul independence, the sexually related encounters, and. Adolescence , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagons definition of the word hate in the Heian era. The Drover's Quotes? Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on of Steve honesty and transparency of a situation? Hateful Things is an opinionated extract from the the third 1808 analysis book Pillow Talk written by Biography Paul, Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei.

Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. essays /nursing/nosocomial-infections.php Nosocomial infections Nosocomial Infections 4 Running . Quotes? Head: NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Nosocomial infections. Biography Paul? Nosocomial infections are those that result because of a treatment process normally carried out in a health care facility like a hospital. Typically these infections will appear two days after admission into the facility or hospital and up to Essay one month after discharge from the Biography of Steve Paul Essay hospital. If I? Nosocomial infections. Acinetobacter baumannii , Antibiotic resistance , Bacteria 1740 Words | 3 Pages.

? TEENAGERS OF TODAY Today, I would like to present a speech entitled Teenagers of Biography Paul Essay Today. All people have to go through . their teenage years. Oskar Schindler And Schindler's List Essay? Some of you have already passed this stage, someone is on the way, and some others still dream about the time when he/she will, finally, grow up! Nowadays, teenagers have changed in Biography Paul Essay, comparison with the teens in lama exile, the past. Jobs Essay? From head to toe, everything about a teenager is unique.

The way they dress is different. The way they act is different. Even the way. Adolescence , Young adult 894 Words | 2 Pages. Expository Essay Final Project: Expository Essay Victoria Dupuy Com 150 May 18, 2010 Leslie Phillips Academic, . social and athletic pressures can push teens to the brink of disaster and even lead them to commit suicide. Wife Quotes? According to the Centers for Disease Control and Paul Jobs Prevention suicide is the third leading cause of death between 10 and 24 year olds (Suicide Prevention, para. 1). Pressure and The Life Essay depression is the most common factor leading to teen suicide.

The pressures teenagers are. Adolescence , Bipolar disorder , Major depressive disorder 2218 Words | 7 Pages. Analytical Essay of Donald Halls A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails Donald Halls A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails is a . symbolic presentation of the Biography of Steve Jobs Essay decay of New Hampshire the author uses the life of Washington Woodward to the drover's wife show the pointless existence that is experienced in a place as lifeless as New Hampshire. He uses the contrast of Biography of Steve Paul Essay his own opinion and the beliefs of Woodward to show how after a while it is impossible to if i should escape a pointless mindset. Washington finds joy in discarded. Death , Family , New England 1234 Words | 3 Pages. As the word ' teenagers ' are mentioned, we will think that it is the of Steve Essay most joyous part of our lives. On Preserve? It is Biography of Steve Paul, true and 1808 painting analysis cannot be denied. However, . some of us, teenagers , never have a great moment during high school. Some may have peer problems or probably some stress.

Basically teenagers life in high school is like a self survival in the Amazon forest. The teenagers in high school usually scared of the first day of school because it is of Steve Paul Jobs, that day that will decide your life throughout high school for.

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FREE DOWNLOADABLE RESUME TEMPLATES. If you search the of Steve, Internet for free resume template you will get over Schindler and Schindler's List, 19 million results. Unfortunately, many will only provide you with a PDF file, one or two resumes to Biography Jobs Essay choose from, or nothing that matches your needs. We offer 447 professional resume templates and cover letters, as well as cover letter and resume writing help, and a free resume builder. Everything you need to create the perfect resume and land your dream job. 1. How to Create a Resume 2. Resume Templates 2.1 Proven and of Mark Popular 2.2 Format 2.3 Basic and Simple 2.4 ATS-Optimized 2.5 Clean 2.6 Modern 2.7 Contemporary 2.8 Portfolio 2.9 One-Page 2.10 Creative 2.11 Infographic 2.12 Career 3. Of Steve Jobs Essay! Using a Resume Template: Good, Bad, or Ugly? 4. Resume Builders: What Are They and Do You Need One? 5. Cover Letters: Starting off on Schindler and Schindler's List, the Right Foot 6. Formatting Tips. Select your optimal resume format. Chronological, functional, or a combination? The right format presents your work history and skills in the best possible light.

See Resume Format Guide for some excellent guidance and format examples. Write down your jobs, achievements, education, awards, skills, and any other relevant information you can think of. Look at the job description for clues on what kind of candidate the employer is looking for. What work experiences and skills match that ideal candidate profile? Highlight those selling points in your resume. How to Write a Great Resume will take you through the whole process step by Biography Essay step. A good resume template can streamline the process of creating a professional resume.

It takes care of all the little, easily overlooked formatting details such as the fonts, margins, bullets, and Schindler and Schindler's alignment. This allows you to Paul Jobs Essay focus on of may 1808 analysis, the job search itself, and on writing your resume. Each document in our library is free to download for Biography Paul, personal use. Simply scroll down to find a Microsoft Word template that presents your unique job experience in the best possible way. Templates on this page are compatible with Microsoft Word.

Please see these resources for professional resume templates in other formats: OpenOffice In this primer on the OpenOffice resume, youll learn how to insert tables, images, and graphs into die tonight, your resume. We also offer free resume and cover letter templates in both OTT and ODT formats. Google Docs Google Doc offers a robust word processor on of Steve Paul Essay, a powerful, free-to-use platform. Learn about the quotes, many ways Google enables file sharing, or download one of trenty Google Docs resume examples.

You can export these templates into Word or OpenOffice, save them in rich text or as a pdf, or even publish them as a web page. Photoshop For resumes that benefit from images, the Photoshop PSD template can be a powerful tool. Not every resume needs images. However, there are applicants, such as graphic designers or photographers, who should consider them. When used appropriately, images can anchor your resume in the mind of the hiring manager.

Follow the of Steve Jobs, link to Oskar and Schindler's List Essay find a multitude of resume examples in a variety of of Steve Paul, styles. InDesign Created by Essay on Preserve Adobe, InDesign can be thought of as page-layout software. It enables the Biography of Steve Jobs, easy movement around the page of lama exile, images, text, icons, or other artwork. Paul! This allows you to manipulate your resume in creative ways. At the link you will find 26 resume templates using the the third 1808 analysis, InDesign INDD (InDesign Document) format. LaTeX LaTeX is Paul Jobs Essay not a word processor; it is a high quality type-setting system. LaTex was created for Twain, academics whose publications include numbers, graphs, and non-Roman scripts. Biography Of Steve Paul Essay! This platform offers users a way to create these kinds of images that its competition lacks.

Follow the link to find over thirty resume templates in the LaTeX file format, downloadable as ZIP files. If you are applying for work in The Life of Mark Twain, academia, you might need a CV template. Please see our Curriculum Vitae page for a CV writing guide and examples. Some documents from our template library use lorem ipsum text. We refer to those documents as blank resume templates because they are designed to assist you with the resume style. We also have examples with sample resume outlines, bullet points, professional profiles, experiences, summary statements, objectives, and Essay other content. These are created to help guide the resume writing process. Explore our free resume library, download free resume examples and templates, personalize them to match your experience and needs, and of Mark Twain start landing more interviews. For job-hunters on the go, here are three Editors Choice sample resume template designs. Each professional template has been prepared by resume experts and is suitable for most career stages and experience levels.

You can also browse some of the most popular layouts weve created. Our hall of fame Top 10 Best Templates includes our ten most popular resume templates for you to download for free. Chronological resumes allow potential employers to review your work history, duties and accomplishments at a glance. This type of resume is a great choice for job seekers with a long and stable employment record. Many hiring managers prefer seeing this traditional resume style. See our Chronological Resume Format Guide to format your own resume, and to download free chronological resume examples. Functional resumes take the of Steve, focus away from work experience and emphasize qualifications and skills. This resume type works best for career changers, job seekers who have gaps in of Mark, their work history, and Biography Jobs Essay applicants with entry-level resumes. See our Functional Resume Format Guide to learn how to create your own skills-based resume, and to download functional resume examples.

Combination Resumes (also known as hybrid resumes) show your employment timeline while also highlighting your most relevant qualifications. This format works best for applicants with significant work experience and many job requirements and responsibilities. Our Combination Resume Format Guide provides the tools youll need to make this tricky format work for you, as well as free examples. Our Basic Resume Templates are for applicants in traditional or conservative fields. Essay On Preserve! Basic does not need to Biography of Steve be boring. These layuts are streamlined and organized, and may add a touch of color to on Preserve help your application stand out. They are appropriate in most industries and Jobs career phases (entry-level, managerial, or executive). Three of our favorite examples are below, and thirty more are in our Basic Resume Template library.

Many companies now use an Applicant Tracking System in their recruitment process. Some of these systems cannot read graphics, tables, symbols, or charts. If you want to ensure that an ATS doesnt lose information in your resume, then plain text format is the safest choice. This modern resume style features a clean layout, traditional sans-serif fonts, and prominent titles. Dalai! See all of our ATS-Ready Resume Examples. Tested for clarity and readability, Clean and Simple Resume Templates will add just the right amount of style to your professional profile. These effective designs rely on typography, white space, and color to create a professional and current look. Biography Paul! If you think this resume style is for you, download one of three examples below, or choose from seventy options we offer here.

Our Modern designs are elegant and painting analysis streamlined with a twist of creativity. Biography Jobs Essay! While these layouts would be appropriate for a variety of if i, industries, they are ideal for high-tech professions where candidates want to portray experience, discipline, and knowledge, as well as show that they are progressive and current with the latest technology. Of Steve Jobs! See three examples below, or follow the the third 1808 painting, link to view more templates in our Modern Resume Design Library. Our Contemporary Templates will help you create an of Steve Paul Jobs Essay up-to-date and dynamic resume. These modern designs read like actual newsletters with headlines and teasers. They are set up as two-column or three-column layouts. If you think a Contemporary Template format is right for you, you can download any of our twenty-two eye catching examples from the Contemporary Collection. In this resume template library, the designs incorporate actual images of professional work. The Third Of May 1808 Painting! If you are an artist, photographer, graphic designer, web designer, or other creative professional, you can use one of our Portfolio Resume Templates to present your creativity and Biography accomplishments in if i should die tonight, a visual way. See all of our Portfolio examples here. Struggling to decide what to trim from your two-page resume?

Our One-Page Resume guide will teach you all the tricks professional resume makers use to not exceed a single page. For eighteen sample resumes, each showcasing different techniques to Jobs fit resume content on Essay, a single page, follow the link to our discussion of Biography of Steve, One-Page Resumes. These artistic templates are a great design choice for any industry that values creativity. The Drover's Wife! As fancy and bursting with imagination as they are, be sure to of Steve Paul Jobs consider who will be reading them. Should Die Tonight! You may love them, but not every employer will find them appropriate. If a creative resume template is right for you, download one of our 40+ examples from the Creative Resume Library. Infographic resumes are a new trend, and have gained a great deal of popularity in 2017. This resume type uses images, charts, and graphs to tell the Paul Jobs, story of Twain, your professional life.

Creative resumes and visual layouts are not yet well accepted by all hiring managers, so be sure to consider your industry. We created 12 new designs featuring a variety of graphics for you to download see our Infographic Resume Library. This new resume template library provides resume examples for Biography Paul Jobs Essay, various careers and career stages. If you are a student or recent graduate with little or no job experience, then try our entry-level job examples: For students or recent graduates with some work experience, see more of our entry-level resume samples: Use these industry-specific examples if you have three or more years of professional experience in customer service or healthcare industries: If you live in one of the South Asian countries (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India), then please see our country-specific examples: Good, bad or ugly? Should you use a resume template?

Some recruiting professionals advise against if i using templates and resume builders. They believe using those tools makes your resume look generic and Biography Essay keeps you from standing out from other candidates. This concern is worth considering. Recruiters and should die tonight hiring managers see hundreds of resumes every day. One that is poorly crafted in of Steve Paul, either its formatting or its content will be quickly spotted and Essay moved to the slush pile. Templates fix the Jobs, issue of poor formatting by of may analysis doing it for you. With a template, you will not spend hours trying to adjust margins and fonts. The content produced by resume templates and builders, however, is Biography Essay not meant to be the final result. Lama! Every job seekers experience is unique, and a template needs to be customized to of Steve Essay match and the drover's promote that singular experience.

A chronological resume template should not be used by a job-hopper, and of Steve Paul a skills-based resume is not the Oskar and Schindler's Essay, best choice for executives with an impressive vertical career progression. Templates are meant to be a place to start the difficult process of creating your resume. Of Steve Essay! They arent one-size-fits all, cookie-cutter solutions, and they shouldnt be treated as ready-made resumes. When used for guidance and inspiration when writing your own unique and original resume, resume templates can be a powerful weapon in landing more interviews more quickly. What are they and do you need one? If resume formatting is not your thing, you can get help from an online resume builder. This resume-making tool handles both design and dalai content, and can create excellent first drafts. The search for work is Biography of Steve Jobs a race, and die tonight resume builders are starting blocks. They dont get you to the finish line, but can give you a head start over your competition. Resume builders offer many features that simplify the job-hunting process. Here are a few:

Email and online resume You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in many formats. Writing Tips Use tips and sample phrases to Biography of Steve Paul describe your work history and achievements. Cover letter templates and builders Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips. Design Built-in resume templates take care of formatting and Schindler Essay design. Jobs! Resume samples Compare your resume against samples.

Resume analytics Find out if your resume is being viewed and if i die tonight downloaded. but keep in mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. Of Steve Jobs Essay! The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at, Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing. Resumes serve two functions. Their overt function is to list your skills, experience, and education. But their covert function is to show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style. Because of this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the tool for you, see this page to find an dalai exile online resume builder.

Starting off on the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of your skills. It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. Paul Jobs Essay! It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to analysis the company. If a resume is a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is where you get to of Steve tell the The Life Essay, story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the potential employer why this job is important to you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines.

Dont skimp While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of time. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job intervieweven if the employer doesnt read it. Paul Jobs! And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from Essay on Preserve or Outlaw? your competitors. Keep it brief And the shorter the of Steve, better. Die Tonight! According to a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or the shorter the of Steve, better approach. But there is some leeway here. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Dalai Exile! Just make sure its well crafted. If possible, create a narrative Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letterexecutive resumes, for examplemake it tell a story. Biography Of Steve Essay! The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the reader wont care that it is the drover's quotes long.

For a resume, a narratives context might be your work history. Biography! The conflict may be experiences youve had in the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed. And the The Life Twain, resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for Jobs Essay, each of the third of may painting analysis, them. With social media, this is far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the company and its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to study their content and the culture. Focus on details Make sure that every word is essential. Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps. Ask someone else to of Steve Essay read it and Twain give you advice. Read from the Biography of Steve, end to lama the beginning and use other editing and proofreading tips. Learn how to format a resume by making the Biography Paul, most of Microsoft Words features.

Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to The Life Twain use paragraph styles and Biography Paul Essay themes How to change header, footer, margins, and page size How to fit resume text on one page, and how to remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and the third 1808 painting tables How to of Steve Paul Jobs Essay add and remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of The Life of Mark, them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts.

If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. Jobs! We use text styles and built-in color schemes to create our templates. Knowing how to dalai exile use paragraph styles will ease the process of modifying a template. Of Steve Paul! While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. You can change the page size to make it compatible with the size used in your country. Twain! For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the page color to none and print on a high-quality colored paper. If the Biography Paul Jobs, design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST.

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