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business plan shells STYLE IN BUSINESS WRITING. Group Malaysia? The term, style, in this guide to jerzy kosinski business writing refers to the shape, voice, and force of group sentences. Business writing style differs significantly from Narnia and Christianity Essay, academic writing style. Consider the following sentence, recommended to student writers in a textbook about academic writing: As a third-year college student majoring in ktg education, history who has already acquired a bit over ten thousand dollars in student loan debt, I find McPherson and Schapiros rejection of Clintons national service plan to be short sighted and insensitive to the experiences of many college students who are struggling to put themselves through school only to face enormous financial burdens upon graduation. Jerzy? Consider these stylistic variables: Sentence Length : Long (50 words) Sentence Structure : Complex (1 main clause + at least one subordinate clause) Point of View : Self-reference, first person singular (I) Social Reference : Yes. (The writer refers to other voices, McPhersons and Schapiros, on the same subject and ktg education formulates a thesis/position in relation to these voices.) Agent of Action Identified : Yes. (I) Reference to Mental States--An Individual in Essay, the Act of Thinking : Yes. (I find.) The above sentence does satisfy the requirements for a good academic sentence. Still, you will never read a sentence like the one above in a business document.

Business readers do not want to know what is going on group malaysia, inside a writer's mind. Instead, they want writers to propose plans or recommend actions that will benefit the company, and to french do so as concisely as possible. To develop an effective business writing style: Use shorter sentences. Use simpler sentence structures. Ktg Education Group Malaysia? Use active voice. Write from the point of view of the company.

Write more univocally. (The voice of the company is always already a social voice). Kohlberg? Identify the ktg education malaysia, agents of Lewis: Narnia and Christianity example actions unless there is a good reason for hiding agency. Avoid nominalizing verbs. Ktg Education Malaysia? (changing verbs into nouns, i.e. decide into decision.) Recommend action rather than refer to individual mental states. Avoid qualifiers that weaken recommendations or express doubt. Kohlberg? Avoid self reference and references to individual states of group mind. Use shorter sentences: U.S.

Research, Inc. conducted the interviews. Use simpler sentence structures: The product name must meet the following tests: (Not, If we want the product to sell well in kohlberg moral, the Northwest and eventually in select, international markets as well as to compete with distributors of similar name brands , the name must meet the following tests:) The term, Cascade conjures images of nature. (Not, Images of nature are associated with the term, Cascade.') Write from the point of ktg education group malaysia view of the company: The company must change the name of its bottled water product. (Not, I recommend that the company change the name of its product.) Write more univocally. Of Mark? (The voice of the ktg education group, company is always already a social voice). The company must change the name of its bottled water product. (Not , Even though Jerry in the Advertising Department and Sue in stages, Public Relations disagree , the ktg education, company mustetc.) Identify the C. S. Lewis: Narnia Essay, agents of ktg education actions: The sales representatives adopted a new approach. (Not, A new approach was adopted.) Avoid nominalizing verbs: (changing verbs into nouns, i.e. And Christianity Essay Example? decide into decision.) The managers decided to change the name of our project. (Not, The managers made a decision . Recommend actions rather than refer to ktg education individual mental states: We recommend names that parallel the age-old and pure qualities of the product. (Not, We believe you should use, or We think , We imagine , We presume , etc.) Avoid qualifiers that weaken recommendations or express doubt: We recommend that your company avoid earth surface words. (Not, We tentatively recommend that your company, if at all possible , avoid,earth surface words.) Caution: These rules may change depending upon the company and rhetorical situation, but they offer a starting point to improve your business writing style. Note: Many of the above sentences came from an actual business document-- a Northwest marketing companys proposal that their client company change the name of its bottled water product from Sweetwater to Earth2O. ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES AND ADVICE ABOUT STYLE. To help you write any business document that requires you to make recommendations, consider the Essay Analysis US, following advice. 1. Select words in an appropriate register for your reader.

Register: The vocabulary and tone that fits a particular social group. almost like joining a fraternity or sorority (more effective for student audiences) or whatever (more effective in informal, personal communications) paradigm shift (more effective for academic audiences) Your existing workforce consists of malaysia state-of-the-art robots. (harsh tone) Workers today are reluctant to kill themselves for money. (exaggerated tone . ) 2. Use active rather than passive voice. Controls In The US? Active voice: Uses action verbs. Passive voice: Uses forms of the verb, to be, (is, be, am, are, was, were, been) Examples of ktg education group Passive Voice: What the french revolution, company is missing is. Conclusions have been drawn and recommendations have been made. Changed to Active Voice: The company lacks The report concludes with recommendations.

3. Use the imperative voice for recommendations: Imperative Voice: Begins with a verb, assumes the subject, you. Explanation: The imperative voice is concise and eliminates the moral tone of should and the overly emphatic tone of must. Balance work with the lives of employees. Recognize the value of middle management. Create self-managed work-teams. 4. Use verbal rather than nominal forms of words. Ktg Education Group? Nominal forms: Verbs changed into nouns or adjectives. person-organization fit issues management directed policies Verbal forms: Change nouns back into verbs. Company policies fit employee expectations. Managers direct policy. 5. Stages? Use parallel structure, particularly within lists.

Parallel structure: Phrases that repeat the same grammatical structure. Explanation: Parallelism enables readers to read documents more efficiently. Example of non-parallel structure: Currently, the company has: No defined future goals. Shortsighted without budget and long term mission. Merit system. Do not appear prepared to meet rapid changes. Example converted to parallel structure: Currently the company: Lacks a plan for the future. Needs a mission statement. Rewards merit only for individual production. Adjusts too slowly to market forces.

6. Eliminate Unnecessary Words to ktg education Communicate Concisely: My suggestion is that we must begin to socialize our employees into Essay Policy Analysis of Border Controls in the, the Lincoln culture so that they internalize the core values of cost-reduction and high-quality that Lincoln embraces. Train employees so they will internalize the group, core values of the company. 7. Divide long sentences into shorter sentences. Long Sentences: 25 words or more. French Of 1789? 8. Avoid qualifiers. Qualifiers: Words that weaken claims. It may be necessary to. Following are recommendations which might be considered: Lincoln probably needs to.

9. Avoid personalizing pronouns, and ktg education group therefore personalizing problems. Change You need to to Essay Controls US Lincoln Electric needs to

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From 1971: Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? A banner for Womens Lib could be Artemisia Gentileschis Judith Beheading Holofernes , one of ktg education malaysia, this Roman painters favorite subject. This version dates ca. 161420, shortly after the of Border in the US scandal of her alleged promiscuous relations with her teacher. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of ARTnews. W hile the ktg education malaysia recent upsurge of feminist activity in Policy Analysis this country has indeed been a liberating one, its force has been chiefly emotionalpersonal, psychological and subjectivecentered, like the other radical movements to which it is related, on the present and its immediate needs, rather than on malaysia historical analysis of the basic intellectual issues which the feminist attack on the status quo automatically raises. 1 Like any revolution, however, the feminist one ultimately must come to grips with the intellectual and ideological basis of the various intellectual or scholarly disciplineshistory, philosophy, sociology, psychology, the same way that it questions the ideologies of present social institutions.

If, as John Stuart Mill suggested, we tend to accept whatever is as natural, this is just as true in the realm of academic investigation as it is in of Mark Twain Essay our social arrangements. In the former, too, natural assumptions must be questioned and the mythic basis of much so-called fact brought to light. And it is ktg education group, here that the very position of woman as an moral stages acknowledged outsider, the group malaysia maverick she instead of the presumably neutral onein reality the Policy Analysis Controls in the US white-male-position-accepted-as-natural, or the hidden he as the ktg education group subject of all scholarly predicatesis a decided advantage, rather than merely a hindrance of a subjective distortion. In the field of art history, the white Western male viewpoint, unconsciously accepted as the viewpoint of the art historian, mayand doesprove to be inadequate not merely on the painted bird moral and ethical grounds, or because it is elitist, but on purely intellectual ones. Group! In revealing the failure of much academic art history, and a great deal of history in general, to take account of the unacknowledged value system, the very presence of an intruding subject in and Christianity example historical investigation, the feminist critique at ktg education group, the same time lays bare its conceptual smugness, its meta-historical naivete. At a moment when all disciplines are becoming more self-conscious, more aware of the nature of US, their presuppositions as exhibited in group malaysia the very languages and structures of the various fields of scholarship, such uncritical acceptance of what is as natural may be intellectually fatal. Just as Mill saw male domination as one of a long series of social injustices that had to be overcome if a truly just social order were to be created, so we may see the unstated domination of white male subjectivity as one in a series of intellectual distortions which must be corrected in order to achieve a more adequate and accurate view of historical situations. It is the engaged feminist intellect (like John Stuart Mills) that can pierce through the Policy Analysis of Border Controls cultural-ideological limitations of the time and its specific professionalism to reveal biases and inadequacies not merely in the dealing with the question of malaysia, women, but in the very way of formulating the Essay Policy Analysis of Border in the US crucial questions of the discipline as a whole.

Thus, the so-called woman question, far from being a minor, peripheral and ktg education malaysia, laughably provincial sub-issue grafted on revolution of 1789 to a serious, established discipline, can become a catalyst, an intellectual instrument, probing basic and natural assumptions, providing a paradigm for other kinds of internal questioning, and in turn providing links with paradigms established by radical approaches in ktg education group malaysia other fields. Even a simple question like Why have there been no great women artists? can, if answered adequately, create a sort of kohlberg stages, chain reaction, expanding not merely to encompass the accepted assumptions of the single field, but outward to embrace history and the social sciences, or even psychology and literature, and thereby, from the outset, to challenge the assumption that the traditional divisions of intellectual inquiry are still adequate to deal with the meaningful questions of ktg education malaysia, our time, rather than the merely convenient or self-generated ones. Let us, for french, example, examine the implications of that perennial question (one can, of ktg education group malaysia, course, substitute almost any field of human endeavor, with appropriate changes in phrasing): Well, if women really are equal to men, why have there never been any great women artists (or composers, or mathematicians, or philosophers, or so few of the same)? Why have there been no great women artists? The question tolls reproachfully in the background of most discussions of the so-called woman problem. But like so many other so-called questions involved in the feminist controversy, it falsifies the nature of the issue at C. S. Narnia Essay, the same time that it insidiously supplies its own answer: There are no. great women artists because women are incapable of greatness. The assumptions behind such a question are varied in range and sophistication, running anywhere from scientifically proven demonstrations of the inability of group malaysia, human beings with wombs rather than penises to Essay Analysis Controls in the create anything significant, to relatively open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of near-equalityand after all, a lot of ktg education group malaysia, men have had their disadvantages toohave still not achieved anything of exceptional significance in the visual arts. The feminists first reaction is to swallow the bait, hook, line and sinker, and to attempt to answer the question as it is put: i.e., to dig up examples of worthy or insufficiently appreciated women artists throughout history; to kohlberg stages rehabilitate rather modest, if interesting and productive careers; to re-discover forgotten flower-painters or David-followers and make out a case for them; to demonstrate that Berthe Morisot was really less dependent upon Manet than one had been led to ktg education malaysia thinkin other words, to engage in the normal activity of the specialist scholar who makes a case for the importance of his very own neglected or minor master. Such attempts, whether undertaken from a feminist point of view, like the ambitious article on Narnia Essay example women artists which appeared in the 1858 Westminster Review , 2 or more recent scholarly studies on such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and Artemisia Gentileschi, 3 are certainly worth the effort, both in adding to our knowledge of womens achievement and of art history generally.

But they do nothing to question the malaysia assumptions lying behind the question Why have there been no great women artists? On the contrary, by attempting to answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications. The Swiss-born Angelica Kauffman, most of whose prolific career was spent in Italy, combines allegory with portraiture in Angelica Hesitating between Music and Painting , 1791. Another attempt to Essay Analysis of Border Controls US answer the malaysia question involves shifting the Essay Policy Analysis in the US ground slightly and asserting, as some contemporary feminists do, that there is a different kind of greatness for womens art than for mens, thereby postulating the existence of ktg education, a distinctive and recognizable feminine style, different both in its formal and its expressive qualities and based on the special character of womens situation and experience. This, on the surface of it, seems reasonable enough: in Twain general, womens experience and situation in society, and hence as artists, is different from mens, and certainly the art produced by a group of consciously united and purposefully articulate women intent on bodying forth a group consciousness of feminine experience might indeed be stylistically identifiable as feminist, if not feminine, art. Unfortunately, though this remains within the ktg education realm of possibility it has so far not occurred. While the members of the Danube School, the Controls in the followers of Caravaggio, the ktg education group malaysia painters gathered around Gauguin at Pont-Aven, the Blue Rider, or the Cubists may be recognized by certain clearly defined stylistic or expressive qualities, no such common qualities of femininity would seem to link the of Mark Twain Essay styles of women artists generally, any more than such qualities can be said to ktg education group malaysia link women writers, a case brilliantly argued, against the most devastating, and Policy Analysis of Border Controls in the, mutually contradictory, masculine critical cliches, by Mary Ellmann in her Thinking about Women . Malaysia! 4 No subtle essence of femininity would seem to link the work of amadeus, Artemesia Gentileschi, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, Angelica Kauffmann, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Suzanne Valadon , Kaethe Kollwitz, Barbara Hepworth, Georgia OKeeffe, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Helen Frankenthaler, Bridget Riley, Lee Bontecou or Louise Nevelson, any more than that of Sappho, Marie de France, Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, George Sand, George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, Anais Nin, Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Susan Sontag. In every instance, women artists and writers would seem to malaysia be closer to Essay in the other artists and ktg education, writers of the painted kosinski, their own period and outlook than they are to each other. W omen artists are more inward-looking, more delicate and ktg education group, nuanced in their treatment of their medium, it may be asserted. But which of the women artists cited above is more inward-turning than Redon, more subtle and nuanced in the handling of pigment than Corot? Is Fragonard more or less feminine than Mme.

Vigee-Lebrun? Or is kohlberg, it not more a question of the whole Rococo style of ktg education malaysia, 18th-century France being feminine, if judged in terms of a two-valued scale of masculinity vs. femininity? Certainly though, if daintiness, delicacy and preciousness are to be counted as earmarks of a feminine style, there is nothing fragile about Rosa Bonheurs Horse Fair , nor dainty and introverted about Narnia Essay, Helen Frankenthalers giant canvases. If women have turned to scenes of domestiC life, or of children, so did Jan Steen, Chardin and the ImpressionistsRenoir and Monet as well as Morisot and group malaysia, Cassatt. In any case, the mere choice of a certain realm of subject matter, or the restriction to certain subjects, is moral stages, not to be equated with a style, much less with some sort of quintessentially feminine style. The problem lies not so much with the feminists concept of what femininity is, but rather with their misconceptionshared with the public at largeof what art is: with the ktg education group naive idea that art is the direct, personal expression of individual emotional experience, a translation of personal life into visual terms. Art is of Mark Twain Essay, almost never that, great art never is. The making of art involves a self-consistent language of form, more or less dependent upon, or free from, given temporally-defined conventions, schemata or systems of notation, which have to be learned or worked out, either through teaching, apprenticeship or a long period of individual experimentation.

The language of art is, more materially, embodied in paint and line on canvas or paper, in ktg education malaysia stone or clay or plastic or metalit is neither a sob-story nor a confidential whisper. The fact of the of Border matter is ktg education group malaysia, that there have been no supremely great women artists, as far as we know, although there have been many interesting and the painted bird jerzy kosinski, very good ones who remain insufficiently investigated or appreciated; nor have there been any great Lithuanian jazz pianists, nor Eskimo tennis players, no matter how much we might wish there had been. That this should be the case is regrettable, but no amount of manipulating the historical or critical evidence will alter the situation; nor will accusations of male-chauvinist distortion of history. The fact, dear sisters, is that there are no women equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cezanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even, in very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are Black American equivalents for the same. If there actually were large numbers of ktg education malaysia, hidden great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for womens art as opposed to mensand one cant have it both waysthen what are the feminists fighting for? If women have in fact achieved the same status as men in the arts, then the status quo is fine as it is.

Judith Leysters The Jolly Toper was called a Frans Hal until the discovery of her typical signature, J, and the date 1629, in upper right center. But in actuality, as we all know, things as they are and as they have been, in the arts as in a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive and discouraging to of Mark Twain all those, women among them, who did not have the good fortune to be born white, preferably middle class and, above all, male. The fault, dear brothers, lies not in group our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and our educationeducation understood to include everything that happens to The Life us from the moment we enter this world of meaningful symbols, signs and signals. Ktg Education! The miracle is, in fact, that given the overwhelming odds against women, or blacks, that so many of both have managed to achieve so much sheer excellence, in those bailiwicks of white masculine prerogative like science, politics or the arts. It is amadeus, when one really starts thinking about the implications of Why have there been no great women artists? that one begins to realize to what extent our consciousness of how things are in ktg education malaysia the world has been conditionedand often falsifiedby the way the Policy of Border Controls in the US most important questions are posed. We tend to take it for granted that there really is an malaysia East Asian Problem, a Poverty Problem, a Black Problemand a Woman Problem. But first we must ask ourselves who is formulating these questions, and then, what purposes such formulations may serve. (We may, of course, refresh our memories with the connotations of the Nazis Jewish Problem.) Indeed, in our time of instant communication, problems are rapidly formulated to french of 1789 rationalize the bad conscience of group malaysia, those with power: thus the problem posed by Americans in Vietnam and Cambodia is referred to by Americans as the East Asian Problem, whereas East Asians may view it, more realistically, as the American Problem; the so-called Poverty Problem might more directly be viewed as the C. S. Lewis: Narnia Essay Wealth Problem by denizens of ktg education malaysia, urban ghettos or rural wastelands; the Policy Analysis of Border Controls in the US same irony twists the White Problem into its opposite: a Black Problem; and the same inverse logic turns up in the formulation of our own present state of affairs as the Woman Problem. Now the Woman Problem, like all human problems, so-called (and the very idea of ktg education malaysia, calling anything to do with human beings a problem is, of course, a fairly recent one) is not amenable to solution at all, since what human problems involve is re-interpretation of the nature of the situation, or a radical alteration of stance or program on the part of the problems themselves . Thus women and their situation in the arts, as in other realms of endeavor, are not a problem to be viewed through the eyes of the dominant male power elite. Instead, women must conceive of themselves as potentially, if not actually, equal subjects, and must be willing to amadeus monologue look the facts of their situation full in the face, without self-pity, or cop-outs; at ktg education, the same time they must view their situation with that high degree of emotional and intellectual commitment necessary to create a world in which equal achievement will be not only made possible but actively encouraged by social institutions. It is certainly not realistic to hope that a majority of men, in amadeus monologue the arts, or in group any other field, will soon see the kohlberg light and find that it is in their own self-interest to group malaysia grant complete equality to women, as some feminists optimistically assert, or to maintain that men themselves will soon realize that they are diminished by denying themselves access to traditionally feminine realms and emotional reactions. After all, there are few areas that are really denied to men, if the level of operations demanded be transcendent, responsible or rewarding enough: men who have a need for feminine involvement with babies or children gain status as pediatricians or child psychologists, with a nurse (female) to do the more routine work; those who feel the urge for kitchen creativity may gain fame as master chefs; and, of Analysis in the, course, men who yearn to fulfill themselves through what are often termed feminine artistic interests can find themselves as painters or sculptors, rather than as volunteer museum aides or part time ceramists, as their female counterparts so often end up doing; as far as scholarship is concerned, how many men would be willing to ktg education group malaysia change their jobs as teachers and researchers for those of kohlberg moral stages, unpaid, part-time research assistants and typists as well as full-time nannies and domestic workers?

Those who have privileges inevitably hold on to them, and hold tight, no matter how marginal the advantage involved, until compelled to ktg education bow to superior power of one sort or another. Thus the question of womens equalityin art as in the painted jerzy any other realmdevolves not upon the relative benevolence or ill-will of group malaysia, individual men, nor the french revolution of 1789 self-confidence or abjectness of individual women, but rather on the very nature of our institutional structures themselves and the view of ktg education group, reality which they impose on the human beings who are part of them. As John Stuart Mill pointed out more than a century ago: Everything which is stages, usual appears natural. Group! The subjection of women to men being a universal custom, any departure from it quite naturally appears unnatural. 5 Most men, despite lip-service to of 1789 equality, are reluctant to group give up this natural order of french, things in which their advantages are so great; for women, the case is further complicated by the fact that, as Mill astutely pointed out, unlike other oppressed groups or castes, men demand of her not only submission but unqualified affection as well; thus women are often weakened by the internalized demands of the ktg education malaysia male-dominated society itself, as well as by a plethora of material goods and comforts: the middle-class woman has a great deal more to lose than her chains. At Thomas Eakins life-class at the Pennsylvania Academy around 1855, a cow, instead of french, a nude man, served as a model for the women students. COURTESY PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OF THE FINE ARTS/CHARLES BREGLERS THOMAS EAKINS COLLECTION, PURCHASED WITH THE PARTIAL SUPPORT OF THE PEW MEMORIAL TRUST. The question Why have there been no great women artists? is simply the top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of shaky idees recues about the nature of art and its situational concomitants, about the nature of human abilities in general and of human excellence in particular, and the role that the social order plays in all of malaysia, this. While the woman problem as such may be a pseudo-issue, the misconceptions involved in the question Why have there been no great women artists? points to major areas of intellectual obfuscation beyond the specific political and bird jerzy kosinski, ideological issues involved in the subjection of women. Basic to the question are many naive, distorted, uncritical assumptions about the making of art in general, as well as the ktg education group making of great art.

These assumptions, conscious or unconscious, link together such unlikely superstars as Michelangelo and van Gogh, Raphael and Jackson Pollock under the rubric of Greatan honorific attested to by the number of scholarly monographs devoted to the artist in questionand the french of 1789 Great Artist is, of course, conceived of as one who has Genius; Genius, in turn, is thought of as an atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in the person of the group malaysia Great Artist. 6 Such ideas are related to unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises that make Hippolyte Taines race-milieu-moment formulation of the dimensions of historical thought seem a model of sophistication. But these assumptions are intrinsic to The Life Essay a great deal of art-historical writing. Group Malaysia! It is french of 1789, no accident that the crucial question of the conditions generally productive of great art has so rarely been investigated, or that attempts to ktg education investigate such general problems have, until fairly recently, been dismissed as unscholarly, too broad, or the province of some other discipline, like sociology. To encourage a dispassionate, impersonal, sociological and institutionally-oriented approach would reveal the entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying and monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of C. S. Narnia and Christianity example, art history is ktg education, based, and which has only recently been called in to question by a group of younger dissidents. Underlying the question about woman as artist, then, we find the myth of the Great Artistsubject of a hundred monographs, unique, godlikebearing within his person since birth a mysterious essence, rather like the golden nugget in Mrs. Grasss chicken soup, called Genius or Talent, which, like murder, must always out, no matter how unlikely or unpromising the circumstances. The magical aura surrounding the representational arts and their creators has, of course, given birth to myths since the earliest times.

Interestingly enough, the same magical abilities attributed by bird jerzy Pliny to the Greek sculptor Lysippos in antiquitythe mysterious inner call in early youth, the lack of group malaysia, any teacher but Nature herselfis repeated as late as the 19th century by Max Buchon in his biography of Courbet. The supernatural powers of the The Life Twain artist as imitator, his control of strong, possibly dangerous powers, have functioned historically to set him off from group, others as a godlike creator, one who creates Being out of nothing. Monologue! The fairy tale of the Boy Wonder, discovered by an older artist or discerning patron, usually in ktg education group malaysia the guise of a lowly shepherd boy, has been a stock-in-trade of artistic mythology ever since Vasari immortalized the young Giotto, discovered by the great Cimabue while the lad was guarding his flocks, drawing sheep on a stone; Cimabue, overcome with admiration by the realism of the drawing, immediately invited the humble youth to be his pupil. 7 Through some mysterious coincidence, later artists including Beccafumi, Andrea Sansovino, Andrea del Castagno, Mantegna, Zurbaran and Goya were all discovered in similar pastoral circumstances. Even when the young Great Artist was not fortunate enough to come equipped with a flock of sheep, his talent always seems to have manifested itself very early, and independent of any external encouragement: Filippo Lippi and Poussin, Courbet and Monet are all reported to have drawn caricatures in the margins of their schoolbooks instead of studying the C. S. Lewis: Essay required subjectswe never, of course, hear about the youths who neglected their studies and group, scribbled in the margins of their notebooks without ever becoming anything more elevated than department-store clerks or shoe salesmen. The great Michelangelo himself, according to his biographer and pupil, Vasari, did more drawing than studying as a child. Revolution! So pronounced was his talent, reports Vasari, that when his master, Ghirlandaio, absented himself momentarily from his work in ktg education Santa Maria Novella, and Lewis: Narnia and Christianity example, the young art student took the ktg education group opportunity to draw the scaffolding, trestles, pots of paint, brushes and the apprentices at their tasks in this brief absence, he did it so skillfully that upon his return the master exclaimed: This boy knows more than I do. Elisabeth Vigee-Lebruns immense following at moral stages, the French court was largely due to the patronage of Marie-Antoinette, whom she has been credited with making sympathetic to posterity through her portraits of the queen. Marie-Antoinette de Lorraine-Habsbourg, Queen of France, and her children , 1781.

As is so often the case, such stories, which probably have some truth in them, tend both to reflect and perpetuate the ktg education attitudes they subsume. Despite any basis in fact of these myths about the early manifestations of Genius, the tenor of the tales is revolution of 1789, misleading. It is no doubt true, for example, that the young Picasso passed all the examinations for entrance to group the Barcelona, and later to the Madrid, Academy of Art at the age of 15 in kohlberg stages but a single day, a feat of such difficulty that most candidates required a month of preparation. But one would like to ktg education malaysia find out more about similar precocious qualifiers for art academies who then went on to achieve nothing but mediocrity or failurein whom, of moral, course, art historians are uninterestedor to study in ktg education group greater detail the Narnia and Christianity role played by Picassos art-professor father in malaysia the pictorial precocity of his son. What if Picasso had been born a girl? Would Senor Ruiz have paid as much attention or stimulated as much ambition for achievement in a little Pablita? What is monologue, stressed in all these stories is the apparently miraculous, non-determined and a-social nature of artistic achievement; this semi-religious conception of the artists role is elevated to hagiography in the 19th-century, when both art historians, critics and, not least, some of the artists themselves tended to elevate the making of art into a substitute religion, the last bulwark of Higher Values in a materialistic world. The artist, in the 19th-century Saints Legend, struggles against the most determined parental and social opposition, suffering the slings and arrows of social opprobrium like any Christian martyr, and ultimately succeeds against all oddsgenerally, alas, after his deathbecause from deep within himself radiates that mysterious, holy effulgence: Genius. Here we have the mad van Gogh, spinning out sunflowers despite epileptic seizures and ktg education, near-starvation; Cezanne, braving paternal rejection and public scorn in amadeus monologue order to revolutionize painting; Gauguin throwing away respectability and financial security with a single existential gesture to pursue his Calling in ktg education malaysia the tropics, or Toulouse-Lautrec, dwarfed, crippled and alchoholic [ sic ], sacrificing his aristocratic birthright in jerzy favor of the squalid surroundings that provided him with inspiration, etc. Now no serious contemporary art historian takes such obvious fairy tales at their face value.

Yet it is this sort of mythology about artistic achievement and its concomitants which forms the unconscious or unquestioned assumptions of scholars, no matter how many crumbs are thrown to social influences, ideas of the times, economic crises and so on. Malaysia! Behind the most sophisticated investigations of great artistsmore specifically, the art-historical monograph, which accepts the notion of the Great Artist as primary, and the social and institutional structures within which he lived and worked as mere secondary influences or backgroundlurks the golden-nugget theory of genius and the free-enterprise conception of individual achievement. On this basis, womens lack of major achievement in art may be formulated as a syllogism: If women had the golden nugget of artistic genius then it would reveal itself. But it has never revealed itself. Q.E.D. Women do not have the golden nugget of artistic genius. If Giotto, the amadeus obscure shepherd boy, and van Gogh with his fits could make it, why not women? Berthe Morisot was a close friend of Manet and later married his brother.

Eugene Manet on the Isle of Wight , 1875. Yet as soon as one leaves behind the world of fairy-tale and self-fulfilling prophecy and, instead, casts a dispassionate eye on the actual situations in which important art production has existed, in the total range of group malaysia, its social and institutional structures throughout history, one finds that the very questions which are fruitful or relevant for the historian to ask shape up rather differently. One would like to ask, for instance, from Policy Analysis, what social classes artists were most likely to come at different periods of art history, from what castes and sub-group. What proportion of painters and sculptors, or more specifically, of major painters and sculptors, came from families in which their fathers or other close relatives were painters and ktg education malaysia, sculptors or engaged in related professions? As Nikolaus Pevsner points out in his discussion of the French Academy in the 17th and 18th centuries, the Lewis: Narnia and Christianity Essay transmission of the malaysia artistic profession from father to son was considered a matter of The Life Twain Essay, course (as it was with the Coypels, the Coustous, the Van Loos, etc); indeed, sons of academicians were exempted from the customary fees for lessons.

8 Despite the group malaysia noteworthy and The Life Twain, dramatically satisfying cases of the great father-rejecting revoltes of the 19th century, one might be forced to group admit that a large proportion of artists, great and not-so-great, in Essay Policy Analysis of Border Controls US the days when it was normal for sons to follow in their fathers footsteps, had artist fathers. In the rank of major artists, the names of Holbein and Durer, Raphael and Bernini, immediately spring to mind; even in group malaysia our own times, one can cite the names of Picasso, Calder, Giacometti and Wyeth as members of artist-families. As far as the monologue relationship of artistic occupation and social class is concerned, an ktg education group interesting paradigm for the question Why have there been no great women artists? might well be provided by trying to jerzy kosinski answer the question: Why have there been no great artists from the aristocracy? One can scarcely think, before the ktg education group anti-traditional 19th century at least, of any artist who sprang from the ranks of any more elevated class than the upper bourgeoisie; even in the 19th century, Degas came from the lower nobilitymore like the haute bourgeoisie, in factand only Toulouse-Lautrec, metamorphosed into the ranks of the marginal by accidental deformity, could be said to have come from the loftier reaches of the upper classes. While the aristocracy has always provided the lions share of the patronage and the audience for artas, indeed, the aristocracy of wealth does even in our more democratic daysit has contributed little beyond amateurish efforts to the creation of the painted bird jerzy kosinski, art itself, despite the fact that aristocrats (like many women) have had more than their share of educational advantages, plenty of malaysia, leisure and, indeed, like women, were often encouraged to dabble in of Mark the arts and group malaysia, even develop into respectable amateurs, like Napoleon IIIs cousin, the Princess Mathilde, who exhibited at the official Salons, or Queen Victoria, who, with Prince Albert, studied art with no less a figure than Landseer himself. Could, it be that the little golden nuggetGeniusis missing from the aristocratic make-up in the same way that it is from the feminine psyche? Or rather, is it not, that the kinds of demands and expectations placed before both aristocrats and womenthe amount of time necessarily devoted to social functions, the very kinds of activities demandedsimply made total devotion to professional art production out of the question, indeed unthinkable, both for upper-class males and for Lewis: Narnia Essay, women generally, rather than its being a question of group, genius and talent? When the right questions are asked about the conditions for revolution of 1789, producing art, of which the production of great art is a sub-topic, there will no doubt have to be some discussion of the situational concomitants of malaysia, intelligence and talent generally, not merely of artistic genius. Piaget and others have stressed in their genetic epistemology that in the development of reason and in the unfolding of imagination in young children, intelligenceor, by implication, what we choose to call geniusis a dynamic activity rather than a static essence, and an activity of a subject in Essay Policy Controls US a situation . As further investigations in the field of child development imply, these abilities, or this intelligence, are built up minutely, step by ktg education group step, from monologue, infancy onward, and the patterns of adaptation-accommodation may be established so early within the group subject-in-an-environment that they may indeed appear to be innate to the unsophisticated observer. Such investigations imply that, even aside from meta-historical reasons, scholars will have to abandon the revolution of 1789 notion, consciously articulated or not, of individual genius as innate, and as primary to the creation of group, art. 9.

The question Why have there been no great women artists? has led us to the conclusion, so far, that art is not a free, autonomous activity of jerzy, a super-endowed individual, influenced by previous artists, and, more vaguely and superficially, by social forces, but rather, that the total situation of art making, both in terms of the development of the ktg education malaysia art maker and in the nature and quality of the work of art itself, occur in a social situation, are integral elements of this social structure, and are mediated and determined by specific and french revolution of 1789, definable social institutions, be they art academies, systems of patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast. The Question of the Nude. We can now approach our question from ktg education group, a more reasonable standpoint, since it seems probable that the answer to why there have been no great women artists lies not in the nature of kohlberg moral, individual genius or the lack of it, but in ktg education malaysia the nature of Narnia, given social institutions and what they forbid or encourage in various classes or groups of individuals. Let us first examine such a simple, but critical, issue as availability of the nude model to aspiring women artists, in the period extending from the Renaissance until near the end of the 19th century, a period in group malaysia which careful and prolonged study of the nude model was essential to the training of Twain Essay, every young artist, to the production of any work with pretentions to grandeur, and to the very essence of History Painting, generally accepted as the ktg education group highest category of art: indeed, it was argued by defenders of traditional painting in the 19th century that there could be no great painting with clothed figures, since costume inevitably destroyed both the temporal universality and the classical idealization required by great art. Needless to say, central to the training programs of the academies since their inception late in the 16th and early in the 17th centuries, was life drawing from the nude, generally male, model. In addition, groups of artists and amadeus monologue, their pupils often met privately for life drawing sessions from the nude model in their studios. In general, it might be added, while individual artists and private academies employed the female model extensively, the female nude was forbidden in group almost all public art schools as late as 1850 and aftera state of affairs which Pevsner rightly designates as hardly believable. 10 Far more believable, unfortunately, was the complete unavailability to the aspiring woman artist of any nude models at all, male or female.

As late as 1893, lady students were not admitted to life drawing at the Royal Academy in London, and even when they were, after that date, the model had to french of 1789 be partially draped. 11. A brief survey of representations of group, life-drawing sessions reveals: an The Life Twain Essay all male clientele drawing from the female nude in ktg education group malaysia Rembrandts studio; men working from male nudes in 18th-century representations of academic instruction in The Hague and Vienna; men working from the seated male nude in The Life Essay Baillys charming painting of the interior of Houdons studio at the beginning of the 19th century; Mathieu Cochereaus scrupulously veristic Interior of Davids Studio , exhibited in the Salon of 1814, reveals a group of young men diligently drawing or painting from a male nude model, whose discarded shoes may be seen before the group models stand. The very plethora of surviving Academiesdetailed, painstaking studies from the nude studio modelin the youthful oeuvre of artists down through the time of Seurat and well into the 20th century, attests to jerzy the central importance of this branch of study in the pedagogy and ktg education malaysia, development of the talented beginner. The formal academic program itself normally proceeded, as a matter of course, from copying from drawings and engravings, to revolution drawing from casts of famous works of sculpture, to ktg education group malaysia drawing from the living model. To be deprived of this ultimate stage of the painted jerzy kosinski, training meant, in effect, to be deprived of the ktg education possibility of creating major art works, unless one were a very ingenious lady indeed, or simply, as most of the women aspiring to be painters ultimately did, to restrict oneself to the minor fields of portraiture, genre, landscape or still-life. It is rather as though a medical student were denied the kosinski opportunity to dissect or even examine the malaysia naked human body. In Zoffanys painting of the life-class at monologue, the Royal Academy, 1772, all the members are present except for Angelica Kauffmann, who for reasons of propriety has a stand-inher portrait on ktg education group malaysia the wall.

There exist, to my knowledge, no representations of amadeus, artists drawing from the nude model which include women in ktg education any role but that of the the painted bird jerzy kosinski nude model itself, an interesting commentary on rules of propriety: i.e., it is all right for a (low, of course) woman to group reveal herself naked-as-an-object for a group of men, but forbidden to a woman to participate in the active study and recording of naked-man-as-an-object, or even of a fellow woman. An amusing example of this taboo on confronting a dressed lady with a naked man is embodied in a group portrait of the members of the amadeus monologue Royal Academy in London in 1772, represented by group Zoffany as gathered in the life room before two nude male models: all the distinguished members are present with but one noteworthy exceptionthe single female member, the renowned Angelica Kauffmann, who, for proprietys sake, is merely present in effigy, in the form of a portrait hanging on the wall. A slightly earlier drawing of Ladies in the Studio by the Polish artist Daniel Chodowiecki, shows the ladies portraying a modestly dressed member of their sex. In a lithograph dating from the relatively liberated epoch following the kohlberg moral stages French Revolution, the malaysia lithographer Marlet has represented some women sketchers in a group of students working from the moral male model, but the model himself has been chastely provided with what appears to be a pair of bathing trunks, a garment hardly conducive to a sense of classical elevation: no doubt such license was considered daring in its day, and the young ladies in question suspected of doubtful morals, but even this liberated state of affairs seems to have lasted only a short while. In an English stereoscopic color view of the interior of a studio of ktg education malaysia, about 1865, the standing, bearded male model is Lewis: Essay example, so heavily draped that not an iota of his anatomy escapes from the discreet toga, save for a single bare shoulder and arm: even so, he obviously had the grace to avert his eyes in the presence of the malaysia crinoline-clad young sketchers. The women in revolution the Womens Modeling Class at the Pennsylvania Academy were evidently not allowed even this modest privilege. A photograph by Thomas Eakins of about 1885 reveals these students modeling from group, a cow (bull? ox? the amadeus monologue nether regions are obscure in the photograph), a naked cow to be sure, perhaps a daring liberty when one considers that even piano legs might be concealed beneath pantalettes during this era (the idea of introducing a bovine model into the artists studio stems from Courbet, who brought a bull into his short-lived studio academy in the 1860s). Only at the very end of the 19th century, in the relatively liberated and open atmosphere of Repins studio and circle in Russia, do we find representations of group malaysia, women art students working uninhibitedly from the revolution nudethe female model, to be surein the company of men. Even in this case, it must be noted that certain photographs represent a private sketch group meeting in one of the women artists homes; in the other, the model is draped; and the large group portrait, a co-operative effort by two men and group, two women students of Repins, is an imaginary gathering together of all of the Russian realists pupils, past and amadeus, present, rather than a realistic studio view.

I have gone into the question of the availability of the nude model, a single aspect of the automatic, institutionally-maintained discrimination against women, in such detail simply to demonstrate both the universality of the discrimination against women and its consequences, as well as the institutional rather than individual nature of malaysia, but one facet of the necessary preparation for achieving mere proficiency, much less greatness, in amadeus monologue the realm of art during a long stretch of time. One could equally well examine other dimensions of the ktg education situation, such as the apprenticeship system, the academic educational pattern which, in France especially, was almost the only key to success and which had a regular progression and set competitions, crowned by the Prix de Rome which enabled the young winner to work in the French Academy in that cityunthinkable for women, of courseand for which women were unable to compete until the end of the 19th century, by which time, in fact, the whole academic system had lost its importance anyway. It seems clear, to take France in the 19th century as an example, a country which probably had a larger proportion of women artists than any otherthat is to say, in terms of their percentage in the total number of artists exhibiting in. the Salonthat women were not accepted as professional painters. 12 In the middle of the century, there were only a third as many women as men artists, but even this mildly encouraging statistic is french revolution of 1789, deceptive when we discover that out of this relatively meager number, none had attended that major stepping stone to artistic success, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, only 7 percent had received any official commission or had held any official officeand these might include the most menial sort of workonly 7 percent had ever received any Salon medal, and none had ever received the Legion of Honor. 13 Deprived of encouragements, educational facilities and rewards, it is almost incredible that a certain percentage of malaysia, women did persevere and seek a profession in the arts. It also becomes apparent why women were able to compete on far more equal terms with menand even become innovatorsin literature. While art-making traditionally has demanded the Analysis of Border in the US learning of specific techniques and skills, in a certain sequence, in an institutional setting outside the home, as well as becoming familiar with a specific vocabulary of iconography and group, motifs, the same is by no means true for the poet or novelist. Anyone, even a women, has to learn the kohlberg moral language, can learn to read and write, and can commit personal experiences to paper in the privacy of ones room. Naturally this oversimplifies the malaysia real difficulties and monologue, complexities involved in ktg education malaysia creating good or great literature, whether by man or woman, but it still gives a clue as to the possibility of the Narnia and Christianity existence of Emily Bronte or an Emily Dickinson, and malaysia, the lack of their counterparts, at least until quite recently, in french the visual arts. Of course we have not gone into the fringe requirements for major artists, which would have been, for the most part, both psychically and socially closed to ktg education malaysia women, even if hypothetically they could have achieved the requisite grandeur in the performance of their craft: in C. S. and Christianity Essay the Renaissance and after, the great artist, aside from participating in the affairs of an academy, might well be intimate.

with members of ktg education group malaysia, humanist circles with whom he could exchange ideas, establish suitable relationships with patrons, travel widely and freely, perhaps politic and intrigue; nor have we mentioned the sheer organizational acumen and ability involved in running a major studio-factory, like that of Rubens. An enormous amount of self-confidence and worldly knowledgeability, as well as a natural sense of well-earned dominance and power, was needed by the great chef decole , both in the running of the Essay in the production end of painting, and in the control and instruction of the numerous students and assistants. In contrast to ktg education the single-mindedness and commitment demanded of a chef decole , we might set the image of the lady painter established by 19th-century etiquette books and reinforced by the literature of the times. It is french, precisely the insistence upon a modest, proficient, self-demeaning level of amateurism as a suitable accomplishment for the well-brought up young woman, who naturally would want to direct her major attention to the welfare of othersfamily and husbandthat militated, and still militates, against any real accomplishment on the part of women. It is malaysia, this emphasis which transforms serious commitment to frivolous self-indulgence, busy work or occupational therapy, and today, more than ever, in suburban bastions of the feminine mystique, tends to distort the whole notion of what art is and what kind of social role it plays. Lewis: And Christianity Essay! In Mrs. Ellis widely read The Family Monitor and Domestic Guide , published before the middle of the 19th century, a book of advice popular both in the United States and in England, women were warned against the snare of trying too hard to group excel in any one thing: It must not be supposed that the writer is one who would advocate, as essential to woman, any very extraordinary degree of C. S. Lewis: Narnia and Christianity, intellectual attainment, especially if confined to one particular branch of study. I should like to excel in malaysia something is a frequent and, to some extent, laudable expression; but in what does it originate, and to what does it tend? To be able to do a great many things tolerably well, is of infinitely more value to a woman, than to be able to excel in any one. Essay In The US! By the former, she may render herself generally useful: by the latter, she may dazzle for an hour. By being apt, and tolerably well skilled in everything, she may fall into any situation in life with dignity and easeby devoting her time to excellence in ktg education malaysia one, she may remain incapable of every other.

So far as cleverness, learning, and knowledge are conducive to womans moral excellence, they are therefore desirable, and no further. All that would occupy her mind to the exclusion of better things, all that would involve her in the mazes of flattery and admiration, all that would tend to draw away her thoughts from others and monologue, fix them on herself, ought to be avoided as an evil to her, however brilliant or attractive it may be in itself. 14. Lest we are tempted to ktg education group laugh, we may refresh ourselves with more recent samples of exactly the Lewis: Narnia same message cited in ktg education malaysia Betty Friedans Feminine Mystique , or in the pages of recent issues of popular womens magazines. This advice has a familiar ring, of course: propped up by a bit of Freudianism and some tag-lines from the social sciences about the The Life well-rounded personality, preparation for ktg education group malaysia, womans chief career, marriage, and the unfemininity of deep involvement with work rather than sex, it is still the mainstay of the Feminine Mystique. Such an outlook helps guard man from unwanted competition in his serious professional activities and assures him of well-rounded assistance on the home front, so that he may have sex and of Mark, family in addition to the fulfillment of his own specialized talent and excellence at the same time.

As far as painting specifically is ktg education malaysia, concerned, Mrs. Ellis finds that it has one immediate advantage for the young lady over amadeus monologue, its rival branch of artistic activity, musicit is ktg education group malaysia, quiet and french revolution of 1789, disturbs no one (this negative virtue, of course, would not be true of ktg education, sculpture, but accomplishment with the hammer and amadeus, chisel simply never occurs as a suitable accomplishment for the weaker sex); in group malaysia addition, says Mrs. Bird Jerzy Kosinski! Ellis, it [drawing] is an ktg education employment which beguiles the Essay Analysis US mind of many caresDrawing is, of all other occupations, the one most calculated to keep the mind from brooding upon self, and to maintain. that general cheerfulness which is a part of social and domestic dutyIt can also, she adds, be laid down and resumed, as circumstance or inclination may direct, and that without any serious loss. 15 Again, lest we feel that we have made a great deal of progress in this area in the past 100 years, I might bring up the remark of a bright young doctor who, when the malaysia conversation turned to his wife and her friends dabbling in the arts, snorted: Well, at least it keeps them out of trouble! Now as in the 19th century, amateurism and lack of real commitment as well as snobbery and The Life of Mark Twain, emphasis on chic on malaysia the part of women in their artistic hobbies, feeds the contempt of the successful, professionally committed man who is engaged in real work and can, with a certain justice, point to his wifes lack of seriousness in her artistic activities. Jerzy! For such men, the real work of women is only that which directly or indirectly serves the family; any other commitment falls under the rubric of diversion, selfishness, egomania or, at the unspoken extreme, castration. The circle is a vicious one, in which philistinism and ktg education malaysia, frivolity mutually re-enforce each other. In literature, as in life, even if the womans commitment to art was a serious one, she was expected to drop her career and give up this commitment at Essay Policy Analysis of Border in the US, the behest of love and marriage: this lesson is, today as in ktg education group malaysia the 19th century, still inculcated in young girls, directly or indirectly, from the moment they are born. Even the determined and successful heroine of Mrs. Craiks mid-19th-century novel about feminine artistic success, Olive , a young woman who lives alone, strives for moral, fame and ktg education malaysia, independence and actually supports herself through her artsuch unfeminine behavior is at the painted bird jerzy kosinski, least partly excused by the fact that she is a cripple and automatically considers that marriage is denied to ktg education group malaysia hereven Olive ultimately succumbs to Essay Analysis of Border in the US the blandishments of love and marriage. To paraphrase the words of Patricia Thomson in The Victorian Heroine , Mrs.

Craik, having shot her bolt in the course of group, her novel, is content, finally, to let her heroine, whose ultimate greatness the reader has never been able to doubt, sink gently into matrimony. Of Olive, Mrs. Craik comments imperturbably that her husbands influence is to deprive the Scottish Academy of no one knew how many grand pictures. 16 Then as now, despite mens greater tolerance, the Lewis: Narnia example choice for women seems always to be marriage or a career, i.e., solitude as the ktg education price of success or sex and The Life of Mark Twain, companionship at the price of professional renunciation. That achievement in the arts, as in any field of endeavor, demands struggle and sacrifice, no one would deny; that this has certainly been true after the middle of the 19th century, when the traditional institutions of artistic support and patronage no longer fulfilled their customary obligations, is undeniable: one has only to think of Delacroix, Courbet, Degas, van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec as examples of group malaysia, great artists who gave up the of 1789 distractions and group malaysia, obligations of family life, at least in part, so that they could pursue their artistic careers more singlemindedly. Yet none of them was automatically denied the pleasures of sex or companionship on account of this choice. Nor did they ever conceive that they had sacrificed their manhood or their sexual role on Essay account of their singleness and singlemindedness in order to achieve professional fulfillment. But if the artist in ktg education malaysia question happens to kohlberg stages be a woman, 1,000 years of guilt, self-doubt and ktg education malaysia, objecthood have been added to the undeniable difficulties of being an artist in the modern world. The unconscious aura of titillation that arises from the painted bird jerzy kosinski, a visual representation of an aspiring woman artist in the mid-19th century, Emily Mary Osbornes heartfelt painting, Nameless and Friendless , 1857, a canvas representing a poor but lovely and respectable young girl at a London art dealer, nervously awaiting the verdict of the pompous proprietor about the worth of ktg education group, her canvases while two ogling art lovers look on, is really not too different in its underlying assumptions from an overtly salacious work like Bompards Debut of the Model . The theme in both is C. S. Lewis: Narnia and Christianity, innocence, delicious feminine innocence, exposed to the world. Group! It is the charming vulnerability of the young woman artist, like that of the Essay Controls in the US hesitating model, which is really the subject of Miss Osbornes painting, not the value of the young womans work or her pride in it: the ktg education malaysia issue here is, as usual, sexual rather than serious. Always a model but never an artist might well have served as the motto of the seriously aspiring young woman in the arts of the 19th century.

The monumental figures of The Church and C. S. Lewis:, The Synagogue from the South Portal of the Cathedral of Strasbourg, ca. 1225, are attributed to malaysia Sabina von Steinbach, daughter of the revolution master-sculptor of the malaysia cathedral, who died before the kohlberg completion of the work. But what of the small band of heroic women, who, throughout the ages, despite obstacles, have achieved pre-eminence, if not the ktg education group pinnacles of grandeur of a Michelangelo, a Rembrandt or a Picasso? Are there any qualities that may be said to Twain Essay have characterized them as a group and as individuals? While we cannot go into such an investigation in depth in this article, we can point to a few striking characteristics of women artists generally: they all, almost without exception, were either the daughters of artist fathers, or, generally later, in the 19th and 20th centuries, had a close personal connection with a stronger or more dominant male artistic personality.

Neither of these characteristics is, of course, unusual for men artists, either, as we have indicated above in the case of artist fathers and sons: it is simply true almost without exception for group, their feminine counterparts, at least until quite recently. Kohlberg Moral! From the legendary sculptor, Sabina von Steinbach, in the 13th century, who, according to ktg education malaysia local tradition, was responsible for South Portal groups on the Cathedral of Strasbourg, down to Rosa Bonheur, the amadeus monologue most renowned animal painter of the 19th century, and including such eminent women artists as Marietta Robusti, daughter of ktg education group malaysia, Tintoretto, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Elizabeth Cheron, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun and Angelica Kauffmannall, without exception, were the daughters of artists; in the 19th century, Berthe Morisot was closely associated with Manet, later marrying his brother, and Mary Cassatt based a good deal of her work on the style of her close friend Degas. Precisely the amadeus monologue same breaking of group, traditional bonds and discarding of time-honored practices that permitted men artists to strike out in directions quite different from those of their fathers in the painted the second half of the 19th century enabled women, with additional difficulties, to ktg education be sure, to strike out on their own as well. Many of our more recent women artists, like Suzanne Valadon, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kaethe Kollwitz or Louise Nevelson, have come from amadeus, non-artistic backgrounds, although many contemporary and near-contemporary women artists have married fellow artists. It would be interesting to investigate the ktg education group malaysia role of benign, if not outright encouraging, fathers in the formation of women professionals: both Kaethe Kollwitz and Barbara Hepworth, for example, recall. the influence of unusually sympathetic and supportive fathers on C. S. and Christianity example their artistic pursuits. In the ktg education group absence of any thoroughgoing investigation, one can only gather impressionistic data about the presence or absence of rebellion against parental authority in women artists, and whether there may be more or less rebellion on the part of women artists than is true in the case of men or vice versa.

One thing however is clear: for kosinski, a woman to opt for a career at all, much less for a career in art, has required a certain amount of unconventionality, both in the past and at present; whether or not the woman artist rebels against malaysia or finds strength in the attitude of her family, she must in any case have a good strong streak of rebellion in her to make her way in the world of of Mark Twain, art at group malaysia, all, rather than submitting to the socially approved role of wife and french revolution of 1789, mother, the only role to ktg education group malaysia which every social institution consigns her automatically. It is only by adopting, however covertly, the masculine attributes of singlemindedness, concentration, tenaciousness and absorption in ideas and craftsmanship for amadeus monologue, their own sake, that women have succeeded, and continue to succeed, in the world of art. It is ktg education, instructive to examine in greater detail one of the most successful and accomplished women painters of all time, Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899), whose work, despite the of 1789 ravages wrought upon its estimation by changes of taste and a certain admitted lack of ktg education, variety, still stands as an the painted impressive achievement to anyone interested in the art of the 19th century and in the history of taste generally. Rosa Bonheur is a woman artist in whom, partly because of the magnitude of her reputation, all the various conflicts, all the ktg education group malaysia internal and external contradictions and struggles typical of her sex and profession, stand out in sharp relief. Like Constant Troyon, Bonheur aimed at an epical, heroic interpretation of animals which became extremely popular. Kohlberg Moral! The Horse Fair , ca. 185255. The success of Rosa Bonheur firmly establishes the ktg education group role of institutions, and institutional change, as a necessary, if not a sufficient cause of achievement in french art.

We might say that Bonheur picked a fortunate time to become an artist if she was, at the same time, to have the disadvantage of being a woman: she came into her own in the middle of the 19th century, a time in which the struggle between traditional History Painting as opposed to the less pretentious and more free-wheeling genre painting, landscape and still-life was won by the latter group hands down. A major change in the social and institutional support for art itself was well under way: with the rise of the bourgeoisie and the fall of the cultivated aristocracy, smaller paintings, generally of every-day subjects, rather than grandiose mythological or religious scenes were much in demand. To cite the Whites: Three hundred provincial museums there might be, government commissions for public works there might be, but the only possible paid destinations for ktg education malaysia, t he rising flood of canvases were the homes of the bourgeoisie. History painting had not and never would rest comfortably in the middle-class parlor. Lesser forms of image artgenre, landscape, still-lifedid. 17 In mid-century France, as in Narnia and Christianity example 17th-century Holland, there was a tendency for artists to attempt to achieve some sort of security in a shaky market situation by specializing, by making a career out of a specific subject: animal painting was a very popular field, as the Whites point out, and Rosa Bonheur was no doubt its most accomplished and successful practitioner, followed in popularity only by the Barbizon painter Troyon (who at one time was so pressed for his paintings of ktg education malaysia, cows that he hired another artist to brush in the backgrounds). Rosa Bonheurs rise to fame accompanied that of the amadeus monologue Barbizon landscapists, supported by those canny dealers, the Durand-Ruels, who later moved on to the Impressionists. Ktg Education Group! The. Durand-Ruels were among the first dealers to tap the expanding market in movable decoration for the middle classes, to use the Lewis: example Whites terminology. Rosa Bonheurs naturalism and ability to capture the ktg education group individualityeven the soulof each of her animal subjects coincided with bourgeois taste at revolution, the time.

The same combination, of qualities, with a much stronger dose of sentimentality and pathetic fallacy to be sure, likewise assured the success of group, her animalier contemporary, Landseer, in England. Daughter of an of 1789 impoverished drawing master, Rosa Bonheur quite naturally showed her interest in art early; at ktg education group malaysia, the same time, she exhibited an french revolution independence of spirit and liberty of manner which immediately earned her the label of tomboy. According to her own later accounts, her masculine protest established itself early; to what extent any show of persistence, stubbornness and vigor would be counted as masculine in the first half of the 19th century is conjectural. Rosa Bonheurs attitude towards her father is somewhat ambiguous: while realizing that he had been influential in directing her towards her lifes work, there is no doubt that she resented his thoughtless treatment of her beloved mother, and in her reminiscences, she half affectionately makes fun of his bizarre form of social idealism. Raimond Bonheur had been an active member of the short-lived Saint-Simonian community, established in the third decade of the 19th century by Le Pere Enfantin at Menilmontant. Although in her later years Rosa Bonheur might have made fun of some of the more far-fetched eccentricities of the ktg education group members of the Lewis: example community, and disapproved of the additional strain which her fathers apostolate placed on her overburdened mother, it is obvious that the Saint-Simonian ideal of equality for womenthey disapproved of marriage, their trousered feminine costume was a token of emancipation, and their spiritual leader, Le Pere Enfantin, made extraordinary efforts to find a Woman Messiah to share his reignmade a strong impression on ktg education group her as a child, and may well have influenced her future course of behavior.

Why shouldnt I be proud to be a woman? she exclaimed to an interviewer. My father, that enthusiastic apostle of Lewis: and Christianity Essay example, humanity, many times reiterated to me that womans mission was to elevate the human race, that she was the Messiah of future centuries. Malaysia! It is to his doctrines that I owe the great, noble ambition I have conceived for the sex which I proudly affirm to be mine, and amadeus, whose independence I will support to group malaysia my dying day 18 When she was hardly more than a child, he instilled in her the ambition to surpass Mme. Vigee-Lebrun certainly the most eminent model she could be expected to follow, and he gave her early efforts every possible encouragement. At the same time, the spectacle of her uncomplaining mothers slow decline from sheer overwork and poverty might have been an C. S. Lewis: Narnia and Christianity example even more realistic influence on her decision to control her own destiny and group malaysia, never to become the slave of the painted, a husband and children. What is particularly interesting from the malaysia modern feminist viewpoint is Rosa Bonheurs ability to combine the amadeus most vigorous and unapologetic masculine protest with unabashedly self-contradictory assertions of basic femininity. In those refreshingly straightforward pre-Freudian days, Rosa Bonheur could explain to ktg education group malaysia her biographer that she had never wanted to marry for fear of losing her independencetoo many young girls let themselves be led to the altar like lambs to the sacrifice, she maintained. Yet at monologue, the same time that she rejected marriage for herself and implied an inevitable loss of selfhood for any woman who engaged in ktg education malaysia it, she, unlike the Saint-Simonians, considered marriage a sacrament indispensable to the organization of the painted bird jerzy kosinski, society. While remaining cool to offers of ktg education, marriage, she joined in a seemingly cloudless, lifelong and apparently Platonic union with a fellow woman artist, Nathalie Micas, who evidently provided her with the companionship and emotional warmth which she needed. Obviously the presence of french revolution of 1789, this sympathetic friend did not seem to demand the same sacrifice of ktg education malaysia, genuine commitment to her profession which marriage would have entailed: in any case, the advantages of Essay, such an arrangement for women who wished to avoid the distraction of group, children in the days before reliable contraception are obvious.

Yet at the same time that she frankly rejected the conventional feminine role of her times, Rosa Bonheur still was drawn into kohlberg stages, what Betty Friedan has called the frilly blouse syndrome, that innocuous version of the feminine protest which even today compels successful women psychiatrists or professors to adopt some ultra-feminine item of clothing or insist on ktg education proving their prowess as pie-bakers. 19 Despite the fact that she had early cropped her hair and adopted mens clothes as her habitual attire, following the example of George Sand, whose rural Romanticism exerted a powerful influence over her imagination, to her biographer she insisted, and french revolution of 1789, no doubt sincerely believed, that she did so only because of the specific demands of group malaysia, her profession. Indignantly denying rumors to the effect that she had run about the streets of of Border in the, Paris dressed as a boy in her youth, she proudly provided her biographer with a daguerreotype of herself at 16 years, dressed in perfectly conventional feminine fashion, except for her shorn head, which she excused as a practical measure taken after the death of her mother; who would have taken care of my curls? she demanded. 20. As far as the question of masculine dress was concerned, she was quick to reject her interlocutors suggestion that her trousers were a symbol of emancipation. Malaysia! I strongly blame women who renounce their customary attire in the desire to make themselves pass for men, she affirmed. If I had found that trousers suited my sex, I would have completely gotten rid of my skirts, but this is not the. case, nor have I ever advised my sisters of the palette to wear mens clothes in the ordinary course of life.

If, then, you see me dressed as I am, it is not at all with the aim of making myself interesting, as all too many women have tried, but simply in order to facilitate my work. Remember that at a certain period I spent whole days in the slaughterhouses. Indeed, you have to love your art in order to live in pools of bloodI was also fascinated with horses, and where better can one study these animals than at the fairs? I had no alternative but to realize that the garments of my own sex were a total nuisance. That is french revolution of 1789, why I decided to ask the Prefect of Police for the authorization to ktg education group wear masculine clothing. 21 But the costume I am wearing is my working outfit, nothing else.

The remarks of Narnia and Christianity Essay example, fools have never bothered me. Nathalie [her companion] makes fun of them as I do. It doesnt bother her at all to see me dressed as a man, but if you are even the slightest bit put off, I am completely prepared to put on a skirt, especially since all I have to do is to open a closet to find a whole assortment of feminine outfits. 22. Yet at the same time Rosa Bonheur is forced to admit: My trousers have been my great protectorsMany times I have congratulated myself for having dared to break with traditions which would have forced me to abstain from certain kinds of work, due to malaysia the obligation to drag my skirts everywhere Yet the famous artist again feels obliged to qualify her honest admission with an ill-assumed femininity: Despite my metamorphoses of costume, there is example, not a daughter of Eve who appreciates the niceties more than I do; my brusque and even slightly unsociable nature has never prevented my heart from remaining completely feminine. 23. It is somewhat pathetic that this highly successful artist, unsparing of herself in the painstaking study of animal anatomy, diligently pursuing her bovine or equine subjects in the most unpleasant surroundings, industriously producing popular canvases throughout the course of a lengthy career, firm, assured and incontrovertably masculine in her style, winner of ktg education group, a first medal in the Paris Salon, Officer of the Legion of Honor, Commander of the C. S. Lewis: Narnia example Order of Isabella the Catholic and the Order of Leopold of ktg education group, Belgium, friend of Queen Victoriathat this world-renowned artist should feel compelled late in life to of Mark justify and qualify her perfectly reasonable assumption of masculine ways, for any reason whatsoever, and to feel compelled to malaysia attack her less modest trouser-wearing sisters at the same time, in order to satisfy the demands of her own conscience.

For her conscience, despite her supportive father, her unconventional behavior and Lewis:, the accolade of malaysia, worldly success, still condemned her for Essay in the, not being a feminine woman. The difficulties imposed by such demands on malaysia the woman artist continue to add to of Mark Twain her already difficult enterprise even today. Compare, for example, the noted contemporary, Louise Nevelson, with her combination of utter, unfeminine dedication to her work and her conspicuously feminine false eyelashes; her admission that she got married at 17 despite her certainty that she couldnt live without creating because the world said you should get married. 24 Even in the case of these two outstanding artistsand whether we like The Horsefair or not, we still must admire Rosa Bonheurs achievementthe voice of the feminine mystique with its potpourri of ambivalent narcissism and guilt, internalized, subtly dilutes and subverts that total inner confidence, that absolute certitude and ktg education malaysia, self-determination, moral and esthetic, demanded by the highest and most innovative work in art. We have tried to deal with one of the perennial questions used to challenge womens demand for french of 1789, true, rather than token, equality, by examining the whole erroneous intellectual substructure upon which. the question Why have there been no great women artists? is based; by questioning the validity of the formulation of so-called problems in general and group, the problem of women specifically; and then, by probing some of the limitations of the discipline of art history itself.

Hopefully, by stressing the institutional i.e. the publicrather than the individual , or private, pre-conditions for achievement or the Essay of Border US lack of it in ktg education malaysia the arts, we have provided a paradigm for the investigation of other areas in the field. By examining in some detail a single instance of deprivation or disadvantagethe unavailability of nude models to women art studentswe have suggested that it was indeed institutionally made impossible for women to achieve artistic excellence, or success, on the same footing as men, no matter what the kohlberg stages potency of their so-called talent, or genius. The existence of a tiny band of ktg education malaysia, successful, if not great, women artists throughout history does nothing to gainsay this fact, any more than does the existence of a few superstars or token achievers among the members of any minority groups. And while great achievement is rare and difficult at best, it is still rarer and more difficult if, while you work, you must at the same time wrestle with inner demons of self-doubt and guilt and outer monsters of ridicule or patronizing encouragement, neither of which have any specific connection with the quality of the art work as such. What is important is that women face up to the reality of their history and of their present situation, without making excuses or puffing mediocrity. Disadvantage may indeed be an excuse; it is not, however, an intellectual position. Rather, using as a vantage point their situation as underdogs in the realm of grandeur, and of 1789, outsiders in ktg education that of ideology, women can reveal institutional and intellectual weaknesses in general, and, at the same time that they destroy false consciousness, take part in the creation of institutions in which clear thoughtand true greatnessare challenges open to anyone, man or woman, courageous enough to take the necessary risk, the C. S. Essay leap into the unknown. 1. Kate Milletts Sexual Politics , New York, 1970, and Mary Ellmans Thinking About Women , New York, 1968 provide notable exceptions. 2. Women Artists. Review of Die Frauen in die Kunstgeschichte by Ernst Guhl in The Westminster Review (American Edition), LXX, July, 1958, 91104. I am grateful to Elaine Showalter for ktg education malaysia, having brought this review to my attention. 3. See, for example, Peter S. Walchs excellent studies of Angelica Kauffmann or his unpublished doctoral dissertation, Angelica Kauffmann , Princeton, 1968, on the subject; for Artemisia Gentileschi, see R. Ward Bissell, Artemisia GentileschiA New Documented Chronology, Art Bulletin , L (June), 1968, 153168.

4. New York, 1968. 5. John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) in kohlberg moral stages Three Essays by group malaysia John Stuart Miff, Worlds Classics Series, London, 1966, p. Revolution Of 1789! 441. 6. For the relatively recent genesis of the malaysia emphasis on the artist as the amadeus monologue nexus of esthetic experience, see M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition , New York, 1953, and Maurice Z. Shrader, Icarus: The Image of the ktg education Artist in French. Romanticism , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. 7. Essay! A comparison with the parallel myth for women, the Cinderella Story, is group malaysia, revealing: Cinderella gains higher status on the basis of a passive, sex-object attributesmall feetwhereas the Boy Wonder always proves himself through active accomplishment. For a thorough study of myths about artists, see Ernst Kris and Otto Kurz, Die Legende vom Kunstler: Ein Geschichtlicher Versuch , Vienna, 1934. 8. Nikolaus Pevsner, Academies of Art, Past and Present , Cambridge, 1940, p. 96f. 9. Contemporary directionsearthworks, conceptual art, art as information, etc.certainly point away from emphasis on the individual genius and his salable products; in art history, Harrison C. and Cynthia A. Whites Canvases and Careers: Institutional Change in the French Painting World , New York, 1965, opens up a fruitful new direction of investigation, as did Nikolaus Pevsners pioneering Academies of Art . Ernst Gombrich and Pierre Francastel, in their very different ways, always have tended to view art and kohlberg stages, the artist as part of a total situation rather than in lofty isolation. 10.

Female models were introduced in group malaysia the life-class in Berlin in 1875, in Stockholm in 1839, in Naples in french revolution 1870, at the Royal College of Art in London, after 1875. Pevsner, op. cit. , p. 231. Female models at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts wore masks to hide their identity. as late as about ktg education group malaysia, 1866as attested to in a charcoal drawing by Thomas Eakinsif not later. 12. H. Monologue! C. and ktg education, C. A. White, op. Essay Policy Analysis Of Border Controls In The! cit. , p. Malaysia! 51. 14. Mrs. Ellis, The Daughters of England: Their Position in Society, Character, and Responsibilities (1844) in The Family Monitor , New York, 1844, p. 35.

16. Patricia Thomson, The Victorian Heroine: A Changing Ideal , London, 1956, p. 77. 17. Twain! H. C. an d C . A. White, op. cit. Group Malaysia! , p. 91 . 18. Narnia And Christianity Essay Example! Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: Sa Vie, son oeuvre, Paris, 1908, p. 311.

19. Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique , New York, 1963, p. 158. 20. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , p. Ktg Education Malaysia! 166. 21. The Life! Paris, like many cities even today, had laws against impersonation on ktg education malaysia its books. 22. A. Klumpke, op. cit. Amadeus! , pp. 308309. 24. Cited in Elizabeth Fisher, The Woman as Artist, Louise Nevelson, Aphra , I (Spring), 1970, p. Ktg Education Group! 32.

Author: Linda Nochlin is professor of french of 1789, art history at Vassar. Malaysia! Her book on Realism (Penguin) will come out amadeus this winter. This article is based on a section of the anthology Woman in Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness , to ktg education group malaysia be published by Basic Books in April. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of ARTnews on page 22 under the and Christianity example title Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? Linda Nochlin on ktg education group Feminism Then and Now. Retrospective: Eight Artists Reply. Copyright 2017, Art Media ARTNEWS, llc. 110 Greene Street, 2nd Fl., New York, N.Y. Of 1789! 10012. Group Malaysia! All rights reserved.

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Try the Job Hopper template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for ktg education group a 9th grader trying to french revolution apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is ktg education group, our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldnt find any clear examples on kohlberg, the web, and group I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the Elegant 2.0 template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out our How to Write a Resume guide to get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further!

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Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to Twain the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether youre qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. Malaysia! I understand that some regulations and rules change over amadeus, the years it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain. If that doesnt seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure.

Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in ktg education group malaysia, major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our Classic template on this page should do the Essay Analysis US trick: Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: Afterwards, feel free to choose any format just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and ktg education HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in the painted bird kosinski, todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and ktg education group easy export to french revolution of 1789 MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.

By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to malaysia the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is Essay Policy Analysis Controls in the US, a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template.

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A Critical Analysis of Bella Swan. Soon, Bella arrives at school. The very first person to talk to her is a girl named Jessica. At this point, nobody knows Bella; she's just the strange new girl from Phoenix. Jessica seems to welcome her with open arms, and acts very friendly toward the new girl. Jessica introduces Bella to group, other friends, such as Angela, and gives her a place to sit at lunchtime. Controls US? Despite the fact that Jessica seems so open and welcoming and friendly, Bella thinks of her as shallow, whiny and annoying automatically. She stereotypes Jessica and ktg education group, labels her from the start, just because Jessica said seemed slightly wistful for the painted bird kosinski the boy Bella takes a liking to after seeing his beauty from across the cafeteria.

Once Bella and Edward become official boyfriend and girlfriend, Bella ignores all of her friends completely. She doesn't speak to them at all, and ignores their general existence. They don't matter; she has a super hot boyfriend now! Of course, in New Moon, Edward dumps her. For months, she continues to completely disregard her friends. When she finally wants to be friends with Jessica again, she is shocked to see that Jessica is reluctant. Of course, Jessica must be a terrible person for being hesitant at becoming friends with someone who seems to ignore you most of the time! They go out to group malaysia, the movies, and Bella goes out and puts herself and Jessica both in Lewis: Narnia and Christianity Essay example danger of possible rapists. Ktg Education Group? Now, Jessica could have run away. She could have easily abandoned Bella.

At this point, Jessica realized that Bella has been using her. The Life? Most girls would get angry and storm off to malaysia, leave their friend to kohlberg, whatever fate awaited them. However, Jessica stayed by her side. This is truly loyal and group malaysia, even brave. Naturally, Jessica is angry with Bella for putting her in danger so selfishly. However, Bella is appalled!

How dare someone not let her use them! Isn't that what friends are for anyway? So she, once again, disregards Jessica and labels her as a bad friend and as a girl who just wants to be more popular. This basically means that she is supposed to be the authors picture of perfection. How many people tell Bella that she is so mature for her age and she is Analysis Controls, so beautiful and she is so selfless and she is so intelligent and she is just an amazing person in general? Of course, we know better, but this is in SMeyer's point of view.

No, clumsiness is ktg education group, NOT a character flaw. I think I went over this already? What flaw did SMeyer purposely give to Bella? Loving Edward too much doesn't count, nor does clumsiness, nor does being too loyal or anything like that. Amadeus? I mean a REAL flaw. Ktg Education Group? Examples of real personality flaws in real characters include. The Painted Jerzy? Implusive and disregard to the rules for Harry in Harry Potter. Shallow for Tally in Uglies.

Selfish for Lestat in The Vampire Chronicles. Ktg Education Malaysia? Thoughtless and selfish for Ralph in Twain Lord of the Flies. Ungrateful for Coraline in Coraline. Group? . and of Mark Essay, plenty more. Bella possesses no such flaw (on purpose, at least). Come on. SMeyer even said so herself; in fact, she's said it directly to her husbands face. If Edward or Jacob walked up to group malaysia, the door, she would leave her husband in The Life of Mark Essay an instant. Boy, do I feel sorry for that man for having to group malaysia, put up with that woman. Take a look at Bella's physical description. Then take a look at a picture of Essay Analysis of Border US, SMeyer. Similar?

Maybe a bit too similar. We are told she gets top grades. Group Malaysia? We are told she loves reading, especially works that are supposed to seem sophisticated so that Bella seems intelligent. However, do we ever see any proof of Lewis: Essay example, her intelligence? Nope. Ktg Education? She's supposed to be beautiful, because that just makes her more perfect, right? Then, she tries to be modest about it. Amadeus Monologue? She's supposed to ktg education malaysia, be so selfless (though we know she's quite selfish). Kohlberg Moral? She's supposed to be absolutely perfect, to a point where it's fake.

She's not truly perfect; she's a Barbie doll. Yes. Absolutely yes. She gets the man of her dreams without even trying. She gets the perfect family without even trying. She is admired by all without even trying. She becomes the most popular girl in malaysia school by the end of lunchtime without even trying. She becomes a vampire, which is exactly what she wants, without working for amadeus it at all. Ktg Education? She doesn't have to struggle through her newborn phase; she's a natural! She also gets the best baby she can possibly imagine, when vampires can't even have babies!

Lucky her! She becomes the Lewis: and Christianity Essay, most graceful vampire ever! She becomes the group malaysia, most powerful vampire ever! And she doesn't have to lift a finger to get what she wants! Isn't that great? -Needs a man in her life CONSTANTLY. -Needs a man to stand up for her ALL THE TIME. -Happily cooks and cleans for The Life of Mark Twain her father who sits around all day watching football and drinking. -Acts like a servant to any male who asks it of her. -Edward always wins. Always. Ktg Education Group Malaysia? Bella doesn't mind though.

He's only looking out for her, right? Some twilight hater does not like my book where I am the inspiration for The Life of Mark the main charactor and ktg education malaysia, she mocked my sparkling prodigys go forth and slay her my minions. Nah im kidding about what was on the website but she just really bugs me you know. Honestly, I was a fan of Twilight until I began seeing its imperfections. And Bella's character really annoyed me, so thank you for posting this article and speaking the truth!

I mean, you pointed out all the flaws in her character. Twain? Seriously, though, thank you for writing this article. You discuss Bella's motivations. Please keep in mind that Bella isn't real, she doesn't have her own motivations! Her motivations are whatever the ktg education malaysia, author chooses them to be.

You say This makes me think that maybe Bella isn't moving away for The Life Essay her mother's sake; maybe she's moving to get away from group malaysia her mother. That makes it sound as though she's a real person who could potentially be hiding her real reasons from the reader. When Bella needs to Twain Essay, use Jess for that girls night out, she isn't shocked when Jessica is reluctant! She knows before she asks her that it's going to malaysia, be awkward. And she definitely never says that Jessica is a bad person because of her reluctance, I'm not sure where you got that from :( Again, I do not remember Bella ever mentioning that she doesn't talk to her friends because they are unworthy of her company. I was under the impression that she just isn't incredibly social, combined with a little bit of disinterest. But I certainly didn't think that she disliked them, or though of them as unworthy of her time! Granted I haven't read Twilight for revolution a while, but I certainy don't remember Bella thinking that Edward was the only one good enough for ktg education group her when she first saw him : Could you please quote that part?

I also don't remember her basing her opinion of him on his eyes. You mention that SM may have meant clumsiness as a flaw, but that it doesn't work as one. I assume the reason you're pointing this out is because of Bella's Mary Sue-ism (no flaws=Mary Sue) :) The problem is, Mary Sues are bad is an opinion, not a fact, so it can't really be used as evidence for why Bella is a bad character :)Personally, I couldn't care less whether or not she's a Mary Sue! I like her :D. Bella only Lewis: Essay fell in love with Edward because he was good looking, and group, Edward is the painted, so attracted to her. Scent and ktg education group, keeps going on about how he loves brunettes ( and not strawberry blondes. - I used to care but now I don't XD) . The Life Of Mark Twain? I used to like twilight until I noticed all the flaws. For a bit I was like a. Total fan girl but honestly people that live in ktg education malaysia a fantasy like this are quite sad I mean seriously its soooo fake. Completely unrealistic, imagine if you got married and The Life, had your first kid at 18?? Also Edward is pretty shallow. I used to think he was such a deep and interesting character but its really just stereotype prince and its just SM's fantasy that she wanted for herself. Ktg Education Malaysia? Also Robert pattison is not nice he's really smug and anti-social but that's just my opinion.

However it's shared by of Mark Jack Whitehall if you don't like R-Patz search jack Whitehall live at the Apollo and its the least recent 1. Also watch twilight sucks if u haven't seen it lol. Ktg Education Group? Sign In or join Fanpop to add your comment. Critical Analysis of Bella Swan Related Links. 2006-2017 Fanpop, Inc., All Rights Reserved. A Member of Townsquare Entertainment News.

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Edgar Allan Poe Poe, Edgar Allan (Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism) - Essay. Edgar Allan Poe 1809-1849. American short story writer, poet, critic, editor, novelist, and essayist. The following entry presents criticism of Poe's essays. See also, Edgar Allan Poe Criticism , The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym Criticism , and ktg education The Fall of the House of Usher Criticism . Though Poe's fame rests primarily on Essay Analysis Controls in the his brilliant short stories, he is also a major figure in the field of literary criticism. Group Malaysia? His fictional inventiveness is matched by his theoretical innovations, which not only provided a justification for his creation of the genres of science fiction and the detective story, but also attempted to The Life Essay create a tradition of uniquely American literary criticism that would free the American literary world from its colonial dependence on England. Though the rigid standards demanded by Poe in malaysia his construction of a worthy national literature alienated many of his contemporaries, he is now recognized as an influential figure in the development of American as well as European literary traditions. Born in Boston in 1809 to an English actress, Poe was left an orphan before the age of three. He was brought up by his foster parents, John and Frances Allan, in Richmond, Virginia. His early life was therefore spent as part of the southern gentry. He distinguished himself academically both at school and at the university, but his expectations to live the life of a southern gentleman were compromised by his deteriorating relationship with John Allan, which left him in revolution of 1789 a financially precarious position.

In 1827 Poe left Richmond and went to ktg education Boston in an attempt to create an independent life for himself. He enlisted in the army and simultaneously published his first book of C. S. Lewis: Narnia and Christianity Essay, poetry, Tamerlane, and Other Poems, which did not earn him any literary recognition. Ktg Education Malaysia? After being honorably discharged from the army in 1829, he entered West Point with Allan's consent. But Allan's continued refusal to allow him sufficient funds to maintain himself, combined now with his refusal to allow Poe to resign from the Academy, forced Poe to gain a dismissal by deliberately violating regulations. Kohlberg Moral? Left once more to fend for himself, Poe went to New York and then to Baltimore, and tried to become a part of the successful literary circle centered in New England.

However, though several of malaysia, his short stories were published, he was unable to gain either literary recognition or financial security. In 1835, a year after Allan's death, Poe moved back to Richmond and became the editor of the Southern Literary Messenger. This marked the beginning of his career as a literary critic. For the next decade, though he continued to publish short stories and poetry, his chief occupation remained that of a journalist. However, this professional consistency did not ensure financial stability since literary journalism was not a well-paying field. Furthermore, Poe's strong critical opinions frequently generated conflict with magazine proprietors who wanted to amadeus monologue retain editorial control over their publications.

As a result, he was forced to ktg education malaysia move from magazine to french of 1789 magazine in search of a better income and more critical freedom. After being dismissed from the Messenger in 1837, he worked for Burton's Gentleman's Magazine from 1839 to 1840. Ktg Education Group? He then moved to Graham's Magazine (1841-42), and finally to the Broadway Journal, where he worked as chief editor until early 1846, when the journal folded. Though he constantly dreamed of launching his own magazine, the closest he came to amadeus monologue fulfilling this ambition was to ktg education become the proprietor of the amadeus Broadway Journal for a short time. He could not, however, make the magazine as successful as he wishedhis capabilities as an editor were undercut by his limitations as a business manager. Since Poe's critical output is largely in the form of journalistic essays prompted by specific events of literary publication, it is difficult to point to any single work as being central to his literary theory. As a book reviewer, Poe commented upon ktg education group, a wide range of literary works ranging from Longfellow's Ballads to Dickens's Old Curiosity Shop. At the same time, he also wrote purely theoretical pieces like The Poetic Principle and The Philosophy of Composition.

These two kinds of critical writings are closely interrelated, since the of Mark general literary principles developed by malaysia, Poe in his theoretical essays provided the basis for his critical judgments in revolution of 1789 his book reviews. Poe thus functioned as a working critic who constantly tested his literary principles against the touchstone of actual literary productions. Three of Poe's central critical tenets are unity, the ktg education group creation of a total effect, and kohlberg originality. Poe's concept of unity differs from the traditional Aristotelian idea of ktg education group, dramatic unity in terms of time, space, and action. French Of 1789? For Poe, a unified literary work is malaysia one in which every detail, with respect to both style and content, directly contributes to the creation of the total effect of the piece. This emphasis on unity leads to monologue a number of corollary literary principlesthe rejection of any verbal ornamentation that merely display the group malaysia writer's virtuosity without adding intrinsically to the total effect, the Essay of Border Controls in the US preference for shorter works like the lyric and the short story over the longer epic or novel, since the latter are too bulky to ktg education allow for such tight construction, and french the importance of maintaining generic purity. The focus on unity also leads to malaysia Poe's characterization of the artistic process as a self-conscious act of almost mechanical construction; his Philosophy of amadeus, Composition is, in fact, a methodical presentation of the ktg education group malaysia steps involved in the construction of Essay Policy Controls in the US, his poem The Raven. According to Poe, only such careful manipulation of literary raw material can ensure the totality of effect that is the trademark of any good piece of literature.

For Poe, the primary aim of any literary work is to create a mood or an atmosphere that allows the reader to experience the probable but impossible. Such an affective view of literature does not allow any scope for the utilitarian perspective that dominated the American literary scene during most of the nineteenth century. Poe's ideas on this subject are formulated in oppositional terms which often lead to malaysia extremist statements like his heresy of the Policy of Border in the US Didactic, wherein he denounces all literary works whose chief concerns are moral rather than aesthetic. This view should be distinguished, however, from the later ideas of Oscar Wilde and English aestheticism, since Poe did recognize the group malaysia presence of moral truth at of Mark Essay the core of the ktg education group malaysia best literature. In his more mature and balanced criticism Poe is stages able to reconcile the moral and the affective aspects of literature and ktg education praises works wherein the former is carefully woven into The Life of Mark, the fabric of the overall literary effect. Poe's attack on didacticism in literature forms a part of ktg education malaysia, his reviews of Longfellow's poetry.

These reviews also contain Poe's controversial views on The Life of Mark artistic originality and ktg education group malaysia plagiarism. Poe's eagerness to expose alleged cases of literary plagiarism has frequently led to accusations of psychological instability, and numerous Poe scholars have attempted to Twain explain this obsession with reference to his personal life. Poe's extremely complex definition of originality makes it one of his most knotty critical concepts. However, in malaysia the context of his avowed desire to create a uniquely American literary tradition and his view of literature as a reflection of the revolution unperceived Ideal rather than a mimetic reproduction of the natural world, Poe's concept of originality can be seen as an integral part of his overall theoretical perspective, rather than as evidence of a psychological aberration. Contemporary reception of Poe as a literary critic is ktg education group malaysia marked by The Life of Mark Essay, controversy and ambiguity. While recognized as an malaysia astute editor whose perceptive reviews significantly increased the circulation of the Southern Literary Messenger, Poe also aroused strongly negative reactions through his harshly critical reviews that frequently included personal remarks and accusations of of Border, plagiarism. During his lifetime he achieved a degree of notoriety during the Longfellow war, when his attacks on the unofficial poet laureate of America generated a tremendous controversy. Certain scholars perceive this conflict in terms of a North-South division and view Poe as the representative of a southern literary tradition fighting against the domination of the New England literary circle.

While southern men of group, letters did eagerly claim Poe as their literary ancestor in the post-bellum period, such sectarian sentiments did not enable any careful analysis of Essay, Poe's critical writings. In the twentieth century there have been numerous attempts to malaysia re-evaluate Poe's position in the history of literary criticism. French Revolution? Most scholars see him as the American spokesperson for Romanticism and argue that his emphasis on malaysia originality and aesthetics, along with his open admiration for Shelley and Keats, clearly places him in the tradition of English Romanticism. Others, focusing on Poe's scientific predilections in Eureka and Essay his very rational perception of literary production, view him as a successor to group the Enlightenment. Lewis: And Christianity? While Poe may not fit neatly into ktg education group malaysia, any preconceived category of literary criticism, and kohlberg though scholars continue to debate the value of his theoretical contributions, he remains an important critical figure who has left an undeniable mark on American literary criticism. Access our Edgar Allan Poe Study Guide for Free. Letter to Mr. , in ktg education group 1831. (criticism) 1831.

Marginalia. (criticism) 1846. The Philosophy of stages, Composition. (essay) 1846. The Poetic Principle. (essay) 1848. Eureka: A Prose Poem (essay) 1848. The Literati: Some Honest Opinions about Authorial Merits and Demerits, with Occasional Works of Personality. (criticism) 1850. *This list includes Poe's nonfiction works. For a complete list of Poe's major writings, see . John Esten Cooke (essay date 1851-1852?) SOURCE: Poe as a Literary Critic, in ktg education group malaysia Poe as a Literary Critic, edited by N. Bryllion Fagin, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1946, pp. 1-15. [ The following essay is a contemporary unpublished critique of Poe as a literary critic which was found and published by Fagin in 1946.

The essay condemns Poe as a petty, self-contradictory critic who had no literary standards and who used his book reviews to air his personal likes and dislikes. ] In the latter part of 1849 the citizens of Richmond, Virginia, saw passing to and fro in the street a notable-looking stranger whose personal appearance at C. S. Lewis: Narnia once invited attention. He was a man a little under the malaysia medium height, slender, active. (The entire section is 2730 words.) Get Free Access to amadeus this Edgar Allan Poe Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through.

Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in group one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. John Brooks Moore (essay date 1926) SOURCE: Introduction to Selections from the painted bird kosinski, Poe's Literary Criticism, F. S. Crofts Co., 1926, pp. vii-xix. [ In the following essay, Moore argues that Poe's main ambition was to be a magazine proprietor. He therefore examines Poe primarily as a journalist who was committed to the growth of the ktg education group American magazine culture and, through it, the construction of an American literary criticism distinct from the English critical tradition. ] As soon as Fate allows I will have a magazine of my own, and will endeavor to kick up a dust. Poe to P. P. Cook, 1839. (The entire section is french of 1789 3469 words.) Get Free Access to this Edgar Allan Poe Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more.

SOURCE: Poe as a Literary Critic, in Nation, Vol. 155, No. 18, October 13, 1942, pp. 452-3. [ Wilson attempts to rescue Poe's reputation as a literary critic by focusing on the latter's development of general critical principles that explain his specific criticisms of contemporary writers .] Poe at the time of his death in 1849, had had the intention of publishing a book on The Authors of group, America in Prose and Verse. He had already worked over to a considerable extent the Twain Essay material of his articles and reviews; and the collection of critical writing printed by Griswold after his death is something between a journalistic chronicle like Bernard Shaw's dramatic notices and. (The entire section is ktg education group malaysia 2627 words.)

SOURCE: From Poe to Valery, in To Criticize the Critic, by T. S. Eliot, Farrar, Straus Giroux, 1948, pp. 33-4. [ One of the best-known and kohlberg moral stages most influential poets of the twentieth century, Eliot is equally noted as a literary critic and theorist. In the following excerpt, he argues that Poe's essays on the art of poetry help to rationalize the latter's own poetic technique, but that they cannot be taken as general principles. Group? For Eliot's critique of Poe as a poet and short-story writer, see .]

Imperfections in The Raven . . . may serve to explain why The Philosophy of Composition, the essay in which Poe professes to reveal his method in composing. (The entire section is 686 words.) SOURCE: Edgar Allan Poe, in The South in American Literature: 1607-1900, Duke University Press, 1954, pp. 528-50. [ In the following excerpt, Hubbell examines Poe's career as the kohlberg moral book reviewer for the Southern Literary Messenger.]

An excerpt from malaysia, Poe's Letter to Mr. B (1831): It has been said that a good critique on a poem may be written by one who is no poet himself. This, according to your idea and mine of poetry, I feel to be falsethe less poetical the critic, the less just the critique, and the converse. C. S. Narnia And Christianity Example? On this account, and ktg education group because there are but few Bs in the world, I. (The entire section is 834 words.) Henry Seidel Canby (essay date 1959) SOURCE: Edgar Allan Poe, in Classic Americans: A Study of Eminent American Writers from Irving to Whitman, Russell Russell, Inc., 1959, pp. Amadeus? 263-307. [ In the ktg education group following essay, Canby argues that Poe's egomania combined with his interest in jerzy contemporary scientific thought can help to explain the uneven nature of his critical writings.

While Poe was logical when delineating general literary principles, Canby maintains, his self-obsession made his critique of specific authors arbitrary and unreliable. ] To leave the society of Emerson, Hawthorne, and Thoreau for the Philadelphia, the New York, the Rich mond, of Poe is to pass from group, a quiet village of philosophic Greeks. (The entire section is 14294 words.) SOURCE: Poe as Literary Theorist: A Reappraisal, in American Literature, Vol. 33, No. 3, November, 1961, pp. 296-306. [ Looking back at The Life of Mark Twain Poe's critical writings from a mid-twentieth century perspective, Marks finds them a valuable resource despite Poe's occasional extremism in critical opinions. Ktg Education Malaysia? Mark asserts that Poe had sound critical principles with respect to the art of literary creation and the role of criticism. ] There is a double motive for a fresh assessment of Edgar Poe's criticism. The Painted Jerzy? Every generation finds it necessary to reappraise past writers, a kind of periodic stocktaking as appropriate to dead critics as to dead poets. Often this is true because aspects of.

(The entire section is 3925 words.) SOURCE: Contemporary Opinion of Poe, in The Mind of Poe and ktg education group Other Studies, Russell Russell, Inc., 1962, pp. 54-61. [ Tracing Poe's career through his editorship of various magazines and the opinions of his contemporaries, Campbell concludes that though Poe was condemned by his fellow writers for being unduly severe in his reviews, he was also appreciated for The Life Twain his critical astuteness. ] [It] was as critic . . . that Poe was best known to his contemporaries in America. By this I do not mean that his book-reviews and other critical papers were felt to exceed in importance his poems or his tales: the consensus of intelligent opinion would have given first place in group malaysia the. (The entire section is 1545 words.) SOURCE: Culmination of a Campaign, in Poe's Literary Battles: The Critic in the Context of His Literary Milieu, Duke University Press, 1963, pp. 132-89. [ In a detailed analysis of the moral Poe-Longfellow literary war, Moss argues that Poe's evaluation of Longfellow's literary capabilities, though over-harsh at times, was ultimately accurate and based on ktg education malaysia carefully workedout critical principles. ] .. . French Of 1789? I am but defending a set of principles which no honest man need be ashamed of defending, and for ktg education whose defence no honest man will consider an apology required. Edgar A. Poe.

Poe's encounters with Longfellow have. (The entire section is 19043 words.) Edd Winfield Parks (essay date 1964) SOURCE: Poe on Lewis: and Christianity Essay Fiction, in Edgar Allan Poe as Literary Critic, University of Georgia Press, 1964, pp. 24-56. [ Using Poe's reviews of specific texts, Parks reveals their relationship with Poe's general theories concerning originality, unity, and totality of effect in a literary work. Ktg Education Group? Parks argues that it is these general theoretical principles that led to Poe's emphasis on Policy Controls the short story, or tale, as the ideal creation in prose. For a more general overview of Park's views on Poe, see .] By 1831, when he was twenty-two years old, Poe had become very much interested in the writing of short stories.

Clearly in group malaysia those days in Baltimore he had read and analyzed many. (The entire section is 10496 words.) SOURCE: Toward Standards, in Poe: Journalist and bird kosinski Critic, Louisiana State University Press, 1969, pp. 159-90. [ Jacobs traces the development of Poe's general literary standards through the book reviews that Poe wrote during his last eight months as editor of the Southern Literary Messenger in 1836. ] A professional book reviewer for group malaysia an American monthly magazine had little opportunity to practice philosophical criticism, for he had to hammer out notices of the subliterary material that piled up on his desk.

Poe did attempt to examine this material by C. S. Lewis: and Christianity Essay, literary standards, however. Ktg Education Group Malaysia? In May of 1836 he reviewed a travel book, Spain Revisited, by a Lieutenant. (The entire section is 9700 words.) Robert von Hallberg (essay date 1985) SOURCE: Edgar Allan Poe, Poet-Critic, in Nineteenth-Century American Poetry, edited by A. Robert Lee, Barnes Noble, 1985, pp. The Painted Bird Jerzy? 80-98. [ In the following essay, Von Hallberg argues that Poe should be studied as a poet-critic instead of an ktg education malaysia academic critic. As a poet-critic Poe's focus is on constructing principles of literary criticism that can carve out Essay Policy a unique place for American literature, rather than on tracing the general development of literary history in the larger European context. ] We are lamentably deficient not only in invention proper, but in that which is, more strictly, Art. What American, for instance, in penning a. (The entire section is 6700 words.) Adkins, Nelson F. 'Chapter on American Cribbage': Poe and Plagiarism. The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America XVII (Third Quarter 1948): 169-210.

Discussion of Poe's views on plagiarism with special reference to the little Longfellow war. Alterton, Margaret. Origins of Poe's Critical Theory. New York: Russell Russell, Inc., 1965, 191 p. Examines the influence of Poe's interest in and knowledge of law, scientific problems, and philosophic ideas on the development of malaysia, his literary theories. Campbell, Killis. The Mind of french revolution of 1789, Poe and Other. (The entire section is 371 words.) Edgar Allan Poe Homework Help Questions. The poem Alone by Edgar Allan Poe was not published during his lifetime. It was not until 1875 that the poem was verified as being an authentic Poe poem written in 1830 when Poe was only.

The narrator is a classic example of an unreliable narrator, because he is telling the entire story himself and ktg education group there is no objective narration to amadeus monologue back up his assertions. The first lines of the. Poe was the group malaysia father of the modern-day detective story and of 1789 also the ktg education malaysia short story. He also wrote primarily of the macabre and introduced his readers to ambiguity of the characters and places so they. Edgar Allan Poe uses many different elements of style in his writing. Most commonly, he uses first person narration. You can find first person narration in many of his works, including The Raven. Edgar Allan Poe was an American poet, author, editor, and literary critic. Poe wrote during the Romantic period, and therefore, was considered a Romantic writer. Within this period, he was most. Edgar Allan Poe.

Edgar Allan Poe. Edgar Allan Poe. Mark Twain, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Kate Chopin, Stephen Crane, Sherwood Anderson, Herman Melville, Jack London, Edgar Allan Poe, O. Kohlberg? Henry, Bret Harte.