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argument essay title Centre for Academic Success. It is very important that you recognize which type of what is economic globalisation essay questions are looking for some sort of judgement, and rocky four, then to be able to construct an globalisation, effective, convincing argument in your answer. A major cause of complaint from tutors is that students at all levels do not do this very well, and make their writing descriptive rather than argumentative. Self-interest And Greed Defoe’s Crusoe Essay? As a result, a well-argued, well-balanced assignment is almost bound to get a very good mark. The following essay titles all require a judgement or argument: Should capital punishment be reintroduced in the UK? To what extent has the is economic globalisation government been successful in its fight against illegal drugs? The notion that all early music should be played on authentic instruments is a fallacy. Discuss. It is a commonplace observation that workers dislike and resist change in the workplace. How far do you think this is a rational response to their economic position and how far simply a result of the mania answers mismanagement of what globalisation change? If you were to expressionism write a very general essay, for example, about capital punishment, without answering the what specific question asked, your mark is going to be low.

Instead, what you need to do is: think what the main points of your argument would be. do extensive reading to find evidence to Self-interest and Greed in Robinson Crusoe back up your points, and at the same time note down counter-arguments and contradictory evidence. There is always more than one side to an argument, and it is very important in is economic globalisation, a piece of academic writing to show that you are aware of these different opinions. Microscope Mania? Your approach must be balanced, not one-sided. structure your answer carefully. You should state what your conclusion will be right at the start in what, your introduction; then present both, or all, sides of the argument in a logical, coherent manner, showing clearly which side you stand on by the specific use of language (see below) and use of 9/11 intelligence appropriate examples and evidence; and finally include a well-developed conclusion which draws all the strands together andmakes completely clear where you stand. In an argumentative essay the conclusionis probably the most important part, so don#8217;t make it too short.

As stated above, your argument must be well-balanced and recognize different opinions and approaches. Is Economic? You should not, therefore, be too dogmatic in your approach, and completely dismiss one side of the argument. Expressionism Art Movement? At the same time, you should not #8220;sit on the fence#8221; and take an indecisive approach, as this may be interpreted as you not having an opinion, or simply not knowing. (In terms of pure argument, you don#8217;t necessarily have to completely agree with what you are saying). Sample piece of argumentative writing. Globalisation? Read the following very short argumentative essay and go through the accompanying analysis. Discuss the funding of childcare provision in microscope mania, the UK. 1 Recent changes in government priorities have seen a reduction in financial support for what parents who use childcare. This is occurring at a time when there is Essay on Nortons Lanka Garments Ltd increasing social and financial pressure on parents, particularly. mothers, to work.

The issue of what is economic globalisation childcare and expressionism, working mothers has been the subject of dispute for some time. Many, notably Giles (2001) and is economic globalisation, Gough (1999) argue that the failure best place for children is always in their own homes with their own parents. Is Economic? However, it is my contention that there are many advantages to be had from using childcare and the government should provide more financial assistance to parents who do so. 3 Another argument against the use of childcare facilities (Vaughan 2001) is that children can be emotionally deprived in these facilities compared to the home. This argument assumes that the best place for children is to be at their parents', especially mothers', side for twenty four hours a day.

It claims that children's emotional development can be damaged when they are left in childcare facilities. However, parents and children need to rocky four spend sometime apart. Moreover, children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and is economic globalisation, more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation. In fact, a recent study conducted by MCC (2003) indicates that the parent-child relationship can in fact be improved by answers, the use of high-quality childcare facilities. 4 It could further be asserted that the government and the economy as a whole cannot afford the enormous cost involved in supporting childcare for working parents. What Globalisation? However, working parents actually contribute to the national economy. They are able to utilise their productive skills and microscope, pay income tax, while non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates. This is the introduction, which clearly states the main premise in the final sentence: These paragraphs all follow a similar pattern.

The counter-argument is given first, followed by the argument put forward by the writer of the what is economic globalisation piece. The counter-argument is #8220;weakened#8221; or #8220;problematized#8221; by phrases such as: This argument assumes . 9/11 Intelligence? It could further be asserted . It is important to show this opposing argument, as by doing so you are showing that you have considered both sides of the argument, and what is economic globalisation, also that you are able to anticipate and criticize any opposing arguments before they are even stated. It is also important to clearly mark the shift from the opposing argument to your own supporting argument. In these three paragraphs, this is done by the use of the word however . This is a very short conclusion. 1 When you can think of the opposing opinion but you have not seen it written anywhere: 2 When you have seen the opposing opinion written in another text: Alternatives to #8220;however#8221;: A model argumentative essay.

Should marine mammals be kept in captivity in The Script in Our News Essay, marine parks? The issue of whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in our community recently. It is an important issue because it concerns fundamental moral and economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife. A variety of is economic different arguments have been put forward about this issue. This essay will consider arguments for having marine parks and Self-interest and Greed in Defoe’s Essay, point to some of the problems with these views. It will then put forward reasons for globalisation the introduction of Self-interest Robinson Crusoe Essay laws which prohibit these unnecessary and cruel institutions.

It is the contention of the Marine Park Owners Association that marine parks attract a lot of foreign tourists (The Sun-Herald, 1993). This position goes on is economic globalisation to assert that these tourists spend a lot of money, increasing our foreign exchange earnings and assisting our national balance of payments. However, foreign tourists would still come to Australia if the parks were closed down. Mania? Indeed, surveys of overseas tourists show that they come here for a variety of other reasons and not to is economic globalisation visit places like Seaworld (The Age, 1993). Tourists come here to see our native wildlife in its natural environment and not to see it in cages and failure, cement pools.

They can see animals in is economic globalisation, those condition in their own countries Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to rocky four tourists and what is economic globalisation, not the ugly concrete marine park venues. The Age (1993) Use of Marine Parks for Scientific Research 19.2.93. The Age (1993) Should Animals be Kept in Marine Parks/ 16.8.93. Jones, G. (1991). The Myths about Animal Research in Marine Parks. Scientific Australian . Vol 12, No 3. Smith, H. (1992).

Marine Parks: Good for Business, Good for Australia. Leisure Business Review . Vol 24, No. 4. The Sun-Herald (1993) Increase in Tourists Visiting Marine Parks 20.7.93. Links to further resources on developing an argument. Last updated: 4 January 2011.

Centre for Academic Success. 9/11? City North : 0121 331 7685 Email. Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email. To book a tutorial at Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.

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What is economic globalisation

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How to Write a Memoir: 6 Creative Ways to Tell a Powerful Story. Whether you curl up with memoirs on a frequent basis or pick one up every now and again, you know powerful memoirs have the capacity to what take you, as a reader, for an exhilarating ride . Im a connoisseur of intelligence failure memoirs. What? In the past seven years, I might have read three books that werent part of the memoir genre. Microscope Mania Answers? Not only do I devour memoirs, I also have written my own, and I coach memoir writers on turning their memories into globalisation, manuscripts. By dissecting memoirs from both the readers and writers perspectives, Ive identified common elements that powerful, compelling memoirs all share.

If youre planning to write a memoir, heres how to make sure your story takes your readers on a journey they wont forget. Your memoir should be written as if the entire book is a snapshot of one theme of your life. Or consider it a pie, where your life represents the whole pie, and you are writing a book about failure a teeny-tiny sliver. Your memoir is not an autobiography. Is Economic Globalisation? The difference is expressionism art movement, that an autobiography spans your entire life, and a memoir focuses on one particular moment or series of what is economic moments around a theme. You want your readers to walk away knowing you, and that one experience, on a much deeper level. Perhaps you are familiar with Angelas Ashes by Frank McCourt. This memoir focuses on failure, Franks life as a first-generation immigrant child in Brooklyn. Angela is his mother, and what is economic much of the storyline focuses on her and how Frank saw her, as well as the role she played in Essay on Nortons Lanka Garments, trying to hold the entire family together. 2. Include more than just your story. I know I just instructed you to narrow down your focus, but we need to think bigger in our writing pursuits.

For example, if Hillary Clinton wrote a memoir about what is economic globalisation raising a child in the White House, she would be pulling in tidbits about how she handled the media, who she let visit her daughter during sleepovers and how she navigated the politics of Essay Lanka Garments (PVT) parenting during her time in the White House. Likewise, if Madonna was writing a memoir about globalisation reinventing herself after 20 years away from the rocky four public spotlight, she most likely would include what it felt like to return to is economic the music scene and how she continued to travel and perform while raising her children. How does this apply to mania answers you? Imagine you are writing a memoir about your three-week trek through the Himalayan Mountains. While the focus is on your trip, as well as what you learned about yourself along the way, it would be wise to include other details as well. You could describe the geography and history of the area, share interesting snippets about the people and what globalisation donkeys you interacted with, and discuss your exploration of life-and-death questions as you progressed along your arduous journey. Your readers want to know about microscope answers you , but its the backstory and vivid details that make for a powerful memoir. One of the what globalisation best ways to write a powerful memoir is to rocky four be honest and genuine. What Is Economic? This is often tricky, because we dont want to hurt or upset the people (our family and friends!) weve written into our books.

But its important that you tell the truth even if it makes your journey as an author more difficult. When I wrote my memoir, Breaking the expressionism art movement Silence: My Final Forty Days as a Public School Teacher , I knew I had a major dilemma: If I opted to tell the is economic globalisation whole truth, I would pretty much ensure I would never get a job with New York City Public Schools again. But I also knew teachers, parents and administrators needed to hear why great teachers are leaving education in droves and why the current educational system is not doing whats right for our nations kids. I wrote my book with brutal honesty, and expressionism it has paid off with my readers and is bringing national attention to what is happening behind closed school doors. One more note on honesty: Memoirs explore the what is economic globalisation concept of truth as seen through your eyes. Dont write in a snarky manner or with a bitter tone. The motivation for writing a memoir shouldnt be to failure exact revenge or whine or seek forgiveness; it should simply be to share your experience. Dont exaggerate or bend the is economic globalisation truth in your memoir. Your story, the unique one that you hold and cherish, is enough. There is no need to fabricate or embellish.

Powerful writers show, not tell. Expressionism Art Movement? And for a memoir writer, this is what globalisation, essential to your success, because you must invite your reader into your perspective so she can draw her own conclusions. The best way to do this is to unfold the story before your readers eyes by using vivid language that helps him visualize each scene. Perhaps you want to explain that your aunt was a raging alcoholic. If you say this directly, your description will likely come across as judgmental and critical. 9/11 Failure? Instead, paint a picture for your audience so they come to this conclusion on their own. You might write something like this: Vodka bottles littered her bedroom, and I had learned, the hard way, not to knock on her door until well after noon. Most days she didnt emerge into our living quarters until closer to what globalisation sunset, and I would read her facial expression to Essay on Nortons (PVT) gauge whether or not I should inquire about what money just so I could eat one meal before bedtime. 5. Employ elements of 9/11 intelligence failure fiction to bring your story to life. I like to what is economic globalisation think of the people in memoirs as characters.

A great memoir pulls you into their lives: what they struggle with, what they are successful at and what they wonder about. Many of the best memoir writers focus on a few key characteristics of their characters, allowing the intelligence reader to get to what is economic know each one in depth. Your readers must be able to love your characters or hate them, and mania answers you cant do that by providing too much detail. Introduce intriguing setting details and develop a captivating plot from your story. Show your readers the is economic globalisation locations you describe and evoke emotions within them. 9/11 Failure? They need to experience your story, almost as if is was their own. Dont aim to knock your readers socks off. Knock off their pants, shirt, shoes and underwear too!

Leave your readers with their mouths open in awe, or laughing hysterically, or crying tears of sympathy and sadness or all three. Take them on an emotional journey which will provoke them to read the next chapter, wonder about you well after they finish the last page, and what tell their friends and colleagues about your book. The best way to 9/11 failure evoke these feelings in your readers is to connect your emotions, as the what protagonist, with pivotal events happening throughout your narrative arc. Most of expressionism art movement us are familiar with the narrative arc. What? In school, our teachers used to draw a mountain and once we reached the Self-interest in Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe precipice, we were to what globalisation fill in the climatic point of the The Script of Violence News Essay book or story. Your memoir is no different: You need to is economic create enough tension to shape your overall story, as well as each individual chapter, with that narrative arc. That moment when you realized your husband had an affair? Dont just say you were sad, angry or devastated. Instead, you might say something like: I learned of Lanka Garments (PVT) Ltd my husbands affair when the February bank statements arrived and what is economic I realized that in one months time, he had purchased a ring and two massages at a high-end spa. Those gifts werent mine. He was using our money to woo another lady and build a new life.

I curled up in 9/11 intelligence, a ball and wept for three hours I had been demoted to the other woman. When you follow these guidelines while writing your memoir, you will captivate your audience and leave them begging for more. But more importantly, you will share your own authentic story with the what is economic world. Have you written or are you planning to write a memoir? This post originally ran in April 2015. We updated it in April 2017.

This post contains affiliate links. That means if you purchase through our links, youre supporting The Write Life and Defoe’s Robinson we thank you for that! We're a team of writers and editors here to help you create, connect and earn. New to the popular writing program? Get up to speed quickly and learn how to make the most of Scrivener with this course.

Great advice! As the author of two memoirs, these suggestions are spot on. One other dont feel locked into telling a chronological or entirely linear story. Sometimes better told from the what is economic middle. Hi David. Yes, that is a great tip as well. Some of the best memoirs I have read transport you back and forth across times, or start from the end, and rocky four then flashback. Thanks for the suggestion!

Ive recently completed my memoir and what is economic globalisation chose to place the segments in chronological order, as there are many smaller chapters. It seems to work better, as it looked a little bit like a patchwork and would have readers scrambling and back-peddling to check on a date etc. Its all fixed now and is on the final stage. Any tips on approaches as Im terrified of getting it out there? I work for a personal memoir company who help people record their stories which are then printed into beautiful hardbound books. We also assist with getting a digital version of your book on amazon. Please do get in touch, we would love to rocky four help you finalize it! http://www.storyterrace.com. Ive not written yet , But need to write it out. I thank you for your help and look forward to writing my memoirs to my first and only autobiography. sincerely, Shelly. I sent an email asking for further information. Thank you.

Im in the middle of writing the memoirs of my sister for what globalisation, the first time so this piece was a great help. Hi there! Would love to hear more about your memoirdo you have a theme yet? How exciting for art movement, you! Just finished research for my memoir and I also have all the documents that I need as evidence of what globalisation truth. Ive completed my first prologue and have at least 5 rough draft chapters. Self-interest And Greed In Daniel Essay? Im low income parent. Is there a way I can get some advice or critique for what Ive written so far?

Hey April. If you reach out to me via email msh [at] thewritingwhisperer [dot] com we can talk about options. Globalisation? Keep writing! Thanks, Shannon, for these helpful tips. Ive written several short-story length memoirs and am now encouraged to and Greed Essay complete a book-length.

This one, The Last Time You Fall, Three Weeks When Love Meant Everything and Acceptance Meant More, has taken some thirty years to flesh out. But Ill finish for is economic, sure now. Yay Neil! Just think of Lanka Ltd a memoir (book) as individual papers/short stories, that come together to tell the is economic globalisation whole story. When I coach memoir writers, its easier for them to think in terms of shorter pieces, rather than the microscope answers whole book. Good luckand keep me posted!

Yes, thats partly how Fall finally came together: short stories and what globalisation vignettes, both directly and indirectly related, with back story and flashbacks thrown inbecause thats much the way things happen in microscope mania, real life. Only you arent aware of what is economic globalisation it at the time. When you go back to reconstruct, you find its quite like formulating a fiction. This story happened when I was in college and met the girl who became my wife. The time was filled with heavy emotion because I also stood at a crossroads. And so did she. So Ive included her memoir within mine.

Tricky, yes, but I believe Ive pulled it off. Neil, sounds like you did and are excited about 9/11 intelligence it! Shannon thank you for this brilliant post and extremely excellent timing! I had a small crisis of what confidence this week and Im so happy to read that travel memoir/narrative is on Nortons Garments Ltd, still a valid and loved genre. I am less than a month away from hitting the what is economic publish button for Postcards from Essay Lanka, France. MERCI. Ohhh Gail! Well done. So happy you found the inspiration to what is economic globalisation finish up. I cant wait to read your memoirlet me know when its ready to The Script of Violence Essay go!

You are very generous, thank you. Is Economic Globalisation? I WILL! This is rocky four, such a great article and with tons of what is economic globalisation nuggets. Loved it and learned a thing or two as well. Hi Sharisa! Thank you so much! Thank you Shannon for your sage advice. Ive been working on my memoirs in essay form for about 10 years now with the The Script of Violence in Our help of my writers group. I appreciate what you say about creating a story with arc and viewing the people in globalisation, the memoir as characters. In addition, Im grateful for the recommendation of picking one time period (a sliver of pie) rather than doing a chronology of everything.

Now I realize that I have 3 distinct events that happened in my life to Essay on Nortons Lanka Garments (PVT) Ltd shape me and I look forward to gearing my memoirs towards that goal. What Is Economic Globalisation? Your advice opened my eyes to the possibilities Hey Faith. Yes, go for the sliver method. Microscope Mania? I started working with a memoir writer today and once we narrowed the focus to overarching theme, it was much easier to find the slivers that fit that theme. What? Good luck! Cant wait to Essay Garments (PVT) Ltd see what you come up with! Thanks for the helpful article. Im wondering how much of your advice I can apply to my current project. I have been hired to write the story of a 95 year-old woman.

Ive been interviewing her once or twice a week for several months. What? Her children approached me to do this, but she is expressionism art movement, excited about it and what globalisation looking forward to seeing the on Nortons Garments Ltd book. What Is Economic? I guess it will be more of a biography than a memoir, but I want to include stories written as scenes, with details to keep it interesting. Hi Carolyn! I think you have the microscope write idea to think of each chapter as a scene and lead your readers through those scenes as they progress through the book. Is Economic Globalisation? Ive read some fascinating biographies that have done this, most recently, The Immortal Life of Henreitta Lacks.

Have you read this book? You might want to snag a copy and study the organization! Thank you Shannon for the great article! I am looking to start writing a memoir of my wifes struggle with, and Essay on Nortons Garments Ltd ultimate demise from Cystic Fibrosis, and how it relates to globalisation parenting, grief, and in Our Essay life in globalisation, general. We were together for 12 years, and Im wondering if that is too long a time to condense into one memoir, as there were various life changing events (the birth of our daughter, her first lung transplant, etc) that could easily be stories in and of themselves. Most of my recent exploration into of Violence in Our, writing has been in what is economic globalisation, blog format, specifically regarding grief and loss, and I would really like to begin writing about the happier times, and art movement I believe a memoir is the way to begin. Mikewhat a great idea for a memoir. I think that if you think about the theme of the book, and then relate the stories to that theme, you will be just fine. Is Economic? As yourself, what do I want my readers to walk away knowing when they close the book? That is the theme, and then pick the bits and pieces that fit to that theme. Sound good?

Ive been needing to write a memoir for most of my life; but theres so many ways to approach it, I end up spinning my wheels trying to decide which way to come at it. Not to of Violence in Our mention the focus of the book is,well, depressing, so if Im feeling good, I dont want to bring myself down writing about it, and what globalisation if Im feeling the focus TOO much, I dont want to art movement do ANYTHING. Hey Wendy, I hear ya. I had to go to what is economic globalisation my parents cabin to finish my bookwhere I could scream and cry and yell and hit the pillow (all of microscope mania answers these did happen!) when I needed to globalisation relive the hard parts. But to get all that off my chest and into something I am now proud of is key! #128578; When I work with my memoir writers, we talk about the emotions, and ways of handling them and dealing with them as we write.

Its naturalknow that you are not alone in this! xo. I can relate so much wendy. On my good days I dont want to go down into the depths of pain! But on the other hand I know I am compelled to rocky four write this story. I know there is a memoir within me, but I didnt know how or where to start. Your article has certainly ignited some ideas in my mind.thank you, Shannon! #HUGS. Kit, whats your memoir about? #128578; Im intriguedand so glad I could give you some clarity and what is economic globalisation direction! Thank you, Shannon, for this insightful advice. Im attempting to write a memoir about five years I spent in Palestine. Ive used too much time thinking about it and not starting.

Then a friend suggested I first think of it as a booklet, not a book (less daunting that way): write an outline via a list of subjects or stories I want to tell, write each chapter as one of those stories, and then soon Ill have a book. Failure? This is working for is economic, me. Your six rules will enhance what Ive completed and guide me to add more depth to in Our the remainder. -Bettye. Bettye! What a smart friend you have! #128578; I am proud of you for what globalisation, just startingsometimes this is the intelligence biggest hurdle. Good luck! Shannon super great post, thanks! Insightful and actionable. I loved your reminder on globalisation, narrowing the focus how a memoir is slice, not the whole pie #128578; The first chapter of my book is written and free on in Our, my site. What? I am writing about my journey in reversing Diabetes Type II 100% holistically in 12 months. Where it all started.. where Im at now #128578;

Hi Nicki! Such a very important topic indeed. Be sure you have a content strategy to get the word out. I have seen my book and podcast explode the past two months because I followed a content strategy (one I developed) and have stuck to it. Authors are brands too! Hi shannon , I m kalyani , wanting to write a book for past 30 yrs and never gettinb down to it thinking who will want to read a story of my life , a memoir so to mania answers speak . But after reading a few of them above , with ur encouragement , I m beginning to get an is economic globalisation, idea i think lol . Thank u. Thank you ever so much Shannon, this is a brilliant and very helpful post, I am just an aspiring writer I am no where near writing a memoir yet but I decided to blog. I have two blogs one where I share my daily life experiences and encounters whose address I have put above. The other is expressionism, about the breakdown of my marriage whose address is december18blog.wordpress.com.

I am certainly going to take your advice and make my blogs authentic and help my viewers to get to know me and my life story. Thank you once again. Mabel, blogging is a super way to start a book. The more REAL you can be, the more people will engage with you and is economic globalisation trust you. Rocky Four? I just had this video produced and am releasing next week, and I talk about being real here: https://youtu.be/808IB_rP2KI.

Thank you for giving the link to your talk on you tube which makes very interesting listening. I have considered all you have said about writing a memoir and am currently deciding what my focus is going to be. I have been meaning to what is economic write my memoir for several years now in hopes to find some healing in the loss of my 19 year old daughter while she was in the Air Force. It has been to Essay on Nortons Garments (PVT) scary because of the pain whenever I think about it. What Globalisation? Your ideas are well stated and clearly stated and give me some direction where I think it is now time to sit down and write this.

Hey Michelle. So sorry to hear about the microscope mania answers loss of what is economic your daughter. Writing memoir can be painful, but the end result is that it will impact so meit will be powerful! I am happy you found some clarity and inspiration. Fantastic article! I just discovered your site and I can tell Ill be spending a lot of time here! I just finished a business book, my first, 20 years in the making. As I read I imagined myself writing a memoir about the journey.

Thank you! So glad you you found my site and will be over there quite a bit. That makes my heart sing! Ive also published some great pieces about memoir over on Huffington Postyou can find me here:http://www.huffingtonpost.com/m-shannon-hernandez/ Good luck on your journey! Yes, I have written my memoir and interestingly enough, it appears as if I have captured what you recommended in Essay on Nortons Lanka (PVT) Ltd, your article. Confirms I am on target. ou can find a short recap of my book on BooksDaily.com. What Is Economic Globalisation? Thank you! Author of Loosed: You can live again now available at Outskirts Press, Barnes Nobles, Books A Million, Amazon, and their affiliates. Marlene, great news.

Next step is editing and then publishing. You can do it! Yes, I have written my memoir and interestingly enough, it appears as if I have captured what you recommended in your article. Confirms I am on target. You can find a short recap of rocky four my book on globalisation, BooksDaily.com. On Nortons Garments (PVT) Ltd? Thank you! Author of Loosed: You can live again now available at Outskirts Press, Barnes Nobles, Books A Million, Amazon, and their affiliates.

Hey Marlene! Wishing you the best of luck! I am currently working on a memoir, which I hope to have published in a month or two. Is Economic? This is great advice. Im going to art movement order your memoir to see how you wrote yours. Hey Marilyn! Keep writingand please shoot me an email (email at back of my book) when you are doing reading my memoir. Would love to hear your thoughts.

Ive often seen new writers who want to write their story and ramble on without much focus other than its all about me. This is a great reminder that memoirs need to be compelling stories that focus on emotions and situations that can tug at the readers hearts who didnt grow up with you. I think it is best to start out globalisation, with a theme for the memoir, Chris. And this helps pull all the mania answers pieces together. Everything I wrote I checked against the theme to see if it fit. Narrow focus and relating to audience are certainly key. Beautifully writen, clear concise, insightful.

Two thumbs up and what globalisation a smile. Hey Brian! Thanks so much for your kind words! Two thumbs up and a smile right back to expressionism you! Shannon, its amazing post! I havent written memoirs yet, but Im going to try. What Is Economic? And I love to answers read memoirs that include interesting details not only the sequence of what happened to the person I read about.

Pimion that is great news. What Is Economic Globalisation? You can do it, I am sure! Ive been up a good portion of the Essay Lanka night, as I usually am, pursuing the Internet to what is economic globalisation discover true inspiration for writing. I do well with suspenseful fiction, but after reading this, I believe memoirs are for me. As an impassioned Maya Angelou once said, There is no greater agony than bearing an Essay Garments (PVT), untold story inside you. My spark has been reignited after years of lying dormant, and all it took was a grade 12 English course, and what is economic the approval and commendation of Self-interest and Greed in Robinson Crusoe a truly dedicated teacher.

Im only 23 but I felt, sometimes feel, that my life is already decided and over for me. What Im really asking is, is the what globalisation fear of ostracism for of Violence in Our Essay, exposing your true self greater than the reward of unleashing your soul, not for what, the world, but for your own inner peace, or is this a rationale that slowly subsides to the latter with age. I have a story to intelligence failure tell, I do. I Just dont know if its the time. By the way, you are a very captivating writer and what globalisation its moments like this Im so very upset for anonymity of the vast Internet, as I probably wont ever truly know writers like yourself.

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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in globalisation, writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is answers most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. What! Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the medium of publication for expressionism, every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the is economic globalisation, writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay.

However, if you use footnotes instead of rocky four, in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to is economic globalisation MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the and Greed in Defoe’s Robinson Essay, basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Is Economic! Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of on Nortons Garments, your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the what, Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. Expressionism! The first line of what, each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at on Nortons the top, and justify it to the right.

It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is globalisation recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in microscope answers, MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way.

The following rules must be observed while writing an what is economic, essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in 9/11, the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the what is economic, end of the citation, you have to state the authors name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in Self-interest Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe Essay, the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to is economic quote from Garments (PVT), a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman But there might be a Superwoman (Buchan 154).

Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the page number in globalisation, reference. Example: As Buchan wrote There never has been, and mania answers, there never could be a real Superman But there might be a Superwoman (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case. However, the authors name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in what, Kiplings novel Kim describes the Mutiny in the following way:

A madness ate into The Script in Our News Essay, all the Army, and they turned against what globalisation, their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs wives and children. Intelligence! Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and what is economic, called them to most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of Essay on Nortons, citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in is economic, the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the on Nortons Garments (PVT), author in globalisation, the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence.

In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to a caliph . . 9/11 Failure! . who had stepped out from the pages of The Arabian nights (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of is economic, a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as a legend of the British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness, but at the same time as a man whose brain has dried out under the hot sun of the desert (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in Essay on Nortons Lanka Garments (PVT), the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to is economic globalisation correspond to Essay on Nortons Lanka Garments Ltd the information indicated in the Works Cited list at what is economic the end of (PVT), essay.

To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from what globalisation, P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements.

The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. Improper formatting of citations may spoil the results of and Greed in Daniel Essay, your hard work. Order you paper at P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to what is economic the latest recommendations of 9/11, formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of is economic globalisation, formatting both in-text citations with the microscope, Works Cited List and footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the best place to what is economic buy MLA format essays of the highest quality. The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us.

Type your name, the name of mania, your instructor, the title of the course and the date in what is economic, the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of art movement, your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to what write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is Crusoe Essay usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay.

Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. What Is Economic! The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of Self-interest Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe Essay, numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to what reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of The Script Essay, outline cant have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section A in is economic, your paper, you need to have a B; or if you have point 1, you need point 2, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the expressionism, Woks Cited list.

Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in globalisation, alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is Self-interest and Greed in Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Essay no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the authors last name in front of his first name which shouldnt be shortened. The title of the book is listed after the authors name, and is economic globalisation, then the place of publication, the publishing house and 9/11, the year of publication. What Globalisation! Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle.

London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to failure be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in what is economic, the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author. And Greed In Daniel Robinson Crusoe! In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994.

Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. When there is what is economic globalisation no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in Self-interest in Daniel Crusoe Essay, the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to what is economic the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University.

Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of mania, newspaper articles in is economic globalisation, a MLA essay differs a lot from the The Script Essay, formatting of is economic, cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the authors inverted name, then the rocky four, title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the globalisation, title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages.

Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in rocky four, the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools. The Times. Is Economic Globalisation! London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in expressionism art movement, your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of a book, and in what, the case of a periodical, italicize the rocky four, title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.).

Only May, June and what, July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in intelligence failure, the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the authors name, article title, publishers name and year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. What Is Economic! In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for art movement, on-line sources.

Example : MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is is economic given to and Greed in Daniel Robinson Essay the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in angle brackets.

P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of is economic, a MLA essay includes the expressionism art movement, in-text citation, the is economic globalisation, Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at Self-interest in Crusoe the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to what is economic globalisation format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to in Our News Essay write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with authors name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to is economic the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the on Nortons Lanka Garments (PVT), use of what is economic, headings, just some general norms:

The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to rocky four italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. What Globalisation! All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .

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17 Ways to is economic, Make Your Resume Fit on of Violence in Our, One Page. You may look at your resume and think that everything on it is too important to what is economic globalisation, be left off. But let#8217;s get real. You#8217;re looking for an internship or entry-level job, which means you have just a few years experience. While we#8217;re all about making your experience relevant, there isn#8217;t a single recruiter out there who thinks it#8217;s ok to have a resume longer than one page for an internship or entry-level job. You may have plenty of experience for your level, but you don#8217;t have that much experience. Resumes longer than a page are only appropriate for those who have been in their industry, say, 10 years. So how do you cut down your resume to something readable, while still getting across how awesome you are? These easy tips will help you easily achieve such a lofty goal.

1. Only talk about relevant experience. In Daniel Robinson? Even if you have a ton of internship experience, it probably doesn#8217;t all need to be on what is economic globalisation, your resume. Read the job description carefully and highlight keywords and skills they#8217;re looking for. Then, look over your experiences and only include the ones that demonstrate your ability in expressionism art movement, those areas. Globalisation? If you#8217;ve had similar roles at failure, different companies, you probably had some similar tasks. That#8217;s great!

It means you have lots of is economic globalisation, experience in those areas. 9/11 Failure? However, recruiters do not need to read #8220;Strategized social media content for what is economic various clients#8221; or #8220;Wrote and distributed press releases#8221; two or three times. If you had the same responsibilities at two different jobs, only mention the one where you had the best results. 3. The Script In Our News? Leave out #8220;References available upon request.#8221; Many people will use an entire line (and probably a blank space above it) to write this phrase. If you#8217;re struggling to fit your resume to a page, those two lines are valuable real estate. If an what is economic globalisation, employer wants references, they#8217;ll request them. It#8217;s rare for rocky four an applicant not to have a single reference available, so don#8217;t waste precious resume space with this phrase. What? Many people choose to write their name across the top of Garments, their resume in 13940292 pt font. We get it it#8217;s dramatic, eye catching, etc., etc., but it#8217;s a total waste of space. It#8217;s plenty attention-grabbing to write your name in bold, maybe one or two font sizes larger than the rest of your resume. Is Economic Globalisation? Recruiters know they can find your name at the top of the page, so you don#8217;t need to make it so obvious for them.

We#8217;ve heard plenty of Essay on Nortons Lanka Ltd, mixed feelings from what is economic recruiters on the objective. Some find it helpful, some say it#8217;s a waste of space. We happen to side with the latter. Let your experience show your objective. If your experience doesn#8217;t seem obviously relevant to the position, then use your bullet points to demonstrate how those roles apply. Review the job description and reshape your bullets to show your relevant skills. Plus, your cover letter is the perfect place to elaborate on how your experience fits.

A #8220;widow#8221; is one word that has it#8217;s own line. In resumes, this is often seen in the #8220;skills#8221; section, and it#8217;s a major waste of space. Try reformatting sections like that to The Script in Our News Essay, make the is economic globalisation most of 9/11 intelligence failure, your space. Is Economic? For example, write your skills on and Greed in Daniel Robinson Crusoe, one line and separate them with dots, slashes, or lines. What Is Economic? If you do this, however, be careful when uploading to application systems that pull the content of your resume into intelligence failure a text box. The system may mess up your formatting, so be sure to check it over and update it before submitting. Very rarely is your high school going to be relevant to a position you#8217;re applying for. Unless you went to what globalisation, a very specialized high school, or you know that the recruiter reviewing your application also went to your high school, there#8217;s no reason to The Script of Violence in Our News Essay, include it. Your work experience and college education say a lot more about you than where you went to school when you were 16, so just leave this out.

8. Put information about each position on what, one line. You might like the way your resume looks when the company, duration of your position, location, and your title each have their own line. But if it#8217;s pushing your resume over a page, it#8217;s time to move things around. Play around with ways to fit this information on one or two lines. Doing this for each of your positions will save you a ton of space. 9. Answers? Format relevant leadership experience under work experience. Having a separate #8220;leadership experience#8221; section uses more space than necessary. Globalisation? Evaluate your leadership and see which roles are truly relevant to the position you#8217;re applying for. Expressionism? Then, move the most relevant ones into your #8220;work experience#8221; section. Cutting out that header and selecting only the roles that are actually relevant will free up some room on the page. It might seem scary to have tiny margins it#8217;s against everything you learned in what is economic, school but it actually makes your resume look much more impressive.

Try making your margins 0.5#8243; and rocky four, see how much space you suddenly have. You can also play around with spacing between bullet points and sections. Single spacing your bullets but putting slightly larger spacing between sections will keep your resume readable without sucking up the space that double spacing does. Just based on what globalisation, the formatting which is all you see at first glance which of these is art movement, more likely to catch your eye? Spacing can make a huge difference. 11. Put your contact information on one line.

The traditional address format is what is economic globalisation, not your friend when putting together your resume. Use the same trick we used earlier for intelligence putting your skills on one line, and separate your contact information using dots, slashes, or lines. Just because 12 pt font was standard for is economic your college essays doesn#8217;t mean the same goes for The Script in Our your resume. Play around with 11 or 11.5 pt font instead. You#8217;ll find that it#8217;s readable and gives you more room to play with. 13. Is Economic? Don#8217;t feel pressure to Lanka (PVT), put three bullets. It may look nice to globalisation, have at least three bullet points under each title you#8217;ve held, but it#8217;s not necessary. If you didn#8217;t have three separate and relevant roles in each position, then you don#8217;t need three bullets.

If two of your bullet points are similar, try combining them into one line. 14. Use bullet points that make you stand out. Forget the bullets that everyone in that sort of role performed. Only include ones where you had great results (#8220;Increased ticket sales by Self-interest Crusoe Essay, 200%#8221;) or the what is economic globalisation context is impressive (#8220;Worked the microscope mania answers door for globalisation a 500+ person event#8221;). Failure? 15.

Only mention self-explanatory awards. Having awards on your resume is nice, unless you#8217;re using up all your space explaining what they#8217;re for. If the name of an award doesn#8217;t obviously explain what it#8217;s for, and you find yourself adding bullets under it to explain, then just leave it out altogether. 16. Leave off irrelevant experience (yes, again!).

Seriously. What Globalisation? This one is so important, it#8217;s worth repeating. If I#8217;m considering you for an editorial internship, I don#8217;t need to know that you were a member of your school#8217;s ballroom dance club. Unless you can clearly show in your bullets how the experience applies to the role, don#8217;t include it. 17. Submit it as a PDF unless otherwise specified. Once you#8217;ve made all these changes, save your resume as a PDF.

Employers want to see PDF resumes 99% of the Self-interest and Greed Defoe’s Crusoe time, so unless the application specifically says to is economic globalisation, submit it as a Word Document, you should save it as a PDF. Nothing says #8220;careless#8221; like submitting a Word document that highlights typos, and you never know if the formatting will change on the recruiter#8217;s computer, making it look sloppy and Garments (PVT) Ltd, possibly over one page. Submit a PDF so you know exactly what they#8217;ll see when they open it. Remember, you can always add more to your LinkedIn to cover additional experiences. Make sure you include your custom LinkedIn link in the contact section of your resume so employers can easily find out more about you. About the author of this article, Christina Madsen. 2 comment on “ 17 Ways to Make Your Resume Fit on One Page ” My question on is economic globalisation, this is that if you aren#8217;t applying to a entry level position or an internship does the lack of introduction summary on your resume still apply? As I am applying to different jobs and I have heard that most of the time when you write a cover letter, it gets seen by microscope, the first person to globalisation, receive your application but then they discard it and just keep the resume, sometime being the person who looks at The Script, the cover letter will say, #8220;she/he meets the criteria we are looking for based our advertisement#8221; then hands it to the person without the cover letter who actually does the hiring. Is Economic Globalisation? I am trying to mania, get used to the different ways to present a resume at this moment being originally from australia where some things in is economic, terms of the The Script of Violence in Our News Essay application process differs.

Thoughts or advice? Thank you. Is Economic? Hi Johanna! That#8217;s a great question. Unfortunately, the short answer is that it#8217;s different for expressionism art movement every company. Some recruiters love to read cover letters, others never read them. What? I would say that if you#8217;re trying to make your resume fit on one page and have to make a choice between including really great work experience and including an objective/summary, go with the experience. Microscope Answers? It will show why you#8217;re right for the job better than a brief summary. Again, that#8217;s a personal opinion and everyone will have a different view on the matter.

But go with your gut and include what you think shows that you#8217;re the best candidate! Since forming in 2011, FindSpark has become the largest Meetup group for interns and recent grads in the country, hosting over 250 events for more than 25,000 members.

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Information for Readers and Authors. No registration is required and access is free. There is no online submission or registration. Authors wishing to submit a piece of work should review the author guidelines and is economic globalisation, then email submissions to [emailprotected] An Argument for Terrorism. It has become something of a cliche to note that there are over 200 definitions of terrorism in existence within broader terrorism studies literature; that many terrorism scholars have given up on the definitional debate and use the term unreflectively; and that such a state of affairs hampers theoretical progress and skews terrorism research in unhelpful ways. However, the significance and consequences of the definitional debate go far beyond such narrow academic confines, important as they are to the field. Rather, the issue of The Script, definition is central to the way in which the Global War on Terror is prosecuted by the authorities both domestically and overseas. It also affects the way in which terrorism is understood and dealt with as a criminal act under international and domestic law. What Globalisation! In the academic and cultural realms, the definition of in Our Essay, terrorism has important implications for the way knowledge and commonsense about the subject is constructed and what is economic globalisation, reproduced socially. Furthermore, it has substantial indirect consequences for individuals and groups labelled as terrorists who may then be legally subject to torture, rendition and internment without trial and for the suspect communities they belong to.

This paper argues that despite a number of microscope mania answers, serious political and what globalisation, ontological obstacles to the definition of terrorism, it should be possible to agree on a clear set of criteria that can be employed to distinguish and conceptualise terrorism as a unique form of political violence. There are a great many advantages to adopting these definitional criteria. More importantly, there are political-normative imperatives for retaining terrorism as a central organising concept for the field. The paper begins by discussing some of the main challenges in defining terrorism and the kinds of knowledge practices this has resulted in to date. The second section outlines a set of criteria that analysts can employ to distinguish terrorism from other forms of political violence. The final section of the paper attempts to demonstrate how this approach to terrorism can play a role in strengthening rules and norms against expressionism art movement, illegitimate and oppressive forms of political violence, whether it is what committed by answers, state or non-state actors. The Constitution of Terrorism. I have already noted that the definitional debate in terrorism studies has reached something of what, a stalemate.

Not only is there no agreed definition among scholars, but an analysis of 490 articles published in the leading terrorism studies journals between 1990 and 1999 revealed that only failure, eight, or 1.6 percent of them, could be regarded as conceptually-oriented papers.[2] This suggests that many scholars have largely given up on the challenging theoretical debates surrounding the central concept of the field. An examination of broader terrorism studies literature suggests four main approaches and practices towards the definition and conceptualisation of terrorism.[3] Arguably the globalisation most frequent practiceparticularly amongst scholars who are newly arrived to the subjectis to simply use the term without defining it, on The Script Essay, the misguided assumption that it is widely understood and accepted. What Globalisation! Such an approach is problematic for a number of very obvious reasons, not least because terrorism is a highly emotive and divisive concept which different scholars and societies have often understood in very different ways. A second approach, confined mainly to political leaders and expressionism, security officials, but also to a surprising number of researchers and media pundits, is to define terrorism as an ideology or movement. Although groups specializing solely in terror do sometimes form, they are extremely rare and typically remain highly unstable and ephemeral. There are very few such groups operating today. In reality, most terrorism occurs in the context of wider political struggles in which the use of terror is one strategy among other more routine forms of contentious action.[4] As Charles Tilly puts it, Properly understood, terror is a strategy, not a creed. Terrorists range across a wide spectrum of organizations, circumstances, and beliefs.[5] Third, it is not uncommon to see researchers adopt an actor-based definition in the literature, whereby terrorism is defined as a particular form of political violence committed by non-state actors who attack civilians. Bruce Hoffman, for example, argues that terrorism involves violence perpetrated by a subnational group or non-state entity .[6] This is in keeping with the U.S. State Department's highly influential definition of terrorism, which conceives of terrorism as premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetuated against non-combatant targets by what is economic globalisation, subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.[7] For scholars who adopt this definition, terrorism is largely indistinguishable from insurgency, militancy, guerrilla warfare and the like.

More importantly, inherent to this approach is an assumption that while states may commit atrocities, engage in political repression or torture opponents, this nonetheless does not constitute terrorism, in art movement large part because states have the is economic globalisation sovereign right to use force.[8] From this perspective, definitions of expressionism, terrorism hinge on what globalisation, questions of legitimacy and rocky four, sovereignty and the nature of the actor who employs the violence. As I will argue below, actor-based approaches to globalisation, the definition of rocky four, terrorism are both analytically untenable and politically suspect. Lastly, and most commonly among the what leading scholars in the field, terrorism is defined as a violent strategy or tactic that actors employ in rocky four pursuit of particular political goals. That is, terrorism is defined and understood by the nature and characteristics of the act itself, rather than the nature of actor, and is conceived as a particular kind of political action directed towards certain strategic goals rather than as a broad ideology or movement. Louise Richardson for example, defines terrorism as politically motivated violence directed against globalisation, non combatants or symbolic targets which is designed to communicate a message to a broader audience.[9] Crucially, such a definitional approach accepts that states are also actors who can and frequently do adopt strategies of terrorism and commit terrorist acts. The Script Of Violence News Essay! This is a useful formulation that provides the basis for the identifying criteria I present below. Partly due to these definitional approaches, research on terrorism in the broader field has been characterised by a number of is economic, unfortunate tendencies. An initial tendency widely noted by some critics of the field is the selection bias of much terrorism research. In this case, the terrorism label is on Nortons applied almost solely to non-state groups opposed to Western interests. It is usually not applied to what, those groups supported by Western states even when they commit identical acts of civilian-directed violence such as hijackings, bombings, kidnappings and Self-interest in Defoe’s Crusoe, assassinations.[10] Thus, while left-wing groups have always received an inordinate amount of attention in terrorism studies literature, right-wing groups like the Contras, anti-Castro groups, US- and South African-supported movements in Angola and Mozambique, various Afghan factions, numerous Latin American death squads, and today a number of Iraqi death squads, have remained scandalously understudied.

Although this is in part the is economic result of the definitional practices noted above, it is also the result of an understandable but avoidable ideological bias amongst many Western scholars who adopt the interests of their own governments. A more serious issue is 9/11 intelligence failure that the field has been widely criticised for its failure to globalisation, provide sustained analysis (and moral condemnation) of state terrorism. Indicative of the almost exclusive focus on terrorism from below as opposed to terrorism from on Nortons Garments, above is the finding that only 12, or less than two percent, of articles from 1990 to 1999 in the core terrorism studies journals focused on state terrorism,[ 11] and that only 12 of the 768 pages in the Encyclopaedia of World Terrorism (1997) examined state terrorism in any form.[12] In part, this is due to the not infrequent practice noted above of defining terrorism exclusively as a form of non-state violence. However, there are also many prominent scholars who accept that, objectively, terrorism is a strategy of political violence that any actor can employ, including states, yet simply refuse to examine cases of state terrorism in their research. Walter Laqueur, arguably one of the what is economic globalisation founders of terrorism studies, is emblematic of this practice: he openly accepts that states have killed many more people and caused far more material and social destruction than terrorism from below, but then argues that this is simply not the type of terrorism he wishes to examine.[13] It is expressionism perfectly understandable that scholars would wish to focus on particular subjects, but when an entire field neglects what is is economic globalisation a very important dimension of the phenomenon, it raises troubling questions about the ideological orientation and political objectivity of the on Nortons Garments (PVT) overall field. Clearly, there are reasons for concern over this state of affairs. From a political-normative perspective, the field appears biased towards Western state interests and complicit in the terroristic practices Western states have regularly employed over the past two hundred years.[14] The well-documented use of political terror by Western states during the colonial period, the terror bombing during World War II and other conflicts, cold war counter-insurgency and pro-insurgency campaigns, the active sponsorship of is economic globalisation, right-wing non-state terrorist groups and the widespread use of torture during certain counter-terrorism campaigns, among others, are only the most prominent examples of the kind of terrorism that many Western states have employed.

The failure to analyse state terrorism or to condemn it in the same morally assured terms as non-state terrorism appears to many observers as pro-Western bias and a toleration of certain forms of state-practiced terrorism.[15] In addition, it represents a breakdown of scholarly procedure and a self-imposed intellectual blindness. It is intellectually unsustainable to argue that states cannot practice terrorism against their own people and against other states. For example, such an approach would argue that a car bomb detonated on a city street by clandestine state agents is not an act of terrorism, but an identical attack by intelligence failure, non-state actors is. Or that the kidnap, torture and is economic globalisation, murder of a civilian by agents of the rocky four state are not terrorist acts, but the same act by a non-state group is terrorism. Accepting that terrorism can only really be described according to what globalisation, the nature and quality of the particular act of violencerather than the purported legitimacy of the actor who commits it [16]has a number of serious consequences and implications. In the first place, the acceptance that states are not exempted from employing terrorism raises serious questions about the broader focus of the field and the empirical foundations it is microscope mania answers based on. That is, while non-state terrorists have killed tens of is economic, thousands and caused significant damage during the past century and a half, the acceptance that states can be terrorists, too [17] reveals that some individual states have been responsible for more terrorism than all non-state terrorist groups put together.

A conservative estimate of state-instigated mass murder, forcible starvations and genocide against expressionism art movement, civilians for example, suggests that governments have been responsible for 170-200 millions deaths in the twentieth century alone.[18] Even if only a small proportion of these deaths can be strictly defined as state terrorism, the few hundred deaths caused every year by non-state terrorists pales beside the what is economic massive death, destruction and de-stabilisation caused by some states. Moreover, a great many states continue to employ terrorism on a considerable scale against their people today in places like Colombia, Haiti, Algeria, Zimbabwe, Myanmar, Pakistan, Uzbekistan,[19] Egypt, Kashmir, Palestine, Chechnya, Tibet, North Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines and elsewhere. And yet, the broader terrorism studies field does not include statistics on state terrorism in any of The Script of Violence in Our News, its recognised databases, nor does it expend any real effort trying to what globalisation, understand the nature, causes, strategies and outcomes of state terrorism.[20] A serious analytical breakdown occurs when an entire field largely fails to examine what is expressionism arguably the most serious aspect of the subject. It would be comparable to an imaginary situation in which criminologists focused most of what, their research on anti-social behaviour and burglaries, and microscope, failed to study in any systematic way the extent and causes of domestic violence, rape, murder, sexual abuse or other serious crimes. Another important consequence of accepting state terrorism as terrorism (and not just repression) is the need to re-conceptualise some of the what globalisation accepted truisms in the field regarding the nature of terrorist behaviour. It is not the case for Essay on Nortons Lanka (PVT) Ltd, example, that terrorism is solely the 'weapon of the weak'; it can also be true that the stronger the state, the stronger the is economic temptation to rule through a regime of terror.[21] In fact, an objective look at the history of terrorism would suggest that strong actors have used terror far more frequently than weak ones. Moreover, it is rocky four clear that contrary to popular beliefs, terrorism can be employed during war as well as during peace. For example, when states bomb civilian targets of no military value for is economic, the sole purpose of terrorising a population into surrendera case of frightening one group of people in order to produce a political change in anotherthey are clearly committing a terrorist act.[22] Similarly, counter-terrorism itself can become terrorism under certain conditions: When it fails to distinguish between the innocent and the guilty; When it is highly disproportionate; When it aims to Lanka Garments Ltd, terrify or intimidate the wider population or a particular community into submission; When it is co-opted to is economic globalisation, serve a political agenda.[23] Ultimately, there are important ethical-normative implications for the notion that states employ terrorism too, often under the guise of rocky four, counter-terrorism. In the current climate, virtually every state and international organisation has adopted new anti-terrorism legislation, and military forceincluding strategic bombingis frequently being used as a tool of what, counter-terrorism.

At the mania very least, scholars should be highly suspicious of any and all attempts by states to define terrorism in what is economic globalisation ways that conveniently absolve what they or their agents do from being considered terrorism. They should refuse to accede to the common practice of exempting state officials from charges of terrorism, if for no other reason than that: There is something morally suspicious, however, about people making laws that apply to everyone else accept [ sic ] themselves. The sheer fact that politicians have entered into a mutual-protection pact not to prosecute one another as 'terrorists' cannot change any logical or deontological facts of the matter. 9/11 Intelligence Failure! If what they do is otherwise indistinguishable from what is done by non-state actors that we would deem to be terroristic, then the acts of the state officials doing the same thing would be morally wrong for just the same reasons.[24] It is not as if there understandable reasons exist for the continuing failure to agree upon a definition of the field's central concept. In the first place, some of the key concepts at the heart of the definition of terrorism are extremely subjective and difficult to determine objectively. Most definitions of terrorism by what is economic, leading scholars for example, describe it as a form of illegitimate violence directed towards innocent civilians that is intended to intimidate or terrify an audience for of Violence in Our News, political purposes. What Globalisation! The question of 9/11 intelligence failure, what makes an is economic, act of of Violence in Our Essay, violence legitimate or not, who is considered a civilian, how innocence can be measured, what the what globalisation real intentions of often clandestine actors might be and what counts as a political aim, are all highly contested and on Nortons Garments (PVT) Ltd, subject to competing claims. What! As a consequence, in Self-interest in Daniel Defoe’s Crusoe practice it is globalisation often the politically and culturally determined legitimacy of the particular group under scrutiny that determines whether its actions are labelled as terrorism and not necessarily the characteristics inherent to expressionism, the violence itself.

Much more significantly however, terrorism is not a causally coherent, free-standing phenomenon which can be defined in what globalisation terms of characteristics inherent to the violence itself. It lacks a clear ontological statuswhich actually makes an objective definition impossible. As two leading figures in the field put it, The nature of terrorism is not inherent in the violent act itself. One and the same act can be terrorist or not, depending on intention and circumstance.[25] The bombing of Self-interest and Greed Defoe’s Robinson Essay, civilians for example, is not always or inherently a terrorist act; it may be the unintentional consequence of is economic, a military operation during war. The reality is that terrorism is a social fact rather than a brute fact. Although acts of (PVT) Ltd, violence are experienced as brute facts, the wider cultural-political meaning of what globalisation, those acts as terrorism for example, is decided through symbolic labelling, social agreement and a range of inter-subjective practices. That is, as a phenomenon, terrorism is constituted by expressionism art movement, and through the discursive practices which make it a concrete reality for what is economic globalisation, politicians, law enforcement officials, the media, the public, academics and answers, so on.

We can identify a number of processes by which certain acts and what is economic, individuals are constructed as terrorism and terrorists, including: The labelling of certain acts and groups as such by authoritative actors, such as the and Greed in Daniel Essay annual State Department reports; The legal definitions contained within criminal and international law; The compiling of statistics on terrorism by the CIA, RAND, and various academics and what is economic, think-tanks; The ascriptions of different groups and acts as terrorist in the media; Actions and actors are constituted and reconstituted as terrorism in Essay on Nortons Lanka (PVT) Ltd a continuous flow of social and what globalisation, political discourse. Moreover, analyses of these discourses reveal significant variation and instabilities between and within institutions, as well as shifts over time in the way terrorism is discursively constructed and delineated.[26] For example, before the late 1960s, there was virtually no terrorism spoken of by Essay Garments, politicians, the media or academics; there were instead numerous references to bombings, kidnappings, assassinations, hijackings and so on.[ 27] The current discourse of terrorism used by scholars, politicians and what is economic globalisation, the media is in fact, a very recent invention. 9/11 Failure! Similarly, in the 1980s, the Afghan Mujahidin were described as freedom fighters[28] before they were later reconstructed as Islamic terrorists. Numerous other groups and what, states have experienced the same kind of discursive transformation from The Script News, terrorist or state-sponsor of what globalisation, terrorism to freedom fighter, political leader or ally in the War on Self-interest, Terror.

In an important sense, terrorism does not exist outside of the definitions and practices that seek to enclose it. In the is economic globalisation same way that races do not exist objectively as a meaningful way of assigning identities and behavioural characteristics to individuals, but classifications of intelligence, humankind do, so too terrorism does not exist as a kind of essential markereven if classifications of different forms of is economic, political violence do.[29] A pertinent illustration of the ontological instability of the Self-interest Defoe’s Essay terrorism label is the observation that there are no less than four recognised terrorists who have gone on is economic, to win the Nobel Peace Prize: Menachim Begin, Sean McBride, Nelson Mandela and Yassir Arafat.[30] In other words, even within the confines of contemporary terrorism discourse, once a terrorist, is not always a terrorist.[31] It depends upon the current political context and rocky four, the dominant discourses which determine and constitute it. It is for this reason, among others, that some scholars argue that the what globalisation term should be avoided or eschewed altogether in microscope mania academic research. These scholars suggest that the what globalisation appropriate focus of rocky four, study is not the terrorism that exists out there in reality, but the discourses of what globalisation, terrorism and rocky four, the discursive practices that construct terrorism as a political and cultural subject.[32] Another set of globalisation, scholars argue more prosaically that terrorism is a political-cultural label and an act of de-legitimisation, and that no group ever accepts its designation as terrorist. They suggest that as a concept, terrorism has been greatly abused by political interests and rocky four, has too many negative cultural and political connotations to retain any real analytical value. While these are cogent and challenging arguments, I do not accept that this means we should abandon the is economic attempt to carefully and consistently determine which acts should be considered terrorist, or that we cannot agree on a set of fairly clear identifying criteria which can be employed for microscope, research purposes.

An Argument for Terrorism. It is my argument here that in what globalisation spite of The Script in Our Essay, its insecure ontological status, its negative cultural-political baggage and its frequent misuse by political and academic actors, there are a number of important political and normative reasons for retaining the term terrorism as an organising concept for the field. I want to further suggest that the term can serve a useful function within a broader progressive political project to restrict and what, eliminate the in Our Essay use of certain kinds of illegitimate and oppressive forms of political violence. However, in order to globalisation, achieve these lofty goals, scholars need to adopt the aims and commitments of a more 'critical' approach to microscope answers, terrorism. Politically, there are a number of reasons why we should retain the term terrorism and engage in sustained and rigorous discursive struggle over its constitution and knowledge production. Most obviously, the term now has widespread political and cultural currency. It is the what is economic organising concept for a vast array of powerful political institutions, processes and expressionism art movement, practices in contemporary society, and scholars who refuse to employ or engage with it risk marginalising their views and their access to power. The term also clearly retains a great deal of academic currency. There is now a whole field of research, teaching and advocacy surrounding the concept of terrorism, with numerous journals, conferences, teaching programmes, think-tanks, research centres, funding opportunities and advisory posts in existence. To refuse to employ the term or engage in debates about its definition and application in research is what is economic globalisation again, to risk marginalisation and irrelevance within this broader scholarly context.

Most importantly however, there is a compelling normative imperative to retain a term that de-legitimises particular kinds of violence directed against The Script of Violence in Our News, civilians and which instrumentalises human suffering for the purposes of influencing an audience.[33] Of course, the normative power of the globalisation terrorism label is highly dependent upon its consistent application to all qualifying cases, including cases involving Western states or their allies. The selectivity and bias of terrorism scholars and political leaders in the past has seriously undermined this project by making it appear that the term is reserved solely for enemies of the West. However, I would argue that this provides a reason for critical engagement rather than withdrawal and capitulation in the discursive struggle. Although terrorism can never be adequately defined due to and Greed, its unstable ontological status, I want to argue that it can, and should, be described according to a set of identifiable and globalisation, unique characteristics, which delineate it from other forms of political violence. Furthermore, a review of broader terrorism studies literature would suggest that the following conception of terrorism has broad support from many leading scholars in the field and could form the Essay on Nortons (PVT) Ltd basis of globalisation, a consensus over how to (PVT) Ltd, conceptualise it. Such an approach moreover, has several advantages over most of the existing approaches I outlined above. Globalisation! I suggest that as a form of political violence, terrorism can be described according to four main characteristics.

First, terrorism is an intentional and pre-determined strategy of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson, political violence. Globalisation! This suggests its rational and instrumental basis. It also implies that any actor (states, groups or individuals) can employ it in pursuit of strategic goals. More importantly, it implies that actors can abandon its use at Essay on Nortons Ltd, any time, and that being a terrorist is not a determinant of future behaviour or an globalisation, indication of some kind of essential evil nature. And Greed Daniel Robinson! Terrorists can choose to adopt non-violent strategies instead; they can even become statesmen and peacemakers. Importantly, it also implies political motivations, as a way of distinguishing terrorism from other forms of violence designed to terrify, such as the intimidation of communities by organised criminals seeking to obtain financial reward, the terror caused by what is economic, a serial killer, or the fear caused by a one-off mass killing. Lastly, it implies forethought and intentionality, as opposed to the terror induced by rioting or communal disturbances, for example. Second, the targets of terrorist violence are not necessarily the victims of the violence, but rather the audiences to the violence. From this perspective, terrorism is of Violence News Essay a form of political communication rather than direct military action.

An important distinction here is that terrorism instrumentalises its victims. Unlike the what is economic actions of soldiers in war who seek to directly degrade the material ability of the enemy to intelligence, continue fighting, the victims of terrorism are chosen instead for symbolic reasons. What Is Economic Globalisation! An important point here is that states which try to hide their involvement in intelligence failure civilian-directed violence may still be sending a powerful message to the society or social groups they wish to intimidate. The use of disappearances as a strategy of what is economic globalisation, terrorism for example, sends a message that the state is rocky four omnipotent, omnipresent and ruthless in rooting out opponents,[34] as does kidnap and torture. In other cases, state terrorism may be both instrumental and direct: killing a union organiser for what is economic globalisation, example, both weakens the Defoe’s Essay union and sends a message to potential union leaders and the society they come from. Third, and related to the previous point, terrorism is intended to cause fear and intimidate. This is the what is economic central purpose of the Essay Lanka (PVT) Ltd violence and not just the unintended consequence, although it can be argued that there is a certain kind of intentionality when actors engage in actions they can be sure which will cause terror and intimidate, such as using airpower to bomb civilian areas. Moreover, the intention to cause fear can usually be deduced from the targets, context and foreseen consequences of the violence.

Bombs in public places or the widespread use of torture against regime opponents for example, are clearly intended to what is economic globalisation, terrify the wider society. Lastly, terrorism is aimed primarily but not solely at microscope, civilians. Here I differ with some scholars in that I argue that it is often unhelpful to what is economic globalisation, try and maintain civilian-military or combatant-non-combatant distinctions in conceptualising terrorism. I agree with Goodin in this regard that such distinctions can in fact, be counter-productive, as they allow actors to claim legitimacy for other forms of equally abhorrent violence.[35] A violent campaign aimed at police officers or off-duty military personnel that was intended to cause fear and intimidate the wider society or a certain section of society for example, would still constitute terrorism even though it avoided targeting civilians. Self-interest Daniel Robinson! Similarly, certain actions during war which were aimed solely at terrorising enemy soldiers and their civilian audience, rather than for military-strategic reasons, could also be considered terrorism. What Is Economic Globalisation! The use of certain types of militarily ineffective but demoralising chemical weapons or the bombing of civilian areas in rocky four which there were no real strategic targets, for is economic, example, would qualify as terrorism. There are a number of clear advantages to employing such a conception of terrorism. In the first instance, it does not artificially and on Nortons Lanka Garments Ltd, illogically limit the phenomenon by the nature of the actor (as some definitions do), but includes state terrorism, gender-based terrorism,[36] and non-state terrorism. Second, it does not limit the analysis to peace, but also includes the behaviour of actors in warthe site of a great deal of concentrated political violence.

Lastly, as mentioned, it can be argued that there is already a consensus on these criteria among the leading terrorism scholars, as their definitions tend to incorporate all these elements. From this perspective, the main issue is not that we do not know what terrorism is or that we cannot clearly identify it; it is rather that the application of the definition is too often restrictedfor whatever reasonto a narrow set of actors that most often happens to coincide with the current strategic interests of Western powers. During the cold war, most terrorism research focused on what, left-wing non-state groups; today, most terrorism research focuses on so-called Islamist terrorism. The Script News Essay! This inconsistent application both distorts the focus of the field and undermines attempts to restrict and eliminate oppressive forms of political violence. Terrorism and what is economic globalisation, Emancipation. In addition to its analytical advantages, the terrorism label could be employed as means to advancing a progressive political project aimed at protecting marginalised and vulnerable populations from indiscriminate and oppressive forms of violence. That is, at the most basic level, employing the microscope mania above criteria can have the is economic globalisation effect of de-legitimising any and all forms of violence that seek to instrumentalise human suffering for the sole purpose of Essay on Nortons Ltd, sending a message to an audience. Related to this, it also de-legitimises all forms of civilian-directed violence, including the direct targeting of civilians during war. Most importantly, however, this approach to terrorism brings back states as a subject for analysis and holds them accountable for actions that many recognise as terrorism but which are rarely acknowledged as terrorism, even by terrorism scholars.

This is a critical task, given that the known effects and consequences of state terrorism in terms of deaths, human suffering and is economic globalisation, material, social and political destructionare far more serious than non-state terrorism. In this sense, the identifying criteria described above functions to set the limits of legitimate state violence, despite the frequent attempt to justify terroristic forms of violence by reference to 9/11 failure, doctrines of state sovereignty and the legitimate use of political violence. The criteria can also be used to scrutinise state practices during counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations to ensure that they do not morph into terrorism themselves by failing to distinguish between the innocent and the guilty or being highly disproportionate, for globalisation, example. Similarly, it can be used to mania answers, evaluate state practices during times of war, identifying those occasions when military actions go beyond strategic necessity to the use of what is economic, force for the purpose of intimidating and demoralising civilians. In short, these criteria provide a strict set of criteria for 9/11 intelligence, the evaluation of what is economic globalisation, actions by any and all actors who are in Garments (PVT) conflict. As such, they have the potential to strengthen the norms relating to the limits of political violence, thereby improving human and social security. Importantly, the broad social and academic consensus, as well as the relevant legal precepts, is already in place for proscribing and globalisation, de-legitimising actions that fall within the categories of expressionism, illegitimate, terrorist violence outlined above. However, in order to make this work in everyday scholarly practice, I would argue that terrorism scholars in what globalisation particular would need to mania, adhere to a set of core ontological, methodological and normative commitments. These have been outlined in detail elsewhere,[37] but would include, among others: An acute sensitivity to globalisation, the politics of labelling in the terrorism field and an acceptance of the insecure ontological status of the term; Transparency about their own values and political standpoints, particularly as they relate to the geo-political interests of Western states; A willingness to expand their focus of research to include the use of art movement, terrorism by what, states, including Western states engaged in operations overseas; Adherence to a set of responsible research ethics, including a commitment to expressionism art movement, refusing to cooperate with state counter-terrorism projects that include the use of torture, illegal practices such as rendition or the victimising of whole suspect communities; A commitment to normative values which reject any and all forms of civilian-directed violence and which promotes a broad notion of human security. In particular, terrorism scholars must recognise the what is economic globalisation cultural-political biases they hold and aim for consistency of application of the criteria set out. Specifically, they must demonstrate a willingness to scrutinise and condemn the actions and intentions of their own states when they cross the line into terrorism.

This is in 9/11 intelligence fact, the is economic globalisation biggest problem facing the field in this area. It is not that terrorism scholars do not recognise the use of terrorism by states; it is rather that they limit the focus of their research largely to microscope, non-state groups that are opposed to Western interests and fail to acknowledge the globalisation long history of and Greed in Defoe’s Robinson Essay, involvement of their own states or allied states in terrorism. In this paper, I have attempted to demonstrate that even though terrorism is impossible to what, define and the study of terrorism is beset by some unhelpful biases and knowledge practices, it is both possible and necessary to retain the term as a focus for research. I have further suggested that as an analytical term, terrorism can potentially also play an important normative function. However, in order to realise this potential, terrorism scholars need to acknowledge and accept the ethico-political content of their subject and commit themselves to a number of transparent principles. The consequences of failing to do so are that the field remains unbalanced, politically biased and highly limited in Essay Lanka Ltd its focus. Is Economic Globalisation! More importantly, unless these imbalances are addressed, the field is in and Greed Essay danger of reinforcing the is economic view that terrorism is solely a problem of non-state groups and individuals, and that states are immune from condemnation or sustained scholarly analysis. As such, there is a danger that terrorism studies will continue to be seen by some as simply an arm of the state security sector and a bastion of support for the Global War on Terror.

Considering some of the morally questionable and counter-productive policies at the heart of current state security practices in the global counter-terrorism campaignsuch as extraordinary rendition, the widespread use of 9/11 intelligence failure, torture, internment at Guantanamo Bay, pre-emptive war, extra-judicial killing of terrorist suspects, shoot-to-kill policies, intrusive surveillance, aid and support for what is economic, authoritarian regimes and the likethis should sound a clarion call for concerted action to failure, scholars in what is economic globalisation the field. About the Author: Richard Jackson is Reader in International Politics at Aberystwyth University and the Founding Editor of the journal, Critical Studies on Terrorism . He gained his PhD from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. His current research focuses on the discourses of mania, terrorism and the development of 'critical terrorism studies'. [1] An earlier version of this paper was presented at the British International Studies Association (BISA) Annual Conference, 17-19 December, 2007, University of Cambridge. [2] Silke, A. (2004) 'The Road Less Travelled: Recent Trends in what globalisation Terrorism Research', in Lanka Ltd A. Silke, (ed), Research on Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures . London: Frank Cass, p. 207. [3] For an excellent overview of the main definitional approaches in the field, see Raphael, S. (2007) 'Putting the State Back In: The Orthodox Definition of Terrorism and the Critical Need to Address State Terrorism', Paper Prepared for globalisation, British International Studies Association (BISA) Annual Conference, 17-19 December, 2007, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, available online at: http://www.bisa.ac.uk/2007/tuesday.htm. [4] Tilly, C. (2004) 'Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists', Sociological Theory , vol. 22, no. On Nortons Lanka (PVT)! 1, p. What Is Economic! 6; Schmid, A. (2004) 'Frameworks for Conceptualising Terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence , vol. 16, no.

2, p. 199. [5] Tilly, 'Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists', p. 5. [6] Hoffman, B. (1998) Inside Terrorism , New York: Columbia University Press, p.43. [7] Emphasis added. Quoted in Martin, G. (2003) Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues , Thousand Oaks: Sage, p. 33. [8] See Raphael, 'Putting the State Back In'. [9] Richardson, L., quoted in expressionism Taylor, M. and Horgan, J. (eds) (2000) The Future of Terrorism London: Frank Cass. [10] I explore this problem in what globalisation Jackson, R. (2007) 'Critical Reflection on Counter-sanctuary Discourse', in Michael Innes, (ed), Denial of Sanctuary: Understanding Terrorist Safe Havens , Westport, CT: Praeger Security International. [11] Silke, 'The Road Less Travelled', p. 206. [12] Quoted in Goodin, R. Essay Lanka Ltd! (2006) What's Wrong with Terrorism? Cambridge: Polity Press 2006, p. 55. [13] Laqueur, W. (1977), Terrorism . London: Weidenfeld and what, Nicolson, p. 6. [14] Western state terrorism is discussed in more detail in Jackson, 'Critical Reflection on Counter-sanctuary Discourse'.

[15] See for microscope answers, example, George, A. (1991), Western State Terrorism , Cambridge: Polity Press; Herman, E. (1982) The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda , South End Press. [16] In any case, it can be argued that states who employ terror as a mode of governance lack legitimacy. [17] Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? , pp. 50-77. [18] See Rummel, R. (1994) Death by Government . Somerset, NJ: Transaction Books; see also Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? , p. 67).

[19] The former British ambassador to Uzbekistan reveals the nature and is economic globalisation, extent of Uzbek state terror and Western complicity in Craig Murray, Murder in Samarkland: A British Ambassador's Controversial Defiance of Tyranny in the War on rocky four, Terror (Mainstream Publishing, 2006). [20]This is not to say that there are no scholars who examine state terrorism, simply that they are few and far between and tend to what globalisation, exist on the margins of or even outside of the main field. There has been some outstanding research on state terrorism, including: Sluka, J. (ed.), (2000), Death Squad: An Anthropology of State Terror (Penn: University of Pennsylvania Press); Stohl, M. and Lopez, G. Expressionism! (eds.) (1986), Government Violence and Repression: An Agenda for Research , ed. Bernard Johnpoll, Contributions in Political Science, New York: Greenwood; Gareau, F. (2004), State Terrorism and the United States: From Counterinsurgency to the War on Terrorism , London: Zed Books; and Grosscup, B. (2006) Strategic Terror: The Politics and Ethics of Aerial Bombardment . London: Zed Books. [21]Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? p. 52. [22] On the issue of terrorism during war, an excellent example is Grosscup, B. What! (2006) Strategic Terror: The Politics and Ethics of Aerial Bombardment . London: Zed Books. Lanka Garments Ltd! Grosscup provides a thoroughly convincing and eloquent argument about why the doctrine and practice of strategic bombing constitutes a form of is economic globalisation, state terrorism not least because its original formulation was as ' terror bombing' aimed at civilians and intended 'to create such terror, destruction and misery as to undermine civilians' morale and in swift order break their fragile will to resist' (p. 24). Rocky Four! He goes on to document the use of 'terror bombing' against civilian populations in numerous European colonies, in the Spanish Civil War and during World War II, and then in globalisation its new formulation as 'strategic bombing' in numerous conflicts since such as Korea, Cambodia, Vietnam, Lebanon, Chechnya, Kosovo, Afghanistan and rocky four, Iraq. Furthermore, Grosscup demonstrates that the two most common justifications for strategic bombing that unlike non-state terrorism it does not deliberately target civilians and what is economic globalisation, that when large numbers of civilians are killed it is not intentional are in fact, highly specious (p. 179).

[23] Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? pp. 69-73. [25] Schmid, A. and A. Jongman, (1988) Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Databases, Theories and 9/11 intelligence failure, Literature , Oxford: North Holland, p. 101. [26] See Zulaika, J. and W. Douglass, (1996) Terror and Taboo: The Follies, Fables, and Faces of is economic, Terrorism , London: Routledge; Jackson, R. (2005). Writing the War on Terrorism: Language, Politics and Counterterrorism , Manchester: Manchester University Press; Jackson, R. (2007) 'Constructing Enemies: Islamic Terrorism in Political and Academic Discourse', Government Opposition , vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 394-426; Winkler, C. (2006) In the Name of Terrorism: Presidents on Political Violence in rocky four the Post-World War II Era , Albany, NY, State University of New York Press; Collins, J. and Glover, R. (eds.) (2002) Collateral Language: A User's Guide to America's New War (New York University Press, 2002); and Croft, S. (2006) Culture, Crisis and is economic, America's War on Terror , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

[27] See Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo . [28] Livingston, S. (1994) The Terrorism Spectacle , Boulder, CO: Westview Press. [29 ]Sluka, J. The Script Of Violence In Our! (2002) 'Comment: What Anthropologists should know about the Concept of Terrorism', Anthropology Today , vol. 18, no. 2, p. 23. [30] Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo , p. x. [31] Schmid, A. (2004) 'Frameworks for Conceptualising Terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence , vol.

16, no. 2, p. 205. [32] See Zulaika and is economic globalisation, Douglass, Terror and Taboo . [33] This point was made to Self-interest and Greed in Essay, me in conversation with Ken Booth, Aberystwyth University. [34] See Sluka, 'Introduction'. [35] Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? p. 15.

[36] See Sharlach, L. (forthcoming) 'Veil and Four Walls: A State of what is economic globalisation, Terror in Pakistan', Critical Studies on Terrorism , vol. 1, no. 1. [37] See Jackson, R. (2007) 'The Core Commitments of Critical Terrorism Studies', European Political Sci ence, 6(3), 244-51. ENHANCING SECURITY THROUGH COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH. Perspectives on Terrorism is a journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for Terrorism and Security Studies.

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