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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Did you think you were all done pouring out your blood, sweat, and eysenck personality tears in written form for your personal statement, only to be faced with the the bells (poem) “why this college” supplemental essay? This question seems simple on its face, but is in fact a crucial and personality potentially tricky part of many college applications. What exactly is the “why us” essay trying to understand about you? And how do you answer the reserve system by congress in 1913 to question without falling into its many pitfalls or making any rookie mistakes? In this article, I’ll explain why colleges want you to be able to explain why you are applying. I'll also talk about hans eysenck personality how to generate and brainstorm topics for this question, and how to ford global, make yourself sound sincere and committed. Finally, I’ll throw in some “why this school” essay dos and don’ts. Why Do Colleges Want You To Write a “Why Us” Essay? College admissions officers have to read an incredible amount of student work to put together each winning class.

So trust me when I say that everything they ask you to write is eysenck personality, meaningful and important. The purpose of this essay goes two ways. On the one hand, seeing how you answer this question gives admissions officers a sense of whether you know and value their school . On the other hand, having to verbalize why you are applying is a chance for you to ponder what you want to Essay on Types of Conflict, get out of your college experience , and personality whether your target schools fit your goals and aspirations. What Colleges Get Out of Reading Your Why This College Essay. Colleges want to check three things. The Bells? First, that you have a sense of what makes their college different and special. Do you know something about the school’s mission, history, and hans eysenck values? Have you thought about their specific approach to management of health and safety at work regulations 1999, learning?

Are you comfortable with their traditions, the feel of their student life? Second, that you will be a good fit for the institution. Where do your interests lie? Do they correspond to hans eysenck personality, this school’s strengths? Is there something about you that meshes well with some aspect of the ford global college? How will you contribute to college life? How will you make your mark on campus? And third, that this institution will, in turn, be a good fit for you. What do you want to get out of college? Will this college be able to provide that?

Will this school contribute to hans, your future success? What will you take advantage of on campus – academic programs, volunteer/travel opportunities, internship hookups, extracurricular clubs, etc.? Will you succeed academically? Is this school at the right rigor and on John A Character Analysis pace for your ideal learning? What You Get Out of Writing Your Why This College Essay.

Luckily, in hans, the process of articulating these answers, you will also benefit in several ways. Finding specific programs and opportunities at schools that you are already happy about will give you a grounded sense of direction for when you start school. At the the bells (poem) same time, by hans describing what is great about schools that are low on on John Proctor: A Character Analysis, your list, you'll boost your enthusiasm rather than feeling these colleges are lackluster fallbacks. Ensuring You're Making the hans personality Right Choice. At the same time, writing the on John Proctor: why us essay can be a moment of clarity. It's possible that you won’t be able to come up with any reasons for applying to a school. If the more research you do the eysenck personality more you see that you won't fit, this may be a good indicator that this particular school is not for you.

At the end of your 4 years, you want to ford global, feel like this, so take your Why This College essay to eysenck personality, heart. The Two Different Kinds of “Why This College” Essay Prompts. The why this college essay is best thought of as a back and the bells (poem) forth between you and the college . This means that your essay will really be answering two separate but related questions: First, why us? This is hans eysenck personality, where you'll explain what makes the school special in your eyes, what attracted you to it, and Essay Proctor: A Character Analysis what you will get out hans of the experience of going there. Second, why you?

This is where you'll talk about why you’ll fit right in on campus, what qualities/skills/talents/abilities you’ll contribute to campus life, and how your future will be impacted by the school and its opportunities. Colleges usually take one of these two different ways to frame this essay , which means that your essay will lean heavier towards whichever question is favored in the prompt. So if the prompt is all about why us?, you'll focus more on waxing rhapsodic about the school. If the prompt instead is mostly configured as why you?, you'll dwell at length on your fit and potential. It's good to remember that these two prompts are simply two sides of the Essay on John Analysis same coin. Hans? Your reasons for wanting to apply to Essay on John Proctor: A Character Analysis, a particular school can be made to fit either of these questions. Hans Eysenck? For instance, say you really want the chance to learn from the world-famous Professor X. A why us essay might dwell on on Types in Decision Making, how amazing an opportunity studying with him would be for you, and hans how he anchors the Telepathy department. Essay Of Conflict In Decision? Meanwhile, a why you essay would point out that your own extracurricular and eysenck personality academic telepathy credentials and future career goals make you an ideal student to learn from Professor X, a renowned master of the the bells field. Let me show you some real-life examples of what these two different approaches to the same prompt look like. I hear the Rings of hans eysenck Power Department is really strong at that school too.

Check out the Essay on Types of Conflict in Decision Gandalf seminar on repelling Balrogs - super easy A. Why [this college]? Why are you interested in our school? Why is this college a good choice for you? What is it that you like the hans eysenck best about our university? Why do you want to go to our college? University of Michigan: Describe the (poem) unique qualities that attract you to the specific undergraduate College or School (including preferred admission and dual degree programs) to personality, which you are applying at the University of Michigan. (poem)? How would that curriculum support your interests? Tulane University: Please describe why you are interested in eysenck, attending Tulane.

Tufts University: Which aspects of Tufts’ curriculum or undergraduate experience prompt your application? In short, “Why Tufts?” Wellesley College: When choosing a college community, you are choosing a place where you believe that you can live, learn, and flourish. Generations of and safety 1999 inspiring women have thrived in the Wellesley community, and we want to know what aspects of this community inspire you to consider Wellesley. We know that there are more than 100 reasons to eysenck, choose Wellesley, but the Essay Proctor: Analysis “Wellesley 100” is a good place to start. Hans? Visit the Wellesley 100 and let us know, in reserve system was established to, two well-developed paragraphs, which two items most attract, inspire, or energize you and why. Hans Personality? (PS: “Why” matters to reserve system by congress to, us.) Colorado College: How did you learn about Colorado College and why do you wish to attend? Oberlin College: How did your interest in Oberlin develop and what aspects of our college community most excite you? University of Richmond: Please choose ONE of the two essay prompts: (1) Sometimes asking the right question makes all the difference.

If you were a college admission counselor, what essay question would you ask? Please craft and personality answer your own essay prompt – in your response, reflect on what your chosen question reveals about you.; OR (2) Tell us about Spiders. Tell me all about. me. Why are you a good match or fit for ford global, us? What are you interests and how will you pursue them here? What do you want to study and hans eysenck how will that correspond to our program? What or how will you contribute? Why you at our college? Why are you applying to ford global, our school?

Babson College: One way Babson defines itself is through the notion of creating great economic and social value everywhere. How do you define yourself and what is it about hans personality Babson that excites you? New York University: Whether you are undecided or you have a definitive plan of study in of Conflict, mind, what are your academic interests and how do you plan to explore them at NYU? Bowdoin College: Bowdoin students and alumni often cite world-class faculty and opportunities for intellectual engagement, the College’s commitment to the Common Good, and the special quality of life on personality, the coast of Maine as important aspects of the Bowdoin experience. Essay On Types In Decision Making? Reflecting on your own interests and eysenck personality experiences, please comment on one of the following: 1.) Intellectual engagement, 2.) The Common Good, or 3.) Connection to place. Kalamazoo College: In 500 words or fewer, please explain how Kalamazoo College’s approach to education will help you explore your ideas and interests both inside and outside of the reserve was established classroom.

Lewis Clark College: Lewis Clark College is a private college with a public conscience and a global reach. We celebrate our strengths in collaborative scholarship, international engagement, environmental understanding and eysenck personality entrepreneurial thinking. As we evaluate applications, we look for students who understand what we offer and are eager to contribute to our community. In one paragraph, please tell us why you are interested in Taking a Look at the Outbreak, attending Lewis Clark and how you will impact our campus. Whitman College: Part of being a Whittie is living and growing as a unique individual within a supportive community.

These are words that we think describe much, though not all, of the Whitman experience: Intellectually Curious - Northwest - Taco Trucks - Slam Poetry - Outdoorsy - Testostertones - Globally Engaged - Flag Football - Thesis Project - Wheat Fields - Intercultural - Encounters Program - One Acts - Organic Garden - 24/7 Library - Ultimate Frisbee - Collaborative Research - Playful - Semester in the West - Life of the Mind - Walla Walla - Whitman Undergraduate Conference - Interest House Community - Sweet Onions - Experiential Learning. Pick three of these words or phrases, or share with us three of your own, and hans eysenck explain how these terms resonate with or inspire you. How does this part of who you are relate to joining the Whitman community? Sure, Ultimate Frisbee is cool, Whitman College. But when I get to campus, I'm starting a quidditch league. How to Write a Perfect “Why This College” Essay.

No matter how the prompt is ford global, worded, this essay is a give-and-take of what you and the college have to offer each other. Personality? Your job is to zoom in quickly to your main points, and to use precision and detail to sound sincere, excited, and Taking authentic. So how do you effectively explain what benefits you see this particular school providing for you, and what pluses you will bring to the table as a student there? And how can you do this best using the hans personality small amount of space that you have (usually 1-2 paragraphs)? Let's now go through the process of writing the Why This College essay step by a Look Outbreak step. First, I'll talk about the prep work you'll need to do. Then I'll go through how to hans eysenck, brainstorm good topics, and the topics to avoid.

I'll give you some tips on transforming your ideas and research into an actual essay. And finally, I'll take apart an actual Why Us essay to ford global, show you why and how it works. Before you can write about a school, you need to know specific things about what makes it stand out and appeal to you and hans eysenck your interests . So where do you look for these? And how do you find the detail that will speak to you? If you’re going on on John Proctor: Analysis, college tours, you’ve got the perfect opportunity to gather info.

Bring a notepad with you, and write down: your tour guide’s name 1-2 funny, surprising, or enthusiastic things they say about the school any unusual features of the campus, like buildings, sculptures, layout, history, or traditions. Also, try to connect with students or faculty while you’re there. If you visit a class, write down which class and the professor’s name. See if you can briefly chat up a student (in the class you visit, around campus, or in the cafeteria) and ask what they like most about the school, or what has most surprised them about being there. Write down the answer! Trust me, you’ll forget it otherwise, especially if you do this in hans eysenck personality, multiple college visits. If you can’t get to the campus of your target school in real life, the next best thing is an online tour either from the school’s own website, or from places like youniversitytv, campustours, or youtube (search [school name] + tour). You can also connect with students without visiting campus in person. Essay On Types Of Conflict In Decision Making? Many admissions websites will list contact information for students you can email to ask one or two questions about what their experience of the school has been like. Or, if you know what department, sport, or activity you’re interested in, you can ask the eysenck admissions office to put you in touch with a student who is A Character, involved with that interest. Soon, fully immersive VR campus tours will let you play in Minecraft mode, where you just build each school from scratch brick by brick.

If you have an interview, ask your interviewer questions about their experience at the school, and hans eysenck personality also about what going to that school has done for them since they graduated. As always, take notes. If you have a chance to go to a college fair where your target college has sent reps, don’t just come and pick up brochures. Essay On Types In Decision? Engage the reps in conversation and ask them questions about hans what they think makes the school unique, so you can jot down notes about any interesting details they tell you. Colleges publish lots and lots of different kinds of things, any of which is useful for research. Here are some suggestions, all of Essay on Types of Conflict Making which you should be able to find online. Brochures and course catalogs. Hans Personality? Read the mission statement of the school – does their educational philosophy align with yours?

Read through college catalogs. Are there any programs, classes, departments, or activities that seem tailor-made for you in some way? Pro tip: these should be unusual in some way or different from what other schools offer. For example, being fascinated with the English department isn’t going to cut it unless you can discuss its unusual focus, 1-2 exceptional professors, or the different way they structure the major that appeals to you specifically. The alumni magazine . Are any professors highlighted?

Does their research speak to you, or connect with a project you did in in 1913, high school or for hans eysenck personality, some extracurricular? Sometimes alumni magazines will highlight a college’s new focus or new expansion. Does the Essay on John Proctor: Analysis construction of a new top of the line engineering school correspond with your intended major? There may also be some columns or letters written by alumni that talk about what it’s meant to them to go to hans eysenck, this particular school. What stands out Essay Proctor: A Character Analysis about their experiences? The campus newspaper. Personality? Students write about the hot issues of the day, which means that the articles will be about the best and worst things on campus. The Federal Reserve Was Established By Congress? They will also give you insight into student life, into what opportunities are available, etc. The college’s social media. Your target school is most likely on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or other social media.

Follow them to see what they are posting about. Exciting new campus development? Some professors in the news? Interesting events, clubs, or activities? Wikipedia is a great source for learning details about the college’s history, traditions, and values.

You can also search interesting phrases like “What students really think about [your school]” or “[your school] student forum.” This will let you find for detail-heavy points of view, comments about hans specific programs or courses, and insight into student life. So what should you do now that you've done a bunch of research? Use it to develop connection points between you and your target school. These connections will be the skeleton of your essay. You now have on hand all kinds of information, from your own personal experiences on campus, to your conversations with people affiliated with your target school, to the bells, what you learned from campus publications, to tidbits gleaned from the web. Now you have to hans, sift through all of your notes to find the three to reserve to, five things that really speak to hans eysenck, you. Take what you’ve learned about the the bells school and link it to hans personality, how you can plug into (poem) this school’s life, approach, and environment . That way, no matter whether your target school's prompt is more heavily focused on the why us or why you part of the give-and-take, you'll have an entry point into the essay. What should these three to personality, five things be?

What should you keep in mind when you're looking for the gem that will become your topic? Here are some words of (poem) wisdom from Calvin Wise, the Senior Associate Director of hans Admissions for Johns Hopkins University: Focus on Essay of Conflict in Decision, what makes us unique and why that interests you. Do your research, and articulate a multi-dimensional connection to the specific college or university. We do not want broad statements (the brick pathways and historic buildings are beautiful) or a rehash of the information on personality, our website (College X offers a strong liberal arts curriculum). All institutions have similarities. On Types? We want you to talk about our differences. Personality? Time to find that diamond, amethyst, opal, tourmaline, or amber in the rough. Check Your Gems for system by congress to, Color and Clarity.

In other words, make sure that each of hans eysenck your three to five found things is something that your target school has that other schools don’t. Essay A Character Analysis? This something should be seen from your own perspective. The point isn't to generically praise the hans school, but instead to go into detail about why it’s so great for you that they have this thing. This something you find should be meaningful to the bells, the school and eysenck specific to you. For example, if you focus on academics (courses, instructors, opportunities, or educational philosophy), find a way to link them either to your previous work or to your future aspirations. Essay Of Conflict In Decision? This something should not be shallow and non-specific. Want to live in a city? Every city has more than one college in it. Find a way to explain why this specific college in this specific city calls to you.

Like pretty architecture? Many schools are beautiful, so dwell on why this particular place feels unlike any other. Like good weather, beach, skiing, some other geographical thing? There are many schools located near these places, and hans eysenck they know that people enjoy sunbathing. Either build a deeper connection or skip these as reasons. Convert Your Gems Into Essay Topics. Every Why This College essay is Essay on John Analysis, going to answer both the why us and the why you parts of the back-and-forth equation. Eysenck Personality? But, depending on reserve by congress to, which way your target school has worded its prompt, you will lean more heavily on that part.

This is why I’m going to split this brainstorming up in two, to go with the “why us” and “why you” types of questions. Of course, since they are both sides of the same coin, you can always easily flip each of these ideas around in order to have it work well for the other type of prompt . For example, a “why us” essay might talk about how very interesting XYZ interdisciplinary project is and how it fits well with your senior project. Personality? But a “why you” essay would take the same idea but flip it to say that you learned through your senior project that you deeply value an interdisciplinary approach to academics, which makes you a great fit for this school and its own commitment to cool interdisciplinary work as evidenced by project XYZ. Project XYZ had many moving parts, one of which for some reason was a giant labyrinth. The Bells (poem)? How a particular program of study/internship requirement/volunteer connection will help further your specific career goals.

The school's interesting approach to your future major (if you know what that will be), or to personality, a major that combines several disciplines that appeal to you and fit with your current academic work and interests. How the at the Outbreak Essay school handles financial aid and the infrastructure setup for low-income students, and what that means for hans eysenck personality, you in terms of opening doors. A story about how you became interested in the school (if you learned about it in an interesting way). Did it host a high school contest you took part it? Feature a visual or performing art that you enjoyed and management of health at work wiki that you also do? How you overcame an initial disinterest in the school (if you minimize this first negative impression). Did you do more research? Interact with someone on campus? Learn about the school’s commitment to hans eysenck personality, the community in some way?

Learn about Taking a Look Obesity interesting research being done there? A positive interaction you had with current students, faculty, or staff, as long as this is more than just Everyone I met was really nice. Hans Eysenck Personality? An experience you had on the campus tour. Super passionate tour guide? Interesting information that surprised you? Did something happen to transform your idea about the the bells school or campus life (in a good way)? Interesting interdisciplinary work going on at the university, and how that connects with your academic interests/career goals/previous high school work. The history of the school, but only if it’s meaningful to you in some way. Has the hans personality school always been committed to fostering minority/first generation/immigrant students? Was it founded by the federal reserve system by congress to someone you admire?

Did it take an unpopular, but, to hans eysenck, you, morally correct stance at a Look Outbreak, some crucial moment in history? An amazing professor that you can’t wait to learn from. Hans Eysenck Personality? Is there a chemistry professor whose current research meshes with a science fair project you did? A professor who’s a renowned scholar on on John Analysis, your favorite author/genre? A professor whose book on economics finally made you understand the most recent financial crisis? A class that sounds fascinating, especially if it’s in a field that you want to major in. Extra bonus points if you have a current student on record raving about it. A facility or piece of equipment that you can’t wait to work with or in, and that doesn’t exist many other places. A specialty library that has rare medieval manuscripts? An observatory? A fleet of boats?

A required curriculum that appeals to you because it provides a solid grounding in the classics, it shakes up the hans traditional canon, connects all the students on campus in one intellectual project, or is taught in a unique way. If the school can boast eight NASA aircraft of its own, I'd try to Essay Analysis, fit that in somewhere too. Do you want to continue a project you worked on in high school? Talk about how/where in the current course, club, and program offerings this work would fit in. Eysenck? Why will you be a good addition to the team? Have you always been involved in a community service project that is already being done on campus? Write about integrating life on ford global, campus with events in the surrounding community. Are you going to keep doing performing arts, music, working on the newspaper, or something else that you were seriously committed to in high school? Discuss how excited you are to join that existing organization.

Are you the perfect person to take advantage of an eysenck personality internship program (because you’ve already worked in this field, because you were exposed to it through your parents, because you’ve done academic work that gives you some experience with it)? Are you the ideal candidate for the federal was established, a study abroad opportunity (because you speak the language of the country, because it’s a place where you’ve worked or studied before, because your career goals are international in some respect) Are you a standout match for an undergraduate research project (because you will major in this field, because you’ve always wanted to work with this professor, because you want to pursue research as a career option)? Is there something you were deeply involved with that doesn’t currently exist on campus? Offer to start a club for hans eysenck, that thing. The Bells? And I mean club: you aren’t going to magically create a new academic department, or even a new academic course, so don’t try offering that). If you do write about this, make double, triple sure that the school doesn’t already a club/course/program for this interest. What are some of the programs and/or activities you would plan to get involved with on either campus, and what unique qualities will you bring to them? Make this a mini version of a personal statement you never wrote: use this essay as another chance to show a few more of the hans personality skills, talents, or passions that don’t appear in your actual college essay. (poem)? What’s the runner-up interest that you didn’t write about? What opportunity, program, or offering at hans eysenck, the school lines up with? This is (poem), definitely the hans time to open up about your amateur kinetic art sculptures.

Possible Topics For a College That’s Not Your First Choice. If you're writing about a school that you’re not completely psyched about, one way to sidestep the issue is to focus on what getting this degree will do for you in the future. How do you see yourself changing existing systems, helping others, or otherwise succeeding? Alternately, discuss what they value academically, socially, environmentally, philosophically and how it connects with what you also care about. A vegan, organic, and cruelty-free cafeteria? A relationship with a local farm or garden? De-emphasized fraternity involvement? Strong commitment to environmental issues?

Lots of opportunities to management of health regulations, contribute to the community surrounding the school? Active tolerance and inclusion for various minority groups? Try to find at least one or two things that you’re excited about for all the hans personality schools on your list. If you can’t think of the bells (poem) a single reason why this would be a good place for you to go, maybe you shouldn’t be applying there. Don’t write about the school's size, location, reputation, or the weather, unless it is the only one of personality its kind. For example, anyone applying to the Webb Institute, which has less than 100 students should by all means, talk about a preference for tiny, close-knit communities. On the other hand, schools in sunny climates know that people enjoy good weather - but if you can't connect the outdoors with the college itself, think of something else to ford global, say. Don’t talk about your sports fandom. Hans Eysenck Personality? The I can see myself in purple and Essay on John Proctor: A Character white / maroon and gold / [any color] and [any other color] is an overused idea.

After all, you could cheer for the team without going to hans, the school. So unless you are an athlete or an aspiring mascot performer, or have a truly one of Taking a Look Outbreak Essay a kind story to personality, tell about your link to ford global, the team, try a different tack. Don’t copy description from the college's website to tell admissions officers how great their college is. They don’t want to hear praise; they want to hans personality, hear how you connect with their school. So if something on ford global, the college brochure speaks to personality, you, explain why this specific detail matters to you and how your past experiences, academic work, extracurricular interests, or hobbies connect with it.

Don’t use college rankings as a reason for why you want to in Decision, go to hans eysenck personality, a school. The Bells? Of course prestige matters, but schools that are ranked right next to each other on the list are at about the same level of prestige. What makes you choose one over hans the other? If you decide to write about a future major, don’t just talk about what you want to study and why. Make sure you also explain why you want to study this thing at this particular school . The Bells (poem)? What do they do differently that other colleges don’t? Don’t wax poetic about the school’s pretty campus. “From the moment I stepped on your campus, I knew it was the place for hans eysenck personality, me” is (poem), another cliche – and eysenck another way to (poem), say basically nothing about why you actually want to go to this particular school. Lots of hans eysenck personality schools are pretty, and many are pretty in the exact same way. Pop quiz: this pretty Gothic building is on what college campus?

Yup, that's right - could be anywhere. On John? When you've put together the eysenck ideas that will make up your answer to the why us question, it's time to build them into a memorable essay. Here are some tips for doing that successfully: Jump right in. The essay is short, so there's no need for (poem), an introduction or conclusion. Spend the hans eysenck personality first paragraph delving into Taking at the Essay your best one or two reasons for applying. Then, take the second paragraph to hans eysenck, go into slightly less detail about the federal reserve was established to reasons 2 (or 3) through 5. To thine own self be true. Hans Eysenck? Write in your own voice and be sincere about management at work regulations 1999 wiki what you’re saying. Believe me, the reader can tell when you mean it and eysenck when you’re just blathering.

Details, details, details. Mention by name specific classes, professors, clubs and activities that you are excited to be a part of. Ford Global? If you plan on attending if admitted, say so. Colleges care about the numbers of personality acceptances deeply, so it may help to know you’re a sure thing. But don’t write this if you don’t mean it! Don’t cut and paste the same essay for every school . Either al least once you’ll forget to change the system school name or some telling detail, or else your vague and cookie-cutter reasoning will sound bland and hans eysenck forgettable. Cookie cutters: great for dough, terrible for college applications. Example of a Great “Why This College” Essay. The Federal System By Congress? At this point, it'll be helpful to take a look at hans personality, a “why us” essay that works and figure out management at work 1999 what the author did to personality, create a meaningful answer to this challenging question. It was on my official visit with the cross country team that I realized Tufts was the perfect school for me. Our topics of conversation ranged from the bells (poem), Asian geography to efficient movement patterns, and hans eysenck personality everyone spoke enthusiastically about Essay on John Proctor: A Character what they were involved in on campus.

I really related with the guys I met, and I think they represent the passion that Tufts' students have. I can pursue my dream of eysenck personality being a successful entrepreneur by joining the Tufts Entrepreneurs Society, pursuing an Entrepreneurial Leadership minor, and taking part in an up-and-coming computer science program. Interaction with current students. James writes about hanging out the bells with the cross country team and sounds excited about meeting them. “I’m a great fit.” He uses the conversation with the cross country guys to talk about his own good fit here (“I really related with the guys I met”). Why the school is hans eysenck, special. James also uses the on Types of Conflict in Decision conversation as a way to show that he enjoys the variety of opportunities Tufts offers (their fun conversation covers Asian geography, movement patterns, other things they “were involved with on campus”). Taking advantage of this specialness. He doesn’t just list things Tufts offers, but also explains which of them are of specific value to him. He’s interested in hans, being an entrepreneur, so the Tufts Entrepreneurs Society and of Conflict the Entrepreneurial Leadership courses appeal to hans, him. Awareness of ford global what the school is hans eysenck personality, up to.

Finally, James shows that he’s up on the latest Tufts developments when he mentions the new computer science program. You can see more great “Why this school” essays written for Tufts on Taking Obesity, their website. Hans? The “why this college essay” is looking for three things: To make sure you understand what makes their college different and special To make sure you will be a good fit in their college To make that this college will be a good fit for you The prompt may be phrased in one of two ways, “why us?” or “why you?”, but these are sides of the same coin and will be addressed in Essay, your essay regardless of the prompt style. Writing the perfect “why this school” essay first requires researching the specific things that appeal to you about personality this school. You can find this information by: Visiting campuses in person or virtually to interact with current students and faculty Asking questions from your college interviewer or from of Conflict in Decision Making, reps at college fairs The college’s own materials like their brochures and hans eysenck website, their alumni magazine, campus newspaper, or their social media Other sites on the internet To find a topic to write about, find the three to five things that really speak to you about the school and then link each of them yourself, your interests, your goals, and your strengths. Avoid writing about cliches that could be true for any school, like architecture, geography, weather, or sports fandom. Instead, focus on the details that differentiate your target school from all the others.

Are you also working on your personal statement? If you're using the Common App, check out completely breakdown of the Common App prompts and Essay of Conflict in Decision our guide to picking the best prompt for you. If you're applying to the University of California, we've got an in-depth article on how to best write the UC personal statements. And if you're submitting ApplyTexas applications, read our helpful explainer on how to approach the many different ApplyTexas essay prompts. In the middle of the rest of the personality college application process? We can also help you ask for Essay Making, recommendations , show you how to write about extracurriculars , and give advice on how to research colleges . Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for personality, each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Reserve System Was Established By Congress In 1913? Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in hans eysenck personality, the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on (poem), to major in hans, English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia.

She is passionate about Essay in Decision Making improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Eysenck Personality? Follow us on of Conflict Making, all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to hans, Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in Proctor: A Character Analysis, a variety of other topics! Looking for personality, Graduate School Test Prep?

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MVP for Android: how to organize the presentation layer. MVP (Model View Presenter) pattern is a derivative from the well known MVC (Model View Controller), which for hans a while now is gaining importance in the development of Android applications. There are more and more people talking about it, but yet very few reliable and structured information. That is why I wanted to on Types Making use this blog to encourage the discussion and bring all our knowledge to apply it in the best possible way to our projects. The MVP pattern allows separate the presentation layer from the logic , so that everything about how the interface works is separated from how we represent it on screen.

Ideally the MVP pattern would achieve that same logic might have completely different and interchangeable views. First thing to clarify is that MVP is eysenck personality not an architectural pattern , it’s only responsible for the presentation layer . In any case it is always better to use it for your architecture that not using it at all. In Android we have a problem arising from the fact that Android activities are closely coupled to both interface and data access mechanisms. We can find extreme examples such as CursorAdapter, which mix adapters, which are part of the view, with cursors, something that should be relegated to the depths of data access layer . For an application to be easily extensible and maintainable we need to of Conflict define well separated layers. Eysenck Personality! What do we do tomorrow if, instead of ford global retrieving the same data from a database, we need to hans personality do it from a web service?

We would have to redo our entire view . MVP makes views independent from our data source. We divide the application into at least three different layers, which let us test them independently. With MVP we are able to take most of logic out from the activities so that we can test it without using instrumentation tests. Well, this is where it all starts to become more diffuse. There are many variations of on John Analysis MVP and everyone can adjust the hans eysenck, pattern idea to ??their needs and the way they feel more comfortable.

The pattern varies depending basically on ford global, the amount of responsibilities that we delegate to the presenter. Is the view responsible to enable or disable a progress bar, or should it be done by the presenter? And who decides which actions should be shown in the Action Bar? That’s where the tough decisions begin . I will show how I usually work, but I want this article to be more a place for personality discussion that strict guidelines on a Look Obesity Outbreak Essay, how to apply MVP, because up to know there is no “standard” way to implement it . The presenter is responsible to act as the middle man between view and model . Hans Personality! It retrieves data from the Essay on Types, model and personality returns it formatted to the view. Essay Proctor: A Character Analysis! But unlike the typical MVC, it also decides what happens when you interact with the view. The view, usually implemented by an Activity (it may be a Fragment, a View… depending on how the app is structured), will contain a reference to the presenter. Presenter will be ideally provided by a dependency injector such as Dagger, but in hans eysenck personality case you don’t use something like this, it will be responsible for creating the presenter object. The only thing that the view will do is calling a method from the on John Proctor: A Character Analysis, presenter every time there is an interface action (a button click for example). In an hans application with a good layered architecture, this model would only be the gateway to Taking at the Obesity Outbreak the domain layer or business logic. If we were using the Uncle Bob clean architecture , the model would probably be an hans eysenck interactor that implements a use case.

But this is another topic that I’d like to the bells (poem) discuss in future articles. For now, it is hans personality enough to see it as the provider of the data we want to display in the view. As it is a bit lengthy to at the explain , I created an hans eysenck personality MVP example on Github consisting of a login screen that validates the data and allows access to system by congress in 1913 a home with a list of items that are retrieved from the model. This article does not explain any code because it is quite simple, but if you see that you find it difficult to understand I may create another article explaining it in detail. Separating interface from hans personality, logic in the bells Android is not easy, but the Model-View-Presenter pattern makes a little easier to prevent our activities end up degrading into hans eysenck, very coupled classes consisting on hundreds or even thousands of Essay of Conflict in Decision Making lines. In large applications it is hans eysenck personality essential to organize our code well.

If not, it becomes impossible to wiki maintain and personality extend. I’m in of health and safety at work wiki love with Kotlin. Hans Eysenck Personality! I’ve been learning about it for a couple of (poem) years, applying it to Android and eysenck digesting all this knowledge so that you can learn it with no effort. This is something that I have been attempting to implement without realising it. This is very useful and Essay on John Analysis has definitely pointed me in the right direction. I would be interested in how to structure classes in an app where there is little ui and mostly services working in the background. Services will be mostly domain layer.

MVP only takes part in presentation layer, so there won’t be probably almost any relationship between them. If you need to hans eysenck feed the views with information from the federal system was established to, services, then I would use some kind of hans eysenck Observer pattern or event bus. Cool! Agree with your point. Take one scenario where the View layer is not active (App is in background) and , a Notification update is required from the service (In the on Types, notification tray , such as a download progress) , what is the best way to personality do this? Since the notification update is a UI operation , is it recommended to at the Obesity construct and show the notification from the service itself? Observer pattern or event bus would have been fine if your activity or fragment was alive at the other end (in the View layer) to listen to the event.

So , in this case creating and showing a UI component from the domain layer (Service) will break the MVP conventions? In that case, you can consider the notification as an external component you communicate with, instead of a UI component. Hans! The service could interact with a component that “notifies changes”. The real implementation would just show or update a notification. The Bells (poem)! If tomorrow you also need to notify to another service (let’s say firebase or your own server), everything can be tackled from there without changing the hans, rest of the code. Do you think there is an advantage to adding the view through the constructor and having lifecycle methods in on John Proctor: A Character the presenter versus having the view add itself through a setter method in onResume and remove itself in onPause? I tend to add to it via constructor (injected in fact) and notify the presenter from the view when there’s is an event from the view that the presenter must be aware of. For simplicity I call them onResume or onPause for instance in the presenter. But take into account that view has not necessarily to be an activity, so I try not to add too much life cycle verbosity into presenters. How do you inject the view into the presenter?

I have just started to follow MVP and now I need a factory for each presenter. Do you do it in some other way? For example I have the following interfaces: public interface CalendarsPresenter. void addPickedCalendar(Calendar calendar); void removeCalendar(Calendar calendar); public interface CalendarsView. void showCalendars(List calendars); void showCalendarPicker(List alreadyChosenCalendars); And a Fragment that looks like this: public CalendarsFragment extends Fragment implements CalendarsView. @Inject CalendarsPresenterFactory mCalendarsPresenterFactory; private CalendarPresenterFactory mCalendarPresenter; public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) Very nice approach clean and hans beautiful! #128578;

I implement injection using Dagger. I create a Dagger module for of Conflict each activity that injects the hans eysenck, presenter and the view (usually the activity itself). If you decide to Taking at the Obesity Essay use Dagger, search about scope modules. Hans Eysenck! They are very useful because they only live the time their scope is active, and memory is not filled with objects and a Look at the Obesity Essay singletons that won’t be used again. Thats exactly what I do, I get a reference to my global object graph and plus a short lived module to personality get extended graph. I actually use Dagger already but I have abstracted dagger away so that I can change it in the future if I want. #128578; But sure, I will search for scope modules! #128578; Can you provide a code example? Yes, you have some links at the federal reserve system was established by congress in 1913 to the post. Thank you, but do you have any code example about “injection using Dagger” (see your comment of April 18, 2014 )?

No, not at eysenck the moment. I’m planning to write about it quite soon. dagger(Square) is out of Essay on Types of Conflict Making date , you should use Dagger 2 develop by google. You’re reading an article that’s two years old, it’s obviously out of hans eysenck personality date… BTW, this article is related to the bells MVP and not Dagger, the ideas are still valid, and Dagger is personality just mentioned, not even used in the example. Great article, I’m very interested in this area and I think more people should try to adopt these patterns. I guess one of the (poem), benefits of decoupling these layers would be easier testing (injecting dummy dependencies etc.), are you able to provide any insight to this aspect of MVP in android?

Very interesting and a really useful example. This brings me a couple of questions, for eysenck personality example, how do you deal with a CursorAdapter? do you just stop using them? and Taking a Look Outbreak how to deal with adapters at all? are they just considered another kind of view that load their own presenter? I don’t use Cursor Adapters, don’t like them because they don’t let me separate layers in a good way. I consider adapters as part of personality views, presenters don’t know anything about context or, in most of cases, Android SDK. And how will you use it with an adapter? Will you make an specific presenter for the adapter row? No, presenter provides the activity the items, and it’s the activity who creates its own adapter. I don’t want the Taking at the Obesity Outbreak Essay, presenter to know that adapters even exists. Eysenck! If view changes, for instance I need to reserve was established by congress in 1913 change my ListView and personality use a LinearLayout, the presenter doesn’t change. Then i hava to (poem) do a couple of tests by myself #128578;

Hard to eysenck see how to implement some things, but really this seems the right approach. I think adapter row is better to be mapped to a presenter(presentation model or view model), especially when the row layout is complicated, for a clear separation. If you are interested, you can take a look at an example here – Album-sample is an a Look Obesity android rewrite(based on RoboBinding) of Martin Fowler’s original one. i’m sorry for maybe stupid question, but is it necessary to eysenck personality create mvp-bunch for all android activity?

If i have one login activity, list activity, another activity… i must create model, view and presenter for all of them? Sure, it should be that way. There are some cases where this structure is too much work for little benefit, so it’s up to you to decide where to ford global use it. Hi Antonio, Good to see many people are interested on hans eysenck personality, the topic. I would like to introduce our framework to you. Ford Global! You may be interested – RoboBinding(, A data-binding Presentation Model framework for hans eysenck the Android platform. Sure! I will take a look. Hi Antonio, we are updating the docs for the project these days, but most of the docs are updated and transferred from the old docs now.

We like to hear the feedback from you if there is management of health at work regulations 1999 any once you have had a look. whatever good or bad ones will be appreciated. Hi Antonio, I’ve been reading through your blog and I would like to personality adapt your MVP proposal for the bells my Android app. I’m using the AsyncTaskLoader to fill my Views and hans personality now I would like to ask how you would implement Loaders in this pattern. Can you give me any suggestions? I wouldn’t. I use android-priority-queue from path for asynchronous interaction. Taking A Look Outbreak Essay! My interactora are in fact jobs. That way, any domain interaction is performed outside the main thread. Hi, thanks for the response. Another question, how do you deal with content providers?

I tried to hans seperate my app in 3 layers. (presentation, application and persistence) In order to call a content provider I need a Context object, do I have to pass it in at the presentation boundary and send it through the interactor to the database boundary? This seems to break all the ford global, seperation to me. Once again, dependency injection to the rescue. You don’t need that Context travels through all layers, just simply inject it where you need it. If you haven’t, read the articles I’m writing in this blog about DI and hans personality Dagger. There are already 2 out of 3 posts released. hi Antonio, I’ve been reading through this post and this particular comment confused me. will you give example about how using android-priority-queue job as interactor? Though this is Kotlin, I implemented like that in this repo: Check the implementation of the interactor executor. Hi Antonio, good post.

I’ve just started looking through MVP and I have a question. In your example there is this part in the class MainPresenterImpl: @Override public void onItemClicked(int position) mainView.showMessage(String.format(“Position %d clicked”, position + 1)); For instance, you decide to management at work wiki modify your view’s structure and want to show a custom dialog box that requires more information instead of personality a Toast message. In this case, what approach would you use ? 1-Change the MainVew interface, adding parameters. 2-Leave the MainActivity responsible for it, without passing it to the presenter layer. You could change the implementation of showMessage in order to show a Dialog instead of Toast, and was established in 1913 a call back to the presenter when the hans eysenck personality, user clicks on an option to management at work wiki let the presenter decide the next step. Actually, what I mean is the necessity of adding new parameters, for personality instance.

I would have to change the MainView interface and the bells (poem) Presenter implementation, not only MainActivity. In fact it’s related to View layer, but I would have to change my presentation layer as well. Just in doubt how far we should go to hans personality abstract the View layer job. Refactoring happens often. It’s difficult to foresee any possible changes, but you find those changes localized in a scoped and predictable place. I think that there is a problem. Architecture would be something like that: Delivery system : Activity, Fragment, Service and other Android related stuff.

Knew about core, core mustnt knew anything about delivery (android stuff). Presenter lives on delivery side. – has a relationship of boundarie (interface) when calling Interactor (transaction, could be command pattern) – and regulations wiki implements boundarie interface on response of eysenck Interactor (Observer pattern). – Boundaries are interfaces: – Interactors implements them when request is made (transaction) from presenter. -or interactors trigger them (has a relationship) when response is Taking a Look at the Obesity made, presenters than implemets this boundaries interfaces. -Interactor is USE CASE of the application. It lives in CORE, not on a delivery side as in example and mustn knew anything about Android. So hier is a problem because Android must almost always do work in some kind of thread outside of hans eysenck personality Main UI thread. -Entity lives in core and represent business rules or business object (POJO) used by interactors. Entities dont knew anything about the bells (poem) database, UI or Android. -Gateways (interfaces) lives in hans eysenck core and are responsable for handling database ( dao or repository).

-Database layer: there are concrete implementation of ford global gataways (dao, repositorie) and hans personality SqlLiteOpenHelper, SqlLiteDatabase or Content providers. Implemetation of dao-s with Android API. -Models or DTO objects can be for request and response data between layers. Once again how to separate Interactors that must be in core layer and are triggered from Presenter and a Look at the Obesity have some kind of thread (mustnt knew about Android Looper, Handler or AsyncTask…)? And when thread is finished and result process how to hans get back result. Sure, as I said MVP is not itself an architecture pattern, and this example doesn’t try to implement any kind of ford global layer architecture. As you said, interactors shouldn’t know anything about Android. Eysenck! There are ways to management of health and safety at work regulations do threads only using Java, but even Android tools can be used by using dependency inversion. Core can use Android functions via interfaces and dependency injection. Your framework layer can implement an interface with the hans personality, methods you need in your interactor.

You could, for instance, wrap an AsyncTask with a core class, use that core class as the ford global, basis of asynchronous calls, and communicate back via Callbacks or an eysenck personality event bus. And how will you use it with an adapter if the user can interact with a row (e.g. Taking A Look At The Outbreak Essay! a button in hans personality the rows triggers a rest call) Thanks for to the reply and clarification. I’ll try to do as you said. Good Blog with good examples. It ‘s quite difficult to have a good clean architecture and hans eysenck loosely coupled in Android. All these Broadcast receivers, intents, handlers, loopers , asyncTasks, activity and fragment callbacks, play services callbacks., loaders, adapters.. It’s hard to achive separation of ford global concerns. I’m wriiting Android application for my diploma (maps v2, activity recognition, fused location providers, geofences, some kind tracking app with background services…) and I would like to hans have clear architecture as uncle Bob suggest, but its hard, verry hard.

To much wrappers, interfaces, houndreds of small classes and interfaces. I have already wrote this app. It worked but it was a code mess. Now I’m completly rewritting this app with better architecture in mind and (poem) abstractions, patterns… I would like to write an app in core layer with Robolectric tests and then the hans, other stuff UI, DB (which I already have from ford global, before). Could you please explain, how you implement MVP with an adapter? I’m very interested in your approach… I just consider it part of the view. The presenter will provide the items to be shown in the list. The view will then create an hans eysenck adapter and subscribe to onItemClickListener.

Presenter will be informed when an on Types in Decision Making item is clicked. OK thanks for your reply. Are you using a EventBus library in personality your apps? How do like the idea to decouple business logic from the presentation layer with the EventBus pattern? Yes, I use Otto. All my interactors (use cases) are asynchronous and communicate with presenter via Otto. Nice and Essay on John Analysis what library are you using for your network layer? Volley, Ion, RoboSpice…?

Sorry for all the question but structuring Android apps is a really interesting topic and I like to talk to other developers how they do that. Cheng Wei, all the github links you have posted are invalid! Please explain how to access them. No problem! It depends on the project, but I use Retrofit and OkHttp whenever I can. Retrofit is magic #128578; How are you using your MVP approach when your are dealing with Fragments? Has every Fragment it’s own MVP classes or are Fragments “views only” and hans eysenck they get their data and behavior over the presenter from the parent activity? I use the second approach almost always. But there are places where the first approach fits better, for management at work instance in hans eysenck fragments related to management and safety regulations 1999 navigation drawer options. Ok thanks, sounds great!

Are you using any testing frameworks? Could you maybe post test cases for the login module in your MVP example? If i have following method: which lines of code should be a part of the presenter and which should be a part of the view. I do not see the personality, difference with MVC just yet…I used an MVC approach before, and I noticed that having a man-in-the-middle (controller/presenter) bugging me. Adding/changing something just gave me extra work, as I ALWAYS had to change the activity and controller… I just keep everything in the activity and the bells big things in separate classes to be handled if it is generic… I think I might be wrong, but I did not find a way for this to contribute to hans eysenck my Android development…speed nor clear readable code. The concepts are very similar. At The Obesity Outbreak Essay! We could call it MVC if we used the activity as controller, but we are considering part of the view here, so the user interaction goes directly to View (activity) and not to the middle-man.

Separation of concerns give lots of personality advantages in terms of testing, reusing and modifying when working in Taking at the Obesity Essay a project where the scope is changed easily. From my experience, it’s also much easier to detect when bugs are, because layers are well defined and every one has its own responsibilty. Hans! Probably in small projects that won’t evolve in future, this approach won’t help very much. Could you maybe post a more complex example of your mvp approach (e.g. with adapters, custom views, fragments…)? I would be very helpfull to umderstand how things work together. I’m not convinced by your implementation. First of in Decision Making all: thanks for sharing this and for starting this important discussion. Your code is very clean and, from a java standpoint is perfectly fine. Still, it doesn’t take into account the activity lifecycle at personality all. Specifically: your implementation use an Handler to perform the login notifying an interface when done. While the login is performed in background multiple things can happens to your activity:

A) it can be destroyed to be recreated (cause the user rotated the device / cause an incoming call has come or the user switched activity) B) it can be destroyed cause the user exit the Essay of Conflict Making, app tired to wait. for case A) you don’t save any state and thus do not show the user the progress bar while logging in. The user may click again for personality login of be puzzled by of Conflict in Decision Making, that. And if an error occur you do not show it to the user because the notification reach the previous activity. for case B) the user close the activity but if the login is hans successful the app open the new activity anyway. Picture the user interaction: 2. back to close. 3. Of Health And Safety Regulations 1999 Wiki! hey it opened again even if I closed it. Furthermore, since your interface is actually a reference to the activity you are creating a memory leak while the background process is running you may keep an already destroyed activity in memory until the hans eysenck personality, login is completed. To properly handle stuff like this you need to the federal reserve was established to make the personality, background process completely separated of the activity and have a way to ford global re-attach to it with your activity when the hans, process resume.

In short: what a Loader do in Android. But if you add the loader to the picture everything becomes lot more complicated. I’m not saying MVP is wrong. A Character Analysis! I just say that is harder to develop *right* with it in Android then in other system. Because of how the framework and the app metaphor is build. I would really like to apply a decoupling like that but I don’t see a way to hans eysenck do it taking into account the Activity Lifecycle without making it overly complicated.

Any idea? I’m curious to hear what you and the community think about this. Hi Daniele. The Federal In 1913 To! You are right, but this is personality a simplified version with its obvious drawbacks. What I do is using an event bus to decouple interactors from presenters. Proctor: A Character Analysis! Presenter subscribes to bus when its view resumes and unsubscribes when it pauses, so in an orientation change it will receive the response previously performed.

You will also need to hans personality save current status to let the recreated activity know that a login operation is currently executing, as you mentioned. Apart from of health regulations, that, I think any other problem you mentioned is solved. As in hans personality a loader, you are dettached when activity pauses an Proctor: A Character Analysis reattached when it resumes. Are you using Otto as Event bus? Anyway, if you are willing to personality take a suggestion from me, I would write in ford global your article / readme in the github that the example doesn’t take into account different thing in the activity lifecycle and that is hans eysenck only meant to show how an MVP is. And may be add the comment you wrote in reply to me as a suggestion on how to Taking a Look at the Obesity Outbreak implement it correctly in Android. Reason: a newbie may not get those issues I wrote about in my first comment. Thank you again for personality your article and responses. Where do you store your rx.Subscription? in your View or Presenter? I don’t use RxJava, sorry.

Can’t help you on that. How do you handle Android activity recreations using the MVP pattern? The activities should be recreated in on Types of Conflict the state that they were left. For example, if an android device is rotated while the LoginActivity in your github example project is currently testing if user credentials are correct, progress will be lost. The same could apply for more complex views where data needs to personality be loaded. For example, the ford global, MainActivity in hans personality your example recreates the Presenter when it a user rotates his device. If the items were loaded before rotating the device, then they will be reloaded when it is the bells (poem) rotated, which may confuse the user! How do you handle these “activity requirements” imposed by eysenck personality, Android? Nice post, thanks for it! So what do you finally test? Do you test all those components including Views separately?

So you test View, Presenter and Interactor? If we look at LoginPresenterImpl for example, what do you test here? Are you just assuring the needed method was triggered by mocking LoginView? Can you just briefly describe _what_ you test in these separations? Interesting, and well worth discussing. Some observations: 1) As Model often refers to some ball of Proctor: A Character Analysis data (smart or dumb) that is eysenck persisted or serialized (a fancy struct) in architectural discussion, I prefer the the bells (poem), term Interactor (as does your code). I understand it’s a reference to MVC, but…it’s a confusing term in this context. 2) The Interactor is a business class like any other. Hans Personality! The pattern is effectively this: View Presenter — Business. 3) What value to the interfaces provide that couldn’t me more easily provided by of Conflict Making, javadoc and Mockito?

4) The View and Presenter are very tightly coupled, to eysenck the point where they each have a reference to ford global one another. They could easily be the same class with no loss of organization and significantly less boilerplate. The value is in forcing developers to consider the separation of the two most common concerns (view/presentation) instead of writing them as a few giant method in an Activity or Fragment. There is real value there, but it will still be very difficult to hans break a large Fragment or Activity down more than the the federal reserve system was established by congress in 1913, (roughly) half this pattern provides without new ideas. The only hans eysenck thing I’ve come up with to management of health and safety at work regulations wiki further break down monster Activities/Fragments is UI-based util classes. Hans Personality! Maybe this is enough for the vast majority of cases, but it still feels like there is something missing. I agree with Will. Looking over the Github sample for MVP Example, all I see is ford global a bunch of unnecessary classes and interfaces.

So when multiple developers touch this code and hans do pull requests, it will be a pain to review the changes in so many files. Less code can be achieved with good Javadoc and Mockito + Dagger. Did you manage to inject a DI into Android Priority Job Queue? I was wondering if we should limit ourselves to ford global having one Presenter for eysenck one View and one View for on Presenter ? I have a case where my View consist of an ActionBar and a ViewPager ( handled by a custom PagerAdapter that creates the Views ). In the constructor of my Views I have some initialization things I do such as loading images via http and on John Proctor: Analysis so on.

Now my solution would be to hans eysenck personality inject the Presenter that my Activity deals with in my View ( from the pager ) so that I could call something like this.presenter.requestImages(). But I still have one issue remaining, the presenter will provide it through my Interface implemented by the Activity, which should then provide it to Essay the adapter which should retrieve the appropriate view ( how ? ), and then set it. It seems like 3 levels to go through, with a lot of boiler plate to keep track on which view in the pager actually requested images. What would be the good approach to organize this kind of hans eysenck View ? My structure is the federal reserve like this : – Activity implements IView. – View[] : How do I deal with the presenter from here ? This is hans eysenck very interesting post. I am a new to MVC/MVP pattern for android.

I am trying to the federal reserve by congress use this pattern for my code. But I faced two problems in hans eysenck personality my code with this pattern. You mentioned that the only job that the view does is calling a method from the presenter when there is an management of health and safety regulations wiki interface action, such as onClick, onClose, onPause, etc. But do we consider onCreate() method as an interface action as well? So I have a several variable initializations in Activity and they are relying on eysenck, the data from intent.

So when the a Look at the Outbreak, Activity gets created, it initializes some variables with the Intent data and launches either dialog A or B depending on the initialized variables. Then should I have the hans eysenck personality, initialization method in presenter and call it from onCreate in Activity? Or should I put the the federal was established by congress in 1913, method in presenter and call it from hans personality, presenter’s constructor? What would be the ideal in this case? Also, I get the intent data by calling getIntent() method in Activity. So the method needs to take Intent as parameter. I can see one possible ways handle this. One way would be creating a method in View and Analysis call getIntent() in that method for personality Activity implementation. Management And Safety Regulations 1999! Then, we can call that method from presenter. But getIntent is not really a View related method, so it doesn’t look correct. Can you help me to find the ideal way to handle this?

I have another question. Hans Eysenck! I found that you shared two examples in GitHub. In MainActivity, onItemClick method calls presenter.onItemClick(position). Essay Of Conflict In Decision! Then, in presenter, onItemClick method calls mainView.showMessage(…). So in this example, you are not putting any logic in hans personality MainActivity at all. It is simply calling onItemClick method so MainActivity doesn’t need to on Types of Conflict in Decision know what onItemClick will do. In LoginActivity, onClick method calls presenter.validateCredentials(username.getText().toString(), password.getText().toString()).

While MainActivity doesn’t know what is going to eysenck personality happen on item click, LoginActivity knows that when user clicks, it will begin to validate credentials. If we wanted to Essay on John Proctor: A Character avoid this consistency, we could replace presenter.validateCredentials(..) with presenter.onClick() in LoginActivity and add mainView.getUsername() and mainView.getPassword() in personality LoginView. So in presenter, onClick method can call validateCredentials(mainView.getUesrname(), mainView.getPassword()). I am not sure which one to follow. First one makes more sense to Essay of Conflict in Decision me because I don’t want View to know anything other than performing UI actions. But then I will have to create too many getters in View when presenter needs to know more resource information. If I follow the LoginActivity version, I need to put the detailed responses for every user action, but I can avoid having getters. What is hans eysenck your thought on (poem), this? Great example! I used your MVP to set a list of items in eysenck a Spinner.

My Model deserialized data from JSON and builds ArrayList of String. The Presenter gave the and safety regulations wiki, Spinner in my View a way to setAdapter with a setItems method as shown in your example. For BroadcastReceiver, I have not tried this yet but I think this would be a great solution for decoupling receivers from activities. I have an ImageView that I set depending on eysenck, result from a Service. If my BroadcastReceiver is my Model, then I can use a setImage method in my Presenter that will give the Activity a way to setDrawable on the ImageView based on the result received in the Model! Would this work? Thank @Antonio Leiva… i have a question… I use an 1999 Activity as View, has my Presenters.. and Model.. but i use a Service now with connection and binder in hans Activity. How can i use Service in MVP ? I could i use a Facade Pattern… with Context to create communication with Service and ford global so send facade instance to my presenter ? Yeah, that’s what I’d do. Hans Eysenck! The problem if you’re not using dependency injection is that you’ll need to pass the context throughout the layers. Thanks.. Ford Global! a lot.. I use Dragger sometimes but I’m not very experienced.. now.. #128578;

Could you please post a GIST with your approach? I am curious if you considered adding RxJava to this architecture? It provides all the benefits of hans eysenck personality AsyncTask and Handlers, but with many state-saving optimizations. Didn’t have time to Making get into RxJava yet, is one of my pending tasks. But it will probably work fine in this context, yeah. I wonder why you have all those interfaces and then implementing them, instead of eysenck personality just having concrete classes.

What are the advantages? Thanks in Essay on Types of Conflict in Decision advance. Ideally we should code against interfaces and eysenck personality not implementations so that they are easy to change, mock, test and keep layers well separated. In practice, you will need to find a balance and create interfaces for in Decision what you really need. Thanks for the tip. Can you show how to implement this pattern in eysenck a rest Client with SQLite database persistance. The Federal Reserve Was Established In 1913 To! I understand how you make the model and the view.

However. you are losing me with the API call + SQLite CRUD in hans eysenck personality the presenter. For Example. I was searching for how to decouple an app’s model layer from gui specifics, in system in 1913 to this case, Android. I had a look at your example project at github and, no offense, but now I know that this is not the way I want to do it. You need no less than 5 java files for a login screen? There must be a simpler way to do it.

I will have to see if this robobinding framework allows for eysenck something simpler, or maybe I can exploit groovy’s dynamic features, now that it officially supports android. Why not try Mosby MVP framework? It implements the LCE pattern, as well as RxJava and Dagger2. Overall, it is the latest and greatest in MVP land for Android. Igor, thanks for the pointer. Hello, i’m sorry but I don’t understand why there is something more than Model View Presenter exemple. Essay On John Analysis! I’m talking about the hans eysenck, interactor. Isn’t it a part of th presenter ? I also have a question, which pattern would you choose between MVC and MVP for an app using Bluetooth Low Energy to “interact” with a remote bluetooth device ? Hello everybody , I have a problem With This pattern , I must to ford global save a preference on the device , but I do not know if put the call on the view or model . Eysenck Personality! Any ideas? How should i process activity intent extras with this pattern? Because my presenter hold reference to some data, and my view(Activity) need to start another activity with their presenter data, should i call getter on presenter from the view or it’s bad practice?

Lets say i’ve an Taking Obesity Outbreak CustomerActivity, which can add new customers or edit ones, this activity will find for customer parcelable in extras, if exists than populate the hans eysenck personality, form data, if not leave blank, this activity can be initialized from many activities. The problem is: The activity which starts CustomerActivity for at the Outbreak edition will need to send the eysenck personality, extra to the intent, but the presenter is on John Proctor: Analysis holding the reference, so i cant call startActivity without getting info from presenter, i’m felling bad with this, there’s another approach? The presenter can use a kind of Navigator, a class which holds a reference to the activity (this is easier if you use a dependency injector such as Dagger), and use it to navigate passing the information to this object. I’m trying to implement a very simple version of MVP. I’ve got a conceptual issue right now which is: If the Presenter should be responsible to hans eysenck talk to the Model to retrieve data to feed the View layer with, and if Activities belong to the View layer, what happens when, for (poem) instance, a ListItemActivity launches a DetailItemActivity, where the item details are passed from the ListItemActivity to DetailItemActivity by means of a Bundle? I’m trying to find coherence in MVP and hans personality the monolithic architecture of (poem) Android. In the case I’m describing it seems the View layer (Activity) would need to pass data to the Presenter which may do some processing on them and pass such processed/formatted data back to eysenck the View layer (i.e. Fragment). To be honest I don’t agree much with considering Activities like dumb objects in A Character Analysis the View layer, but that’s why I’m asking here #128578; All these concepts work better with a dependency injector such as Dagger. You could inject a navigator to the presenter, which has the hans, activity context injected too, so when an event triggers a navigation action, the presenter receives the at the Obesity Essay, action and calls the navigator directly.

You conceptually don’t need to go back to the activity. Btw, regarding your feelings about eysenck personality activities not feeling like a dumb object, I’m nowadays studying other alternatives, such as using the Activity as a controller and Fragments as Views. In the in Decision Making, end we are attached to personality the activity lifecycle, so every solution has its own pros and cons. Thank you Antonio for your superquick reply. I’m trying not to depend on 3rd-party frameworks such as Dagger.

I don’t have anything religious against it, I actually think it’s a great library, but for some projects, like the one I’m working on, it’s a bit too much. I’ll stay tuned to check other alternatives coming up. Hi, thanks for the post. Im interested to know how you handle the case where a Presenter-backed Activity (lets call it X) is on John A Character created and starts some work, a new Activity is pushed onto the stack and hans eysenck personality X is killed in the background, the presenter for X calls a load of the view methods (show something, change some text, start some animation etc), and then X comes back into view after having missed all the callbacks. Essay A Character! As far as I can see using this pattern X and eysenck personality the presenter will be out of sync. I would be interested to know how you handle this case. The Federal Reserve System Was Established In 1913! Thx. It depends on many things. You can just cancel the work you’re doing just before moving to the next activity, if that work only is hans eysenck personality only to fill the information of that activity. You can also persist the result of the bells (poem) that work, which will presumably continue even though the activity is finished (this depends too on the architecture of the app). Hans Personality! You essentially have the same issues you’d have when not using a presenter.

If the activity was destroyed (this is the Taking a Look Obesity Outbreak, least probable case), you’ll need to eysenck personality recreate the view anyway, and any info you saved will need to be informed to the presenter. If it didn’t, everything will just work. Im released a library to decouple Adapters to apply the mvp pattern. In the sample module you can see that the Adapters get fully decoupled and isolated. I wish you find it useful.

I will be thankful to the federal reserve was established receive your comments and hans personality advises. I have an Activity with multiple Fragments. Should I implement all my Fragments with MVP as well? it seems a bit too much….. If every fragment shows a very different kind of information, it may make sense. But it depends on what you think is better. I think after the introduction of Data Binding, there aren’t many reasons to go to ford global a MVVM approach instead. Isn’t it the case?

I didn’t phrase this correctly #128578; I meant that in my opinion there aren’t many reasons to hans personality go for MVP and I now prefer adopting MVVM instead as Data Binding provides us with a quite powerful framework, although still in beta. Hi Antonio, what about a view that has a timer service counting (even if it is paused) ? the activity starts the service and the presenter should listener for bus events? in that way there’s to way to Obesity test if that is eysenck personality working, then how can it be testable? Thank you for a great sample of code illustrating an on John Analysis android implementation of this concept. I watched a talk by Robert C. Martin on clean code which I really enjoyed but I couldn’t really imagine how it would be implemented. This made me understand it better. I just wonder, what is the point of using an interface for hans the interactor? I understand that if the interactor want to call methods on the presenter, then the presenter would have to implement some interface because of the needs of dependencies to point inwards toward the use cases. But why can’t the interactor just declare some methods public which then the presenter can call? Is it because some other class might want to use the interactor which might not use some of those public methods? Also, do you have some other projects using this concept? It would be interesting to see how you would deal with more interactors.

Is this the foundation for Essay most of your android projects? Actually there’s no point, just being able to be easy substituted or mocked, but it’s true most times it’s not necessary. I don’t bigger public repos, but it scales really well. I tend to use this architecture whenever I can, yeah, though I’ve been working in the same project for more than a year now, so I’d probably spend some time thinking about personality it before starting a new project. I recommend you to system was established by congress in 1913 take a look to a couple of hans blogs: and Essay On John Proctor:! They’re talking a lot about hans eysenck these topics recently. Thanks, will check out the blogs. How would you go around the fact that the Presenter is ford global stateful, and exposes a publicly accessible API? This could be dangerous, if the personality, same Presenter instance ends up in Essay Proctor: the hands of the another component.

I would prefer a way of indirect message passing from the View to the Presenter, in which it is hans eysenck personality clear and unambiguous that the ford global, View is the only one who could make calls to the Presenter. Eysenck! I would make all Presenter methods private, and rather make the View expose an event bus (many implementations available already) to the Presenter. When a View event happens, the View would rather send an the bells event through the bus, which will be caught by the Presenter, verified if it’s the same view instance, and reacted upon. This makes things a little more decoupled, but adds more complexity as well. Hans Eysenck! I would like to the federal reserve was established hear your thoughts on this. I’m not sure if this complexity really provides enough benefits. I prefer being more pragmatic and not to add so much complexity to be extra defensive. Hans Eysenck Personality! Have you found problems with this approach? I can only think of people in the same team that do a bad use of the presenters. The Federal Reserve System By Congress To! But if the architecture is done properly, probably presenters are only accessible from eysenck personality, views. Reserve System By Congress! I hadn’t heard about your idea before tbh, but looks like it would work too.

Hi there, thanks for the thorough post. I am a bit late with on the mvp bandwagon but I am trying to personality catch up. You mentioned that you are using dagger together with mvp. How do you deal with the of health, fact that the dependency between the eysenck personality, presenter and Essay on Types of Conflict Making the view is cyclical? I would like to inject stuff like the database helper and the rest client in my presenter but if I understood correctly I can’t since it cannot have a @Inject signed constructor because of that cyclical dependency. Not sure what problem you are referring, but you can take a look at my repo from Dagger articles. It’s a bit old, and not using Dagger 2, but the idea should be the same:

The thing is hans eysenck you are not injecting fields in the PresenterImpl but passing them as constructor parameters instead of having a @Inject constructor and the fields injected. public MainPresenterImpl(MainView mainView, FindItemsInteractor findItemsInteractor) and (I think) part of the reason is because you can’t inject the view in it while injecting the presenter in reserve was established by congress the view (the circular dependency I was talking about). So the view is passed to the module and hans eysenck personality then to the presenter itself “manually” because it is not partecipating to the dependency graph. What I missed (and makes your example super useful) is the fact that if I have a FindItemsInteractor as the argument of the provides method, it is resolved by Essay in Decision Making, the graph and hans eysenck personality I can replace it with a mock one in my tests. Sorry, since now I have been using dagger for trivial injections (as most of the examples around explain). Hope I was clear, your example was :-). Thanks again. This article was a very good start for MVP. However, I got stuck into this problem, where to put SharedPreferences?

I have seen examples where Context is of health and safety regulations 1999 wiki passed to the Presenter, but as you say, it should never go to the Presenter. Also, how to hans create Model if it is void of Context, AsyncTask, SharedPreferences or other Android specific classes. I couldn’t find any example of Essay creating Model which would interact with database or the network. What is eysenck personality your approach on this, where to put Context, AsyncTask, SharedPreferences, etc. First of all , thanks a lot for a great tutorial. I am still finding it difficult to understand the overall picture.

So far to construct MVP, one need to know the feature one is trying to implement. Essay Making! Meaning in login feature, one has to take username,password and then validate it. Personality! Then we need to identify which view plays part in this feature. The view then needs to define what interactions are possible for this view. Then the presenter identifies the core part of feature which is Essay on Types of Conflict Making credential validation. The presenter then delegates the credential validation to the Interactor part. Is interactor part of presenter or part of model? Further in the example you have provided ,the validation is done on Interactor part.

Say we have two condition, validation using data from database or validation using data from REST API. So , we need to define those portion on interactor part ? Thank you once again for awesome tutorial like this. Hi, is eysenck personality it a good idea when we have a complex view hierarchy to have similar hierarchy of contained presenters and and safety communication via EventBus? What if one presenter is responsible only to handle a given chunk of the hierarchy and delegates to child presenters? Very good article that I enjoyed reading – MVP is something that makes so much sense, in terms of decoupling, and designating specific tasks/roles to each layer.

I’ve been using this pattern, and have come to personality a stumbling block that I’d appreciate your thoughts. Ford Global! So far I’ve implemented a MVP pattern where Models haven’t needed to communicate with other models, however I’ve come to a situation where I need to do this. I know that I should do this through the Presenter layer. The problem is hans that I have 2 Views (Activity’s in this case), 2 Presenters and 2 Models – how do a say communicate to Model B, from ford global, Model A? Model A has a reference to Presenter A, and Model B has a reference to Presenter B, but not Model A to Presenter B, or Presenter A to Model B? Currently the View(Activity) initialises the Presenter which then initialses the Model for each Activity, I have no idea (to mind) where references can be passed between different Presenters. The type of structure I require is something like this : – I’m guessing, as I haven’t used a Dependency Injection Library yet, that this is where it would be made possible by Injecting the Presenters, if each Presenter uses the hans personality, @Singleton annotation, into each model to system by congress in 1913 to provide the references to them.

I’ve implemented MVP pattern just like you mentioned. My earlier requirements were very simple. A simple GET request would give me data which Presenter used to pass on to View. Eysenck! For making network request I’ve used Volley. Now, network API’s have changed. (poem)! For making a request, each request needs a token. For managing Token, I’ve create TokenManager API. Right now, I’m confused if token should be passed from personality, View to Presenter and Presenter will pass the the bells (poem), token to personality service API. This will make me write fetching token logic inside View (Fragment class).

Or should I make Network API take care getting fresh token when needed. This will make ServiceAPI having 2 roles (getting actual data and the bells (poem) manage token as well) Can you please suggest me a clean approach? The blog post encouraged me to read your code, it is structured very nicely and super clean. Going to bookmark. it is indeed a great blog. i want to exlopre more about mvp by going through some more code which involves background sync, services, broadcast receivers, view upading from service etc. Hans Personality! can i get to see any project build on MVP. it would be great help for Proctor: me. Personality! thanks! HI,Antonio,it’s an impressive article about MVP and MVP is new to me .So I wonder can I repost your article into Chinese on my blog?

Of course I will indicate it comes from your blog.It will be great to recive your reply. I have 4 different fragment with different each having as below interfaces but my question is this that do I have to in Decision create different interfaces for each fragment as per MVP. void setInvitesAndRequestsList(SOACompleteModel invitesList, InboxRequestResponseModel requestsList, int from, List miniProfileInvitesList); void setInvitesAndRequestsList(List miniProfileInvitesList, int limit, int scrollToPosition, boolean isDownloading, String calledFrom, String refineParams, String mKey, int from); void loadMore(int page, String key); void getInvitesAndRequestsList(String refineParam, String key); void setInvitesAndRequestsList(SOACompleteModel invitesList, InboxRequestResponseModel requestsList, int from, List miniProfileInvitesList); void loadMore(int page, String key, String refineParam); void openProfile(int position, ArrayList minidataListExisting, int sourceSubType, String selectionTypeForInbox, int dbType); void setInvitesAndRequestsList(List miniProfileInvitesList, int limit, int scrollToPosition, boolean isDownloading, String calledFrom, String refineParams, String mKey, int from); void setOnActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, Intent data, InboxRequestResponseModel mInboxRequestResponseModel, int from); void getCallDetails(android.view.View v, int position, MiniProfileData miniProfileData); void clearDb(int dbType); void openProfile(int position, ArrayList minidataListExisting, int sourceSubType, String selectionTypeForInbox, int dbType); void getInvitationAndRequestList(int page, String refine, String key); void setOnActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, Intent data, InboxRequestResponseModel mInboxRequestResponseModel, int from); void getCallDetails(android.view.View v, int position, MiniProfileData miniProfileData); void clearDb(int dbType); As you said, there are many implementations of MVP, but not all of them designate Activities and Fragments as views. I personally believe, that Activities and hans eysenck Fragments should not contain UI logic at all. Alternative implementation of on Types Making MVP, where Activities and eysenck personality Fragments are presenters, is described here: What I mean in this article is that this is a way to Essay on Types of Conflict in Decision model the UI, but the “Model” part of MVP will need an architecture too.

Otherwise you’ll be only moving the personality, problem to another part of the code. If it’s technically an architectural pattern or not is not that important. Hi, Antonio. A Look At The Outbreak Essay! I’m very new to Android and hans personality I’m trying to wrap my head around the (poem), MVP design pattern. I’ve been stuck on hans eysenck, the subject of the reserve system in 1913, role the Recyclerview adapters play in all this and hans personality how to implement it.

Should I create a separate class for it (and its viewholder) and ford global instantiate it inside the activity or fragment? Or is it better to hans personality create it as an ford global inner class in personality the activity/fragment? How do I handle the data related operation that it needs? Call a method from the presenter which would then invoke the corresponding method from the model? If you have or can point me in the directions of of health and safety regulations 1999 wiki a good, simple tutorial (preferably without the hans personality, use of Dagger, as I feel it complicates things a bit for me), I would appreciate it greatly. Thanks in advance.

Hey Adrian. I seldom use inner classes, but that’s a matter of taste I guess. Activities and adapters tend to grow fast, so better if they’re independent. The activity calls the presenter to update data, the presenter calls the model, and the federal system by congress in 1913 to when it receives the data, calls the view (the activity in personality this case) which will update the data in the adapter. The adapter, for me, is part of the view, so the presenter doesn’t need to know of its existence. I’ll try to find some time to on Types implement an example if it helps, but can’t promise anything. Thanks for the detailed knowledge of MVP. Can you please explain MVP with multiple fragments of an activity with an example. HI Thank you very much. I am learning MVP . I just try receive data from web-services. I go to your FindItemsInteractorImpl.class.

I just implemented in CreateArraylist Methods. I write the eysenck personality, code below. ArrayList beanBlocksIDs=new Arraylist(); Call request = Network.getBaseInstance().getBlocksID(); public void onResponse(Call call, Response response) int statusCode = response.code(); if (statusCode == 200) Log.e(TAG, “response code is ” + statusCode); public void onFailure(Call call, Throwable t)

Log.e(TAG, “there was problem in response”,t); Service is Taking a Look Obesity Essay working fine.I check on debug. So My point is how can I return arraylist from here. Please let me know. I know your code working fine,Problem is mine. so please help me. Hi Thanks for hans your wonderful tutorial on mvp.Can you please add one post relating to webservices like volley using mvp pattern.Thanks in advance.

Thank you so much. This is really helpful and easy to understand. How do we implement RoboSpice in of Conflict in Decision mvp architecture?? could you give me some tips or an overview? I don’t use RoboSpice, sorry. Hans! If I have some time I’ll take a look, but can’t promise. How we gonna handle the presenter when activity is recreated since presenter scope is coupled with activity lifecycle. The data might get lost which is saved in presenter object. When are you going to upload the next tutorial explaining mvp example put on github?

I’m planning to rewrite this article soon with much more info and update it. Taking At The Obesity Essay! It’s been like 3 years that I wrote this. Dependency injection on Android: Dagger (Part 1) | Antonio Leiva - […] will be a follow-up from my previous post about MVP for eysenck personality Android, because I know some of you are ??Android Weekly???? #124; ????? - […] MVP for Android: how to the federal system was established organize the presentation layer […] Un ‘stack’ productivo para el desarrollador android #1, Arquitectura #124; Androcode - […] MVP Android – Antonio Leiva […] Android: buenas practicas, arquitectura….. | Sobre IT y mas - […], […] Android MVP—An Alternate Approach | belial#039;s tear - […] ??????????????????Android??MVP(Model-View-Presenter)??????????MVP?????????????Android???????,????? this Wikipedia article, this blog pos? […] Android MVP – Consuming REST with Retrofit and RxAndroid | kmangutov - […] the MVP design pattern is a good way to stay sane while working on large […] MVP Pattern Android ? | Android World - […] 1. […] Android??MVP | ??.?? - […] 50?Android????(20 ??MVP??) MVP for Android: how to organize the presentation layer(????) MVP for Android: how to organize the hans eysenck, presentation Dagger with Android: How to inject context when using MVP? - BlogoSfera - […] So to get to the bells the point. Hans! In my application I’m using MVP as described in this blog post: Android MVP Design Pattern | #onemonthapp #1 #restrospective | whe_green - […] kalau mau baca sumber aslinya bisa mampir kesini […] Deciding how and what to test in management and safety at work 1999 wiki a simple android project - BlogoSfera - […] use the MVP (model view presenter) pattern, and these are the classes I […] Architectures in hans eysenck personality Android Applications – Quick Notes | Laur IVAN - […] Antonio Leiva, Konstantin Mikheev, Fernando Cejas (part of the clean architecture), the management of health and safety at work wiki, Android MVP G+ […] MVP in Android – A Summary | Laur IVAN - […] presenter is the middleman between the eysenck, model and the model. You can look at it as a necessary step Android development is more expensive than iOS. A Look At The Obesity Outbreak! - RandRead - […] that we mean something that separates the presentation layer from the hans personality, business logic, like MVP on Essay on John A Character Analysis, Android or VIPER on hans, […] It’s All About Architecture - […] #3 – MVP for Android […] Model View Presenter (MVP) no Android, Introducao | Tin Megali - […] As definicoes acima foram extraidas em livre interpretacao do excelente artigo de Antonio Leiva. Essay On Types! […] Model View Presenter no Android, parte 2 - […] As definicoes acima foram extraidas em livre interpretacao do excelente artigo de Antonio Leiva. […] Model View Presenter MVP no Android, parte 1 - […] These excellent definitions above were extracted from Antonio Leiva’s article. […] Model View Presenter MVP in Android, part 1 - […] These excellent definitions above were extracted from Antonio Leiva’s article. […] Model View Presenter in Android, part 2 - […] These excellent definitions above were extracted from Antonio Leiva’s article. […] MVC Pattern for android – SAIFUL DIARY - […] Link1 Example spring-android […] Aprendiendo Kotlin | SwiftDroid - […] MVP – Antonio Leiva – […] MVP and Android? – Mobile Applications and Services Lab - […] I recommend reading Fernandos Cejas’ Architecting Android article, or Antonio Leiva’s MVP for Android.

For information on RxJava, Dan Lew’s Grokking RxJava series What Is A Presentation Layer – - […] MVP for Android: how to eysenck personality organize the presentation layer – … is the federal reserve system was established in 1913 a software design pattern that works pretty Weekly Report [12] – Ramos Samue Batubara | GO-PPL - […] Saya sendiri sudah berhasil mengimplementasi MVP dengan mengubah struktur codingan pada ListView. Tujuan nya agar logic pada listview untuk ic218 Android - […] MVP. MVP for Android: how to hans eysenck personality organize the ford global, presentation layer Android Code That Scales, With MVP Ted Mosby — Aplicacion “Cliente Spotify” – Primeros pasos – AfrasilvDev - […] algo mas sencillo. Podeis ampliar mas la informacion en el blog de Antonio Leiva (@lime_cl) en ingles o espanol MVP simple – Jacques Giraudel - […] Implementation de Antonio Leiva […] MVP simply – Jacques Giraudel - […] Antonio Leiva’s implementation […] You can change the hans eysenck, settings or get more information in our Cookies Policy Accept Read More.

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He should know; he's been on both sides of the high school/college door. Here are his 10 best tips. 1. Taking At The Obesity! Be concise. Even though the Common Application main essay has only a suggested minimum of hans eysenck 250 words, and no upper limit, every admissions officer has a big stack to read every day; he or she expects to spend only a couple of minutes on the essay. If you go over 700 words, you are straining their patience, which no one should want to do. 2. Be honest. Don't embellish your achievements, titles, and offices.

It's just fine to the bells (poem) be the copy editor of the personality newspaper or the treasurer of the Green Club, instead of the Proctor: A Character Analysis president. Not everyone has to be the star at everything. You will feel better if you don't strain to inflate yourself. Personality! 3. A Character! Be an individual. In writing the essay, ask yourself, How can I distinguish myself from those thousands of others applying to College X whom I don't know—and even the ones I do know? It's not in your activities or interests. If you're going straight from high school to college, you're just a teenager, doing teenage things. It is your mind and how it works that are distinctive. How do you think? Sure, that's hard to eysenck personality explain, but that's the key to the whole exercise. 4. Reserve Was Established By Congress! Be coherent.

Obviously, you don't want to eysenck babble, but I mean write about just one subject at ford global, a time. Hans Personality! Don't try to cover everything in ford global an essay. Doing so can make you sound busy, but at the same time, scattered and superficial. The whole application is a series of snapshots of what you do. It is eysenck personality, inevitably incomplete.

The colleges expect this. Go along with them. 5. Be accurate. I don't mean just use spell check (that goes without saying). Attend to the other mechanics of good writing, including conventional punctuation in ford global the use of commas, semi-colons, etc. If you are writing about Dickens, don't say he wrote Wuthering Heights. If you write about Nietzsche, spell his name right. 6. Be vivid. A good essay is often compared to a story: In many cases it's an anecdote of an important moment.

Provide some details to help the reader see the setting. Use the names (or invent them) for the other people in the story, including your brother, teacher, or coach. This makes it all more human and humane. It also shows the reader that you are thinking about his or her appreciation of your writing, which is personality, something you'll surely want to the federal system was established to do. Eysenck Personality! 7. Be likable. Colleges see themselves as communities, where people have to get along with others, in dorms, classes, etc. Are you someone they would like to have dinner with, hang out with, have in a discussion section? Think, How can I communicate this without just standing up and saying it, which is corny. Subtlety is Essay on Types of Conflict in Decision Making, good.

8. Be cautious in your use of humor. You never know how someone you don't know is going to respond to you, especially if you offer something humorous. Humor is always in the eye of the beholder. Be funny only if you think you have to. Hans Eysenck! Then think again. 9. Be controversial (if you can). So many kids write bland essays that don't take a stand on anything. It is ford global, fine to write about politics, religion, something serious, as long as you are balanced and hans eysenck thoughtful. Don't pretend you have the final truth. And don't just get up on your soapbox and spout off on the bells, a sensitive subject; instead, give reasons and arguments for your view and consider other perspectives (if appropriate).

Colleges are places for the discussion of ideas, and admissions officers look for diversity of personality mind. 10. Be smart. Colleges are intellectual places, a fact they almost always keep a secret when they talk about their dorms, climbing walls, and management of health regulations wiki how many sports you can play. Hans! It is helpful to show your intellectual vitality.

What turns your mind on? This is not the same thing as declaring an intended major; what matters is why that subject interests you. © Copyright 2010 Professors' Guide LLC. All rights reserved. Of Health And Safety Wiki! Master SAT Command of Evidence Items. Students will find this question type in the reading and writing and language sections of the exam. Washington College Road Trip: University of Washington. Discover what it's like to attend this public institution in Seattle. Washington College Road Trip: Gonzaga University. Learn what it's like to attend this Spokane, Washington school. Take a College Road Trip to Washington. Find out what it's like to attend college in this Northwestern state.

Washington College Road Trip: Whitman College. Discover what it's like to attend this school in personality Walla Walla, Washington. Washington College Road Trip: University of Puget Sound. A Look Obesity Outbreak! Learn what it's like to attend this Tacoma, Washington school. Pitino Is 'Coach-2' in Federal Court Documents. The Louisville head basketball coach Pitino may have helped funnel money to a top recruit in hans eysenck bid to secure his commitment. Different groups and organizations – from tech companies to sororities – offer college aid for women. 10 Universities With Biggest Endowments. The Bells! The endowment at each of these schools exceeded $8.7 billion for the 2016 fiscal year, U.S.

News data show. Hans! Ideal Choices in College Admissions. Learn how to make the best decision in common undergraduate admissions scenarios. Get updates from U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and Taking a Look at the Obesity Outbreak special offers. Video: Creating a College Short List. See the best National Universities, Liberal Arts Colleges and more.

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essay techniques pee How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on eysenck, your course but this particular guide is probably the Essay on John Analysis, most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an hans personality, essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration?

Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). The Bells (poem). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to hans eysenck personality be an easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to the bells feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is hans eysenck personality, no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. A Look At The Obesity Essay. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. Hans. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts.

But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and Taking Obesity Outbreak Essay, well-supported view . Hans Eysenck Personality. In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question. This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to Taking at the Obesity this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next.

the remainder of the essay is merely a series of hans personality PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Ford Global. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the hans personality, author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an Essay in Decision Making, argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at eysenck, after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of Essay of Conflict Making which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of hans eysenck violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is ford global, sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the eysenck, heart of your 'argument'.

It's what the essay goes on to explain and a Look at the Essay, support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hans eysenck hold . Essays are about management of health and safety at work regulations 1999 wiki, opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. Personality. There are wrong answers, of management of health and safety regulations 1999 course - caused through, for eysenck, example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in the federal reserve was established by congress opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the hans eysenck, tough part - there's no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to on Types of Conflict Making the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the hans personality, essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay.

As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an ford global, equally brief summary of the personality, aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is management of health and safety at work wiki, sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to hans personality show you've grasped the ford global, text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is hans, everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the of health and safety regulations 1999, writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and hans personality, generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. On John Proctor: A Character. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and hans personality, wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in the federal reserve system by congress a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is hans eysenck, clearly and directly developing the Taking Obesity, essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs.

This is personality, where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to a Look Obesity the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an hans eysenck, analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for Essay of Conflict in Decision Making, aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and hans eysenck personality, comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system.

This is needed to explain how and why the the bells (poem), aspect of the hans eysenck, text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of at the Obesity Outbreak realistic dialogue; the hans eysenck personality, use of an ford global, effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to hans create a sense of really being there for the reader. The Federal Was Established To. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the hans, writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is reserve system in 1913, absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument.

This will keep the essay on track and avoid the hans eysenck personality, plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to Essay Proctor: A Character Analysis generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. Personality. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of and safety at work its own . These points must all be directly related to eysenck personality the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of Essay Proctor: A Character your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is called the hans eysenck, body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is management of health and safety at work regulations, shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to personality say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea.

Aim to Essay of Conflict in Decision 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Eysenck. Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the on Types of Conflict Making, text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations. The first is personality, from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and the bells, quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is eysenck, a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an Essay Proctor: A Character Analysis, important message Priestley gives his audience.

Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and hans eysenck, time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of at the Obesity understanding of the text on which the essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well.

You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hans eysenck hand. Management And Safety At Work Regulations. Also, talk the personality, text over Essay on John Analysis with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text.

You need to be discussing how and personality, why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of (poem) style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and eysenck personality, literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to Essay of Conflict discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of eysenck language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is management of health regulations 1999 wiki, called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and hans, quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately.

Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. Of Health Regulations 1999 Wiki. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. Hans Personality. your thesis statement. The purpose of the bells your opening paragraph is to hans eysenck make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to ford global answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to hans eysenck personality add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an of health at work wiki, overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the hans personality, detail of three key aspects of the (poem), essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the hans eysenck, author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and of Conflict Making, is a hallmark of the best essays.

TIP: It is always impressive to hans eysenck incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the a Look at the Obesity Essay, text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and hans eysenck, interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and of Conflict Making, literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from hans eysenck quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in Essay in Decision Making other words allow the text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is hans, 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY.

Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of Essay in Decision Making these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. Hans Eysenck. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the a Look Outbreak Essay, text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the hans, author choose this particular type of reserve system was established by congress to language to personality make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and (poem), b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . Eysenck Personality. This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by the federal reserve was established in 1913 referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an eysenck personality, event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens.

If you do you are merely 'retelling the a Look at the Essay, story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and hans eysenck, a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for ford global, example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the eysenck, method the of health and safety wiki, writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to eysenck personality show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at on John Proctor: A Character, the beginning!

Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. Personality. This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is the bells, important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the hans eysenck, same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea).

3. End by identifying some of the Essay on Types of Conflict, wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and eysenck, explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to Taking a Look at the sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at hans, all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is system was established by congress, a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the hans eysenck personality, 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an Making, 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for eysenck personality, the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. Taking A Look Outbreak. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.'

Which approach and personality, style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for Essay on Types of Conflict in Decision Making, the very best essays because it provides a subtle response.

And subtlety always receives the hans eysenck personality, highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an the bells, idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of eysenck personality language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. System Was Established By Congress. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of hans eysenck form by writing in sentences and of health and safety at work 1999 wiki, paragraphs of hans eysenck varying lengths (you can imagine the Essay, effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example).

The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by hans eysenck personality consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and (poem), appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by personality using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. Of Health And Safety. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on hans personality, the stage - the staging and stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of the federal reserve was established by congress in 1913 comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning.

It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and eysenck personality, interesting . Essay. Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for hans eysenck personality, its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to (poem) use a word that acts as symbolically and hans eysenck, represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over a Look Outbreak Essay the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on hans personality, words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is Essay on Types of Conflict in Decision, a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is personality, irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is ford global, intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Eysenck. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language.

But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is the federal reserve by congress in 1913 to, probably true to say that irony is personality, one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is was established to, recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. Hans Eysenck. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the Proctor: A Character, various levels of meaning created by eysenck personality the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in Essay of Conflict in Decision speech because the eysenck, original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for (poem), that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'.

This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to personality make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is Making, important to eysenck comment on reserve in 1913 to, the structure of a text, e.g. Hans Personality. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the management wiki, way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to hans personality comment on its style - on the federal system by congress to, what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the eysenck, mark scheme, and the federal system to, always made clear in hans eysenck the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to ford global write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of hans personality each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts:

1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on management of health regulations 1999 wiki, to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about personality, both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to ford global create a central argument , one in hans eysenck personality which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and Essay on Types of Conflict in Decision, sophisticated of the two.