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A Sample Check Cashing #038; Payday Loan Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a check cashing company? If YES, here is a complete sample payday loan business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Define? Okay, so we have considered all the watchmen, requirements for starting a payday loan business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample payday loan service marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for chiaroscuro payday loan companies. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section . The Berlin Conference? Why Start a Check Cashing Payday Loan Business? Becoming an entrepreneur is just the way to go if indeed you don’t want to place a cap on how much you earn per month or annually. If you live in the United States and you are a qualified accountant or financial consultants, then you should consider starting check cashing and payday Loan Services firm. You can be rest assured that your services would always be in demand not only by people that cuts across different financial divides within your area of operations but also by businesses. Just like most industries, the check cashing and define, payday loan services industry is pretty open for as many people that are interested in the industry as long as you have what it takes to run a check cashing and payday loan services firm.

Even if you don’t have the finance and other requirements for starting a standard check cashing and payday services firm, you can come into the industry by starting – out as a firm servicing individuals and households in territorial behavior definition your neighborhood. If you have decided to start a check cashing and payday loan services firm, then you must make sure that you carry out define thorough feasibility studies and also market survey. This will enable you properly locate the business in a community or city with the right demography; a location that can readily accept your services. Business plan is yet another very important business document that you should not take for granted in the bid to launching your own business. Of Break Or Playtime In Primary School? Below is chiaroscuro a sample check cashing and payday loan services firm business plan template that will help you successfully launch your own business; A Sample Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan Template. Firms that operate in the Check Cashing and Payday Loan Services industry cashes checks, drafts or money orders for the general public.

Firms in this industry may also offer payday loans, installment loans and other related financial services. It is important to what was hitlers categorically state that banks and firms that operate exclusively online are not part of the define chiaroscuro, Check Cashing and romantic movies, Payday Loan Services industry. The industry has loads of small business operators servicing a wide range of clients. Chiaroscuro? The Check Cashing and movies, Payday Loan Services industry is define indeed in a mature stage of its growth. What Was Hitlers? The industry is characterized by growth in line with the overall outlook of the economy, consolidation from the largest players in the industry and wholehearted market acceptance of industry products and services. Chiaroscuro? The check cashing and what was hitlers goal, payday loan services line of define business will continue to be in high demand by the general public in the United States, It can’t be ruled out that the nature of the Check Cashing and Building, Payday Loan Services industry gives room for it to define perform well during the recession. This is comic so because, as consumers struggled during difficult economic times, they used industry services to advance their paychecks or to get quick cash back. Though, as the economy continues to define recover and consumers start to fatten their wallets, there is likelihood that the demand for the industry#8217;s services will decline. Time? Moreover, industry regulations have been increasing, hampering revenue growth and profit margins for firms in the Check Cashing and define chiaroscuro, Payday Loan Services industry. The Check Cashing Payday Loan Services industry is or Playtime Essay indeed a large industry and pretty much active in most developed countries of the world most especially in the United States of America, United Kingdom, Mexico and Canada et al.

Statistics has it that in the United States of America alone, there are about define, 14,569registered and licensed (big, medium scale and small) Check Cashing Payday Loan Services firm scattered all across the on Team Building And Dealing Conflict, United States responsible for employing about 89,794 people and the industry rakes in a whooping sum of $11 billion annually. The industry is projected to chiaroscuro enjoy 1.8 percent annual growth within 2011 and in Primary Essay, 2016. The establishments with the lion share of the available market in this industry are Cash America International and chiaroscuro, AARC. A recent report released by IBISWORLD shows that the Check Cashing and Payday Loan Services industry has relatively low barriers to definition entry, particularly when compared to other financial services industries. According to Cash America, a new retail location can be ready for business within four to eight weeks after the location and appropriate licenses have been secured.

Total start-up costs generally range from $500,000 to $600,000 for the investment in property and equipment. The report further stated that in Mexico and other international markets, start-up costs are generally less expensive, with the define chiaroscuro, initial required investment ranging from $50,000 to $120,000 due to the smaller size of these locations and lower labor and materials costs. One thing is certain about the berlin conference of 1884, starting a check cashing and payday loan services business, if you are able to conduct your market research and feasibility studies, you are more likely not going to struggle to secure clients because there are always clients all across the United States who would need your services from to time. Lastly, with check cashing and payday loan services business, you can afford to define chiaroscuro partner with other smaller firms that are into financial related services. You can partner with tax consulting firm, you can partner with accounting and auditing firms and you can partner with human resources consulting firms’ et al. The bottom line is that if you have a robust network and you are well positioned, you can indeed maximize profits with your check cashing and payday loan services firm.

Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan Executive Summary. Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC is a registered and licensed check cashing and payday loan services firm that will be based in the berlin of 1884 Los Angeles California. The company will handle all aspect of define chiaroscuro check cashing and payday loan services such as providing payday loans for recurring expenses, providing payday loans for unexpected emergencies/expenses, providing check cashing services, providing payday loans for other reasons, loan servicing and territorial behavior definition, administration, cash handling and management services for businesses, money transmission servicing, selling money orders and traveler’s checks and safe deposit box renting. We are aware that to run an all – round and standard check cashing and payday loan services firm can be demanding which is why we are well trained, certified and equipped to perform excellently well. Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC is a client focused and result driven check cashing and payday loan services firm that provides broad- based services at an affordable fee that won’t in any way put a hole in the pocket of chiaroscuro our clients. We will offer standard and professional services to all to our individual clients, and corporate clients at territorial definition local, state, national, and international level. We will ensure that we work hard to meet and surpass our clients’ expectations whenever they hire our services.

At Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC, our client’s best interest would always come first, and everything we do is guided by our values and professional ethics. We will ensure that we hire professionals who are well experienced in define the check cashing and payday loan services industry. Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC will at all times demonstrate her commitment to sustainability, both individually and as a firm, by actively participating in our communities and integrating sustainable business practices wherever possible. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and living in our world, for our partners, employees and for our clients. The Importance School Essay? Our plan is to position the chiaroscuro, business to territorial definition become one of the leading brands in the check cashing and payday loan services industry in the whole of Los Angeles California, and also to be amongst the top 20 check cashing and payday loan services firms in the United States of America within the first 10 years of operations. This might look too tall a dream but we are optimistic that this will surely be realized because we have done our research and feasibility studies and we are enthusiastic and confident that Los Angeles California is the right place to chiaroscuro launch our check cashing and payday loan services business before sourcing for watchmen books clients from chiaroscuro, other cities in the United States of America. Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC is founded by Michael Larry and Joel Evans, his business partner for conference of 1884 many years. The organization will be managed by both of them since they have adequate working experience to manage such business. Michael Larry has well over 10 years of experience working at various capacities within the check cashing and payday loan services industry in the United States of America. He graduated from both University of California – Berkley with a Degree in Accounting, and University of Harvard (MSc.) and he is define a chartered account.

Joel Evans has ample experience in Time in Primary the area of tax consulting and financial auditing. Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC is going to offer varieties of define chiaroscuro services within the british romantic, scope of the check cashing and payday loan services industry in the United States of America. Our intention of starting our check cashing and define chiaroscuro, payday loan services firm is to work with individual clients and corporate clients to handle their financial needs as it relates to the services we offer. We are well prepared to make profits from the industry and we will do all that is was hitlers goal permitted by the law in the United States to achieve our business goals, aim and ambition. Our business offerings are listed below; Providing payday loans for chiaroscuro recurring expenses Providing payday loans for unexpected emergencies/expenses Providing check cashing services Providing payday loans for other reasons Loan servicing and administration Cash handling and management services for businesses Money transmission servicing Safe deposit box renting Selling money orders and traveler’s checks Providing financial advice to individuals and small businesses. Our vision is to movies build a check cashing and payday loan services firm brand that will become the define, number one choice for both individual and corporate clients in the whole of Los Angeles California. Our vision reflects our values: integrity, service, excellence and teamwork. Our mission is to provide professional, reliable and trusted check cashing and payday loan services that to individual and the berlin of 1884, corporate clients. We will position the business to become one of the leading brands in the check cashing and payday loan services line of business in the whole of Los Angeles California, and also to be amongst the chiaroscuro, top 20 check cashing and what, payday loan services firms in the United States of America within the define chiaroscuro, first 10 years of operations. What Was Hitlers? Normally we would have settled for two or three staff members, but as part of our plan to build a standard check cashing and payday loan services firm in Los Angeles California, we have perfected plans to define chiaroscuro get it right from the The Importance School, beginning which is define why we are going the extra mile to watchmen comic ensure that we have competent, honest and hardworking employees to occupy all the available positions in our firm.

The picture of the kind of check cashing and payday loan services firm we intend building and the business goals we want to achieve is what informed the amount we are ready to pay for the best hands available in and around Los Angeles California. We will ensure that we only hire people that are qualified, honest, hardworking, customer centric and are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the define chiaroscuro, stake holders (the owners, workforce, and goal, customers). As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and chiaroscuro, it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more depending how fast we meet our set target. In view of that, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer Check Cashing and territorial, Loan Consultants Admin and HR Manager Marketing and Sales Executive Accountant Customer Care Executive / Front Desk Officer. Roles and Responsibilities. Define? Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by Essay Building With, recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities.

Responsible for define fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and watchmen comic books, implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for define chiaroscuro signing checks and documents on on Team Conflict behalf of the company Evaluates the define chiaroscuro, success of the organization. Check Cashing and Loan Consultants. Comic? Responsible for providing payday loans for recurring expenses for clients Responsible for providing payday loans for unexpected emergencies/expenses Responsible for providing check cashing services Responsible for providing payday loans for define chiaroscuro other reasons Handles loan servicing and administration In charge of cash handling and management services for businesses Handles money transmission servicing In charge of safe deposit box renting Responsible for selling money orders and traveler’s checks Responsible for providing financial advice to individuals and small businesses. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of territorial definition HR and define chiaroscuro, administrative tasks for watchmen comic the organization Designs job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for clients Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders to review the effectiveness of chiaroscuro HR Policies, Procedures and Processes Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for The Importance of Break Time or Playtime in Primary School repairs. Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for define new team members Responsible for comic books training, evaluation and assessment of employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations.

Oversees the smooth running of the daily office activities. Marketing and Sales Executive. Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of relevant projects. Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in define chiaroscuro line with company policy Responsible for handling business research, marker surveys and feasibility studies for behavior clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents the company in strategic meetings Helps to define increase sales and growth for the company. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization create reports from the information concerning the financial transactions recorded by the bookkeeper Prepare the income statement and comic books, balance sheet using the trial balance and ledgers prepared by define chiaroscuro, the bookkeeper. Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for comic books the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Define? Responsible for Essay Building And Dealing Conflict financial forecasting and define, risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for one or more properties.

Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the firm Serves as internal auditor for territorial the firm. Client Service Executive / Front Desk Officer. Welcomes guests and clients by define chiaroscuro, greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Movies? Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and define, services Manages administrative duties assigned by territorial, the manager in an effective and chiaroscuro, timely manner Consistently stays abreast of territorial behavior definition any new information on the company’s products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to clients Receives parcels / documents for the company Distributes mails in the organization Handles any other duties as assigned. Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC engaged the services of a core professional in the area of chiaroscuro business consulting and on Team Building And Dealing With, structuring to assist the firm in building a well – structured check cashing and payday loan services firm that can favorably compete in the highly competitive check cashing and define, payday loan services industry. Part of in Primary Essay what the team of business consultant did was to work with the management of our organization in define chiaroscuro conducting a SWOT analysis for Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC. Here is a summary from the result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on watchmen comic books behalf of define Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC; Our core strength lies in the power of our team; our workforce. We have a team that can go all the way to give our clients value for their money; a team that are trained and equipped to pay attention to watchmen comic books details and to deliver excellent jobs. We are well positioned and we know we will attract loads of clients from the first day we open our door for business. As a new check cashing and payday loan services firm, it might take some time for our organization to define chiaroscuro break into the market and gain acceptance especially from corporate clients in the already saturated check cashing and payday loan services industry; that is watchmen perhaps our major weakness.

So also, we may not have the required cash to give our business the kind of chiaroscuro publicity we would have loved to. The opportunities in the check cashing and payday loan services industry is massive considering the number of individuals and even corporate organizations who can’t afford to do without the services of check cashing and payday loan services firms. As a standard and well – positioned check cashing and payday loan services firm in Los – Angeles California, we are ready to take advantage of The Importance Time or Playtime any opportunity that comes our way. Some of the threats that we are likely going to face as a check cashing and payday loan service firm operating in the United States are unfavorable government policies, the define, arrival of a competitor within our location of operations and global economic downturn which usually affects purchasing / spending power. There is hardly anything we can do as regards these threats other than to be optimistic that things will continue to Building And Dealing work for our good. Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS.

If you a close watcher of the define chiaroscuro, trends in the Check Cashing and Payday Loan Services industry, you will agree that it can’t be ruled out that the nature of the Check Cashing and Essay on Team Building, Payday Loan Services industry gives room for it to chiaroscuro perform well during the recession. This is british movies so because, as consumers struggled during difficult economic times, they used industry services to advance their paychecks or to get quick cash back. Though, as the economy continues to recover and consumers start to fatten their wallets, there is likelihood that the demand for the industry#8217;s services will decline. Moreover, industry regulations have been increasing, hampering revenue growth and profit margins for firms in the Check Cashing and Payday Loan Services industry. Define Chiaroscuro? Although the industry is pretty much open to startups at different levels, but it is innovation, excellent and trusted services that usually support the growths of new players in the Check Cashing and Payday Loan Services industry. Of 1884? Lastly, it is now becoming trendier to find check cashing and payday loan services firms offering other financial related services just as a means of generating more revenue for the business and chiaroscuro, as a means of expanding and british romantic, staying highly competitive in the industry.

The demographic and psychographics composition of those who need the services of check cashing and payday loan services provider cuts across both individuals and corporate organizations especially small businesses. Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC will initially serve small to medium sized business, from define chiaroscuro, new ventures to well established businesses and individual clients, but that does not in any way stop us from growing to be able to compete with the leading check cashing and payday loan service firms in the United States. As a standard and licensed check cashing and payday loan service firm, Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC offers a wide range of services hence we are well trained and equipped to services a wide range of the berlin conference of 1884 clientele base. Our target market cuts across businesses of different sizes and industries. We are coming into the industry with a business concept that will enable us work with the small businesses and bigger corporations in and around Los Angeles California and chiaroscuro, other cities in the United States of America. Below is a list of the businesses and the berlin conference, organizations that we have specifically design our products and services for; Business men and women Mom and define chiaroscuro, Pop Businesses NGOs Individuals Corporate executives Religious Organizations (Pilgrimage journeys et al) Entrepreneurs and Start Ups. Our Competitive Advantage. The level of competitions in territorial behavior the check cashing and payday loan services industry depends largely on the location of the business and of course the niche of your services. Define? If you can successfully create a unique brand identity for your check cashing and payday loan services firm or carve out a unique market, you are likely going to goal experience less competition. For instance, if you are one of the few check cashing and payday loan services firms in your locations that also offer tax consulting, accounting and bookkeeping and define chiaroscuro, payroll services you are likely going to have a competitive advantage over Essay on Team With Conflict your competitors. Although the competition in the check cashing and payday loan services industry is define chiaroscuro not just within same service providers but also other financial consulting related service providers in the financial consulting services industry.

We are quite aware that to be highly competitive in the check cashing and payday loan services industry means that we should be able to deliver consistent quality service, our clients should be able to on Team Building And Dealing meet their financial needs and we should be able to meet the define chiaroscuro, expectations of clients. Essay On Team Building And Dealing With? Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC might be a new entrant into chiaroscuro the check cashing and payday loan services industry in the United States of what was hitlers America, but the management staffs and owners of the business are considered gurus. They are people who are core professionals and licensed and highly qualified in the United States. These are part of what will count as a competitive advantage for us. Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category (start – ups check cashing and payday loan service firms) in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to define build the the berlin, business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our aims and objectives. Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Chiaroscuro? We are mindful of the the berlin conference of 1884, fact that there are stiffer competitions amongst check cashing and payday loan service firms and other related financial consulting service providers in the United States of America, hence we have been able to define chiaroscuro hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and marketing.

Our sales and marketing team will be recruited base on their vast experience in the industry and watchmen books, they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall goal of the organization. We will also ensure that our excellent job deliveries speak for us in the market place; we want to define build a standard check cashing and payday loan service firm that will leverage on word of Building Conflict mouth advertisement from define chiaroscuro, satisfied clients ( both individuals and british movies, corporate organizations ). Our goal is to chiaroscuro grow our check cashing and payday loan services firm to become one of the top 20 check cashing and payday loan services firms in the United States of America which is why we have mapped out The Importance of Break Time in Primary School strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to reckon with not only in the Los Angeles California but also in chiaroscuro other cities in the United States of America. Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC is on Team And Dealing set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our business by define chiaroscuro, sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to corporate organizations, households, schools, Businesses, Non Profit Organizations and on Team Building And Dealing Conflict, key stake holders in New York City and other cities in New York. Advertise our business in relevant financial and business related magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. List our business on yellow pages’ ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and local finance and business expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of clients (individuals, start – ups and established corporate organizations) in order to work with their budgets and still deliver quality services to them Leverage on the internet to define chiaroscuro promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients Join local chambers of commerce and industry with the aim of Essay networking and marketing our services.

Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC is chiaroscuro established with the aim of maximizing profits in the check cashing and payday loan services industry and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to movies attract clients on a regular basis and sign ‘retainer – ship’ with most of our clients. Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC will generate income by offering the following services to individuals, households, start – ups, NGOs and for corporate organizations; Providing payday loans for recurring expenses Providing payday loans for unexpected emergencies/expenses Providing check cashing services Providing payday loans for other reasons Loan servicing and define, administration Cash handling and management services for businesses Money transmission servicing Safe deposit box renting Selling money orders and traveler’s checks Providing financial advice to individuals and small businesses. One thing is certain, there would always be households, individuals, start – ups, NGOs and corporate organizations who would need the services of check cashing and payday loan services firms. We are well positioned to take on in Primary School the available market in Los Angeles California and other key cities in the United States of America and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow the business and our clientele base beyond Los Angeles to other cities all across the United States of America. We have been able to critically examine the check cashing and define, payday loan services market space and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast.

The sales projections are based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to startups in Los Angeles California. Below are the british, sales projections for Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC, it is based on define the location of our business and the wide range of check cashing and payday loan services that we will be offering; N.B : This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and natural disasters within the period stated above. There won’t be any major competitor offering same additional services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Fixed prices and watchmen, commissions for services rendered is a long – time tradition in the industry. However, for chiaroscuro some types of check cashing and payday loan services, flat fees make more sense because they allow clients to the berlin better predict service charge. As a result of this, Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC will charge our clients a flat fee for many basic services such as providing payday loans for recurring expenses, providing payday loans for unexpected emergencies/expenses, providing check cashing services, providing payday loans for define chiaroscuro other reasons, loan servicing and Essay Building Conflict, administration, cash handling and define chiaroscuro, management services for businesses, money transmission servicing, selling money orders and traveler’s checks and of Break Time, safe deposit box renting et al. At Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC we will keep our fees below the define chiaroscuro, average market rate for Essay Building Conflict all of our clients by define, keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in romantic movies advance. In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to individuals, start ups, nonprofits, cooperatives, and small social enterprises. We are aware that there are some clients that would need regular access to chiaroscuro check cashing and The Importance Time in Primary School Essay, payday services, we will offer flat rate for such services that will be tailored to define take care of such clients’ needs.

The payment policy adopted by Essay And Dealing With, Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at define chiaroscuro the same time, we will ensure that we abide by behavior, the financial rules and regulation of the United States of chiaroscuro America. Here are the payment options that Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC will make available to her clients; Payment via bank transfer Payment with cash Payment via credit cards / Point of Sale Machines (POS Machines) Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via mobile money transfer Payment via bank draft. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for services rendered without any stress on their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials to clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for services rendered. Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. We have been able to work with our brand and territorial definition, publicity consultants to help us map out publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of chiaroscuro our target market. We are set to the berlin conference of 1884 take the define, check cashing and payday loan services industry by storm which is why we have made provisions for effective publicity and advertisement of our check cashing and payday loan services firm. Below are the platforms we intend to leverage on conference to promote and advertise Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC; Place adverts on both print (community based newspapers and magazines) and chiaroscuro, electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based events / programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Los Angeles California Engage in road show from territorial behavior, time to time to create awareness of our business Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Ensure that all our workers wear our branded shirts and all our vehicles are well branded with our company’s logo et al.

Check Cashing Payday Loan Business Plan Financial Projections and Costing. Starting a check cashing and chiaroscuro, payday loan services firm can be cost effective; this is so because on what goal the average, you are not expected to acquire expensive machines and equipment. Basically, what you should be concerned about is the amount needed to secure a standard office facility in a good and busy business district, the amount needed to furniture and equip the office, the amount to purchase the chiaroscuro, required software applications, the amount needed to pay bills, promote the business and obtain the appropriate business license and certifications. The Berlin Of 1884? This is the financial projection and costing for starting Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC; The total fee for incorporating the business in the United States of America $750. The budget for basic insurance policy covers, permits and business license $2,500 The Amount needed to acquire a suitable Office facility in a business district 6 months (Re Construction of the facility inclusive) $100,000. The cost for equipping the office (computers, software applications, printers, fax machines, furniture, telephones, filing cabins, safety gadgets and electronics et al) $5,000 The cost for purchase of the required software applications (CRM software, Accounting and Bookkeeping software and Payroll software et al) $10,500 The Cost of Launching our official Website $600 Budget for paying at define least three employees for 3 months plus utility bills $10,000 Additional Expenditure (Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions et al) $2,500 Miscellaneous: $1,000. Of Break In Primary School? Going by the report from the market research and define, feasibility studies conducted, we will need over one hundred and fifty thousand ( 150,000 ) U.S. dollars to successfully set – up a small scale but standard check cashing and Essay on Team Building And Dealing With Conflict, payday loan services firm in define the United States of America. Territorial Behavior? Please note that the chiaroscuro, salaries of employees are included in of 1884 the budget.

Generating Funds / Startup Capital for Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC. No matter how fantastic your business idea might be, if you don’t have the required money to finance the business, the business might not become a reality. No doubt raising start – up capital for a business might not come cheap, but it is a task that an entrepreneur must go through. Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC is a business that will be owned and managed by Michael Larry and define, his business partner Joel Evans. They are the british romantic movies, sole financial of the firm, but may likely welcome partners later which is why they decided to chiaroscuro restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital for the business to just three major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings Source for watchmen comic books soft loans from family members and friends Apply for define loan from my Bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about $50,000 (Personal savings $40,000 and soft loan from family members $10,000) and we are at the final stages of definition obtaining a loan facility of define $100,000 from our bank. All the papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from territorial, now our account will be credited.

PAYDAY LOANS BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the chiaroscuro, employees, their investment strategy and The Importance of Break in Primary School, the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. One of our major goals of starting Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC is to define chiaroscuro build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to offer our check cashing and payday loan services a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in the market and we are well prepared to survive on lower profit margin for a while.

Cash 24 – 7® Financial Services, LLC will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to british romantic ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to define chiaroscuro drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at the top burner of our business strategy. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more as determined by the board of the organization. We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the territorial definition, best hands we can get in define chiaroscuro the industry; they will be more committed to of 1884 help us build the define chiaroscuro, business of our dreams. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in british romantic the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of All form of define chiaroscuro Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start – up capital from the founders: Completed Applications for loan from territorial definition, our Bankers: In Progress Securing a standard office facility in a business district in define chiaroscuro Los Angeles California (Renovation inclusive): Completed Writing of what was hitlers goal Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed software applications, furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business (Business PR): In Progress Health and Safety and chiaroscuro, Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors and key players in the industry: In Progress.

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Sample Business Plan: Bob’s Rent-A-Bike. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for chiaroscuro, your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to Time or Playtime in Primary School, write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan.

Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for chiaroscuro, your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for your small business.

Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and territorial learn how to define, create a great business plan for your small business. Creating a Business Plan Is Essential to Your Business. Writing a business plan is important, as it’s the foundation of any viable enterprise. Your business plan should be a living and breathing document that contains your goals and your plan for reaching them. So, let’s look at a sample business plan to help you get your business started! Bob Adams, Founder. 1000 Main Street. This business plan is confidential.

We will be part of the was hitlers large and growing bicycle rental industry. Our target market is summer visitors to Cape Cod, particularly central Cape Cod. We will be differentiated from competitors in that we will deliver rental bicycles directly to our customers at their motels, campsites, or summer rental residences. We are a start-up business founded as a Limited Liability Company (LLC). At this point we have assembled a detailed operating plan, including promotional plans. We have arranged access to a station wagon to deliver bicycles and chiaroscuro a garage to store them in. We have started to carefully buy used bicycles in excellent quality at very reasonable prices.

We have available capital of british $2,500 from the chiaroscuro founder’s personal savings and we seek an additional $7,500 investment from outside investors in order to was hitlers goal, be able to complete the purchase of define chiaroscuro our rental fleet. What will really set us apart from the competition is that while our competitors rent bicycles from comic, fixed rental locations, we will deliver our bicycles directly to our customers’ motels, campsites, and define summer rental residences. Inserting images into your business plan can help you convey your message. Another important differential is that our cost base is dramatically lower than that of our competitors. For one, we are going to buy used bicycles in a very disciplined way to build our rental fleet, whereas our competitors buy new bicycles. We estimate that we can buy quality used bicycles for approximately half the cost our competitors spend for new bicycles.

We will also have very little labor cost. Bob will draw a salary of behavior just $10 per hour. Chiaroscuro! There are other employees. Bob has ridden bicycles for many years, is handy with tools, and the berlin conference of 1884 believes he can do most basic bicycle repairs himself. Bob is young, energetic, and define chiaroscuro willing to work 24/7 to what, make this business a success!

We will also have very low overhead costs. Chiaroscuro! We will store bicycles in the berlin conference an old garage (previously converted from an outhouse) on our family property. Chiaroscuro! Bob will use the family station wagon, only behavior definition paying for gas, to service the chiaroscuro business. Bob also has a good neighbor and friend, Harold Perethian, who runs a large bicycle wholesale business, who lends additional advice and provides wholesale prices for accessories and parts. The business will require a total of of Break in Primary $10,000 in financing. The founder, Bob Adams, is contributing his personal savings of $2,500 and he is seeking an additional investment of $7,500. Of the total $10,000 in financing, approximately 75 percent will be invested in chiaroscuro building a rental fleet of high-quality, carefully selected and british romantic movies negotiated used bicycles. We expect the business to be highly profitable and for investors to potentially earn back their investment very quickly. Over the next few summers, we expect Bob’s Rent-A-Bike to chiaroscuro, become one of the leading players in the highly profitable and growing market for british, bicycle rentals on Cape Cod. By reinvesting part of chiaroscuro our profits from our initial summers, we plan to expand our fleet and increase our advertising, eventually expanding our promotional activity throughout the entire area.

Complete operating plan developed. Essay On Team With Conflict! Done. Initiate purchase of used bicycles. Chiaroscuro! Done. Complete purchase of bicycle fleet. June 15 th . Movies! Complete delivery of flyers by chiaroscuro bicycle to motels and campsites. June 20 th . Initiate rental operations. June 21 st . End of season sale of bicycles being disposed of. August 20 th . Last day of watchmen rental operations for define, season. September 1 st . The overall sale of bicycles and of Break Time or Playtime Essay related items in the U.S. in define 2015 was estimated to be $6 billion, according the National Bicycle Dealers Association. Watchmen Comic! However, with the average bicycle dealer deriving just 0.8 percent of define their revenue from rentals, the market for bicycle rentals would be about $48 million.

Although I cannot find data available for just the Cape Cod region that I will be focusing on, I can estimate it. I start with my estimated number of bicycles available for watchmen, rental of about 1,300. The majority of rentals are single-day rentals. For simplicity, I will assume all rentals are single-day rentals. A good graph will always be better than a thousand words. First I will focus on the key 10-week summer season, when most rentals occur. I estimate from anecdotal information and limited personal observation that, including off-weather days, rental bicycles average a 40 percent utilization rate during the chiaroscuro summer season, or in other words, are rented for an average of 28 days. Therefore, the total rental days during the summer season are 28 days per watchmen books, bicycle x 1,300 rental bicycles = 36,400 rental days. Then I adjust for define, off-season rentals. I estimate that 85 percent of the rentals occur during the The Importance of Break Time Essay summer season, so the define total rental days including the conference of 1884 off-season would be 36,400/0.85 = 42,800.

Then I estimate the average daily rate to define, be $25. Multiplied by 42,800 rental days, I therefore estimate the total current market for bicycle rentals on british romantic, Cape Cod to be $25 x 42,800 = $1,070,000. Also, I believe the total possible market is larger, particularly because many rentals are an impulse decision. Define Chiaroscuro! So every time a new rental stand is set up, I believe the Building With Conflict market incrementally expands. Furthermore, with my introduction of define bicycle rentals delivered to motels, campsites, and summer residences, the market may expand further. I believe the market for british romantic movies, bicycle rentals on define, Cape Cod is The Importance of Break continuing to grow and define is fueled by a number of favorable factors. The rail trails, old railroad lines converted into bicycle trails, are becoming increasingly well known and popular and especially important to the segment of the population that will only territorial behavior definition take on define chiaroscuro, the expense of a rental bicycle if they can ride it on behavior, a dedicated bicycle trail. People are generally pursuing more healthy lifestyles, especially on vacations, and chiaroscuro are increasingly more likely to want to bicycle on vacation.

Many people are becoming increasingly discerning about the quality and type of bicycle that they wish to rent. There are a number of different ways you could segment the market for people seeking to rent bicycles. By Quality and Price. First you could segment it by quality and price. With Conflict! At the define chiaroscuro highest end you have a relatively small niche, which I will call “enthusiasts.” I estimate this segment to be less than 15 percent of what was hitlers potential Cape Cod renters; they are seeking to chiaroscuro, rent a high-end premium bicycle designed for The Importance of Break or Playtime in Primary School, a bicycle enthusiast, not a casual rider, and are willing to define, pay a significant premium if necessary to do so. Behavior Definition! The rental market for this rider is particularly small because this kind of rider is define chiaroscuro most likely to bring his or her own bicycle on vacation on a rack on the back of the car.

Next you have what I will call “the big middle.” I estimate this segment to be 60 percent of the market. The most common bicycle renter is on Team Building And Dealing Conflict typically above average income, is not too price conscious if he or she considers the define chiaroscuro price to be more or less reasonable, and expects a good-quality bicycle but not the high-end bicycle that the enthusiast would. Finally, you have what I call the british movies “price shoppers.” These are usually families or at least couples looking to rent bicycles for more than one person and are willing to spend at least some effort shopping around to save a little money. Chiaroscuro! I estimate this segment to be roughly 25 percent of the The Importance or Playtime School market. I estimate the following average rental durations on define, Cape Cod: Less than one day, usually on Time in Primary, an hourly basis: 20 percent of rentals. One day exactly: 60 percent of rentals. More than one day: 20 percent of rentals. By Mobile Delivery. Currently, I believe no rental firm is define chiaroscuro delivering bicycles to the customers’ location. I believe there is absolutely a demand for this because people who don’t bring their bicycle on vacation also do not bring their bicycle rack and cannot easily transport bicycles in was hitlers goal their car, and people generally don’t even consider renting a bicycle rack.

Our target market is define people who want to have bicycles delivered to their motel, campsite, or summer residence. Because there will be some expense in the berlin of 1884 making this delivery, we will primarily focus on customers interested in renting bicycles for more than one day. Even though in my analysis of the define chiaroscuro market I estimated that only movies about 20 percent of rentals are for chiaroscuro, more than one day, the british revenue from define, such rentals is significantly higher. In fact, with the price for what was hitlers goal, two days usually being exactly double one day, and a week being substantially higher than two days, for example, the define chiaroscuro market for rentals of more than one day may be over Essay Conflict 40 percent of the market in dollar terms. At this time we will not focus on enthusiasts because we can’t afford to buy higher-end bicycles. We will, however, try to capture some of the price-shopping market, especially because people who rent bicycles for longer periods of time may tend to be more price conscious. With our customers looking to have bicycle rentals delivered to them, and generally renting for periods longer than a day, these people will be quite a bit different than the person who might rent a bicycle for define chiaroscuro, an hour from a roadside stand. People renting bicycles for an hour from a roadside stand are generally young—often in their twenties—and frequently single but usually in the company of one or more friends. People renting bicycles delivered to their motel, campsite, or summer residence and renting for multiple days tend to The Importance of Break School Essay, be a couple, if not a family group. Targeting customers wanting mobile rentals for multiple days means that we will need a wide mix of bicycles to serve full family needs.

If we can’t provide a bicycle for one member of define a family, we may lose the entire potential rental. So we need bicycles of all sizes and the berlin of 1884 we need plenty of define chiaroscuro baby seats! The mobile rental customer is not as much of an impulse customer as someone renting from a roadside stand is. So having the shiniest and newest bicycles is not really going to help us get rentals. People don’t see the actual bicycles until after they have agreed to rent them.

But the bicycles need to work and watchmen work well. People who are renting bicycles for multiple days will use them a lot and will demand that they be replaced if they aren’t working right. The bicycle rental industry on is dominated by U Pedal It, Inc. Define Chiaroscuro! Although they have a storefront near the territorial behavior harbor in Hyannis, most of their rentals are from dozens of agent-operated locations all over Cape Cod. Other than U Pedal It, Inc., there are several bicycle rental locations on rail trails. And there are a handful of bicycle retail shops on Cape Cod that also rent bicycles.

The nature of competition is chiaroscuro focused on location and displaying bicycles, to apparently appeal to comic, impulse renters—those who did not necessarily plan on chiaroscuro, renting a bicycle as part of territorial behavior their vacation, but take a look at the shiny outdoor bicycles lined up at rental locations and say, “Wouldn’t that be fun!” U Pedal It, Inc., appears to have gone to quite an effort to line up excellent, high-traffic locations. In addition, the several rental firms that are located on bicycle trails are basically betting their business on their proximity to a great bike riding location. There does not appear to be much price competition. Everyone offers about the define same price for a standard bicycle. I don’t see price mentioned on british romantic movies, signage at rental locations or in advertising. As the market for bicycles rentals on define chiaroscuro, Cape Cod has grown, so has the competition.

The popularity of the rail trails has led to more rental locations near the or Playtime School rail trails. And the increased emergence of bicycle enthusiasts looking for high-end rentals has further splintered the market and created a rental niche for high-end bike dealers. Our primary competitor is U Pedal It, Inc. I estimate they own 1,000 of the 1,300 estimated total rental bicycles available on Cape Cod. Define Chiaroscuro! They have at least double if not triple the combined locations of the rest of the industry put together. Their strategy is to dominate Cape Cod by making agreements with agents, such as gas stations, motels, etc., to rent their bicycles in exchange for a percentage of the revenue. They have very carefully selected their rental agents and will negotiate the percentage of revenue, particularly if the location is territorial highly successful. They rent high-quality Raleigh bicycles.

They completely renew their fleet every two years or so. They are also the leading advertiser for define, bicycle rentals on Cape Cod. Their strengths include their leading locations, top-quality bicycles, lots of experience, highly profitable with strong financial resources, full-time bicycle mechanics, and a year-round owner based on Cape Cod. They also have only one type of bicycle, the romantic very recognizable Raleigh brand, which looks great and holds up well during rentals, and because they use a single brand, their bicycles are easier to maintain. A possible weakness is that U Pedal It, Inc., is successful and so dominant that they will likely not feel the need to respond to a small new competitor, either by trying to match new services or to match lower prices. Our primary competitor, U Pedal It, Inc., is renting relatively new zero- to two-year-old, high-quality, brand-name Raleigh bicycles.

While U Pedal It, Inc., does a fair amount of advertising, its most important promotional strategy is the shiny displays of new rental bicycles in front of the busy commercial properties of chiaroscuro its many rental agents. These displays appeal not only to impulse renters but also to more contemplative renters, who are constantly reminded about the availability of the U Pedal It, Inc., rental locations. The clearest need I see in the market is for the delivery of bicycle rentals directly to motels, campsites, and summer residences. Territorial! Although costs will not make this practical for very short (i.e., one-hour) rentals, it could be very cost-effective for even slightly longer rentals. Also, because most competitors, including the dominant U Pedal It, Inc., have a highly successful model largely focused on one-day or shorter rentals, there may be additional opportunity for longer-term rentals, such as multiple day, weeklong, or even month-long rentals. Because such longer-term rentals can become rather expensive, potential renters are more likely to shop around for a competitive price. Define Chiaroscuro! And U Pedal It, Inc., having a highly successful business model, would probably not feel a need to respond to a tiny, new competitor competing for just a small portion of the conference of 1884 overall market.

The biggest threat would be if a highly established player, especially the dominant U Pedal It, Inc., decided to respond directly to Bob’s Rent-A-Bike and match our delivery offer or our pricing. Define Chiaroscuro! However, as I have outlined previously, I think this is highly unlikely because their model is comic books highly successful and we are just gearing up for a sliver of the market. A more likely threat would be if a smaller player tried to copy our new strategy. This is possible, but I think it is define unlikely, especially during the first season. School! Also, for define, an existing player with an existing location, it is a lot more work to deliver rental bicycles. Not everyone wants to british romantic, work as hard as Bob Adams. Being the “new kid on define chiaroscuro, the block,” I can enter the industry with a whole fresh approach and a whole new business model, serving the the berlin unmet needs of some customers and better serving the define chiaroscuro needs of others. Unlike my competitors, I don’t have an established way of doing business.

I can see how they are doing business, and I can design a new business model that both serves unmet customer needs and avoids competing directly with my competitors. I don’t have a lot of money and I don’t plan on raising very much. But I’m resourceful. I know how to get a great value buying used bicycles. I’m handy with tools and am confident I can do basic bicycle repairs myself.

My mother is going to allow me to use the family station wagon for this business, as long as I pay for gas and can work around her schedule. There is an old garage, formerly an outhouse, on my family’s property where I can store bicycles. So even though I’m probably the smallest competitor, my cost structure has got to be the lowest. I’m willing to work as many hours as it takes this summer, day or night, weekday or weekend, to make this business succeed! My competitors’ advantages include more experience, more financial resources, better and newer bicycles, experience in advertising, excellent locations, and british movies year-round availability on chiaroscuro, Cape Cod. My strategy is to deliver rental bicycles to romantic, my customers’ doorsteps, to their motel, campsite, or summer residence. I am going to target customers who are interested in renting bicycles for two days or longer. I believe much of the chiaroscuro longer-term, deliverable bicycle rental market will be families, so I will make an effort to build a rental fleet with bicycles for all ages and also have plenty of baby seats.

I am going to be flexible in pricing for longer periods of time, such as a week or a month, when the rental fee might come close to being as high as my entire purchase price for my average used bicycle. Because I am not renting bicycles on impulse from highly visible bicycle stands and on Team Building With Conflict customers will not see my bicycles until after they have requested a rental delivery, and because I have very limited resources, I will build a rental fleet of used bicycles instead of new ones. I will also not limit myself to just one brand name, so that I can buy bicycles opportunistically and get the best deals possible. Define Chiaroscuro! Given that large quantities of british romantic movies my bikes will not be displayed to the public at once, it won’t matter that they don’t match and define chiaroscuro that I have all kinds of different brands and colors. Finally, especially because I have limited finances, I am going to keep my operating costs rock bottom by The Importance of Break Essay using my mother’s station wagon and by using the family’s old garage for define chiaroscuro, bicycle storage. I am going to territorial behavior definition, design my own advertising. My bumper sticker strategy is “mobile bike rentals.” Our service is renting bicycles. Define Chiaroscuro! We will rent by the day, by the week, or by the month.

We will not rent for less than a full day, unlike most competitors, who rent by the hour as well. We will rent two types of bikes only, adult bikes and children’s bikes. Our bikes will be a wide mix of different brands that we have opportunistically purchased secondhand. All adult bikes will be ten speed or more. All adult bikes will have conventional, non-racing handlebars. Children’s bikes will be one speed. Some will have high-rise handlebars.

All bicycles will have full and working safety equipment as required by law, including reflectors and british romantic movies an operable bell or horn. Brakes will be checked prior to each rental. All bikes will also be equipped with a basket. In addition, baby seats will be provided by advance request for no additional charge. These seats can be relatively easily installed and removed in order to keep the rental fleet flexible.

We will position ourselves as the only alternative for people on Cape Cod looking to have bicycles delivered directly to define chiaroscuro, them, be it their motel, campsite, or summer residence. We will also position ourselves as emphasizing longer-term rentals than our competitors. Unlike our competitors, we will not rent bicycles for less than one day. We will offer lower rates on extended rentals such as for a week or longer. We will also position ourselves as family friendly, with a good variety of bicycles for books, not just adults, but kids of chiaroscuro all ages. We will rent kids’ bikes for half the was hitlers price of adult bikes. Chiaroscuro! We will have a good supply of baby seats that we will provide for no additional charge. Competitive Evaluation of Products/Services. The most important competitive metric for us is the behavior availability of delivery to the customers’ location. Define Chiaroscuro! This is conference how we will stack up: U Pedal It, Inc.: No.

Bike trail–located rental competitors: No. Bicycle shop rental competitors: No. Another important competitive metric for chiaroscuro, us is the competitive pricing of longer-term rentals: Daily rental rates (comparable adult bicycles) U Pedal It, Inc.: $25. Bike trail–located rental competitors: $25. Bicycle shop rental competitors: $25. Weekly rental rates.

U Pedal It, Inc.: $90. Bike trail–located rental competitors: $85. Bicycle shop rental competitors: $90. This is how the quality of our bikes compares: U Pedal It, Inc.: New, high quality, one brand (Raleigh) Bike trail–located rental competitors: Relatively new, good quality, one or two brands. Bicycle shop rental competitors: New, high quality, mixed brands.

Bob’s Rent-A-Bike: Good working quality, but slightly used. Looking out to The Importance of Break Time or Playtime School Essay, future summers, we aim first to grow our customer base for our current product offerings. Define! At some point in future summers, we may begin to buy new, high-quality bicycles and to standardize our fleet. We may also test demand for higher-end bicycles for the enthusiast. The main marketing message we want to send is that, unlike our competitors, we deliver rental bikes right to the customer’s location. There are other ways that differentiate us from british romantic movies, our competition, such as lower rates for define chiaroscuro, longer-term rentals and or Playtime Essay a little more effort to be family friendly. But what makes us stand out much more clearly from define, our competitors is our delivery of bicycles, so that’s what we are going to overwhelmingly emphasize in territorial behavior our marketing. We don’t have time or money to invest in building an image. Our marketing is designed to “ring the register” with bicycle rentals today, not for define chiaroscuro, building an image for what goal, tomorrow. Being an all-new business and having only a 10-week summer season, we are going to immediately try and test a whole bunch of marketing alternatives.

We just don’t have the time to test one after the next sequentially. We will spend very, very little money on each alternative, until we see whether it is working. While we are willing to deliver bicycles anywhere on Cape Cod, we will give an extra emphasis to marketing to motels and campsites within a half hour drive of our bicycle storage facility. Within this radius we can deliver bicycles to customers more efficiently in terms of both time and expense. At motels and campsites I believe we will find a concentrated audience with a higher propensity to rent bicycles than the general summer population.

Our unique selling proposition is: “Bike rentals, delivered free!” The fine print indicates a minimum of two bikes being rented for two days each to qualify for free delivery. Define! This means that we are grossing at least $100 on each free delivery, or $25 per bicycle per comic books, day. We are the only bicycle service on Cape Cod offering delivery of bicycles. Offering delivery for free makes it that much more compelling. All told, our unique selling proposition is short, valuable, and memorable! Great for chiaroscuro, use in marketing campaigns! We will develop sales tactics to try to convert inbound inquiries into bicycle rental customers.

Some of our inbound inquiries will be phone calls. We will use a six-part approach to closing phone inquiries. We will try to answer the phone immediately night or day. If we can’t answer it immediately, we will try to Time in Primary, call back as soon as possible. Because Bob will often be on the road, he will take his cell phone wherever he goes, so he can always receive incoming inquiries. We will answer the phone with an upbeat-sounding professional voice: “Bob’s Rent-A-Bike, how can I help you today?” If a prospective customer is not ready to rent at the start of the conversation, we will try to chiaroscuro, provide three good reasons why they should use Bob’s Rent-A-Bike right now. Goal! We will have thought through and memorized responses to basic objections potential customers might have for not committing to renting right now. We will try to close the sale with phrases such as, “I’d like to define, reserve bikes and delivery time for you, so we can be sure to get you in our schedule with some great bikes.” If the customer still won’t rent today, we will call them back in 24 hours and try to conference, persuade them again to rent from us. Inbound Email Inquiries. We will respond by email, customized from one of define chiaroscuro our basic prewritten compelling responses of why you should rent from watchmen comic, Bob’s Rent-A-Bike.

We will also link our response to define, our website. If the The Importance of Break in Primary Essay prospect has not rented from us 24 hours later, we will email them again with a prewritten follow-up email. Our website is designed to give prospective customers all of the information they need to get comfortable making a decision to rent from us. We make it very clear and easy for the prospect to follow up with any additional questions or to line up their rental by making both our phone number and our email highly visible. Selecting an define, advertising medium is behavior definition trickier for define chiaroscuro, us than for many new businesses for watchmen books, a several reasons. First, most of our competitors primarily attract customers on the basis of their highly visible commercial locations, including large displays of rental bicycles and signage. Our bicycles are stored in a garage in chiaroscuro a residential-zoned district, so we really need to make our advertising work.

Second, we only have a 10-week summer season. We can’t just test one advertising campaign after the territorial definition next or the define chiaroscuro summer would soon be over. We need to The Importance of Break or Playtime School Essay, test several at once. Third, we have a very small advertising budget, so we need to find some really low-cost advertising vehicles. The good news is that we have a very distinct strategy (mobile bicycle rentals) that really matters to many potential customers! The even better news is that we have been able to translate our powerful strategy into a compelling unique selling proposition: “Bike rentals, delivered free.” So between our strong strategy and our memorable USP, we have a really good chance of getting a decent response, even from low-budget advertising. Our website is a core component of define our advertising. We will prominently display the the berlin conference website address or have a link to it in define chiaroscuro all of our advertising. We will design the website primarily to comic, “sell” a prospective customer on chiaroscuro, the idea of renting bicycles from us.

We will provide all the information customers may desire, including pictures of happy customers riding our best bicycles and a frequently asked questions page. We will also provide rates. We will make our phone number and email address information highly visible. On Team And Dealing! The website will be just a few pages long, but it will be attractively designed and chiaroscuro simple to navigate. We will also design the website to optimize search engine results placement. We will go out to every campsite and motel and conference coffee shop within a 30-minute drive of our house and plaster every bulletin board with an define chiaroscuro, advertising flyer. Essay Building Conflict! We will leave small handout flyers at motels. We will talk up our service with motel and campsite owners, so they can recommend it to their customers. Bob will ride his bicycle to visit them, to increase impact and recall.

Tourist Guide Advertising. We will test a very small ad in define chiaroscuro one of the small tourist booklets distributed all over Cape Cod. The advertising is british romantic movies one of the more expensive things we will do, but we will keep the first ad very, very small until we see that it is working. Local Newspaper Advertising. We will test a small ad in the local weekly newspaper.

We will aim this more for define chiaroscuro, longer-term renters. Search Engine Advertising. We will run several very short tests for keyword advertising. We will test several different keywords, and a couple of what was hitlers different landing pages. Our unique selling proposition, “Bicycle rentals, delivered free,” is our everyday promotional offer. Beyond our media advertising, including our search engine advertising, we will start with an additional offer: “Reserve your rental now and get an additional $10 discount.” While this may sound like an define chiaroscuro, overly generous offer, especially given our free delivery, our rentals would still be highly profitable. We could always later discontinue the Essay Building With Conflict offer if we are getting too much business.

On the other hand, if a particular advertising media is not responding in define our first test with this extra $10 discount, then we can feel more confident in immediately dropping it. Additionally, if rentals are running below plan, we may discount prices further during the process of phone inquiries, especially for watchmen, longer-term rentals. Our primary publicity vehicle will be social media. Define! We will aggressively promote our visibility on social media; encourage friends, customers, potential customers, and conference key local businesspeople to follow us; and update our information regularly. We will also send a start-of-season press release to all major websites and print vehicles everywhere on Cape Cod.

Bob will offer to do talk show interviews on local Cape Cod radio and cable TV stations on the joys of define bicycling on Cape Cod, liberally referencing Bob’s Rent-A-Bike. Instead of watchmen comic passing out define chiaroscuro, a traditional business card that largely features his name, Bob will pass out to every single person he sees all summer long a Bob’s Rent-A-Bike business card–shaped advertising piece that offers a special “Friends and family $10 discount on your next bicycle rental.” Bob will attend the on Team With local chamber of commerce trade show held at the beginning of the season. He will talk up Bob’s Rent-A-Bike, especially with motel and campsite owners who may refer their customers. He will also give them promotional flyers.

The key person is founder Bob Adams. Bob is chiaroscuro nineteen years old and is completing his freshman year at the berlin, Carleton College. He is a graduate of Phillips Exeter Academy. Bob’s previous summer jobs include working as a rodman for define, Savery Engineering, as a dishwasher for Howard Johnson restaurants, and And Dealing Conflict as a busboy for Stage Coach Grill. Bob has ridden bicycles for chiaroscuro, years, is handy with tools, and The Importance Time or Playtime is ready to work 24/7 to chiaroscuro, make Bob’s Rent-A-Bike a success. Other than Bob, the only other person that will work for Bob’s Rent-A-Bike will be Bob’s twelve-year-old brother, Jim, who will just work a few hours as needed.

Jim will answer the phone if Bob is not available and of Break Time or Playtime in Primary help clean and maintain the bicycles. Chiaroscuro! Jim is willing to The Importance of Break Time or Playtime School, work for define, a very, very modest wage. To provide extra motivation for his younger brother Jim and to the berlin conference of 1884, offset the very, very modest wage he will receive, Bob will let Jim use a different Bob’s Rent-A-Bike bicycle of his choice each week, provided it is not needed for rental purposes. Bob will deliver rental bicycles to chiaroscuro, customers using his mother’s station wagon. Bob has agreed to reimburse her for gas and The Importance in Primary try not to beat up the car too much. He also has a large bicycle rack to mount behind the car, and has been practicing carrying bicycles on the roof as well. Bob feels he can carry as many as 12 adult bicycles in one trip. Especially because our bicycles are secondhand, we will not hesitate to replace a bicycle rental with another bicycle if the customer has an operating problem or complains about the quality of the chiaroscuro bicycle. We aim to have a rental fleet of 50 bicycles. We view our business as a high-touch personal service business and will endeavor to make every single interaction with our customers from the berlin conference, initial inquiry to final bicycle pickup a positive one.

We have carefully thought through this process from the customer’s perspective. Our first customer contact, be it via telephone, our website, or our advertising, will look professional as well as friendly and define chiaroscuro welcoming. Definition! We will continue interacting with our customers in a “high touch” warm and friendly way throughout the entire process. As much as possible we will answer our phone with a live human voice and respond to define chiaroscuro, email inquiries promptly. Because we expect our customers to have a very positive experience with us, we will also ask our customers for referrals and ask them to follow us on british romantic, social media. In keeping with our low overhead, we will operate out of an define chiaroscuro, old garage on our family property that was converted from an what goal, outhouse. It is a small, single-car garage and not all bicycles will fit parked in the garage at once.

However, we intend to purchase bicycle hooks that we can screw into the old beams in define chiaroscuro the ceiling of the garage and hang bicycles from, saving huge amounts of space and british allowing us to define, get all 50 bikes into the garage. Copyright 2017 BusinessTown, LLC - All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2017 BusinessTown, LLC - All Rights Reserved.

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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for define chiaroscuro, your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to Essay on Team And Dealing Conflict, plug in all of the information, instead of define struggling with formatting and figuring out what, what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates. Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and a table of contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning. Once you register, you will be able to define, download the was hitlers goal materials and choose from a wide range of businesses in different industries in which to base your plan. Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and define are a great option for on Team Building And Dealing, beginners and new business owners. Entrepreneur.com provides business tools, with a collection of business plans free in PDF, PowerPoint and Word. The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the define SeamlessDocs platform.

The site includes a template for a variety of territorial behavior specific business types, a business plan model that outlines the different parts of a business plan, and customizable templates that allow users to add their logos and business information. If you need a guide to writing a business plan, Entrepreneur.com also provides a download for that. Define Chiaroscuro? This step-by-step business plan builder, offered by Law Depot, covers structure, product marketing, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats), operations, and definition details specific to chiaroscuro, your business in what was hitlers, their templates. Once the template is complete, you can download and chiaroscuro print. Comic Books? The plan builder asks specific questions to help focus your answers and define makes your business plan concise and comprehensive. MOBI, or My Own Business Institute, is part of Santa Clara University#39;s Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Of Break In Primary Essay? They offer a fifteen-section business plan template, including the business profile, licenses/permits and location, which are available for free download in Word as individual templates, or as a larger all-in-one document. Chiaroscuro? All download are compatible with current and older versions of Word (2003 and earlier).

MOBI also covers topics associated with startups, but also provides information on how to run a business, including employee management, how to handle problems, and e-commerce. Office Depot#39;s Business Resource Center contains free business plan samples for retailers, manufacturers and service providers. The business tools include downloadable rich text format (RTF) business plan templates, which is Word compatible. Excel business plan financials are also available for manufacturers and service providers, while the retailer business plan template is complete with forecasting and financial tables, but this requires Microsoft Word version 6.0 or later. Catering to the berlin conference of 1884, businesses owned by chiaroscuro women, Oprah.com#39;s free one-page business plan templates can be used by anyone who wants to on Team Building With Conflict, start a business. The PDF templates come filled in with example information for small consulting businesses, boutique clothing stores and nonprofit organizations, but you can delete that information to be left with a template that works for any business venture. Define? The template has space for information such as vision, mission statement, objectives, strategies and action plans.

When you create a free business plan with Rocket Lawyer, you get the advantage of an attorney#39;s advice to The Importance Time or Playtime, make sure your document is legally sound. Chiaroscuro? The template is questionnaire-style and books asks for key information about your business such as founders, structure and industry, marketing plans, financial projections, etc. Rocket Lawyer not only aims at helping you create a blueprint for your business, but also for investors. Your completed document is available for chiaroscuro, download as a Word document for free with a trial subscription, which can be cancelled during the one-week trial period at no charge. The document is $10 on its own without a subscription. Essay On Team And Dealing With Conflict? SCORE is a small business resource website that aims to help entrepreneurs launch and define grow small business across the United States.

Their collection of business planning tools includes free Word business plan templates for british romantic, startups and established businesses. They also provide a sales forecasting template, competitive analysis charts to determine your business#39; strengths and weaknesses, and financial planning templates such as startup expenses, profit and define chiaroscuro loss projections, and financial statements. Romantic? You can then use these business templates to meet with a Score mentor for expert business planning advice. The Small Business Administration (SBA) offers an online business plan template and guide to help you build your business plan, step by step. Define? Once you create an account, you complete the cover page by filling in british romantic movies, your company name, owner name and contact information, and then upload your logo. There are six business plan sections to choose from (Executive Summary, Company Description, Market Research, Product/Service Line, Marketing and Sales, Financial Projections), and define chiaroscuro you can save and work on your file anytime you want. The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan. Looking for a no-fuss business plan template that gets straight to the point?

The $100 Startup, a New York Times and Wall Street Journal best seller, offers the Essay Building With One-Page Business Plan, a simple form that asks several questions you can quickly answer to define chiaroscuro, get up and running. This free business plan template covers everything from your business overview to finances, marketing, goals and challenges. Other resources that The $100 Startup offers include a one-page consulting business plan, one-page marketing plan, product launch guide and more. Additional reporting by Sara Angeles and Essay on Team And Dealing Conflict Marci Martin. Define Chiaroscuro? Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with business plan services, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for conference, free. Jennifer Post graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Having worked in the food industry, print and chiaroscuro online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily.

When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for the 700th time.

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Study About Transverse Cracks In The Continuous Casting Of Steel Billets. IN LAXCON STEEL LTD a scrap metal are melted in high temperature furnace, a temperature near about 1500'c to 1600'c.After this melted metal bring out to Continuous Casting Machine through ladder ,then this mould of metal poured into tundish car machine. There are stages in machine like approl, intermediate section, withdrawal, auto cutter machine. But quality problems such as Cracks, Rhomboidity, Porosity, Lapping, seems Crack, Piping, Centre Looseness, Ovality, Blow holes, Pin holes and Breakouts are often observed in continuously cast steel billets. These defects create a problem in metal which is cast.

On the define one hand fundamental knowledge about heat transfer, solidification and mechanical behavior of steel was applied to identify the what origin of a quality problem in the process. We finally study about Cracks and define chiaroscuro, effect of cracks and also find solution to reduce Transverse Cracks. TABLE OF CONTENT. LIST OF TABLE xvi. LIST OF FIGURES xviii. LIST OF SYMBOLS xxvii.

1. Comic? Company introduction 1. 1.1 Company Introduction 1. 1.2 Product list 1. 2. literature Review 7. 2.1 Previous studies on the microstructure of steel 7. 2.2 Previous work on detecting the defects 10. 2.3 Previous research on the cooling 11. 2.4 A review on previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel 13. 3. Problem Summary 15.

3.1 Introduction 15. 3.2 Defects in chiaroscuro detail 15. 3.3 Objective of project 16. 4. Steel Grade 17. 5. Methodology to determine transverse crack 18. 5.1 Testing facilities and quality control in laxcon steel ltd. 18. 5.2 Methodology to determine the origin of defects 19. 5.3 Metallographic observations 19.

5.4 Defect analyzed 20. 5.4.1 Transverse Cracks 20. 5.4.2 Appearance in Billet 20. 5.4.3 Causes and Solutions 21. 6. Strategies for dealing with Transverse Cracks. 22. 7. Techniques for Crack Minimization 23. 7.1. Control of And Dealing With Conflict Composition 23. 7.1.1 Relevance of chiaroscuro hot ductility to transverse cracking 23. 7.1.2 Composition Effects 24.

7.2 Mould Heat Transfer 25. 7.2.1 Mold Powder Composition and Properties 26. 7.2.2 Mathematical Treatment of Steel Solidification in the Mould 26. 7.2.3 Results and Discussion 30. 7.2.4 Conclusions 32.

7.3 Mould oscillation 33. 7.4 Secondary cooling 34. 7.4.1 ANSYS analysis for secondary cooling water cooling effect in continuous casting of steel billets. 35. 7.4.1.1 Mathematical model 36. 7.4.1.2 Thermal stress model 39.

7.4.1.3 Calculation region and finite element discretization 40. 7.4.1.4 Calculation and results analysis. 41. 7.4.1.5 Verification and analysis of heat transfer model. 42. 7.4.1.6 Discussion on thermal stress 45. 7.4.1.7 Summary 46.

8. Result and definition, Discussion 47. 9. Conclusion 49. 10. Future Enhancement 50. Mechanical properties of define chiaroscuro steel''''''''''''''''''''''.17.

Different techniques for the study of the defects and the information. ''''''20. Mold powder composition and properties'''''''''''''''''..26. Parameters used in the calculations and their variation values'''''''''. 27. Main process parameters of CCM'..''''''''''''''''''. 36. Verification of surface temperature of billet for watchmen comic books, all covered situation''''''. 43. LIST OF DIAGRAM.

Temperature profile of the key point ( all covered ). ''''''''''''''42. Temperature profile of the key point ( 90% covered ). ''''''''''''. 42. Temperature profile of the key point ( 80% covered )'''''''''''''..43. Comparison of temperature profile in define the 3 situation''''''''''''''44. LIST OF FIGURES. Square and hexagonal bright bars. ''''''''''''''''''''.

2. Continuous casting of steel billets. ''''''''''''''''''''..5. Transverse crack in steel billet''''''''''''''''''''''15. Transverse cracks on observed by magnifying glass'''''''''''''..20. Transverse cracks on observed after etching with HCL''''''''''''21. Temperature calculation grid in the vertical symmetrical half section of the steel casting copper mould. '''''''''''''''''''''''''''.

27. Calculated solid steel thickness along the mould walls at Time School mould thermal conductivities: (a) = 50, (b) = 150, (c) = 250, (d) =350 (W/m-K). ''''''''''''''31. Calculated solid steel thickness along the mould walls at steel thermal conductivities: (a) = 25, (b) = 30, (c) = 35, (d) = 40 (W/m-K). ''''''''''''''''..32. the finite element meshes and key point of the chiaroscuro calculation region. '''''''..40. Scheme of the secondary cooling water covering all the surface of bloom''''..41. scheme of the secondary cooling water covering part of the surface of what was hitlers goal bloom'''41. the stress field at the exit of FSSCZ '''''''''''''''''''45. the stress field at the exit of FSSCZ'''''''''''''''''''.46. CHAPTER 1 COMPANY INTRODUCTION.

1.1. COMPANY INTRODUCTION. LAXCON STEELS LTD. Ever since its foray into the steel trade in 1978,Gopal Group has established itself as name to define, reckon with, in the the steel.over the years, through meticulous quality control and outstanding customer care, it has built a reputation for of 1884, quality, reliability and integrity. What started off as a small steel plat with a capacity of 2400 MT/year, Gopal Group has now grown into an organization with manufacturing facility at chiaroscuro multiple locations with a combined production capacity of 120000 MT/year, strong value of family run enterprise backed by an assembly of industry's most talented professionals has given the group its current forms stature. Laxcon Steels LTD. is a very well-known player in The Importance of Break Time in Primary Essay the global market in the stainless steel industry.Thanks to its strategic planning, ultra-modern facilities and exceptional team. The Group companies work hand in define chiaroscuro hand to produce the finest stainless steel products, with a focus to fit each client's requirements.Company offer superior quality bright bars in a variety of grades, sizes, tolerances and behavior definition, Precision Quality. 1.2 PRODUCT LIST. Size range -5mm ' 10mm. Length- 3 to 6.5 meters.

Cold drawn, centerless ground, peeled and polished, smooth turned bars. Precision quality shaft bars. Figure 2: Precision quality shaft bars. Size range -6mm ' 75mm. Length- 3 to 6 meters. Heat treatment- Soft annealing, solution annealing, quenched and tempered. Square and hexagonal bright bars. Figure 3: Square and hexagonal bright bars. Size range -16mm ' 45mm. Length- 3 to 6 meters. Heat treatment- soft annealed, solution annealed, oil and water tempered.

Size- 25*25, 30*30, 40*40, 50*50, 60*60, 65*65. Length- upto 6 meters. Hot rolled, annealed pickled, shot blasted. Forged and turned round bars. Figure 5: Forged and turned round bars.

Length- 3 to 6 meters. Heat treatment- soft annealed, solution annealed, oil and water tempered. Hot rolled round bars. Figure 6: Hot rolled round bars. Size range- 16mm ' 120mm. Length- up to 8 meters. Hot rolled surface. Continuous casting of steel billets.

100*100, 120*120, 200*200, 220*220, 280*280, 300*300. Length- up to 8 meters. Suitable for rerolling, forging and ring rolling. Square, fluted, round. Spot ground, free of surface cracks.

CHAPTER 2 Literature review. This section provides a review on previous research work on the topics related to this research work to understand the extensive work done on the topics related to this research work. These literature reviews are partly with focus on the research studies on soundness and other anomalies generated during solidification whose effects determine the critical cooling rate of chiaroscuro hot solidified strands of steel. The other part of the review section reviews the publications on the topics which are used to achieve the objective of this dissertation. Hence, the following sections presents literature review in studies on the microstructure defects and the source of the books defects, monitoring of microstructure by the NDT method, effect of inclusion, on define, the microstructure, experimental study on cooling rate and numeral simulation and modeling methods on the study of phase transformation. 2.1 Previous studies on the microstructure of steel. R. Kiessling, J. Harza, D. Caffarrelli, S. Ramalingma. Studies on MnS inclusions have shown that they are responsible for chip fracture during machining by initiating cracks as a result of increasing stress in the machining shear zone [1,2].

D. B. Evteev, Berg Huettenmann. some research work shows these additive elements may also degrade steel quality. Sulfur content can increase the extent of cracking at high temperature [3]. The susceptibility of steel to overheating depends on alloying and was hitlers goal, micro-additions [4]. C. J. Adams, H. F. Hall, A Fuchs.

Segregation of define sulfur and phosphorous from the liquid film at grain boundaries into the interdendritic region creates a low ductility and strength region and, consequently, forms cracks in the microstructure of steel between the solidus and Time or Playtime in Primary School Essay, 2420 degrees Fahrenheit [5-7] K. Matsubara, H. Mori. The ratio of precipitation of MnS in the matrix and precipitation of AlN along grain boundaries generates cracks in define steel during solidification by forming different low ductility regions at watchmen comic different temperature ranges [8,9]. Formation cracks are inevitable during solidification and may increase in the cooling process of hot solid steel slabs to room temperature or any future heat treatment and machining of the steel. Brimacomb J, Sorimachi K. Cracks and microcracks are more serious than other defects occurring during solidification. Brimacombe and Sorimachi have classified the origin of cracks systematically [10]. Grill, Brimacombe, Weinberg. Internal stresses during surface reheating create cracks because of zero ductility of steel at solidification temperature [11]. During solidification, internal and surface cracks degrade the steel quality.

Surface cracks may be caused by uneven heating, which introduces transverse and longitudinal facial cracks [12]. L. I. Motozenskii. Internal cracks formed during solidification can be classified into five groups of halfway and midway cracks, start or centerline cracks, diagonal cracks, bending cracks and pinch roll cracks. The work of Morozenskii et al. [13], shows that near solidification elongation to rupture in steel with carbon content of 0.17 to 0.2% is minimum. This sudden change can be caused by an unbalanced rate between radiation and convection cooling along secondary cooling zones or different boundary conditions such as below the mold where the hot surface is cooled suddenly by water spray. At weak or non-ductile regions, resultant tensile stress of surface expansion generates cracks between the dendrites in the columnar zone perpendicular to the equiaxed zone tensile stress.

Likewise, centerline cracking is due to define, tensile stresses raised by abrupt change in temperature of the centerline with completion of was hitlers solidification because of bad machine conditions at the final solidification area or too low secondary water-cooling [13]. International Iron and define, Steel Institute; Committee on Technology; Brussels; 1986. Longitudinal cracks can be formed from stress at the meniscus during solidification by high mold wear and poor mold surface as well as insufficient strand support below the mold, including caster or mold misalignment and thermal stresses due to non-uniform cooling [14]. Transverse cracks in steel may be generated by romantic too large mold taper, poor oscillation conditions, a low surface temperature at chiaroscuro straightening and the berlin conference of 1884, abrupt cast speed changes. Uneven cooling of the define chiaroscuro surface also causes local type star cracks [14]. G. van Drunen, J. K. Brimacombe, F Weinerg. Too high or too low cooling of slab's side surfaces as well as bad equipment conditions can introduce triple point cracks in The Importance or Playtime in Primary School the slab [15]. H. Mori, Tetsu to Hagane, L Schmit, H Fredriksson. Tensile stress raised by define a high, different, temperature at surfaces making an obtuse corner creates diagonal cracks at comic right angle to define chiaroscuro, the strain [16,17] Y. Aketa, et al.: Tetsu-To-Hagan. Billet dimensions control the effect of corner radius on the berlin conference, longitudinal cracks such that more cracks are formed in larger billets [18]

Experiments on define chiaroscuro, tundish temperature show that after a critical temperature, the length of cracks increases as the temperature of the movies tundish increases [19]. 2.2 Previous work on detecting the defects. Malkiewicz T, Rudnik. Experimental workers identify non-metallic inclusions by metallographic, chemical and define chiaroscuro, petrographic methods [20]. B. G. Zhang, L. Thomas. Zhang and Thomas [21,22] discussed more than 30 methods for detecting the anomalies under two main categories of direct and indirect methods. However, the direct technique measurements are accurate but they are costly compared to indirect ones [22]. Debiesme [23] explained the Hydrogen Induced Crack test and Magnetoscopy for sheet tests. detected the what was hitlers strains with a resolution of about 25 x 10-6 using a non-contact laser speckle technique, in a thermal fatigue test performed by cyclic induction heating and internal cooling test rods. Furuya et al. [24], described the ultrasonic fatigue test technique for detecting the inclusions. Drury J. Define Chiaroscuro? C, http://www.ndt-ed.prg/, 2006 ,http://www.matter.org.uk/steelmatter/casting, 2000. More background about NDT and its applications can be found in Time School Essay many websites, books, and literature ( [25-27]

However, five sources of stress fields developed during cooling slabs, explained previously, affect the steel matrix in the same way. Accumulating of define friction forces at the contact surface between matrix and british movies, inclusion create a stress concentration zone. This zone is believed to be responsible for changing the shape of the inclusion [28]. Waudby P. E, Baker T. J., Charles J., Gove KB, Charles JA. For either type, characteristics of the stress field around the inclusion are generated by distribution, concentration and rate of change of the stress field. Some of the main effective factors in inclusion deformation [29-31], include morphology, strength of inclusion and matrix, composition, inclusion-matrix interface, temperature, strain and strain rate, particle size, stress state, second phase particles and frictional forces at interfaces. N. Nagayama, T. Abe and chiaroscuro, S. Nagaki 1989. Nagayama and his co-workers [32] used a Von Mises yield criterion in their FEM analyses to model the deformation of rigid-plastic inclusions in of Break Time in Primary an inhomogeneous material with different yield stresses. Pietzyk, M. Kusiak J., Kusiak K., Grosman , Milenin A. A. Work on large plastic deformation of an inclusion-matrix system for different inclusion shapes were subsequently published [33,34]

2.3 Previous research on the cooling. Varde A. S., Maniruzzaman M., Rundensteiner E. A., Sisson R. D. Parameters affecting the cooling rate include: quenchant type, quenchant temperature, agitation velocity, viscosity, agitation type, aging, polymer foaming, polymer degradation, part material, geometry, part area, part volume, density, specific heat, oxide layer, surface roughness, suspension, carbon content, grain nature, grain size, plastic deformation and define chiaroscuro, number of other issues [35]. Parameters, which shall be considered in the quenching process of a bulk material, are desired suspension, cooling rate, cooling nature, heat transfer coefficient, residual stress, desired hardness and other material properties, distortion tendency, and cracking potential [35]. MacKenzie D. S., Lambert D.

Quenching is accelerating cooling with a quenchant such as air, water, oil, salt, natural or vegetable base quenchant, polymers and other chemical compounds [36].Three stages of quenching for a liquid quenchant are: vapor stage, boiling stage and The Importance of Break Time in Primary School Essay, convection stage [36]. Heat transfer coefficient is a function of fluid properties, geometry, surface condition, and agitation. Heat transfer depends on heat transfer coefficient, time and location within the bulk material [36]. First, any participation may vary the shape of the define TTT diagram and, secondly, as the cooling rate increases, the residual stresses stored in the bulk material increases as well [37]. There are many publications on the quenching topic, which provides the information about different quenchants and the thermodynamic and chemical properties [38]. Heat Treating and Surface Engineering, Indiana.

Quenching is very common in the manufacturing process, which is known as quench hardening. Essay On Team And Dealing With Conflict? Factors, which are considered in quenching hardening, are residual stresses and distortion, prevention of define crack initiation, microstructural evolution necessary to improve properties (wear resistance and toughness), and the berlin conference, meeting the define desirable hardness [39]. Baker T. J., Gove K. B. Charles J. A.; Application of quenching in steel manufacturing is done to obtain the desired mechanical properties such as, hardness, yield strength, and what was hitlers, ductility [40]. Bhadeshia H. K. Define? D. Time Or Playtime School? H.

Bhadeshia [41] has suggested some modes to decrease the temperature of solid-solid phase transformations. Driven force for polymorphic austenite to ferrite transformation is greater than grain growth by two orders. Kobasko's [42] experimental results showed that the tendency for define chiaroscuro, crack formation is higher with a range of cooling rates and it decreases for the cooling rate higher or lower than this critical cooling rate range as a function of quenching rate. The factors governing the romantic movies behavior of material at high temperature are time, temperature, stress, and environment or atmosphere. Prince J. Define? C., Marono R., Leon F. At low temperature mechanical behavior like fatigue damage, is controlled by the level of the mean stress, amplitude of stress fluctuation and number of cycles [43]. Kametani [44] analyzed the what was hitlers length of longitudinal cracks on the surface of continuously cast steel slabs and gave crack frequency as a function of chiaroscuro crack length using fractal distribution methods. Berns H., Broeckmann C., Weichert D, Gross-Weege A., Weichert D, Broeckmann C. Tensile test experiments on tool steel showed that cracks initiate (or exist) in territorial the carbide band growth straight forward in the matrix and after kink type dislocation in the carbide rich region split in the same direction of the region then jump to the next carbide band and grow in the same manner and so on [45,46] Donnay B., Jeraman J. C., Leroy V., Lotter U., Grossterlinden R., Pircher H,Parker K. V. Computer simulations have been deployed in the last decade to lower the cost of microstructural experiments.

Much work on modeling of thermo-mechanical treatments of chiaroscuro steel has provided the of 1884 capability to predict the chiaroscuro final microstructure [47-48] 2.4 A review on comic books, previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel. Smolijan [49] predicted the strain and residual stress evolution within a geometrically complex specimen (e.g. cylinder, cones, spheres, etc) dealing with estimation of microstructure and hardness distribution after quenching using a mathematical method based on the finite volume method and Jominy tests results. He did not consider in his simulations any existence or formation of anomalies or defects before or after quenching. Mishnaevsky L., Lippmann N., Schmauder S.

Mishnaevsky [50] et al. discussed the crack propagation under dynamic load in real and quasi-real idealized two-phase microstructure of carbide in the steel matrix microstructure model for tool steel material. Beer, F.P., Johnston, Jr., E.R. (1981) Some researchers [51] have used a Global Extraction element-by-element (GEBE) to simulate crack propagation to get a faster results compare to other methods. McClintock F. A, Lay B., Brunet M., Boivin M. Other researchers modeled the nucleation and propagation of voids under tensile forces [52,53]

Ueda Y., Tanigawa M. , Murakawa. Macro crack propagation simulation with size effect properties in chiaroscuro some work [54] was presented to model ship collision, which poses a huge numerical model. Yu H. J.; Brechnung von Abkuhlungs, Leblond j. Conference? B., Mottet G, Devaux J. C. Different researchers [55,56] investigated the effect of phase transformation on the residual stresses within quenched bodies. These residual stresses have an important role in changing the soundness of the steel during cooling.

Wittmann [57] used the Fictitious Crack Model (FCM), to predict the crack formation in composite material. CHAPTER 3 PROBLEM SUMMARY. During our industrial training we found a quality problem in steel billets, which is cast by cone casting machine. A transverse cracks is commonly obtained quality problem in steel billets. 3.2 Defects in Detail. The surface crack of CC slab is an important problem, which affected the continuous caster yield and the quality of the slab. If it affected little the slab would be sized, if it affected seriously it would bring on molten steel bleeding or rejected slab, therefore the continuous caster yield and the quality of the slab can be improved greatly. In the producing of the hull structur, the transverse corner crack in the slab occurred more, which made difficult to plan the chiaroscuro producing and affected the order of territorial behavior definition structural steel finished punctually. During continuous casting of steels, longitudinal and transverse cracks tend to occur in brittle temperature ranges by thermal and mechanical deformation. In the temperature dependence of hot steel ductility, two critical temperature ranges can be found namely at temperatures near to chiaroscuro, solidus and at intermediate temperature range.

In this case, the comic books trough of plasticity falls in the temperature range between 1100??C and define, 700??C in which the straightening operation of continuously cast products is what goal carried out. Define Chiaroscuro? The combination of low ductility and the berlin conference of 1884, induced tensile strain may cause transverse cracking in this temperature range. To prevent the occurrence of cracks, the better understanding on physical mechanical, metallurgy properties of chiaroscuro continuously cast steel in the course of what its cooling is a necessary condition. 3.3 Objective of project. Primary work to know the defects occur in steel billets.

Based on the work result find out the defects.To minimize the defects with improving quality of steel billets.Referring the entire process the sample have been evaluated to check the chiaroscuro possibilities on our various study and analysis for providing the best quality and territorial definition, reducing the defects in steel billets. CHAPTER 4 STEEL GRADE. Generally a many types of steel grades are used in billet production, according to the customer demand. We consider a 20CrMnTiH steel grade. Table -1: Mechanical properties. Treatment Thermal ref.

Tensil strength 615 N/mm2. Yield point .395 N/mm2. Reduction of define chiaroscuro area 15% Absorption energy (j) 47. Table-2: Chemical properties. Other Tr 0.04-0.10. (SOURCE- LAXCON STEELS LTD.) CHAPTER 5 METHODOLOGY TO DETERMINE TRANSVERSE CRACK. 5.1 Testing Facilities and Quality Control in LAXCON STEEL LTD. Optical Emission Spectrometers.

Leco Gas Analyzer for H2, O2, N. Mobile Handheld Spectrometers. State of the Art Chemical Testing Laboratory. Radio Activity Testing. Brinell Hardness Testing. Rockwell Hardness Testing. Poldy Hardness Tester.

Jominy Hardenability Testing. Magnetic Particle Inspection. Impact Testing Machine (Assited with Notch, Broaching Profile Projector) Optical Microscope for Testing Microstructure / Grain Size / Defect Depth / Delta Ferrite Measurement, Non-Metallic Inclusion Rating, Decarburization. Universal Testing Machine for Testing Tensile Strength / % Elongation / % Reduction in C/S Area. Proof Test by Electronic Extensometer. Optical Pyrometer for Temperature Measurement. 5.2 Methodology to watchmen books, determine the origin of defects. The determination of the origin of defects includes the recording and analysis of general information. It is important to know the frequency of defect, position in same corner or face of the billet, position in bar or wire rod.

It is also relevant an define, exhaustive study of the general appearance of the defect by naked eye or with magnifying glass. After that, the observation of polished samples, generally transverse cuts of the rolled products or of the comic billet and microscopic study at higher magnification, etching with reagents give insight defects features. The information of the continuous casting and the rolling processes are necessary and can give relevant data. Define Chiaroscuro? Sometimes it could be important to watchmen, design the follow up of define heats in the metal shop and rolling mill processes. Table- 3: Steps to The Importance of Break or Playtime Essay, determine defects. Frequency, position, in chiaroscuro one of the romantic movies strands or in define chiaroscuro one of the faces of the billet, position in wire rod, influence of some steel grade, etc. 5.3 Metallographic Observations.

The metallographic observation of various samples gives key information when the origin of a defect needs to on Team Building And Dealing, be determined .often; it is not possible to find out the origin of defect with just observation of transverse cuts under microscope, without an idea of the general aspect of the defect. In Table 4 different techniques for the study of the defects and the information that can be taken from them, regarding to the origin of defects are monitored. Table- 4: Different techniques for the study of the defects and the information. With naked eye or with magnifying glass. 5.4 Defect analyzed. 5.4.1 Transverse cracks. Transverse cracks, although not always detect in the inspection of billets, may also give place to serious defect in the rolled products. 5.4.2 Appearance in billet. Figure 10 and Figure 11 shows the aspect of transverse cracks in continuous casted billets observed by magnifying glass and by HCL etching closed to a surface, the cracks are looks as if it has been formed at high temperature, probably in the mould.

Figure 10: Transverse cracks on observed by chiaroscuro magnifying glass. Figure 11: Transverse cracks on observed after etching with HCL. 5.4.3 Causes and Solutions. Transverse cracks can form in the mould or during strengthening. British Romantic Movies? When they are located in any corner, they are likely to chiaroscuro, be formed due to the berlin conference, tensile effort related to sticking, this can be worsen by deep oscillation marks When the cracks are present only in the corner belonging to inner radius, they could be formed by tensile efforts during strengthening. This is common when corner temperature is within low ductility range. A sound approach to define, solve the problem is to set proper secondary cooling to avoid the dangerous temperature range in the corners during strengthening. STRATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH TRANSVERSE CRACKS. Control of Composition. Composition strongly influence transverse cracking by their influence on hot ductility.

Choose C and alloy additions to avoid peritectic solidification, and particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Mould Heat Transfer. The degree of steel superheat has a noticeable; Effect on solidified steel thickness.Surface structure can be influenced by heat transfer in the mould. It is important to consider the type of mould powder used, particularly viscosity, mould thermal conductivity. Depth of these oscillation marks can be reduced by increasing the mould oscillation frequency and/or decreasing the stroke to reduce the heal time.

Slab straightening is carried out within this ductility trough, transverse cracking can result.A steep temperature gradient through the slab thickness is also desirable using this cooling strategy, to of Break School Essay, minimize the penetration of define chiaroscuro surface cracks which may form in cold spots. Mechanical stresses can be introduced by poor alignment of the components of the movies machine, and from many other sources, but of most relevance to transverse cracking is the chiaroscuro straightening operation. Behavior? Straightening may be carried out over define chiaroscuro, a single point, or by multipoint straightening. The effect of these two types of straightening operation on transverse cracking are not clear, but there are reasons to suppose that multi-point bending will not improve hot ductility: strain rate will be reduced, which will reduce hot ductility; more time will be allowed for dynamic precipitation; and at territorial least for Nb containing steels, stress relaxation between each bending point seems to be minimal. CHAPTER 7 TECHNIQUES FOR CRACK MINIMIZATION. 7.1. Define Chiaroscuro? Control of Composition. It is of 1884 evident from the define chiaroscuro above discussion that composition, and particularly the use of micro alloying elements, can strongly influence transverse cracking by their influence on hot ductility. Goal? This suggests that to minimize cracking a steel composition should be chosen which maximizes hot ductility bearing in mind the final product requirements.

The following guidelines should help to chiaroscuro, maximize hot ductility and behavior definition, minimize transverse cracking: Choose C and alloy additions to avoid peritectic solidification, and particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Use V or V/N combinations to replace Nb. Make V additions to Nb steels. Consider Ti additions. 7.1.1 Relevance of Hot Ductility to Transverse Cracking. In qualitative terms, hot ductility as measured in laboratory tests appears to define, bear some relationship to Essay, the observations of transverse cracking; the detrimental effects of Nb, N and Al on transverse cracking are all reflected in reductions in hot ductility. Define Chiaroscuro? However, there are few examples of more quantitative relationships between measures of hot ductility and transverse cracking.A relationship between the number of transverse cracks per slab and the reduction of area in a hot tensile test.

Above a reduction of area value of 75%, no cracked slabs were observed. A value of 60% reduction of Essay on Team Building Conflict area to avoid slab cracking, 30-40% is more realistic. It can therefore be seen that there is chiaroscuro considerable discrepancy between the suggested values, and it is likely that such a value can only be ascribed to specific tensile test conditions and slab assessment methods. As well as the depth of the ductility trough, the comic temperature at define chiaroscuro which it occurs is also significant; if slab straightening can be carried out outside the temperature range of low ductility, then transverse cracking may be avoided. Considering the upper temperature range, the simple hot tensile test is unlikely to give a reliable indication of this temperature as dynamic recrystallization occurs during tensile testing giving a marked increase in ductility.

However, the what strains encountered at the surface of continuously cast slab are only. 1-2%, which is insufficient for chiaroscuro, recrystallization to occur. Essay On Team And Dealing With? The hot bend test should give a more reliable indicator of this temperature than the tensile test. Considering the define lower end of the ductility trough, recovery of ductility is associated with the completion of a certain proportion of territorial behavior transformation, and therefore the hot tensile test should give a more reliable indication of this temperature. However, the higher strains encountered during the tensile test may again give misleading temperatures, due to the influence of strain in transformation, and the bend test is again more likely to give accurate indications. 7.1.2 Composition Effects. There have been several studies of the influence of V on chiaroscuro, hot ductility using hot tensile tests.

The results from all the various studies are consistent in that V additions of up to 0.1% at low N contents (0.005%) have only a very slight detrimental effect on what was hitlers goal, hot ductility by broadening the ductility trough. At higher N levels, the effect of V additions becomes more marked, and the ductility trough. Becomes deeper and broader. Define? In fact, a good relationship can be constructed between the Essay on Team Building And Dealing Conflict product VxN, and the depth and breadth of the define ductility trough, it should also be noted that in this example it is only at the highest VxN product, 0.1%Vx0.01%N, that hot ductility approaches that of a 0.028%Nb steel. There have been a very large number of studies of the effect of Nb on hot ductility, and the activity in this field is probably related to the perceived detrimental effect of Nb on slab surface quality. These results can be summarised by saying that Nb additions deepen and romantic, broaden the ductility trough to chiaroscuro, extend to what goal, higher temperatures. Chiaroscuro? Nb additions of as little as 0.017% had a detrimental effect, and ductility continues to deteriorate up to With, at least 0.074%. As with Ti, the effect of S on the hot ductility of Nb steels also depends upon define chiaroscuro, the thermal cycle used in the test. For steels reheated to a solution temperature prior to definition, testing, S has little effect on hot ductility.

However, for in-situ melted test pieces increasing S levels have a detrimental effect on hot ductility, as more S is taken into solution to precipitate on grain boundaries. When examining the influence of Ti on hot ductility, it is important to consider the austenite grain size. Define Chiaroscuro? In some reports, the apparent benefit to School, hot ductility of Ti additions is define chiaroscuro due to a refinement of the berlin of 1884 grain size. It is most appropriate to evaluate the influence of Ti on chiaroscuro, hot ductility using samples melted in-situ, as this technique produces approximately similar grain sizes for what was hitlers goal, Ti and Ti free steels. There are relatively few reports looking at define the influence of Ti additions to C-Mn-Al steels after in-situ melting, and relationship between Ti and hot ductility appears to be complex. In situations where large TiN precipitates can form, such as at slow cooling rates or high values of TixN, hot ductility may be slightly improved by Ti additions, but for what goal, conditions which generate large volume fractions of define chiaroscuro fine TiN particles, such as a stoichiometric ratio of Ti:N in low N steels, hot ductility can deteriorate with Ti additions. (Source :laxcon steel ltd.) 7.2 Mould Heat Transfer. Figure 12: Mold heat transfer. 7.2.1 Mold powder composition and was hitlers goal, properties.

Table -5: Mold powder composition and properties. Composition Basicity SiO2 CaO MgO Al2O3 TiO2 Fe2O3 MnO2 P2O5 Na2O K2O F B2O3 Li2O. 1.10 38.60 42.28 0.89 6.34 0.19 0.36 0.03 0.03 3.64 0.12 7.14 0 0.37. Properties Solidif. Temperature. (??C) Softening Temperature. (??C) Melting Temperature. (??C) Viscosity at chiaroscuro 1300 ??C.

1149 1170 1180 3.12. 7.2.2 Mathematical treatment of steel solidification in the mould. Table -6: Parameters used in territorial the calculations and their variation values. Parameter Units Varied. Values Constant value Remarks. copper mould W/m-??k 50, 150, steel W/m-??k 25, 30, Super heat Degrees 5, 10, 15, Mould wall thikness Mm 12, 16, (calculated) W/m2-??k 250 Constant.

Prandtl's number Pr 7 Assumed. Figure 13: Temperature calculation grid in the vertical symmetrical half section of the steel casting copper mould. Where the parameters T, Q^m, ??k, . t are temperature ( ' ), heat rate of define chiaroscuro heat generation/consumption (W/m^3) thermal conductivity (W/m-??k), time (s) and Building Conflict, diffusivity (m/s^2), respectively. Based on the above assumptions, (1) can be simplified to. This equation represents transient heat transfer by conduction in chiaroscuro one direction, and coupled with appropriate boundary conditions evolved in comic books the cooling process, it can be solved to give temperature distributions in the calculation domain.

The method adopted in solving this equation is by define chiaroscuro the use of Building Conflict finite difference technique and solving the resulting equations explicitly. Referring to the nodal distribution both in the steel and mould wall areas shown in Figureure 13. This equation represents transient heat transfer by conduction in one direction, and define, coupled with appropriate boundary conditions evolved in the cooling process, it can be solved to give temperature distributions in Essay Building And Dealing the calculation domain. The method adopted in solving this equation is by the use of finite difference technique and solving the define resulting equations explicitly. Referring to the nodal distribution both in the steel and mould wall areas shown in Figureure 13. Where, the watchmen comic books first term indicated the temperature at node n at define the current time (p+1) which is british romantic calculated from temperatures of the previous time step (p).

F_o in (7) is known as Fourier's number which is given as. ' T'_N^(p+1)='2F'_o [T_(n-1)^p+B_i T_w ]+(1-'2F'_o-2B_i F_o)T_N^p (9) Where R_e and define chiaroscuro, P_r are the dimensionless Reynold's and Prandtl's numbers and f is the the berlin conference friction factor, respectively .The friction factor can be expressed as. Equations (7) and (9) are solved with the appropriate parameters shown in Table 1 using MS Excel worksheet by which temperatures at each node in the steel and mould wall were solved at accumulative time intervals covering the whole residence time of the steel in the mould. The total residence time of define steel in Building the mould was determined from knowledge of mould height and volumetric steel casting speed. This time period was divided into define, a number of The Importance of Break or Playtime calculation time intervals satisfying the stability requirements of (7) and (9). Calculation of the define chiaroscuro increasing solidified steel shell thickness as the steel moves down the mould were performed at Essay on Team Building And Dealing different conditions. When pouring steel into define, the mould, the amount of superheat which it exhibits (the temperature above the solidifying temperatures) is of paramount importance on how fast the steel starts to solidify when it enters the conference mould. Solidified steel shell thicknesses were calculated using different superheats of 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees. It can be seen from the Figure that the degree of steel superheat has a big effect on the thickness of define solidified steel. However, steel superheat is romantic movies not too easy to control and is dependent on a number of factors which include steel.

Mould thermal properties such as its thermal conductivity controls the define rate of heat transfer from the steel to the cooling water, i.e., the cooling and solidification processes.This factor has been varied in the calculations and the results of these variations are shown in Figure 14. A factor in what was hitlers steel casting which is of great importance is changing steel chemical composition. Based on customer specifications of the define chiaroscuro type of steel required, steel chemistry can change many time in the casting operation. Different steels have different thermal conductivities, and hence, this factor was examined in these calculations. As can be seen from Figure 15. Figure 15: Calculated solid steel thickness along the mould walls at territorial behavior definition steel thermal conductivities: (a) = 25, (b) = 30, (c) = 35, (d) = 40 ( W/m-??k ) Changing steel thermal conductivity resulted. in great variations in chiaroscuro the calculated solidified steel shell thickness. British Romantic Movies? This factor has the most effect compared to chiaroscuro, the other previously discussed factors. Calculations of solidified steel shell thicknesses within the casting copper mould during casting of steel billets showed that.

The degree of steel superheat has a noticeable effect on solidified steel thickness, and hence, this factor should be well controlled in the casting operation. Mould thermal conductivity has little affect on the solidified steel thickness, for a mould thickness of Essay Building And Dealing With 12 mm, and hence, casting mould material could very well be changed. Thermal conductivity of define molten steel is of great importance in the casting operation, and hence, great care should be taken when changing steel grades of differing thermal conductivities. 7.3 Mould Oscillation. Figure 16: Mould Oscillation. Oscillation marks are the most recognizable feature of continuous casting and can be related to the subsurface defects that can be found on product rolled from continuous cast slabs.The physical surface defect of the oscillation marks themselves does not necessarily pose a significant problem in many grades. But many subsurface defects have been found to be associated with oscillation marks, especially when the mark can form a hook.

These defects include entrapped argon bubbles, inclusions and elemental segregation. The oscillation marks also act as nucleation sites for surface cracking and transverse cracks often form in the roots of the oscillation marks in transverse crack sensitive grades. The formation mechanism of the on Team Conflict oscillation mark is the define chiaroscuro increased solidification rate in behavior definition the meniscus area of the mold due to movement of the meniscus towards the mold wall during the define chiaroscuro negative strip time of the mold. This indicates that it is possible to affect meniscus mark formation by either changing the in Primary Essay heat transfer rate in the meniscus area of the define caster or by changing the territorial behavior definition position of the define chiaroscuro liquid steel meniscus, or by affecting both issues. This leads to the potential for some completely novel approaches to the berlin conference of 1884, either eliminating or minimizing the oscillation marks that are found on cast slab surfaces. 7.4 Secondary Cooling. There is a wide ductility trough associated with microalloyed steels, and if slab straightening is carried out within this ductility trough, transverse cracking can result. If slab straightening is carried out at define temperatures either above or below this temperature range, cracking should be minimized. Both these different cooling strategies ('soft' cooling and 'hard' cooling) have been used on various machines around the world, with some success in reducing transverse cracking.

Figure 17: Secondary cooling zone. A variant on the use of different cooling strategies which has been used to minimize crack formation during the rolling of hot charged slabs is the use of slab quenching. This technique rapidly chills the slab surface layers below the transformation temperature, leading to the development of a fine grain structure at the surface.This fine grain structure then. restricts the formation and propagation of cracks. Non-uniform secondary cooling can promote thermal stresses, and hence lead to cracking.This requires good nozzle design and maintenance, and preferably the use of air-mist cooling. 7.4.1 ANSYS analysis for secondary cooling water cooling effect in continuous casting of what goal steel billets. Billet quality, one of the crucial problems in steel industry, is mainly determined by define chiaroscuro the secondary cooling water distribution, thus the key to achieve improvement of it is to establish rational cooling system. Concerning the formation of romantic external and internal cracks, scholars from different countries have established the define chiaroscuro solidification heat transfer model and stress model. Watchmen Comic? On the condition of the define same specific water flow rate, the what spraying effect of secondary cooling water can be evaluated by to way in the productive process of bloom, which cover all thye bloom surface or part of the surface. with the help of chiaroscuro finite element analysis software of ansys, the watchmen model of solidification and thermo-mechanical analysis have been developed.

20CrMnTiH bloom is choosen as object.maine process parameters of this CCM are as below. Table 7: Main process parameter. ITEM PROCESS PERAMETER. Machine type Curve type. Section of billet 200mm*200mm.

Casting speed 0.70 m/min. Length of 1st segment of sec. Cooling zone 1.19 m. Length of 2nd segment of sec. Cooling zone 1.49 m. Length of 3rd segment of chiaroscuro sec. The Berlin Of 1884? Cooling zone 2.30 m. Length of 4th segment of sec.

Cooling zone 2.30 m. Length of define 5th segment of sec. Cooling zone 1.20 m. Distance from the berlin of 1884 meniscus to straighning point 14.70 m. Basic hypothesis of thermo-mechanical mathematical model. Into the heat transfer and mechanics of billet during solidification process from meniscus to define chiaroscuro, air cooling zone a two dimension unsteady heat transfer model has been developed on the basis of the The Importance of Break Time in Primary Essay two dimensional slice method in moving coordinate system for simplification, several assumptions are made as below. The steel meets the chiaroscuro requirements of the small deformation theory, and billet deformation is tiny compared with its cross section.

The billet cross section is of 1884 assumed to be in the state of plane stress. The constraints of mold wall bound on the billet, and they are removed as soon as the define chiaroscuro slice comes out of mold. The impact of longitudinal thermal stress is ignored. Heat transfer analytic model. The two dimensional unsteady heat transfer equation is.

Where ,[c] and [??] are heat capacity matrix and heat conduction matrix of the system respectively, is heat load array equation (2) is a series of first order differential equation about time, and was hitlers, the temperature distribution of node [T] [C] can be obtained after time domain is dispersed. Where (' T'_(c )) casting temperature, The heat transfer of billet has axisymmetric feature, and the diffusion boundary of the center symmetry axis can be considered as adiabatic condition. In the mold q_s^m=A-B'T (6) In the secondary cooling zone q_s^c=h^c (T_b-T_w) (7) Radiation q_s^r=[?? ??(T_b+273)^4 - (T_0+273)^4] (8) ?? = 5.670373(21) ??10'8 W m'2 K'4 (10)

7.4.1.2 Thermal stress model. Thermal stress of the define chiaroscuro billet can be calculated by obtaining the changes of the temperature field, and of Break Time or Playtime in Primary School Essay, thus the constitutive equation is built- In the define chiaroscuro equation (11) Total strain increment, Elastic strain increment,

Strain increment changed with temperature, Thermal strain increment, Zero displacement constraints are applied to the symmetry boundary. The displacement constraints are applied to the billet surface in the mold. Molten steel possesses the fluidity, and its stress impact upon the solidified shell is ignored. Physical parameters of steel (20CrMnTiH)

Density -The volume of the billet varies in the solidification process, and the density of billet is watchmen comic books related with steel grades, temperature and phase transition, however it has little change. In this ??_s =7600 kg/m^3, ??_1=7200 kg/m^3, ??_s^1 = 7400 kg/m^3. Thermal conductivity -In solid region, ??_s is 29.7 W/ m^2??C, while in mushy region and liquid region, the define equivalent thermal conductivity is used to analyze the effects of books convection. Where (??^* ) equivalent thermal conductivity, W/m^2??C, (m) empirical constant, generally is 4-7 times value of ??_s and 4 is chosen in this analysis. Specific heat capacity (c) specific heat capacity increase with temperature rising, but it change very little on conditions of high temperature, so it is define considered as constant in this analysis c_1=0.88 kJ/kg ??C. Latent heat of solidification (L_f) the definition solidification of billet is a nonlinear thermal transfer process, thus the latent heat need to define chiaroscuro, be taken into conference of 1884, account, and the latent heat of 20CrMnTiH is 272000 J/Kg in this analysis.

In the calculation, the latent heat is defined as the enthalpy of steel, which varies as temperature change. 7.4.1.3 Calculation region and chiaroscuro, finite element discretization. A quarter of billet cross section is books selected as the calculation region, and the distribution of temperature and stress field from meniscus to chiaroscuro, air cooling zone can be calculated by a finite element analysis model of ANSYS. And this discusses the results through the heat transfer analysis of the key points of slice of billet. The finite element meshes and the key point of the calculation region shown in Figure-18. Figure 18: the finite element meshes and key point of the calculation region. 7.4.1.4 Calculation and british, results analysis. The actual production condition of plant as follows.-superheat of liquid steel 30 ??C, and casting speed is 0.7 m/mm. On the condition of the some specific water flow rate (0.27 l/kg), the chiaroscuro focuses on the research of changing the Building With coverage rate of cooling water on billet in secondary cooling zone shown in Figure 19 and 20 below.

Figure 20: scheme of the secondary cooling water covering part of the surface of billet. Three situations are selected for research in the analysis. Secondary cooling water covers all the surface of billet (all covered for short, here in after). Secondary cooling water covers 90% area of the surface of billet. Secondary cooling water covers 80% area of the define chiaroscuro surface of billet. 7.4.1.5 Verification and analysis of comic books heat transfer model. The temperature behavior of key points for define chiaroscuro, three situations is what was hitlers shown in graph -1 using calculation model.

Graph 2: temperature profile of the key point (90% covered ) Graph 3: temperature profile of the define chiaroscuro key point (80% covered) Temperature measuring experiments were carried out to verify the model by infrared measurement of temperature. And the result are shown in Table 8. Table 8: Verification of the berlin conference of 1884 surface temperature of billet for all covered situation. Distance from meniscus, m 4.09 9.14 14.1. Measured temperature, ??C 1096 1003 986. Calculated temperature, ??C 1105 1011 1004.

Absolute error, C 9 8 18. Relative error, % 0.82 0.80 1.81. It can be seen from Table that the calculated temperature values are almost the same as the measured ones, and their relative errors are within 2.0% From graph-2 it is known that the temperature changes of center point on wide side surface have basically kept the same trend as of wide side surface graph-3.Illustrates a comparison of the temperature curves of the key point in three situations. Graph 4: comparison of temperature profile in the 3 situation. Discussions on define, the result from graph 4. With the reduction of coverage are of secondary cooling water, the corner reheating of the billet is intensified in the first segment of the secondary cooling zones, which are 57 ??C, 81??C, 117 ??C for all covered, 90% covered and 80 % covered situation respectively. In the last two cases, the corner of billet is not covered by cooling water in the FSSCZ, where cooling condition are the radiation and air convection, and the relative intensity of books cooling falls, therefore, the reheating of billet, corner is enhanced as the coverage area of secondary cooling water is reduced.

However, cooling condition of billet corner keeps stable when strands pass the FSSCZ, so the temperature profile are smoother than that in all covered situation, and chiaroscuro, reheating phenomena of billet obviously decreased after the strands leave the FSSCZ. With the reduction of spraying area of secondary cooling water, temperature of center point of wide side surface decreases slightly, and the value of 80% covered situation is 20 ??C less than that of all covered one. The reason is that the territorial behavior definition specific water flow rate keeps the same value under the three situations. Accordingly, cooling water flow rate of billet surface covered by water changes more with the reduction of area coverage of secondary cooling water, hence the define cooling intensity of Essay And Dealing Conflict strand is increased. With the define reduction of spraying area of secondary cooling water, temperature difference between the middle and behavior, corner of the define billet surface decreases a little, the value of 90% covered situation is 35 ??C less than that of british movies all covered one, so the temperature field of 90% covered situation become more homogeneous than that all covered situation. 7.4.1.6 Discussion on thermal stress. Compared with water coverage areas of billet in ahead segment, that in the FSSCZ begins to define chiaroscuro, change, the calculation of stress field are shown in Figure- 21 22, maximum equivalent stress is presented in the billet corner, and the stress field distribution is similar to that of watchmen different water coverage area of the define chiaroscuro billet, meanwhile, maximum equivalent stress of all covered situation is territorial behavior 25.3 MPa.

Figure 21 the stress field at the exit of FSSCZ. Figure 22: the chiaroscuro stress field at the exit of FSSCZ. A strong reheating of billet corner does happen when secondary cooling water covers part of the billet surface. On Team With? And with the reduction of define coverage area of water, the extent of billet reheating is increased. Analysis indicates that, under the 90%-covered situation, the cooling effect of billet is better than that of all-covered situation. According to the actual production selecting an appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water would realize a more homogeneous temperature field of billet, and its cooling effect is better than that of territorial behavior all-covered situation, thus the chiaroscuro billet transverse crack could be reduced.

In the The Importance of Break School process of continuous casting, billet surface suffers the greatest stress, and it's easy to cause transverse cracks, so it's useful to improve product quality through selecting the appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water. CHAPTER 8 RESULT AND DISCUSSION. The share of the bloom, continuously cast in the company, represents approx 45-60%, the balance being billets for another company. The material defects at the steel continuous casting appear during the solidification and cooling of the continuously cast semi-finished products, often leading to important material losses. Define Chiaroscuro? To prevent these losses, the purpose of metallurgical technologies and constructive solutions is to detect the causes of occurrence, prevention and removal. literature reviews are partly with focus on the research studies on soundness and on Team And Dealing With, other anomalies generated during solidification whose effects determine the define critical cooling rate of hot solidified strands of steel.it is include below points which helps us to find out appropriate solution of problem. Previous studies on the microstructure of steel.

Previous work on detecting the defects. Previous research on the cooling. A review on previous numerical modeling on cooling cast steel. During continuous casting of steels, transverse cracks tend to occur in brittle temperature ranges by thermal and mechanical deformation in of 1884 the temperature dependence of define chiaroscuro hot steel ductility. Methodology is important to know the frequency of defect, position in Time in Primary Essay same corner or face of the billet, position in define chiaroscuro bar or wire rod. The metallographic observation of various samples gives key information when the origin of a defect needs to be determined. Strategies for dealing with transverse cracks. Control of composition. Mould heat transfer. Techniques for watchmen, crack minimization.in which we use a ansys analysis for the solution by mathematical model, thermal stress model.

The following guide lines helps to maximize hot ductility and minimize transverse cracking: Choose C and alloy additions to avoid peritectic solidification, and particularly avoid 0.1-0.13%C. Use V or V/N combinations to replace Nb. Make V additions to Nb steels. Consider Ti addition. When pouring steel into the mould, the amount of superheat which it exhibits (the temperature above the solidifying temperatures) is of paramount importance on how fast the steel starts to solidify when it enters the mould.

Solidified steel shell thicknesses were calculated using different superheats of 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees. Different steels have different thermal conductivities, and hence, this factor was examined in define these calculations. Changing steel thermal conductivity resulted in great variations in the calculated solidified steel shell thickness. This factor has the most effect compared to the other previously discussed factors. Thermal conductivity also affects the hot ductility of steel which directly related with transverse crack of steel billet.

This indicates that it is possible to watchmen comic books, affect meniscus mark formation by either changing the heat transfer rate in the meniscus area of the define chiaroscuro caster or by territorial definition changing the position of the define chiaroscuro liquid steel meniscus, or by affecting both issues. Analysis indicates that, under the 90%-covered situation, the cooling effect of billet is better than that of goal all-covered situation. In the process of continuous casting, billet surface suffers the greatest stress, and it's easy to define chiaroscuro, cause transverse cracks, so it's useful to improve product quality through selecting the appropriate coverage rate of secondary cooling water. CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION. After the of 1884 study and observation of process of continuous casting of steel billets we found the major defect like transverse crack in product.

And then we have done ANSYS analysis on. Mould thickness, Secondary cooling zone, We also conduct study other techniques which effect on transverse crack in steel billet, like. Mould heat transfer. Add the define chiaroscuro micro alloying element like Nb, V, Ti for improvement of mechanical property of material.Finally we found that the defect of transverse crack can be reduced.

CHAPTER 10 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT. After done this work, apply this strategy for future improvements in continues casting of steel billet. By do more work on this report and changing the definition PLC coding and operation technique, more good quality steel billet can be obtained. Improve arrangement of secondary cooling nozzle in circular form around billet. Improve micro alloying element and composition of material. Improve SCZ and withdrawal mechanism. APPENDIX: LIST OF SYMBOLS. ?? Density of steel, kg/m^3. v Casting speed, m/min. c Specific heat capacity of steel, kJ/kg ??C.

?? Thermal conductivity coefficient, W/ m^2??C. ??^* Equivalent thermal conductivity, W/m^2??C. T Temperature, ??C. q_s^w Heat flux of define wide surface, J/m^2s. q_s^m Heat flux of billet surface in the mold, J/m^2s.

q_s^r Heat flux of billet surface when radiation is considered on the berlin, boundary condition J/m^2s. q_s Heat flux, J/m^2s. C_w Specific heat of define chiaroscuro water, kJ/kg ??C. Q_m Water flow rate of mold. T_c Casting temperature, ??C.

' Specific water flow rate, l/kg. h Heat transfer coefficient, W/m^2??C. s Stefan-Boltzmann constant. e Radiation coefficient. C_1 Specific heat of liquid steel, kJ/kg ??C. C_s Specific heat of of Break or Playtime solid steel, kJ/kg ??C. L_f Latent heat, kJ/kg. T_w Cooling water temperature, ??C. q_s^n Heat flux of narrow surface, J/m^2 s. q_s^c Heat flux of billet surface covered secondary cooling water, J/m^2 s. q_s^a Heat flux of define billet surface when air convection is considered as boundary condition J/m^2 s. h_a Heat transfer coefficient between billet and territorial behavior definition, air convection, W/m^2 s. ?? Elastic strain increment. d??

Total strain increment. d??_(e,T) Strain increment changed with temperature changes. d??_T Thermal strain increment. T_o Ambient temperature, ??C. [1]. Define Chiaroscuro? R. Kiessling, Nonmetallic Inclusions in british romantic Steel ( Part III), ISI Publication 115, 1968. [2].

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Wittmann F. H.; Crack formation and fracture energy of british movies normal and high strength concrete; Sadhana Vol. 27, Part 4, August 2002, pp. 413-423. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is define qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Of Break Time In Primary School Essay? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Engineering work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Engineering essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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