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Abc model cbt

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Research in Programming Languages. Is there still research to be done in Programming Languages? This essay touches both on abc model the topic of programming languages and on the nature of research work. I am mostly concerned in Essay a Child analyzing this question in the context of cbt Academia, i.e. within the expectations of invention of colour academic programs and research funding agencies that support research work in the STEM disciplines ( Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics ). Cbt? This is phonemes not the only possible perspective, but it is the cbt one I am taking here. PLs are dear to my heart, and a considerable chunk of my career was made in that area. As a designer, there is something fundamentally interesting in designing a language of any kind.

It’s even more interesting and gratifying when people actually start exercising those languages to create non-trivial software systems. As a user, I love to Essay on Raising a Child, use programming languages that I haven’t used before, even when the languages in question make me curse every other line. But the truth of the matter is that ever since I finished my Ph.D. in the late 90s, and especially since I joined the ranks of Academia, I have been having a hard time convincing myself that research in PLs is abc model cbt a worthy endeavor. I feel really bad about my rational arguments against it, though. Invention Of Colour Tv? Hence this essay.

Perhaps by abc model cbt the time I am done with it I will have come to terms with this dilemma. Back in the 50s, 60s and invention of colour tv, 70s, programming languages were a BigDeal, with large investments, upfront planning, and big drama on standardization committees (Ada was the epitome of that model). Things have changed dramatically during the 80s. Since the 90s, a considerable percentage of new languages that ended up being very popular were designed by lone programmers, some of them kids with no research inclination, some as a side hobby, and without any grand goal other than either making some routine activities easier or for plain hacking fun. Examples: PHP, by Rasmus Lerdorf circa 1994, “originally used for tracking visits to his online resume, he named the suite of scripts ‘Personal Home Page Tools,’ more frequently referenced as ‘PHP Tools.’ ” [1] PHP is a marvel of abc model cbt how a horrible language can become the foundation of Essay on Raising large numbers of applications… for a second time! Worse is Better redux.

According one informal but interesting survey, PHP is now the abc model cbt 4th most popular programming language out there, losing only to C, Java and photosynthesis respiration venn, C++. JavaScript, by Brendan Eich circa 1995, “Plus, I had to be done in ten days or something worse than JS would have happened.” [2] According to that same survey, JavaScript is the 5th most popular language, and abc model, I suspect it is kbu library climbing up that rank really fast. It may be #1 by abc model cbt now. Python, by Guido van Rossum circa 1990, “I was looking for the soldier context a ‘hobby’ programming project that would keep me occupied during the week around Christmas.” [3] Python comes at #6, and its strong adoption by abc model cbt scientific computing communities is well know. Ruby, by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto circa 1994, “I wanted a scripting language that was more powerful than Perl, and photosynthesis vs cellular diagram, more object-oriented than Python. Abc Model? That’s why I decided to design my own language.” [4] At #10 in that survey. Compare this mindset with the context in which the the older well-known programming languages emerged: Fortran, 50s, originally developed by IBM as part of their core business in Essay on Raising computing machines. Cobol, late 50s, designed by cbt a large committee from the onset, sponsored by the DoD. Diagram? Lisp, late 50s, main project occupying 2 professors at MIT and their students, with the grand goal of producing an algebraic list processing language for artificial intelligence work, also funded by the DoD. Abc Model Cbt? C, early 70s, part of the large investment that Bell Labs was doing in the development of Unix.

Smalltalk, early 70s, part of Essay a large investment that Xerox did in “inventing the future” of computers. Back then, developing a language processor was, indeed, a very big deal. Cbt? Computers were slow, didn’t have a lot of memory, the language processors had to be written in low-level assembly languages… it wasn’t something someone would do in their rooms as a hobby, to invention tv, put it mildly. Since the 90s, however, with the emergence of abc model cbt PCs and english phonemes, of decent low-level languages like C, developing a language processor is cbt no longer a BigDeal. Hence, languages like PHP and JavaScript. There is a lot of fun in designing new languages, but this fun is not an exclusive right of the plowman researchers with, or working towards, Ph.Ds. Given all the abc model knowledge about programming languages these days, anyone can do it. And many do.

And here’s the first itchy point: there appears to be no correlation between the success of a programming language and its emergence in the form of someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work. This bothers me a lot, as an academic. It appears that deep thoughts, consistency, rigor and all other things we value as scientists aren’t that important for mass adoption of programming languages. English? But then again, I’m not the first to abc model cbt, say it. It’s just that this phenomenon is hard to digest, and if you really grasp it, it has tremendous consequences. If people (the potential users) don’t care about photosynthesis respiration venn, conceptual consistency, why do we keep on trying to abc model, achieve that? To be fair, some of the plowman canterbury tales those languages designed in the 90s as side projects, as they became important, eventually became more rigorous and consistent, and attracted a fair amount of cbt academic attention and industry investment. Invention Of Colour Tv? For example, the abc model Netscape JavaScript hacks quickly fell on Guy Steele’s lap resulting in photosynthesis vs cellular venn diagram the ECMAScript specification. Python was never a hack even if it started as a Christmas hobby. Ruby is a fun language and abc model, quite elegant from the beginning. PHP… well… it’s fun for possibly the wrong reasons.

But the core of the matter is that “the right thing” was not the goal. It seems that a reliable implementation of a language that addresses an of colour important practical need is the key for the popularity of a programming language. But being opportunistic isn’t what research is supposed to be about… (or is it?) Also to abc model cbt, be fair, not all languages designed in the 90s and later started as side projects. For example, Java was a relatively large investment by Sun Microsystems. The Plowman Canterbury Tales? So was .NET later by Microsoft. And, finally, all of abc model cbt these new languages, even when created over a week as someone’s pet project, sit on the shoulders of the plowman tales all things that existed before. This leads me to the second itch: one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the popular ones, is how little innovation there is in cbt them ! Without exception, including the languages developed in research groups, they all feel like mashups of concepts that already existed in programming languages in 1979, wrapped up in invention of colour tv their own idiosyncratic syntax. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in the 90s)

So one pertinent question is: given that not much seems to abc model, have emerged since 1979 (that’s 30+ years!), is there still anything to the plowman canterbury, innovate in programming languages? Or have we reached the asymptotic plateau of innovation in this area? I need to make an important detour here on the nature of abc model cbt research. Perhaps I’m completely off; perhaps producing innovative new software is not a goal of [STEM] research . Under this approach, any software work is dismissed from english phonemes STEM pursuits, unless it is necessary for some specific goal — like if you want to study some far-off galaxy and you need an IT infrastructure to collect the data and cbt, make simulations (S for Science); or if you need some glue code for kbu library piecing existing systems together (T for abc model Technology); or if you need to improve the performance of tales something that already exists (E for Engineering); or if you are a working on some Mathematical model of computation and want to make your ideas come to cbt, life in the form of on Raising a language (M for abc model Mathematics). This is an Essay on Raising a Child extreme submissive view of software systems, one that places software in the back sit of STEM and that denies the existence of abc model cbt value in research in/by software itself.

If we want to lead something on our own, let’s just… do empirical studies of invention tv technology or become biologists/physicists/chemists/mathematicians or make existing things perform better or do theoretical/statistical models of universes that already exist or that are created by cbt others. Right? I confess I have a dysfunctional relationship with this idea. Personally, I can’t be happy without creating software things, but I have been able to make my scientist-self function both as a cold-minded analyst and, at times, as an expert passenger in someone else’s research project. Tv? The design work, for me, has moved to sabbatical time, evenings and weekends; I don’t publish it [much] other than the code itself and some informal descriptions. Cbt? And yet, I loathe this situation. I loathe it because it’s is clear to me that software systems are something very, very special. Software revolutionized everything in unexpected ways, including the methods and practices that our esteemed colleagues in the “hard” sciences hold near and the plowman, dear for a very long time. Abc Model Cbt? The evolution of of colour tv information technology in the past 60 years has been _way_ off from what our colleagues thought they needed. Over and over abc model cbt again, software systems have been created that weren’t part of any scientific project, as such, and that ended up playing a central role in the soldier rupert Science. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else.

I dare to suggest that the something else is abc model related to the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. English? It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning.

Let’s assume, then, that it’s acceptable to create/design new things — innovate — in the context of doctoral work. Now comes the real hard question. If anyone — researchers, engineers, talented kids, summer interns — can design and implement programming languages, what are the abc model cbt actual hard goals that doctoral research work in programming languages seeks that distinguishes it from the soldier what anyone can do? Let me attempt to abc model cbt, answer these questions, first, with some well-known goals of language design: Performance — one can always have more of Essay a Child this; certain application domains need it more than others. Abc Model Cbt? This usually involves having to come up with interesting data structures and algorithms for the implementation of PLs that weren’t easy to devise. Vs Cellular? Human Productivity — one can always want more of abc model cbt this. There is no ending to trying to make development activities easier/faster. Verifiability — in some domains this is english phonemes important.

There are other goals, but they are second-order. For example, languages may also need to catch up with innovations in hardware design — multi-core comes to mind. This is cbt a second-order goal, the real goal behind it is to increase performance by taking advantage of potentially higher-performing hardware architectures. In other words, someone wanting to do doctoral research work in programming languages ought to have one or more of these goals in mind, and — very important — ought to be ready to demonstrate how his/her ideas meet those goals . If you tell me that your language makes something run faster, consume less energy, makes some task easier or results in programs with less bugs, the scientist in me demands that you show me the data that supports such claims. A lot of research activity in programming languages falls under the kbu library performance goal, the Engineering side of things. I think everyone in our field understands what this entails, and is able to abc model cbt, differentiate good work from bad work under that goal. But a considerable amount of research activities in programming languages invoke the the plowman canterbury human productivity argument; entire sub-fields have emerged focusing on the engineering of languages that are believed to increase human productivity. So I’m going to focus on the human productivity goal.

The human productivity argument touches on the core of what attracts most of abc model cbt us to creating things: having a direct positive effect on kbu library other people. It has been carelessly invoked since the beginning of Computer Science. (I highly recommend this excellent essay by Stefan Hanenberg published at Onward! 2010 with a critique of software science’s neglect of human factors) Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to abc model cbt, defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. If you know of such study, please point me to it. I have seen many observational studies and controlled experiments that try to kbu library, do it [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, among many]. Abc Model Cbt? I think those studies are really important, there ought to Essay, be more of them, but they are always very difficult to do [well]. Unfortunately, they always fall short of giving us any definite conclusions because, even when they are done right, correlation does not imply causation. Abc Model Cbt? Hence the never-ending ping-pong between studies that focus on the same thing and seem to reach opposite conclusions, best known in the health sciences. We are starting to see that ping-pong in software science too, for english example 7 vs 9. But at abc model, least these studies show some correlations, or lack thereof, given specific experimental conditions, and they open the healthy discussion about what conditions should be used in order to get meaningful results.

I have seen even more research and vs cellular, informal articles about programming languages that claim benefits to human productivity without providing any evidence for it whatsoever, other than the authors’ or the community’s intuition, at best based on rational deductions from abstract beliefs that have never been empirically verified. Here is one that surprised me because I have the highest respect for the academic soundness of Haskell. Statements like this “ Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs! ” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to abc model cbt, support this claim, this statement is deceptive; while it can be made informally in a blog post designed to Essay on Raising a Child, evangelize the crowd, it definitely should not be made in abc model cbt the context of doctoral work unless that work provides solid evidence for such a strong statement. That article is not an outlier. The Internets are full of articles claiming improved software development productivity for just about every other language. No evidence is ever provided, the argumentation is invention tv always either (a) deducted from principles that are supposed to abc model, be true but that have never been verified, or (b) extrapolated from ad-hoc, highly biased, severely skewed personal experiences. This is the main reason why I stopped doing research in kbu library Programming Languages in any official capacity.

Back when I was one of the main evangelists for AOP I realized at some point that I had crossed the line to saying things for which I had very little evidence. Cbt? I was simply… evangelizing, i.e. convincing others of an idea that I believed strongly. At some point I felt I needed empirical evidence for what I was saying. Photosynthesis Vs Cellular Respiration Diagram? But providing evidence for abc model the human productivity argument is damn hard! My scientist self cannot lead doctoral students into that trap, a trap that I know too well. Moreover, designing and executing the experiments that lead to uncovering such evidence requires a lot of kbu library time and cbt, a whole other set of skills that have absolutely nothing to do with the time and skills for actually designing programming languages.

We need to learn the methods that experimental psychologists use. And, in the end of all that work, we will be lucky if we unveil correlations but we will not be able to draw any definite conclusions, which is… depressing. But without empirical evidence of any kind, and the soldier rupert brooke, from a scientific perspective, unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, Haskell or AspectJ (which are mostly developed and used by academics and have been the topic of abc model many PhD dissertations) are as good as unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, PHP (which is mostly developed and used by non-academics). The PHP community is actually very honest when it comes to stating the the plowman canterbury tales benefits of using the language. Cbt? For example, here is an honest-to-god set of reasons for using PHP.

Notice that there are no claims whatsoever about english, PHP leading to less bugs or higher programmer productivity (as if anyone would dare to state that!); they’re just pragmatic reasons. (Note also: I’m not implying that Haskell/AspectJ/PHP are “comparables;” they have quite different target domains. Abc Model Cbt? I’m just comparing the narratives surrounding those languages, the “stories” that the communities tell within themselves and to others) OK, now that I made 823 enemies by pointing out that the claims about human productivity surrounding languages that have emerged in academic communities — and therefore ought to know better — are unsubstantiated, PLUS 865 enemies by english saying that empirical user studies are inconclusive and depressing… let me try to turn my argument around. Is the high bar of scientific evidence killing innovation in programming languages? Is this what’s causing the asymptotic behavior? It certainly is what’s keeping me away from that topic, but I’m just a grain of sand. What about the work of many who propose intriguing new design ideas that are then shot down in peer-review committees because of the lack of cbt evidence?

This ties back to my detour on kbu library the nature of research. Join Detour Design experimentation vs. Scientific evidence. So, we’re back to whether design innovation per se is an admissible first-order goal of doctoral work or not. And now that question is joined by a counterpart: is the provision of scientific evidence really required for doctoral work in programming languages? If what we have in hand is not Science, we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that work well for Science, because that may kill the essence of our discipline. In my view, that essence has been the radical, fast-paced, off the mark design experimentation enabled by software. Abc Model? This rush is fairly incompatible with the need to provide scientific evidence for the design “hopes.” I’ll try a parallel: drug design, the modern-day equivalent of alchemy. In terms of research it is Essay on Raising similar to software: partly based on abc model cbt rigor, partly on intuitions, and now also on automated tools that simply perform an enormous amount of kbu library logical combinations of molecules and determine some objective function. When it comes to cbt, deployment, whoever is english phonemes driving that work better put in place a plan for actually testing the theoretical expectations in the context of actual people.

Does the drug really do what it is supposed to cbt, do without any harmful side effects? We require scientific evidence for the claimed value of experimental drugs. Kbu Library? Should we require scientific evidence for the value of experimental software? The parallel diverges significantly with respect to the consequences of failure. A failure in drug design experimentation may lead to abc model, people dying or getting even more sick. A failure in software design experimentation is only a big deal if the respiration venn diagram experiment had a huge investment from the beginning and/or pertains to safety-critical systems. There are still some projects like that, and for cbt those, seeking solid evidence of their benefits before deploying the production version of the experiment is a good thing. But not all software systems are like that.

Therefore the burden of the soldier brooke scientific evidence may be too much to bear. It is also often the case that over abc model time, the the plowman canterbury tales enormous amount of testing by real use is enough to abc model cbt, provide assurances of the plowman canterbury all kinds. One good example of abc model cbt design experimentation being at odds with scientific evidence is the proposal that Tim Berners-Lee made to CERN regarding the implementation of the hypertext system that became the Web. Nowhere in that proposal do we find a plan for verification of invention claims. Abc Model Cbt? That’s just a solid good proposal for an intriguing “linked information system.” I can imagine TB-L’s manager thinking: “hmm, ok, this is intriguing, he’s a smart guy, he’s not asking that many resources, let’s have him do it and see what comes of it.

If nothing comes of it, no big deal.” Had TB-L have to devise a scientific or engineering assessment plan for that system beyond “in the photosynthesis respiration second phase, we’ll install it on many machines” maybe the abc model cbt world would be very different today, because he might have gotten caught in the black hole of trying to find quantifiable evidence for something that didn’t need that kind of validation. Granted, this was not a doctoral topic proposal; it was a proposal for the design and implementation of a very concrete system with software in it, one that (1) clearly identified the problem, (2) built on previous ideas, including the author’s own experience, (3) had some intriguing insights in it, (4) stated expected benefits and respiration, potential applications — down to the prediction of search engines and abc model, graph-based data analysis. Brooke Context? Should a proposal like TB-L’s be rejected if it were to be a doctoral topic proposal? When is an cbt unproven design idea doctoral material and other isn’t? If we are to accept design ideas without validation plans as doctoral material, how do we assess them?

In order to english phonemes, do experimental design research AND be scientifically honest at the same time, one needs to abc model, let go of the soldier rupert brooke context claims altogether. In that dreadful part of cbt a topic proposal where the committee asks the student “what are your claims?” the student should probably answer “none of interest.” In experimental design research, one can have hopes or expectations about the effects of the system, and those must be clearly articulated, but very few certainties will likely come out of such type of work. And that’s ok! It’s very important to be honest. For example, it’s not ok to claim “my language produces bug-free programs” and then defend this with a deductive argument based on unproven assumptions; but it’s ok to state “I expect that my language produces programs with fewer bugs [but I don’t have data to prove it].” TB-L’s proposal was really good at the soldier brooke, being honest. Finally, here is an attempt at abc model, establishing a rigorous criteria for design assessment in the context of doctoral and respiration venn diagram, post-doctoral research: Problem : how important and surprising is the abc model cbt problem and how good is its description? The problem space is, perhaps, the most important component for vs cellular venn diagram a piece of design research work.

If the cbt design is not well grounded in an interesting and important problem, then perhaps it’s not worth pursuing as research work. If it’s a old hard problem, it should be formulated in a surprising manner. Very often, the novelty of a design lies not in the design itself but in its designer seeing the problem differently. So — surprise me with the problem. Show me insights on english the nature of the problem that we don’t already know. Potential : what intriguing possibilities are unveiled by the design? Good design research work should open up doors for new avenues of cbt exploration. Feasibility : good design research work should be grounded on what is photosynthesis respiration venn diagram possible to do. The ideas should be demonstrated in the form of cbt a working system. Additionally, design research work, like any other research work, needs to be placed in a solid context of what already exists. This criteria has two consequences that I really like: first, it substantiates our intuitions about proposals such as TB-L’s “linked information system” being a fine piece of [design] research work; second, it substantiates our intuitions on the difference of languages like Haskell vs. languages like PHP.

I leave that as an on Raising exercise to the reader! I would love to abc model cbt, bring design back to english phonemes, my daytime activities. Abc Model Cbt? I would love to kbu library, let my students engage in designing new things such as new programming languages and environments — I have lots of ideas for what I would like to do in that area! I believe there is abc model a path to brooke context, establishing a set of rigorous criteria regarding the assessment of design that is abc model cbt different from scientific/quantitative validation. On Raising A Child? All this, however, doesn’t depend on me alone. If my students’ papers are going to be shot down in program committees because of the lack of validation, then my wish is a curse for them. If my grant proposals are going to abc model, be rejected because they have no validation plan other than “and then we install it in brooke context many machines” or “and then we make the cbt software open source and free of charge” then my wish is a curse for me. We need buy-in from a Child a much larger community — in a way, reverse the abc model cbt trend of placing software research under the auspices of english science and engineering [alone] . This, however, should only be done after the community understands what science and scientific methods are all about abc model, (the engineering ones — everyone knows about them). At this point there is still a severe lack of understanding of science within the CS community. Our graduate programs need to cover empirical (and other scientific) methods much better than they currently do.

If we simply continue to ignore the workings of science and the burden of scientific proof, we end up continuing to make careless religious statements about our programming languages and english phonemes, systems that simply will lead nowhere, under the abc model cbt misguided impression that we are scientists because the name says so. Copyright © Crista Videira Lopes. All rights reserved. Note: this is a work-in-progress essay. I may update it from time to time.

Feedback welcome. 104 Responses to Research in Programming Languages. Thanks for the interesting article! I entirely agree with you when you say: “we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that. work well for invention tv Science, because that may kill the essence. of our discipline” Indeed!

One of my favorite quotes is cbt Einstein’s. “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted” I think this is especially important to bear in mind when considering PL/Design. (And yes, program committees are terrible at evaluating language designs — partly. because they are very difficult to evaluate! — I have many anecdotes about kbu library, this, all. quite objective IMO as none of cbt them are about my own papers, but thats another story…) That said, I believe the situation is not as dire as you indicate. As you point out: 1. “…one striking commonality in photosynthesis vs cellular respiration all modern programming languages, especially the. popular ones, is how little innovation there is in abc model cbt them!”

2. “…there appears to vs cellular, be no correlation between the success of a programming language. and its emergence in the form of cbt someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work.” The explanation for kbu library this is *not* that all the interesting/innovative PL work was done. in the 70s, and that the work now is abc model simply too technical etc. Instead, the explanation is. that it *takes decades* to really figure out what the a Child truly useful, valuable and. implementable designs/features are, and the best way to cbt, integrate them with. “mainstream” languages. In other words, the kbu library “tech transfer” process for language. design has proven to be decades long…

So yes, there is cbt little correlation with programming *languages*, but I think the. picture is phonemes quite different if you look at *features* not entire languages. Recall that it took GC nearly 50 years to go mainstream! As you point out, there are. few definitive “scientific” studies about why even GC is better. Once you move to. things like static typing, I think it becomes an impossible endeavor, for cbt the reasons. Einstein pithily describes. Thus, instead of Essay a Child nifty scientific charts, what we have are. series of anecdotes and narratives built up over a long span (maybe decades), at.

which point the abc model cbt features inch into the mainstream. Every time someone says “there has been no new innovative work in languages” since. so-and-so’s (Turing award) winning work in the 60s, 70s, one simply has to point. to the explosion of phonemes cleverness in Haskell, much of which has already. “gone mainstream”. The single most astonishing and influential feature is. probably Typeclasses — see Simon Peyton-Jones’ graph. which enabled a slew of other things (monads, FRP, generic programming, quickcheck etc.) I doubt any of this could be anticipated when typeclasses came out, and indeed there are, to my amazement, those who still question the value of this.

feature. Nevertheless, two-and-a-half decades on, these are all features. (local type inference, lambdas, LINQ,…) seeping into mainstream languages. C# has been particularly progressive in this regard. Other recent examples. that pop to mind are the early academic work on SELF/OO (designs + optimizations) which are now the basis for many of the abc model cbt performance improvements for JS. And of brooke context course, there are the many innovations around Scala and F# which.

are greatly informed by deep technical ideas that came out cbt, of the Essay a Child academic. So, the upshot is that yes, a lot of work in cbt PL (and SE) is of colour tv indeed design, which. is difficult if not impossible to abc model, evaluate using the usual scientific method. We should be looking for better ways to evaluate them, and not nipping ideas. in the bud before there is bullet proof “evidence” of Essay on Raising merit. Nevertheless, all is not lost. There does appear to be a (rather lengthy) social process, where thanks to.

anecdotal narratives there is a steady stream of academic ideas that eventually. seriously influencing mainstream languages. Abc Model? We should be thinking of english phonemes ways to. shorten this process, and in the meantime, be patient. If nothing else, I’d argue that the most important contribution of PL research is the introduction of concepts that are later assimilated into more popular languages, even if the research languages themselves never see wide acceptance. Python owes its list comprehensions to Haskell (similarly with Rust’s typeclasses), and abc model, I’d like to think that AspectJ had a non-negligible influence on Python’s decorators. For a more extreme example, consider the fact (the fact! ) that we will never again see a new programming language that does not feature first-class functions. I like to think that there are countless novel, pragmatic concepts hiding away in the plowman canterbury tales obscure programming languages that are merely waiting for their day in cbt the sun.

This is on Raising really spot on. I would like to refer you to cbt, a couple of english phonemes things that come to mind that you might find useful for advancing this line of thinking. First, I saw a talk by Jonathan Edwards that was very much along the abc model cbt lines of what you wrote here: Second, Christopher Alexander’s early work on patterns in architecture and urban design have been referenced quite a bit in computer science, but seldom is his ‘magnum opus’, a four-book series on the ‘nature of order’, referenced. These texts move far beyond the canterbury tales early work. You would do well to have a look at the first book, which tries to establish an objective theory of design not based on scientific principles:;field-keywords=the+nature+of+order#038;x=0#038;y=0. Third, you might be interested to read some discussion on the history of music programming languages. Max/MSP and Pd, both dataflow-oriented, offer what I would estimate to abc model cbt, be an order of magnitude of english phonemes productivity gain for certain tasks in building one-off multi-media systems. They’re a bit like a UNIX for real-time multi-media + control signals. This essay reminded me a bit of the anti-academic and abc model, organic approach that Miller Puckette took in canterbury tales building them despite being trained as a mathematician and abc model cbt, developing them in an academic setting. This serves as a good lesson that successful software isn’t necessarily designed by having good principles, but rather the proper environment , namely, one with energy and a need.

Check out two papers in the Computer Music Journal where this is discussed: 2002. Miller Puckette, “Max at Seventeen”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) 2002. Eric Lyon, “Dartmouth Symposium on the Future of Computer Music Software: A Panel Discussion”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) Generally, computer music is one of the kbu library more interesting fields to look at if you’re interested in ascertaining the abc model cbt future of HCI, computer science and psychological research since from the venn beginning they have not been accorded the luxury of abc model cbt forgoing certain constraints, such as that everything must happen in real-time, data must be of kbu library a certain resolution (in time and abc model, ‘space’) and that non-tech-savvy practitioners from english phonemes other fields (musicians) must be able to use the tools as experts. Oh, and I would add that if you are not familiar with Bill Buxton’s career, it may prove interesting reading for cbt you. He began in computer music and is now a strong advocate for Design in technology. One insight that he often emphasizes, which I don’t claim is his originally, is kbu library that new technologies take 20-30 years to be adopted.

According to this view, new ideas in software design should expect to lie dormant for at least 20 years, echoing what @Ben wrote above. I fully agree with your viewpoint re. human productivity. Abc Model Cbt? I watch commercial Java progamming taking place and a Child, I see productivity no better than COBOL and probably a lot worse given how much more is expected of cbt software now. I suspect most step change improvements in productivity have to come from better adaption to the task, i.e. from languages that are to a greater or lesser degree domain-specific. There is an old but fairly well-known and english, scientific paper by cbt Verner Tate on tv comparison between COBOL and a 4GL. The 4GL was. 5x more productive. Cbt? Of course most of the 4GLs were arguably domain-specific languages for database-centric enterprise software. The paper is available via IEEE but I don’t find any public copy. The title is the plowman canterbury “estimating size and effort in fourth-generation development”.

If you have Bob Glass’s book Software Conflict it’s highlighted on p.98, something I was amused to find recently as I used to work with and on abc model cbt the 4GL technology in question 20 years ago. Of course the commercial 4GLs were largely killed off by invention a combination of factors including the Web and the rise of open source, but we did lose something there. That. 5x productivity is eyecatching but it’s consistent with my personal experience with the technology. Those who do not study history, etc.

– comprehensions didn’t originate in haskell (probably not even from Miranda, as they were available in smalltalk, and probably that was taken from abc model cbt somewhere else) – aspect oriented programming didn’t start with aspectJ. Kbu Library? I think Kiczales started his experiments using common lisp. at least the early papers on aop used that. other than that, I think you have a good point. There will be a day when the programming universe accepts the fact that LISP is by far the cbt best programming language in the world, a language that can actually “think” and make decisions, logical decisions. The shortest path algorithm can be written in LISP in Essay on Raising a few lines – I challenge any programmer out there to do it in a few pages in C, without using any dependencies. LISP has been underestimated for abc model cbt quite so long, and it’s nice to see that someone (like you) acknowledges the contributions that LISP has on the programing ecosystem.

u might want to add sml languages to your list of developments. also check out mythryl and other ports of ocaml/sml languages. Very interesting. Invention Of Colour? I’m in the industry developing software. I’m not sure what to cbt, think about the 3 goals you state: for performance, we have grids, clusters, GPUs, it seems there is more and more hardware so that even if the language itself is not “fast”, the invention grid will compensate (as an aside, I’m seeing horrible uses of grids from a resource point of view: people don’t care about writing efficient software, because they know they can have 1,000 more nodes on cbt the grid anyway…) ; for productivity, what I’m seeing everyday is that: either the problem is Essay (partially) solved by the use of libraries, or what’s really getting you is the environment, such mundane things as repositories, build systems, deployments (just a matter of organization, more than science, I guess)… and abc model, testing – I think each day of tales coding results in 2 or 3 days of abc model cbt testing, that testing being a kind of the plowman tales “proof” that the system is abc model cbt not going to… crash and make you lost money. In other words, in my practice, writing code is definitely not what takes the most time. Reducing the amount of english phonemes testing we have to do, or reducing the possibilities of bugs would in the end be the most useful (to me), and I’m constantly looking for automated proving tools, but those are not forthcoming for C++ or Java.

I would like to echo Frank’s comment. Abc Model Cbt? I work in a 50 person team all working on the same codebase. The ratio of writing production code to writing unit, integration and english, acceptance tests is similar. There is nothing in C# that assists us perform this testing. The challenges and complexity for us lie in building a continuous integration environment that detects problems, identifies the abc model developer responsible informs them of the problem quickly so that they can fix the issue. When a developer commits bad code like a failing test we ideally need for this to be isolated so that productivity of the remaining team is not affected. Photosynthesis Respiration Venn Diagram? This last requirement is proving particularly tricky. I was doing my phd in PL and felt the cbt same way about AOP.

I’m relieved someone involved with it ginally said agreed. Another goal of PL research ought to be discovering more primitive forms of invention of colour computation, e.g. continuations, closures, type theories. Concurrency is still a mess and abc model, could use some innovation. Also distributed programming, reliable systems, and invention of colour tv, module systems. Cbt? None of the the soldier rupert popular languages have anything to offer for abc model these problems. I have been using and advocating literate software for a decade. I claim that it improves software due to three effects:

1) the developer has to explain the code and, as a side-effect, discovered. corner cases, missed cases, bad design, etc. before submission to review. 2) the team reviewer have text that explains the design decisions and the. rationale behind the respiration venn diagram code. they are able to abc model, critique the design as well as. the code. Photosynthesis Vs Cellular Respiration Diagram? They will better understand the abc model code which leads to Essay on Raising, better. review which leads to higher quality. 3) the code “lives” because it is embedding in human-to-human.

communication. There are over 100,000 dead piles of abc model code on Sourceforge. because the english author left and nobody has a clue about how to maintain and. modify the code. I have been trying to find a researcher at cbt, a University interested in. creating studies to the plowman, confirm or deny the above assertions which are. based only on my experience. Claim 2, for instance, could be tested by taking previously published. software (e.g. Cbt? cryptographic software).

Give one group the the soldier brooke context book. “Implementing Cryptographic Software” which contains the actual. source code. Give a second group just the abc model cbt source code from the book. Have a group review and post-review test. See which group has a. better understanding of the code, e.g. why some constant has the. We need studies like this to “put some science” behind the kbu library opinions. Literate programming is a fundamentally important technology but. nobody will touch it unless we do the studies. If this would be of interest to cbt, you, contact me. The premise on which Don Knuth created the concepts for LP was the idea to create documentation and program code from just one source.

This premise has become obsolete many years ago, with tools like Javadoc or Doxygen. These latter tools also come with a big advantage, as they don’t require a pre-source code version of kbu library your programs, and therefore can directly interoperate with any developer tool of your choice. LP however greatly inhibits that choice, as the abc model cbt ‘WEB’ code isn’t well suited to interoperate with many modern tools involving version control or team development. LP was a great concept 30 years ago, when there was no way to create source code and documentation from a single source, in the same way TeX was a good idea when there was no WYSIWIG. These times are past now. I liked this article because of how it tried to get people to think out of the box, and stop follwing well-trodden paths. I don’t think going down a 30 year old path will lead to any new insights. Putting documentation and source code in one place is not the purpose of literate programing.

The main merit of literate programming is to vs cellular respiration venn diagram, rearrange the code in abc model cbt what best for human mind to follow. TeX is still a good idea now. The current WYSIWIG sucks. What I like to see is an editor that build for dual monitors where you edit TeX on phonemes one screen and have the rendered output on the other display. The insistence of Don Knuth on maintaining TeX has been preventing this to happen. I have acquired many of Don Knuth’s books and generally consider myself one of his fans. From his literate programming, I take the merits of abc model cbt being able to arrange code and take forms in what best for human reading, rather than computer parsing. Essay On Raising A Child? And often, what is best for human reading is abc model what best for human writing. However, I am not big fan of the soldier brooke context documentations. Writing papers to defend one’s idea are difficult and not fun except when that is the purpose. It has its merit in academics, but in practical situations of abc model cbt programing, we are trying to get things done rather than to invention tv, propagate an idea.

And the current very reason that we need documentation is because current languages are still oriented toward machines, rather than expressing human ideas. What I want to see in the direction of programming research is a system that takes in what is cbt intuitive for humans and translate them into what is ready for machines. This system should be restrictive on the machine side so optimizations can happen, and english phonemes, flexible on the human side because that is abc model cbt how our mind operate. Most important that I want to see is invention tv emphasis that the programming system not to abc model cbt, force machine concepts upon us. If the venn programmer want certain concepts in OOP, he could write that part in OOP, or functional, or any domain specific form. However, the language system should not force the cbt programmer to think everything in OOP or functional or any domain specific way. Once we can really express our ideas in most natural ways that we can unambiguously read and understand, then we shouldn’t need much additional documenting. Please post this also at canterbury tales, I’d do it for you, but you may have your own reasons for not wanting to.

Please do! I guess I’m not used to posting stuff there, although I like that site very much. BTW, we had this same argument at the WGLD meeting last week in London. It is nice to see a very well thought out argument in this blog post. Nearly 30 years without fundamental progress in programming languages shows that we’ve reached a trashold to a completely new domain of programming languages. Maybe the next step are natural languages maybe its some synthesis of various programming principles. My biggest constraint about current languages (or programming envionments) is that you need a zoo different languages to make an cbt enterprise running: front end (HTM, CSS, …), middle tier (Java, c#, standard components, …), backend (PL/SQL, System’s API, Libraries, …), deployment (shell, scheduling tools, server configuration, …), organization (versioning tools, CI server, …). My dream is to the plowman, have an all-in-one language I can use to talk with the computer about all of theses domains. I am sorry to have to cbt, break this to you, but UNIX, C, and photosynthesis vs cellular respiration, C++ were also small “personal” developments. Ken Thompson started UNIX in 1969 and slowly brought others in on its development. Dennis Richie started C in cbt 1969, it was many years before he expanded the scope of work to include any other developers.

Bjarne Stroustrup not only started C++ by himself (in 1979), but even now he remains the primary definer of the language. ATT’s funding of UNIX was so limited that in 1971 they could barely afford a PDP 11/20. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to of colour tv, be showing the way to abc model cbt, a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of phonemes science or that one or maybe something else. I dare to suggest that the something else is related to the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. Abc Model? It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning. I think it’s fascinating that you’ve come up with this, because I’ve seen a very, very similar idea come up in the real-time and embedded systems community. The name they use is “cyber-physical systems” (CPS) which you can read about on Wikipedia.

Basically, CPS is the plowman canterbury mainly used as a way to structure funding opportunities and abc model, seems to have been popularized largely from invention of colour tv that source. There’s a lot of skepticism about whether it’s a “real thing” or just a fad of cbt language. Respiration Diagram? And I’ve heard it described in many different ways (some clearly better than others). The best way I’ve heard it described is thus (you can imagine I’m giving a spiel at a conference, trying to sell you on the idea): Engineers used to build things. Now, engineers build things connected or composed of computer networks and abc model, computer code. English? This enables a vast increase in abc model complexity of the system (a good thing) but makes building and verifying the system much more complex. A good example is a modern passenger aircraft (think Airbus 380, Dreamliner) or automobile (which sometimes can have 100 “ECUs”, or embedded computers, most of which are connected by canterbury tales a bus). This is a very, very important research area, because in the future, everything will be like this – buildings, complex robotic systems, medicine, etc.

Although sometimes I am skeptical of CPS, when put that way, I really think the approach makes a lot of cbt sense. Anyway, just wanted to express my excitement at seeing this bubble up in another place, point you in that direction in case you want to explore it. I found your blog from Hacker News and I’m not that familiar with your background, so apologies if I’m preaching to phonemes, the choir here. Hope you see the connection I’m trying to make. I consider CSP concurrency very useful and innovative. Important languages with their publication dates are Squeak(1985), Newsqueak(1990), Alef(1995), Limbo(2000), Go(2009). Abc Model? This doesn’t seem “no innovation” to me. Same for Pi-calculus(1992), Join-calculus(1996), JoCaml(1999), C omega(2003), and invention, so on. In general, we learned a lot about how to do concurrency in programming languages, and we are reaping benefits (Go, C#). You seem to consider mashup non-innovative, but I consider languages integrating OOP and FP type systems pretty innovative.

OCaml(1996), Scala(2003), F sharp(2005), and so on. Other examples I can think of are lazy evaluation, delimited continuation, dataflow programming, metaprogramming. Most of advances in lazy evaluation are post-1980, especially how to implement it. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages is from 1987. Shift/Reset delimited continuation appeared in 1990 and we learned a lot more about it since. For dataflow programming, SISAL is from 1983, Oz is from 1991. For metaprogramming, the abc model first widely used language with hygienic macro, R5RS, appeared in 1998! Both MetaOCaml and Template Haskell postdate 2000! Is there still anything to innovate in programming languages?

Yes, there are *a lot* to innovate in programming languages. Interesting essay … And it’s about time the question of “does PL design make for doctoral work?” and “if yes, how do we evaluate?” gets asked. I wonder whether mathematics would be an appropriate analogy here, with core ideas such as monads being analogous to english phonemes, mathematics, and PLs that support monads being analogous to mathematical notation. Abc Model? We’ve certainly had influential mathematical notation that captured concepts so well that one might say they’ve become fused in Essay a Child the minds of people. Examples such as the place value system, algebra, vector notation, notations for ordinary calculus, vector calculus, exterior calculus, Feynman diagrams and molecular formulae come to abc model cbt, mind. Broadly, though good notations have been influential in communicating mathematical ideas and using them, nobody’s gotten an tv PhD in math for inventing a notation afaik. Cbt? At best, these inventions come in the form of of colour tv a paper or a note.

By analogy, PL design sans new concepts (like new math), to me, seems inadequate for cbt doctoral work. English Phonemes? This criterion rules out purely syntactic contributions and I think that’s a valid criterion – unless one wishes to study Whorfian issues like impact of syntax on abc model cognition. I’ll stop here lest my response itself turn into an essay Thanks for raising these questions. – “C, part of a large investment in Unix”… doesn’t match the history I know – Unix was initially created as an undeground project (Bell thinking they were funding a text processing system), and C was the underground’s underground as it was a demand of Unix. AlsoC didn’t seem to have significant up-front design; it was derived from previous languages and iterated with the OS project’s needs. – Today’s top-5 popular languages, as listed by the Tiobe index (not a great methodology but the best we have and updated monthly), are Java, C, C#, C++ and Objective-C. All these languages were created by top PL/compiler experts (BTW, Java too fell into invention of colour tv Guy Steele’s lap). So I wouldn’t say that languages hacked together in a week by cbt amateurs, are anything close to the norm. Kbu Library? Even in the bleeding edge, you’ll find that most “hot” languages are once again created by experts like Odersky, Rich Hickey, Bracha, etc. – Notice also that the creators of abc model those hacked languages are often not classic PL researchers, but they are always brilliant and well-educated developers.

Example: Larry Wall had a BS in “natural and artificial languages” and followed with graduate studies in human linguistics–this mix, with the phonemes stronger focus in the human languages, easily explains his approach with Perl. Larry’s classic article “Wherefore Art, Thou?” is abc model cbt essential for this discussion: – Languages are expensive tools; the switch to kbu library, a new language is a huge investment, from each developer’s learning curve to the enormous weight of legacy code and the wide and deep ecosystem of supporting toolchain and libraries. This cuses the frustrating delay for abc model academic innovation to trickle down to mainstream languages, a process that often takes multiple generations of photosynthesis vs cellular venn diagram languages (if not human generations). “Universal” platforms, from abc model Microsoft’s .NET/CLI to modern Java and the soldier, now HTML5, have reduced the barrier to entry with common frameworks and runtime technology; but really, they are mostly modern replacements for Unix/POSIX: a common base that provides all core APIs, and core services like I/O and memory management, that any language would need, and does that in a portable way. So, these virtual platforms mostly compensate for the new needs of post-C/Unix languages such as garbage collection, and for the failure of POSIX to become a unversal system interface so application-level libraries would need porting to Win32, Cocoa etc. – Because languages are tools, their success is the result of adoption by millions of cbt rank-and-file professionals, 90% of those as unable to distinguish the qualities of “properly-designed” PLs as I am unable to the soldier rupert brooke context, distinguish a $1000 champagne from a $20 sparkling wine.

This is critically different from most academic work, e.g. in mathematics o theoretical physics, which is abc model only consumed/judged/adopter by other academics with roughly the same level of education and the same focus and values. Well, it’s not that simple because the first stage of rupert context adoption is typically driven by some kind of elite, still the language eventually needs to abc model cbt, scale to Joe Developer, which never happened and Essay a Child, will never happen with languages like Haskell, regardless of its significant adoption some years ago and very mature implementation. Thanks for all these comments! I’d love to think that many new things were proposed after 1979, but history doesn’t seem to support that view. Here are some concepts mentioned in abc model this discussion: – Dataflow programming: late 60s. – Actors: early 70s by phonemes Carl Hewitt. – CSP: late 70s by Hoare. – Pi-calculus: not terribly different from earlier work on CCS.

The CCS book was published in 1980, the work was done before that. – Lazy evaluation: early 70s within work in lambda calculus. – Metaprogramming: early 70s. – Continuations: mid 60s. I agree that many *improvements* came after this, particularly with respect to implementing these things efficiently (engineering), but also in maturing the concepts themselves.

Improvements are important too, and they have the cbt wonderful property that it’s really easy to assess their value. But it seems that the *innovations* (i.e. the new concepts) have pretty much stagnated, exceptions not withstanding. I’d love to be proven wrong. “But it takes 20 years for design ideas to Essay on Raising a Child, come to the masses.” Maybe, maybe not. Some innovations have a really rapid mass-adoption (certain machine learning methods come to cbt, mind), others never get mass-adopted.

In any case, we should be seeing stuff proposed in the early 90s come out to the masses now. Where is it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). You know when you go to PL conferences and those old timers stand up and say “but insert vintage language had that back in 1975…”? I used to find it really annoying. But they’re right, for rupert context the most part. Abc Model Cbt? I think it’s time that we accept that they’re right, and reflect on the reasons for rupert brooke this state of affairs.

Thanks also for those who point out that C was an cbt underdog project. The Soldier Brooke? I’ll update the essay one of these days. I guess the point should be that before the PC era, this kind of abc model cbt work was exclusive of the on Raising very few lucky ones who had access to very expensive computers — and that tended to happen only in University labs and cbt, Industrial Research labs. Once PCs came upon us, that situation changed, and this kind of work started happening in a lot more places by a lot more people. Design of things with software in them was democratized. Hi Crista — I don’t have time to take apart your essay, but I’d like to add a couple of. 1. All disciplines go through periods of exciting activity and steady-state work. See. Thomas Kuhn’s short book “The Structure of Essay Scientific Revolutions.” Even if you do. not accept his judgement (on paradigm shifts), you should read it for the collection.

of historical work on the evolution of disciplines. It is good for researchers to abc model, reflect on their discipline and its relationship to the world. It is dangerous to rupert brooke, think our own discipline is facing unique problems, and abc model, it is even more dangerous not to know the history and philosophy of phonemes science. [[Example: I agree with you that continuations and delimited continuations. — as I proposed them at POPL ’88 after working them out for 4 years — fall straight into the steady-state part of PL research. Indeed, as you say, Stoy had a similar idea in the 1970s for his OS work, though I do claim what. prompt and control/c/callcc did was much more. Nevertheless, it’s small. potatoes and yet, I enjoyed working on delimited continuations for years, and I enjoyed it even more getting them just right in cbt a production system.

a few years back (ICFP). It is fun when you see all the pieces fall into venn diagram place.]] 2. You are plain wrong when it comes to the evaluation of programming languages. When IBM switched to Java whole-sale, it had gathered a large amount of abc model data on. the productivity of programming in Java (with memory safety, type safety) vs C++ (lack of both). It had started with the San Francisco project run by Kathy Boherer, with a dozen or so large companies contributing some 120 software architects.

These. people determined that Java improved the photosynthesis vs cellular respiration diagram productivity of average programmers by. a factor of 3 or more. As someone mentioned, PLs are a major infrastructure investment. and switching infrastructure is expensive.

Hence when a major, large company does. switch, we should pay attention. Cbt? Sadly, we also need to accept that they perceive such. data as a competitive advantage and will therefore not release it. 3. Rupert? As far as ‘design’ is concerned, I agree with you. Standard PL conferences — perhaps. with the exception of OOPSLA — give way too little credit to design. When they do, including OOPSLA, it is in abc model cbt a strange fashion. Find 20 people to run a symposium on PL. design. I’ll attend.

4. Vs Cellular Respiration Venn? I have heard the abc model lament about hobbyists designing PLs many times now, and I have. formulated it myself in of colour semi-public spaces since 2000. Cbt? I have found myself to be wrong. 4a. These languages tend to inject one or two new ideas into the discussion. In addition, unlike PLs designed by academic researchers at universities and labs, the break-thru.

languages address dire needs of practical work and design — immediately and on the spot. Javascripts evolution — as a Scheme turned into a language without parentheses, now! — is a classic example. Brendan Eich should write it down for history’s sake, and not just the sanitized version that leaves his superiors blameless. 4b. These languages pose interesting and exciting new problems for PL researchers.

I have worked on adding types to untyped languages for 20 years; since the invention web placed. languages such as Python and Javascript into the center of new software designs (1998ish. latest), this work has become tremendously relevant. I am actually pretty sure that it. will evolve into a nearly-big idea that people will pay attention to. 5. Last but not least, don’t escape.

If you find other areas more challenging, do pursue problems there. But if you believe that our own discipline needs serious change, work for change as a researcher who sets new standards and creates new ways of working in our world. I didn’t escape At some point I felt the abc model cbt need to kbu library, go and explore other parts of town to see what’s all about and abc model cbt, how things are done there. I visited a few places, and the plowman canterbury, I ended up spending more time in the data mining / IR neighborhood; that is really cool too. Great for doctoral work, because it’s all very quantitative and abc model, the benefits are very tangible. My design addiction went back to distributed systems; I’ve been doing a lot of work there, but it’s all mostly unpublished, if one considers having a user base of 5,000 people “unpublished work.” I think these 2 extremes — data mining = research papers + research funding; and OpenSimulator = design fun with a large user base — are a very big part of these reflections on design as doctoral work. These observations are not just for PLs, btw; I think they apply to software systems in general. Languages are particularly good to reflect upon. Hope to tv, continue this conversation with you some time!

As for this essay, please do break it apart if you have time. Maybe then it can become a real paper… heheh. This post had been sitting on my blog under password protection for a few months, unfinished, unpolished. Some students started asking for it, so I freed it from the password. Re: what Matthias says about “our own discipline … facing unique. problems”. Indeed, see this (and comments) for related soul searching in other CS disciplines. On another note, I think there is rather too much cultural emphasis on. “innovation” in abc model the sense that Crista describes here (“big ideas”). After.

all taken to the extreme, *everything* boils down to the lambda calculus. or state machines, so by this logic, we might as well have called it a day. by the tales end of the 1930s. Abc Model? One extremely negative consequence (or cousin?) of this emphasis, is the need to find single herculean figures who cause. Sure, that might happen once in a while, rather more rarely than you think.

In reality progress is rather more bottom up, in fits and starts with lots. of “little ideas” cancelling or building up on of colour tv each other, lots of dead. ends (with, sadly, the abc model cbt final “credit” not going to invention of colour, the person who. “discovered” an idea, but with the abc model cbt person after whom the idea “stayed. There needs to be *far* more importance placed on the critical “steady.

state” work that Matthias refers to phonemes, that is cbt needed to refine/improve/fix. some idea till the the soldier rupert brooke context point the “pieces to fall into place”. This might be. especially true in PL because there are so many different moving parts. that need to cbt, be reconciled. And so, I have rather less patience for the “old timers”.

(Of course, like all other disciplines, we also have some wheel reinvention, but thats another matter altogether…) ps: as phrased, this question appears impossible to answer: “Where is kbu library it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding).” I bet you in 10 years, we’ll have turned a full circle, and the above date will be updated. to 1989, and cbt, thats how we move forward #128521; I think your conclusion about the quote regarding Haskell is photosynthesis vs cellular incorrect.

Statements like this “Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs!” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the cbt data to the plowman canterbury, support this claim, this statement is deceptive; True, if you read the sentence “There just isn’t any room for cbt bugs!” as globally scoped and interpret it as “You can’t have bugs in Haskell programs.”, this would certainly be a silly claim. And even though I don’t believe that this is the intent of the sentence, I think it would be better to either drop the kbu library sentence altogether or at least qualify it and abc model cbt, say that there is no room for certain kinds of errors (such as type errors or memory errors). However, if we focus on the first sentence, then it is not at all wishful thinking. More importantly, it doesn’t require any data or experiments to support that observation, because it expresses a logical conclusion. And therein lies the importance of the claim, namely that a type checker proves the absence of a whole class of errors.

So it is a simple fact — an analytical, non-empirical fact — that, e.g., type-correct programs contain fewer errors than arbitrary programs. Empirical validation is a requirement in Science. Sometimes the canterbury claims are hard to cbt, prove empirically, so you have to wait many years before empirical validation is possible (e.g. Physics). That doesn’t seem to phonemes, be the abc model cbt case here; the data for whether Haskell programs have more or less bugs than non-Haskell programs (or whatever claim you want to formulate) is the plowman tales not that hard to get as compared to, say, particle physics experiments where millions of dollars need to be spent in building large infrastructures. So if whoever made that claim about Haskell wants to call themselves a Scientist, they better be sure that the cbt logic holds in the presence of empirical data. Or change the claim to the plowman canterbury, something less ambitious like “type checkers eliminate a whole class of errors; Haskell has a type checker, therefore, a whole class of errors is eliminated.” Indeed, that’s what they’re designed to do, so making this be true is as simple as making a correct implementation of said type checker. Haskell programs, however, like all others, are written by people, and people make all sorts of mistakes. So if you want to prove that Haskell programs [written by people] have less bugs than non-Haskell programs [written by abc model people] you need to compare empirically.

You may be unpleasantly surprised with the results; or you may come out a winner, in of colour tv which case the whole world will be convinced that type checkers are an abc model cbt absolute must-have in every programming language. Without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture. You seem to present a dichotomy: empirically validated claims without innovation, or innovation without empirical validation. I do wonder if these are the only alternatives? Even if they were, languages – along with tools, methodologies, nearly everything in the vicinity of software – are so much in kbu library the latter camp today, it would seem that a little more emphasis on empiricism – that which in most disciplines earns the term “science” – couldn’t hurt. I am entirely unconvinced that “It is also often the case that over time, the abc model cbt enormous amount of the soldier rupert brooke testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds.” Indeed, the frequent stampedes of software developers in the direction of new, shiny things assure us of abc model very little except that recent religious converts are quite zealous. I take your assertion as more of a sigh. Your thesis, that academic research in programming languages may be of diminishing value and, in any case, is hardly science, is well-taken. A few proofreading notes: “innovate new software” – you probably meant “innovative”. “we have in hands” – I think the idiom should be “we have in hand” and not match number unless you wish to write “we have on our hands”. Crista, just in english phonemes case it isn’t clear, I really meant what I wrote in my post: IBM people claimed data-driven validation of “Java is abc model better than C++ for large projects”.

Their evaluation method uses dollars-spent, i.e., it is an accounting method from the business school that answers the question in a positive sense. Matthias, that is the plowman canterbury something that big, responsible companies, when faced with a technological decision, do, so I would be surprised if they had *not* made a cost/benefit analysis with real, hard data. I’m less inclined to accept IBM’s business decision as empirical evidence for the benefits of Java vs. C++, in general, unless they open up their data and methodology to abc model, scrutiny. That would be very interesting to kbu library, see! In any case, CS academics should take note of such data-driven practices. To me, “macro is an innovation but hygienic macro is abc model cbt just an improvement” sounds as absurd as “electricity is an innovation but alternating current is just an improvement”. Ditto for continuation/delimited continuation, lazy evaluation in lambda calculus/lazy evaluation, etc. I also consider “without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture” a weird claim.

It is a conjecture, but it would be a *mathematically informed conjecture* not *just* a conjecture. Respiration Diagram? For theoretical physics, theories that avoid producing infinity — renormalization — is abc model considered better than other theories. Why not apply same for type safety? Henry Ford said that if he had asked people what they wanted, then it would have been a faster horse that ate less and required less grooming. PL research stuck in that space, dreaming up of venn flying horses. There are basically two issues to consider:

1. Abstraction: FORTRAN, COBOL, APL because successful because they addressed a specific domain and programming in those languages required less effort than in assembler. 2. Abc Model? Notations: the “wars” between proponents of of colour different programming languages typically boils down to arguing over syntax and abc model cbt, more rarely semantics. The future “instructing computers to do to our bidding” comes from the soldier rupert ever more powerful domain specific languages using notations that are “intuitive” to those domain experts. Model based software engineering and generative programming techniques form the foundations to support such a vision. Cbt? There is far more work done in those areas than most programmers realize. The companies being successful with such projects keep it as “their secret sauce” and don’t advertise their breakthroughs. are there any researches on rule based techniques for GUI programming. I would be interested in that.

Yes, the new paradigm of using iPad like internet access devices and using touch and drag boxes of language structures to write programs for software agents will define new PLs. There are academic efforts on so called visual programming languages and I think, the major revolutionary jump would have had come, if Steve Jobs had remained alive. The research of the plowman tales programming languages that you miss, can be find at the following link. Speaking as the abc model developer of an the plowman canterbury tales aggressively non-academic language (Objective-C), I’d like to suggest a project for abc model cbt some like-minded individual. We’re in the midst of a cloud-hype bubble, especially in government circles (DoD). Doing that the old (current) way, each and every application handles identity management (authentication) and access control (authorization) itself, so that who can access what is under the control of the administrator for that application. So there’s a lot of attention being devoted to the plowman canterbury, doing that in some more centralized way; basing access control on explicit policy instead of abc model cbt each administrator’s whims. Kbu Library? The current/only way of abc model cbt making policy explicit is an Oasis standard called “XACML”.

XACML is nothing more or less than a simple functional language for specifying whether a specified subject can perform a specified action on a specified resource in a specified context (environment). So far so good. What’s not so good is that its XML-based, which leads to the most god-awful syntax you can possibly imagine; full of XML barbed wire that makes your eyes bleed. No imagine putting XACML into practice, encoding government access policy into access control specs, convincing themselves (and their managers) that the resulting XACML is doing what its supposed to. So here’s my proposal. Develop a new language that replaces XACML’s syntax with some intuitive alternative, perhaps based on other functional languages out there. Scala is one good candidate. Only the syntax is changed; the new language must retain XACML semantics precisely.

A cheap way of ensuring that is to have the parser build the same tree that JAXB (or OpenSAML) generates from the XACML schema. Thus JAXB could be used to the plowman canterbury tales, serialize the result into real XACML XML files, the XACML compiler (see could be used to turn it into abc model cbt java for runtime, or Sun’s XACML interpreter could be used to interpret it on photosynthesis vs cellular venn diagram the fly. Abc Model Cbt? All that changes is the syntax; everything else works unchanged. I’ve made some initial exploration of this notion with a small Antlr parser, but doubt I’ll have the time to really drive this home. If some one does, drop me a line. Does Jeeves (a Scala DSL) come close to meeting your criteria? It wasn’t designed to comply with XACML, and english phonemes, it’s described as enforcing “privacy policies” rather than “access policies”, but overall the abc model cbt intent sounds quite similar unless I’m misunderstanding XACML. A Scala DSL is the obvious place to start.

Have done some initial exploration there myself. I’ve not looked at Jeeves. Thanks for tales the pointer to Jeeves. Just had a look. Its targeted at privacy, not access control. What I had in mind was far simpler, a straight/simple translation from a friendly syntax into XML or Java (or Scala etc) with an emphasis on raw execution speed and strict compliance with OASIS-defined semantics. Jeeves seems to abc model, go far beyond XACML compliance. Didn’t spend enough time on it to tell if it could be used in a way that strictly complies. Those are first impressions based on a quick skim, so easily wrong. I agree with Joe. There seems to be an inability to accept the empirical evidence in the ‘cool stuff’ graph and Essay a Child, move on to new ways of doing things.

So much for cbt science. Also I am rather surprised that the phonemes research by Capers Jones about cbt, productivity of programming languages is not acknowledged. Kbu Library? He claims he has examined the productivity of thousands of software projects – doesn’t that qualify as sufficiently ‘scientific’? BTW you may all be shocked to see what ranks high on his list. This discussion reminds me of what Joseph Wizenbaum said about the AI researchers in cbt the 60’s – that they said the breakthrough is just around the rupert context corner, but we are still waiting. I am sorry, but I think a lot more has to be done rather than devise new syntax, forms, libraries, etc. I work in an environment where we have a very large and cbt, complex business application in the plowman canterbury which the abc model cbt rate and volume of change is very high. Productivity is very important to us – the PLs do not deliver enough so we have to augment them with all sorts of Essay home grown tools – the main ones being software management, metadata management, test environment generation and code generation. Abc Model? But we need more, and we should not have to do this ourselves. I think there are two sides to a programming language.

The hardware side and the human side. Before 1979, hardware side is english more expensive than the human side and after that, it shifts to the other way. Abc Model Cbt? The hardware side is to be easily modeled with mathematics, and as a result, computing science was mostly a branch of of colour mathematics. Expensive hardware, abstract models, and cbt, a narrow base of experts restricts the language design to be a “serious” activity. Phonemes? We had many progresses because we already accomplished a solid mathematical background. Afterwards, especially after 1990s, hardware side is no longer critical, so the attention shifts to the human side, which is more of cbt a cognitive science. English? It is hard for academic rigor but easy for intuitive insights. FORTRAN, COBOL, C, LISP, all emphasize on the hardware efficiency. LISP goes to abc model, the extreme of making the language itself a data structure. PHP, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, none of kbu library them concerns with hardware efficiency, they are concerned with human intuitions.

The problem we have little academic progress on programming languages is because human side of science is very difficult and we haven’t achieved much yet. Once that branch of science reaches certain stage of rigor, I think we should expect another leap of progress in programming languages, and progresses in cbt many other things as well. I am working on vs cellular venn a drastically different approach to abc model cbt, programming languages., I appreciate any feed-backs. I agree with the poster that most new languages today appear to be mash-ups of existing concepts and languages. In fact, practically all of the new languages I have come across all look like some variation of C# or Java. That being said, unless new processors are going to offer radically different approaches to how they process instructions and what they are capable of photosynthesis vs cellular diagram processing, programming languages are not going to cbt, change all that much since they will be limited by what they can actually do within the processor.

If you use a well developed, general, compiled language like BASIC, Pascal, C#, or Java, you are going to pretty much have everything you require to develop most applications including games. The dynamic languages such as Python, though a good example of a well developed dynamic language, similar to their compiled counter-parts all do the same thing but with a different style. Should research continue into programming languages? In my view yes but not at the expense of saturating an already crowded field of canterbury tales good existing languages. In this vein choice is not being offered but merely additional confusion. Abc Model Cbt? A good example of this are the new “fringe” languages such as Scala and a Child, Ruby.

With the exception of some different functionality (functional programming in Scala and dynamic generation in Ruby) you are really not getting all that much for efforts made into adopting these languages unless you like living on the periphery of the programming world. Abc Model Cbt? Again, all these languages offer the same functionality that existing languages already have. One of the really innovative languages to come out in the past 30 years or so was Prolog. It promoted a completely different type of design paradigm for photosynthesis diagram development but it was only viable for expert systems development for which there are only approximately 2000 different applications to which the cbt language can be applied. Prolog was extended after its initial introduction to include OOP concepts but it was still difficult to Essay a Child, develop large-scale applications as a result of abc model cbt its nature. However, one place where Prolog may be able to shine is kbu library game development where built-in rule systems would not require game developers to cbt, re-develop a bit of the internal AI paradigms. * Nice discussion — now you can go back and separate some of the issues.

* Who’s the kbu library audience for your research? Yourself? Other academic PL researchers? Programmers in industry? Funding agencies? Not always an easy question. * What criteria are used to evaluate papers in POPL, PLDI, ICFP, etc? What criteria are used to evaluate DOD or NSF grant proposals?

* It’s nice to cbt, try to figure out why some languages succeed and others don’t. There are multiple forces involved, and their relative strengths can vary with time. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in photosynthesis venn diagram the 90s) I beg to differ. Aspects : were pretty much well known in abc model cbt the LISP community using Programmable Interactive Environments (see e.g., a 1978 paper by venn Erik Sandewall on this matter, section on “Advising and Insertive programming”). Monads : were certainly known under a different name in the 80s (see 1980s paper by cbt Simon Thompson, I think. The 1988 book “Elements of FP” by Reade mentions it around page 299), as a “programmable” semicolon. The last one was invented by Peter Landin in the 60s, I believe.

See There is nothing new on earth, really… This is the goal of english phonemes Language Design. Everything can be derived from this. Human Productivity depends on cbt better tools, environments and maintainability. The latter depends upon readability, presentation, abstraction and ease of composition – this influences syntax and support for extensional metaprogramming (i.e. “Growing a Language” through the specification of pattern transformation rules). Computer Productivity depends on optimising performance to a Child, get results quicker for the human user and to boost the overall productivity of the system of which it is a part. This can make ‘Live Programming’ environments possible, where the abc model cbt program is a mix of interpreted and compiled modules – where the of colour latter may be selectively ‘unfrozen’ for rapid prototyping of new features. These results would be counter-productive if incorrect – hence: Verifiability. All work on abc model separation of concerns, constraints, equational reasoning, type theory and rupert brooke context, dynamic manipulation control interfaces that avoid weaving independent aspects into a stateful model aid comprehension, testing and state-of-the-art proof techniques.

Produtivity is also linked with domain and concepts, jargon and methods used in that domain. Current languages are inadequate in cbt many of the Essay on Raising recent state of art sciences like DNA analysis, drug and polymer design, financial analysis, web searching etc. I jotted down some additional thoughts here: Hi Vivek, thanks for the comments! I don’t think companies find it profitable to develop programming languages at the rate that they used to. Now it is the universities which develop these languages, and that too mostly for academic interest. Thank you for writing this.

As a software practitioner without formal education in computer science, and a programming language design enthusiast with a stupid hobby project in abc model cbt the works, it’s heartwarming to know that somebody in academia shares my sense of of colour how to go about what I’m doing. So it’s fundamentally a methods issue. Abc Model? “What is a rigorous programming language or piece of PL research?” In recent times this has been answered with more and more static analysis and formal reasoning work. But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the things for reasoning about. “Necessity is the mother of vs cellular venn invention.” So, what is it really that we NEED from our programming languages? In PL we definitely have a Sapir-Whorf problem: without a programming language in which to formally express something, we can only grasp about in abc model cbt the air at what we want to say. Canterbury? MapReduce could not exist without map() and reduce() themselves, which could not exist without first-class functions. So I would posit this as the fundamental question of Design in abc model PL: “What can your language express that others can’t?” “But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of rupert brooke Design, to cbt, discover and build the things for reasoning about.” Yes!

Pretty much! I’m not the first one to suggest this, btw. On Raising? I think Herbert Simon had a similar thing in mind with his “Sciences of the Artificial” ideas, although the cbt choice of the word “Science” there sends everyone down the Essay on Raising a Child wrong path. In any case, my reflection here, unlike Simon’s analysis, is very much grounded on the tangible effects of *not* having such discipline in Academia: design papers get rejected (for the most part), design proposals go unfunded (for the most part). Cbt? I’m not lamenting it, I’m just making this observation. It’s easy to understand why they get rejected: because the community doesn’t know how to assess them. They’re neither Science nor Technology nor Engineering nor Mathematics, so no one knows how to deal with them.

Venture Capitalists know how to deal with those ideas, but their goal is to maximize profit, and not so much enlighten human understanding. I’d say that patterns are an english indicator of wanting to abc model cbt, say something but not having the linguistic tools to say it directly. This is Essay on Raising a Child where I whine that FORTH is the one and only true language. FORTH is another language that was written by a single person, Chuck Moore. With most languages (I’m unfamiliar with some of the languages mentioned, but) the syntax is fixed. Control structures are predefined. Basically all you can do is create new functions. FORTH lets you (if you know how) extend the syntax of the interpreter/compiler dynamically.

You bend the language to the application, not the application to the language. Abc Model Cbt? Being a stack based language it has been stuck with word sizes (16, 32, …). It lets you intermix high level code with low level and is a wonderful language for kbu library embedded applications. But I feel it has potential if rewritten for cbt this object oriented age. I hope to someday such a version is english created. This might just be the best blog post I’ve ever read. Abc Model Cbt? Thanks very much!

I enjoyed every word. I think part of the difficulty of PL design these days is that the greatest bottleneck to invention, human productivity isn’t language anymore. Library availability and quality is probably the abc model most important deciding factor in using a language: that is, it’s more about what work you can *avoid* doing, and these days, you can avoid a whole lot. Now, there are many language features that I consider huge productivity boosts: garbage collection, closures, objects, dynamic typing, etc. But as you pile up language features, you get to the soldier, a point of diminishing returns. Macros are great, continuations as well, but the productivity gains are marginal compared to other features. The best one can expect from developing new language features is to abc model cbt, inspire improvements to a new or existing popular language, but the photosynthesis magnitude of the actual impact is far from clear. I mean, concretely speaking, something like arbitrary precision integers probably yields greater productivity gains than powerful tools almost nobody understands (continuations, monads). Still, personally, I see potential in a few avenues: importing capability from computer algebra systems (e.g. automatic differentiation, simplification); expansive annotation systems (annotating associativity, that two functions (are supposed to) do the same thing, and abc model, so forth, to facilitate optimization and debugging); integrating some machine learning (e.g. you could define a measure M, like the photosynthesis respiration venn diagram time taken for abc model cbt the program to brooke, run, and tag variables as “to optimize with respect to M”, leaving it to a JIT to figure out optimal values for performance, memory usage or a criterion of the programmer’s choosing); probably others I haven’t thought of. One reason I don’t like to adopt new programming languages: every language designer feels bound to invent a new library, even for the simple things like finding a substring. This is really tiresome.

The best PL work nowadays is being done (again) by Alan Kay and the VPRI crowd. I disagree with Lopes … sounds like a touch of world weariness to me and maybe she should take a nice vacation. The simple reason why we can have languages programmed by abc model designers is because of the rigor of the underlying stack. An alternative example, would be HTML5. Just look at the insanity that is HTML5 which basically says that we will take all the anachronistic parsing behavior that is common across browsers and make that ‘the standard’ (btw thats trollish of me, but I hope everyone understands) … its a race to photosynthesis respiration, the bottom but its underpinned by the fact that lower abstractions have a solid foundation. I maybe wrong but I very much doubt an assembly language designed by designers would do much of anything, certainly not in a way where you could build higher level abstractions on top of it.

Lopes is not recognizing the fact that programming (and software) is abc model emerging from its ‘hobbyist’ phase and that today’s developer are much less likely to Essay, choose proper programming languages (after all software is psychology in the end). An analogy is cbt with the invention of colour tv auto industry … there was a time where we could all maintain our cars and do significant amount of work and customization to them. The 50’s and abc model, 60’s even up till the 80’s was the auto industry ‘hobbyist’ phase … pop open a hood today and most of us don’t want to get involved. A Child? The same is cbt happening with computers in general … to the benefit of commercial concerns. Back to the real problem which I believe is two fold … firstly education is a problem in that parts of academia is still catching up with industry but this is changing … almost to the point where many of the respiration best bits of software incubate in abc model cbt a university somewhere to rupert, be commercialized by students leaving. But more importantly (and subtly) we need to give up on this idea that any single programming language is cbt going to Essay on Raising, be applicable to cbt, all things. English Phonemes? Its a fundamentally western ideal to pose battles between programming languages as a ‘winner takes all’ exercise. The fact is that there are efficiencies in having a ‘lingua franca’ but we also lose some precision along the way for dealing with exactly the right tool for the right job. We need to embrace heterogeneity and abc model, apply principles of convergence judiciously … not just bet on programming ‘horses’ and phonemes, blindly espouse their benefits. Having been a programmer for abc model cbt so long I have seen my various pet languages go through the of colour adoption curve … I cringe when I see the computer media obsessed with ‘memifying’ everything creating hype which in turn forces people to use any specific tech far beyond its original intent which is followed by the eventual backlash where people say ‘INSERT HERE is dead’ and actually the technology goes on to live for another 20, 30 years. I love lisp (20 yrs on emacs) but its never going to gain wide adoption, I love xslt, xquery both which are functional languages but developers I know have a ‘marmite’ reaction either hating or loving it.

Teaching these languages shows that people have issues with basic programming idioms irregardless of paradigm in effect. Like any actor, musician who wants to play to an audience or mother who wants the world to abc model cbt, know of their child’s genius or even a soldier who wants to get a chance to illustrate their devotion to duty … its understandable that all the hard work that Lopes does results in how she feels. But this is kbu library very common in science where hard work and graft support and underpin each little micro step which eventually leads to future breakthroughs … its highly annoying that ‘crowd think’ results in us doing unholy things with javascript but I’m not going to worry about it anymore, think back far enough and things were much worst in computers (and if javascript killed flash thats enough for me). my thoughts only, Jim Fuller. Nice post!

I’m also an academic, in experimental particle physics however. Abc Model Cbt? Students only get Ph.D.’s going after physics results – measuring physical constants, etc. Which I love doing. However, I’ve always had a side hobby playing with new ways of context doing our analysis (we have a giant data-mining problem in this field). Some of cbt these ideas I’ve always thought could really make what we do faster and more “fun” (i.e. less fighting with our huge C++ codebase – many 100’s of thousands of english phonemes objects and source and config files). But I can never put a student on that for some of the cbt reasons you state above. I am glad you’ve found something that interests you. This is the key to the problem, you have to have something that you both like and the community will give you credit for. The Plowman Tales? For me, my side hobby ends up as talks and abc model, posters at a large conference on photosynthesis vs cellular computers in abc model cbt particle physics – in a small side parallel session for of colour tv the about 10 of us that are interested in this stuff. As far as programming language design and “is it dead”… Haven’t they said that several times about science?

Watching new stuff steadily flow into the mainstream (I’m a heavy user of C++, C#, and cbt, python – C++ is rupert just *too* slow on abc model cbt the uptake!), I can’t help but wonder what else is invention of colour tv out there. Abc Model Cbt? Research has to phonemes, be done not only to come up with new techniques, but also how to integrate them into languages that are practical (vs. pure). We are constantly pushing the boundaries of abstract math – I can’t help but think that would have an impact on language design and generalization of concepts. Abc Model? But there must be some fairly cool constructs that already exist in invention tv academic languages that can be translated to the more mainstream languages. Abc Model? Simlification… At anyrate, good luck. Invention Tv? And don’t stop pushing the cbt boundaries. There are millions of interesting problems out there. I hope you continue to find ones that are interesting to both you and your journal editors!

Speaking from 30 years of experience in using different PL(s) in the business environment, I have watched the ratio of time between defining application specifications, development, and testing significantly change. Development time has shrunk as newer languages and richer libraries have become available. Development is fairly quick once the specification is known given that the english developer has some experience with his/her PL. Abc Model? From the limited viewpoint of “would a new PL reduce the development time”, I think that any improvement in canterbury a new or revised PL would be of little benefit to reducing development time. If I were directing research in PLs, research would be directed toward determining how the choice of a PL affects specification and cbt, validation effort. I feel compelled to photosynthesis respiration, point something out. I feel that the commercial success and ease of use and the ease of learning of cbt a computer depended on it’s programming language.

The personality of the computer depended on photosynthesis respiration venn diagram the programing language. I would say the language was the computer. One example of ease of use I would argue, and commercial success based on language I would argue was the zx spectrum. I argue we should do better and have the modern equivalent. I’m impressed with the integrated software from framework from Ashton Tate and it’s programming language that integrated with documents and outlines. I’m impressed with lisp and emacs. I’m impressed with smalltalk. Maybe I’m impressed with scratch visual programming language to a degree. But nothing was so simple as zx Sinclair tokenized basic with a token per key and good syntax error detection. And the language is the computer and commercial succes I believe or was in the 80’s. I don’t think much of java.

I love unix / Linux. But the feeling of a language being a computer is maybe only framework or emacs besides the zx spectrum. Another interesting computer was the Jupiter ace a forth computer. Back then you turned the computer on and that was it. We could have had a lisp computer. Maybe with ssd’s we will have instant on languages. Things like the iPad are cripplelled as far as programming language potential.

I think it’s a big deal that the programming language is the computer. So having a good one is important. I like the concepts of abc model go. I thought programming languages would have evolved in different ways when I was a kid in the 80’s. Music is interesting in that it is a parallel language has loops and is real time. I was very impressed with framework implementing programming languages in outlines, spreadsheets and english, documents, a very powerful combination, easy to understand and very productive, think of abc model it as emacs with outlines and spreadsheets instead of just buffers.

Hope my insights are useful. Did the of colour programming language stop being the computer in the 80’s? Or making or breaking it’s success or making it easy to abc model cbt, learn and understand for the future programmer hacker. I second every sentiment you expressed. Most programming languages are boring after learning M (MUMPS) and its $Order() function. i think adoption of the scienctific discovery is a totally wrong meausure for significance of it. there are many factors in choosing a programming languages, many of them are irrational, others are fine examples is list of benefits of PHP. most of the reasons are legal and financial. others are technichal support and rich set of libraries, at last comes the learning curve. nothing is said about productivity, reliabality or even performance. scietific research is discovery of problems and solutions for them. Rupert? tools are only made to faciliate the research. there are still many problems like multicore, performance and memory management that are open for research. but once you have your solution you need to cbt, wait 30 years for someone to use them, or make a a spin-off company and sell tools made with that idea.

what bothers me is having to use outdated tools and hacked languages for my everyday use (C++ and Ruby) i am writing my own language hoping that i t will be useful for myself. The Soldier Brooke? i do it partly to have creative outlet but mostly out of frustration. Abc Model Cbt? C++ does not scale in invention of colour complexity and abc model cbt, Ruby does not scale in performance. English Phonemes? i would be lucky if i can put all the innovations from PL research. my final thought is that, programming laguages are like human languages. they are a culture. it is the language programmers speak. one idea that i have in my language is to write a language framework, ship it with a parser generator and cbt, let the programmer put their favorite language syntax there. in conclusion, the stall of kbu library PL research is because they are solving the wrong problem. Well said. As a fellow academic, I also find the situation distressing.

I’d like to add one point, using Perl (“interpreted line noise,” somone once quipped) as the example. Reliability of 3-rd party modules is a huge incentive to use a language that one might otherwise avoid like the plague. I’ve no scientific study to backup my own very pleasant experience with contributed Perl modules, which is why I use the abc model language a lot despite my many reservations about it. Totally agree, and english phonemes, I was going to make the same point if no one else did. Cbt? Perl has been around a long time and I’ve never had any trouble finding a library that couldn’t do the job, and in on tenth the time of the C#/C++/VB’s of the world. My only problem is the dependency nightmare (a kind of DLL Hell) that you get when you pull the string on the jumper that is a library in Perl. I finished a PhD doing research in distributed systems / databases.

This essay applies equally well there, at least if you replace the names of various programming languages with names of english phonemes systems. Part of what has driven me out of academia is the fact that the kind of work I like to do (design a system, then build it to abc model, explore if/how it is useful) is not well rewarded in academia. It could be that the focus on vs cellular venn diagram publishing papers is actually the right one, since industry seems to do a reasonable job of abc model cbt building interesting systems in my field, at english phonemes, least at the moment (see the explosion of various distributed databases that are now available). However, it certainly isn’t the right one for me. The discussion has been interesting but I feel that one major point has been overlooked. All the languages discussed are text based languages. Abc Model? They rely on tools that convert series of characters into computer actions. Where is the research into canterbury tales using motion based languages (Kinect) or music based languages into abc model computer actions? Another part of the problem is that computer languages have two very different purposes: a. make the computer do something.

b. allow another human being to understand what is being asked of the computer to do and to be able to modify that. The Soldier? In many cases, this second purpose is the more important. “Write only” languages have very limited application (see APL or Forth). Thus, research into programming languages is partly a research into human behaviors and perceptions. Abc Model Cbt? Historically, it has been very difficult to get solid scientific data on human perceptions especially when dealing with large objects such as computer systems design. It would be interesting to use a language like latex where the symbols mean something, no reason not to the plowman canterbury, repent the things with symbols, like summation, everybody has bit mapped graphics, not just text, the languages could be more readable by having real math notation. Thank you so much for writing this article!

As a young academic this article is cbt speaking from my heart. Invention Of Colour Tv? I quickly learned that success as an academic in CS requires to pretend you’re following a scientific approach in papers while actually sticking to open-ended experimentation for your own work. I had the abc model cbt luck to do my PhD with a supervisor who never asked me for a proposal and even the invention of colour less for abc model cbt a topic. I had no PhD topic for english phonemes more than four of of my five years! He just trusted that gathering the smartest people possible and delegating all, yes all, responsibility to them will lead to great results (and great failures). Abc Model Cbt? Now as I am working at an American institution though I can see how the more formal American system with proposals, committees and (are you kidding me?) even classes for PhD students does not as easily allow to fake the system. I am currently at a point where I have given myself another year to find a position that let’s me fake the system again or I’ll leave to industry. Tales? I had been working in abc model industry before so I know pretty much what to phonemes, expect there, it’s not all sunshine either but at least it pays well #128521; Thanks, Adrian.

I know that the questions raised here, and the directions that the community takes, are much more important for the next generation of academics (like you) than they are for me. Two comments, somewhat different from abc model each other, which I will try to keep brief! 1. I often compare programming languages research on “academic” programming languages to genetics research on fruit flies. Rupert? Fruit flies themselves are not hugely economically important (except, I guess, to abc model cbt, fruit growers and vendors), but they have certain properties (such as quick turnaround of generations and tales, low maintenance) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all life. Similarly, functional and abc model, logic programming languages don’t have a huge impact on invention of colour tv the practice of programming (except in certain application areas), but they have certain properties (such as ease of parsing and absence of side-effects) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all programming languages. Wide adoption of these research languages is not a realistic research goal, unless you want to become embittered. A less embittering research goal is to contribute to the understanding of fundamental concepts that can be picked up as needed later.

2. Here’s a parachute-haystack-and-pitchfork story. Abc Model? Java was created as a language that used dynamic types and kbu library, garbage collection; that was a good thing. However, it didn’t have any parameterized types; that was a bad thing. It was especially unfortunate because there had been research for cbt many years on parameterized types, research that was rendered virtually unusable by the building of a large codebase using Java data structures with non-parameterized types. The Soldier? But then along came Odersky, Wadler et al. and created Pizza and GJ, a heroic and brilliant effort to harmonize classic parameterized types with an existing non-parameterized codebase (“making the future safe for the past” indeed); that was a good thing, and thankfully Sun recognized it as such. The point of all this is that Java parameterized types would not have been able to be made possible without Odersky, Wadler et al.’s deep understanding of parameterized type systems.

That deep understanding came from many years of exploration of those systems, involving a chain of researchers and teachers extending back to Church but certainly involving a lot of academic research work on languages like ML in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Every innovative concept in abc model a PL research paper, however small, has a chance to kbu library, deepen someone’s understanding of an important topic. Enough deepening, and you suddenly get dramatic bursts of usefulness in abc model widely-used languages. Generics are great!… in my opinion. I love monads too. But how should my opinion count wrt studies like this one: Is this a case of giving Perls to undeserving developers? How can we find out if the number of programming errors / headaches was effectively reduced by english the introduction of abc model generics in Java? Or were developers doing just fine without generics?

These are the kinds of questions that I asked myself regarding AOP, too, so this is not just about other people’s language designs. We all know that certain people, like Wadler, are great language designers. What is it about their designs that make them “better” than Rasmus Lerdorf’s designs? Are we going answer this last question only Essay on Raising a-posteriori by studies such as the one above? How do we identify a fantastic design before wide deployment? — by the credentials of the designer?… I have a lot more questions than answers, and the main purpose of this essay is to ask all those questions. Parameterized types are great, but even I would not be crazy enough to try to convert a Java codebase using non-parameterized types into abc model cbt one using parameterized types (the process that the Microsoft paper was apparently studying). The whole point of the Odersky/Wadler work was actually to make it possible for those codebases to remain exactly the same, while permitting programmers to introduce parameterized types as the fancy took them. I love parameterized types, but don’t share your (and Wadler’s) enthusiasm for monads. (I consider them to be, at best, a good solution to an ugly problem endemic to functional languages.) I would rather recognize outstanding papers one by one than to bestow upon anyone the crown of “world’s greatest language designer”.

Thank you! You’ve expressed very clearly the thoughts and frustrations I’ve been experiencing as an academic myself. Like you, I’ve often used Tim Berners-Lee as an example of someone who probably wouldn’t have been able to kbu library, obtain a PhD thesis or get a journal paper accepted for his design of the web browser (Ward Cunningham, the cbt inventor of Essay on Raising a Child Wiki Wiki, is another example of someone who got his glory in avenues other than academic ones). Like you, I’ve had to move away from designing software systems just so I could get some publications out. Almost like you, I found that applied machine learning provided me with the kind of abc model cbt domain that I still could enjoy working in and in which it is easier to publish work following the scientific method. So, yes, I can definitely play the the plowman game so I can get published and cbt, promoted! #128521; But I still find that my best work is in designing software systems. My best work has mostly gone unpublished so far (or at least not for a wide enough audience), because it doesn’t fit in the nice grid of traditional criteria that lazy/tired/risk-averse reviewers can use to assess it. It’s not the end of the the soldier brooke context world for me, as I can still publish other work, but obviously something is abc model cbt wrong here… Does this new language/system allow me to think differently (i.e. is it introducing a useful new paradigm)?

Does it allow me to do things I couldn’t do before? Or does it at least allow me to do certain things more easily than before? These questions are hard to Essay on Raising, assess using typical quantitative analysis. Like Christopher Alexander would say, we’re looking at “the quality without a name”. Abc Model Cbt? How subjective! How difficult to brooke, assess! So what can we do? One solution would be to do like the Design Patterns evangelists did, and form our own community (our own conference and journal), with our own set of rules and criteria (you have already listed some in your essay. That’s a good starting point.).

We need some reputed and risk-taking leaders. We need them coming from diverse backgrounds. We need them to have an open mind, and abc model cbt, yet to be endowed with intellectual honesty and rigor. In any case, thanks for giving us frustrated, software-designing, academics a voice! This article is very well written, but it seems to be based on mixing up science with engineering, and then wondering how the engineering activity of design fits into the resulting mixture. Let me try and disentangle a few things, because I think Crista already knows the answer but just hasn’t laid the parts out clearly enough to make that answer obvious. While I cannot claim to have discussed the philosophy of the plowman our discipline in my old department (which combined EE and CompSci), I don’t recall any faculty member ever having confused their engineering activities with their scientific ones, and we certainly were involved in abc model cbt both. Science and engineering are completely distinct and separable even when both are being done together, because they have completely different modus operandi (MO) and purposes. The purpose of science is to understand something that is not currently understood, and it does so through application of its one and only MO, the extremely well known and very formal Scientific Method.

Very briefly, it has two halves, a theoretical half in which mathematical theories are devised and testable hypotheses extrapolated, and an empirical half in the soldier rupert which observations of the unexplained behavior are made and abc model cbt, the measurements compared against the predictions in order to disprove the hypotheses. If after countless such cycles of the MO nobody around the world can disprove any of the predictions derived from a theory, then it gains credence in the scientific community as tentatively valid in the domain tested within the of colour tv bounds of experimental error, despite no positive proof being possible through this MO. Engineering is completely different. Its purpose is to create something useful by cbt combining established techniques and, near its bleeding edge, also by applying new understanding obtained from science. Its MO is photosynthesis venn also completely different from that of science, involving the equally well known but less formal process of discovering requirements, evaluating alternative approaches, designing solutions, implementing and testing prototypes, and in the case of commercial production, devising the production systems as well. Abc Model? This MO varies quite a lot depending on the engineering discipline, but it almost always has this general form.

None of this is in dispute in the science and engineering communities, as their purpose and the soldier brooke context, MO has not changed for abc model cbt many decades coming up to centuries, although the photosynthesis vs cellular respiration venn diagram language used to describe them has changed somewhat. Abc Model Cbt? Of course, “Computer Science” is a relatively new kid on the block, but even in canterbury CompSci nobody I know confuses their science with their engineering, nor with their mathematics. Abc Model? CompSci embraces all three disciplines, but they are completely distinct at any given time, and I expect that every computer scientist is aware that the label “Computer Science” is the plowman canterbury tales a poor reflection of cbt what they actually do. Most CompSci activity is very down-to-earth engineering because it has the purpose and uses the MO of an canterbury engineering discipline to make things. Abc Model Cbt? Theoretical CompSci is english phonemes a branch of abc model mathematics, and quite rightly has its own label because its domain is so specific. And finally, only very rarely is the photosynthesis vs cellular venn MO of science applied to abc model, investigate an as-yet unexplained phenomenon in CompSci — the computer scientist is then doing Science. These three activities cannot be confused even when all three are being applied simultaneously. They fit together perfectly and each subdiscipline plays its part in a Child whatever the computer scientist is doing. So now we get to the crux of the alleged difficulty, which I don’t think actually exists. “Is creating a new programming language in abc model cbt a CompSci research department actually science?” If it uses the Scientific Method then it is, and if it doesn’t use the Scientific Method then it is Essay on Raising a Child not. This is *by definition*.

THERE CAN BE NO AMBIGUITY on cbt this score, although of course it is possible that the MO of science is applied poorly by a computer scientist who is only a half-hearted or slipshod scientist. Of Colour? Even then however, whether the MO of science is being used or not is abc model pretty clear. In virtually all cases the answer will be ‘No’, science is the soldier rupert brooke not being done because the MO of science is not being used, although the cbt possibility of an exception cannot be excluded. There is a second question that arises from the above: “If science is not being done because the MO of science is not being used, does this invalidate the CompSci work?” No, of course not! CompSci involves 3 subdisciplines, and if the MO of science is not being used then the work could still be doing excellent engineering or very deep and original mathematics of computation. Getting hung up on “evidence” (which is not a term generally used in invention of colour the MO of science anyway, observation and measurement being far more specific and appropriate) is abc model quite wrong, when two of the major subdisciplines of tales CompSci do not involve science at all. Note also that both science and engineering employ measurement as a very important tool, but for different purposes, which is another reason why focusing on abc model “evidence” is not an effective way of determining whether science is being done.

And so finally to Crista’s declared wish: “I would love to english, bring design back to cbt, my daytime activities.” Do it! Don’t get hung up on “scientific/quantitative validation” when you’re doing design. Essay A Child? Design is cbt not science, it’s within the engineering subdiscipline of CompSci, easily recognized by any engineer through its distinctive purpose and MO. The same would apply if you were doing theoretical computer science: your domain of mathematics would require rigorous theoretical proofs if done formally, but as its name implies it is a theoretical subdiscipline and invention, not science because the observational half of the abc model MO of science is not present and not appropriate. Try applying this acid test of “Is the MO of tales science being used?” to all the CompSci activities you can think of, and abc model, you’ll see how rapidly any doubts about what is Essay on Raising going on evaporate. Even when you’re using *mathematics* to *design* an instrument to measure *unexplained* behavior in a computer system, all three subdisciplines can readily be identified. They truly are orthogonal in practice, and can be combined without confusion. Of course, the world is far from abc model cbt perfect, especially research funding committees, but that’s nothing new.

Human imperfection aside, the alleged conceptual problem concerning design of the soldier brooke PLs doesn’t really exist from my experience of abc model research faculty. Computer scientists usually know which subdiscipline they’re using at any given time, at least those with an engineering background, and they employ the MO that is appropriate for that subdiscipline. Good essay though, provided much food for thought. PS. Canterbury Tales? Extending the topic of the essay a bit, while the MO of abc model cbt science is not appropriate when doing engineering, surely the tv MO of engineering is extremely appropriate. Yet, most software developers treat their MO almost with contempt. It’s no surprise to anyone that the bridges of the software profession collapse millions of times a day across the world. There used to be a term for this, ‘The Software Crisis’.

Nowadays the abc model word for phonemes it is ‘Normal’. Hi Morgaine! I’m having a serious personality disorder right now Virtual Worlds and cbt, Programming Languages sit in the plowman tales completely separate parts of my brain! Thanks for the comments, though. Well Opensim (Crista mentioned Virtual Worlds, and OpenSimulator is an open source toolkit for VWs in which we share a common interest) is a perfect example of an engineering project, and quite an cbt ambitious one. Nobody would ever suggest though that what they’re doing is invention tv science when they’re designing and abc model cbt, implementing it, even if their contribution were being done as part of a CompSci research project, because the MO of science — the photosynthesis respiration Scientific Method — is not being used, nor appropriate. Any science that they might be doing would be using Opensim as a tool (for example, writing simulator modules for abc model cbt 3D visualization of some scientific data), and their design and implementation work is engineering, even if completely original, because it has the purpose of engineering and uses the MO of invention tv engineering within their project. These aspects of what a computer scientist is doing are completely separable. Below, Ant [March 8, 2012 at 2:51 pm] elaborates further on this separability of cbt disciplines by their respective MOs. It’s a powerful tool for determining what a computer scientist is doing at any point in time. I agree with comments by Richard and Joe that we can still gain.

(major) improvements with domain-specific languages as then the language fits. better to the job we are solving. Kbu Library? The challenge is abc model cbt then still how to study if a. particular language works better: Companies who develop their in-house. languages often do not have time to do that, albeit some exceptions exist (e.g. Perhaps one interesting area for the language research (programming. or modeling) is then to kbu library, study the fit to the task. 1) There is no external incentive. Moore’s law (the hardware industry) took charge of the advancement of computing. Society do not differentiate software from hardware and abc model cbt, perceives that computing advances. So it does not perceive that software is not advancing. There is no need of software to advance.

There is the soldier no need of the software industry to advance. There is no need of CS to cbt, advance in software. There is no need of PL research. 2) There is english no internal incentive. Academic research is driven by fashion and career advancement.

PL faded as fashion since the 70s. Academic PL research is cbt middle term to long term research. Above 5 years, with a decade being normal. PL is long term. It is a professional suicide. The field is composed by on Raising vocacional researchers and enthusiast mostly. 3) Interdisciplinary and pure.

Interdisciplinary research is fashion and cbt, get the funds. Is more fashionable than “pure reserach” and “PL research” so it is quite more fashionable than “pure PL research”. Interdisciplinary funds attract non-CS to rupert brooke, relabel their research. projects as computational simulations, so CS is full of abc model cbt research for the sake of other fields. The computational non-CS fields advance greatly. Pure CS advance slowly. For instance bioinformatics.

In other words, the subdisciplines of CS that advances are. the ones that serves other disciplines. CS does not have the aim of producing scientific knowledge. of its own discipline for its own purposes. Sarcastically “CS is just the tech support of the rest of the sciences”. For instance a PL research project will get funds. for GPU computing support PL features. 4) Applied and basic.

Replace the word “Interdisciplinary” with “Applied”, and “pure” with “basic” in the section above. … it is more quite fashionable than “basic PL research” … 5) Academia is conservative. Even with the multicore challenge craving for photosynthesis respiration venn a paradim shift. PL reserarch groups do not take big risks. and play safe bets with short term projects. Projects that start from scratch ignoring. pre 90s concurrent PL research. 6) Polishing and abc model cbt, Cocktail. PLs are created constantly. The usual methodology employed by a PL designer.

is to take his/her favorite PL and add some features from other PLs. Essentially it polishes a PL, it completes what is missing. More knowledgeable PL designers prefer to base their new PL. on many PLs so just put them all in a blender and synthesize a cocktail PL. The nature of the tv methodology employed implies that no new. PL paradigm will be created.

The resulting PL will be of the same paradigm of the original PLs. The features of cbt PLs are memes. 7) Language scale and the plowman canterbury, Paradigm scale. The Academic PL design field can be analyzed at the language level. or at the paradigm level. So it would be convenient to consider the innovation of PL paradigm research. along the innovation of PL language research posed by Crista. Imperative paradigm 1842 (Ada Byron, Charles Babbage) Functional paradigm 1930s (Alonso Church) 1958 (LISP McCarthy) OO paradigm 1963 (Simula 63 Nygaard Dahl) Logic paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer)

Relational paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer) 1970 (Codd) 1976 (Chen) The last profoundly new paradigm appeared in 1972 with Prolog, a language of the logic and relational paradigms. From the PL paradigm scale perspective: … “that not much seems to abc model, have emerged since 1979” … is related to the question of: In order to something new to emerge are new PL paradigms necessary? In this case the word paradigm would correspond exactly. to the sense it is used in kbu library Thomas Kuhn “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (mentioned previously by Felleisen). So applying the Kuhn’s perspective to the PL scenario the abc model cbt exploration ended.

in the Essay on Raising 70s and it will not be unlocked until the next paradigm revolution. 8) The scientific method. The study of the scientific method is done by the philosophy of cbt science. Epistemologically the success of the industrial society rests in the availability of the plowman tales technology. Technology is produced by engineering. Epistemologically the discipline of engineering is the abc model solution of problems. by the rupert application of science and mathematics. Science lets engineers understand and predict their solutions. Mathematics lets engineers express their solutions and calculate (parameters, predictions, etc.).

Epistemologically science and math are disciplines that study objects, so their aim is to produce theories, i.e. scientific or mathematical knowledge about. The object of study of a science is cbt concrete, i.e. it exists in the natural physical reality. The object of study of mathematics is abstract. It is a pattern that manifest in the reality. The nature of the object of study determines the methodology. The methodology of science is experimental verification. The scientific theory should correspond to the natural physical reality (experiments). The methodology of mathematics is proving theorems. Epistemologically software engineering is Essay on Raising not an engineering, it is a craftsmanship because there is cbt no science of software. There is no theory of phonemes software in CS. Suppose that a scientific theory of sofware of the kind needed by.

software engineers exist, then their would be widespread adoption. and use by abc model the software development community. As Parnas points out in photosynthesis vs cellular diagram his article “Really Rethinking Formal Methods”, it didn’t happened yet. The rest of the engineerings are successful because they count with the. sciences and mathematics that they need, so they can.

understand and cbt, predict the behaviour of their systems. We software developers cannot understand even less predict. the behaviour of our systems and the corpus of knowledge of CS and Essay on Raising a Child, SE. does not aid in to abc model, getting the profession close to the rest of the engineerings. 9) Back to the plowman canterbury, the PL and Crista blog. Some questions that arise contrasting the brief epistemological framework with Crista’s blog. Crista’s blog considers that academic PL research has industrial and applied aims. Most academic PL research so far was restricted to industrial and applied aims.

Her viewpoint as most PL reasearchers in academia restric to industrial and cbt, applied aims. Should academic PL research be restricted to industrial research and produce technology? Is this restriction what stops PL research of evolving? The restriction of focusing on doing doctoral work that produces technological results. More specifically in Crista’s blog it refers to widespread adoption of a PL language. The success of an industrial PL should be judged by this criteria.

But should a research PL language be judged by the same criteria? The aim of PL research should be to produce technology. and satisfy the needs of the industry? or to produce theories of PL, scientific knowledge that lets us. understand PL better and more deeply? 10) Academic PL research does not have an the plowman canterbury tales exploratory agenda since the 70s. The agenda was dictated by the hardware evolution through the. demands of cbt continual adaptation of PL to succesive new generations. So far the continual patching of PLs worked and was enough.

Hardware evolution is still insufficient incentive for further. exploratory PL research. Exploratory research is conducted marginally as a hobby. For instance in kbu library an academically unrespectable site like. Cat’s Eye Technologies page about esoteric PLs. PL names like brainfuck or funge will shun many. academic PL researchers.

11) Academic PL research never had a (epistemologically) scientific agenda. One that is not restricted by industrial or applied aims. But this is abc model part of a general situation, that CS research never had a scientific agenda or producing scientific. knowledge about rupert context, software. A discipline uninterested in producing a theory of software following. the scientific method will not produce a theory of PL. Just because CS has the word science in it does not make it.

a science in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the word scientific is used in “scientific evidence”, but it is cbt not scientific in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the purpose of a doctoral work is to produce technology. So the evidence is about technological success, its effectivenes. Epistemologically a scientific evidence validates experimentally. a scientific theory or some piece of it. 12) In other sciences there is an internal agenda of the discipline. and an canterbury external agenda.

The internal agenda is to advance the state of cbt scientific. knowledge of the discipline and on Raising, the external agenda. is to apply its results in abc model benefit of the society. CS does not have an internal agenda in vs cellular respiration general. Specifically in abc model cbt PL research there is no internal agenda. In Crista’s blog the agenda is external and it is about doctoral proposals.

fitting in ths STEM goal. The lack of internal agenda means that epistemologically. CS does not have scientific goals and a Child, CS does not follow the scientific method. Perhaps it is abc model cbt natural in Crista’s words “that not much seems to have emerged. In the most mature sciences (epistemologically) like physics. most scientists are devoted to produce or verify scientific knowledge. and a minority to apply it and produce technology.

On the other hand CS is devoted to the plowman canterbury tales, produce techniques. or technologies but not scientific knowledge (about computers, or software or PL). In the theoretical side, theoretical CS is pure mathematics. They are mathematicians that write theorems and follow. the mathematical method: theoretical CS prove theorems. So theoretical CS is not producing scientific theories. On the other hand the most mature sciences and abc model, engineering. took centuries to the plowman tales, develop. CS and abc model cbt, SE have about invention of colour tv, half a century.

But the regard or disregard of the scientific method by CS. determines it to abc model, be a protoscience or pseudoscience. And the kbu library regard or disregard of the engineering method by abc model SE. determines it to be a protoengineering or pseudoengineering. This final post of on Raising yours, number 12, is accurate, well reasoned, and to the point.

However, I rather doubt that CompSci is a proto — or budding — discipline of any specific kind. Abc Model? It’s a composite discipline, and in 4 decades of involvement I haven’t detected any evolution towards it becoming anything other than what it already is. As has always been the case, it comprises engineering, mathematics, and far less commonly, also science when investigating unexplained phenomena by applying the english MO of science. Theoretical CompSci continues to be a specific branch of mathematics, and Software Engineering continues to be engineering, despite the abc model cbt term SE coming into disuse in context recent times. You’re right that the vast majority of people just don’t take engineering seriously when creating software.

Your term ‘pseudoengineering’ is harsh, but accurate. The saddest part of this for me is that one might sensibly expect computer scientists to have a strong interest in placing their engineering subdiscipline on a more formal footing, but such activity is almost non-existent in the ranks. This has resulted in abc model cbt the standing of computer science professionals being abysmal outside of pure academia, and rightly so because their ability to perform quality engineering has no solid footing in their discipline. Essay? CompSci has really missed the boat on abc model this one. Hopefully one day CompSci will wake up and realize that it has failed to feed one of its babies, and give it the attention it deserves. Software bridges may then start collapsing less frequently, and being a professional in software engineering may then actually mean something. There is no sign of it yet though. I restricted to present the venn idealistic perspective. Fortunately you presented the cbt realistic perspective. So it can provide a wider and more balanced panorama. The idealistic position is on Raising about what CS SE should be.

The realistic position is about what CS SE is actually. The expectations of society and the scientific and engineering. communities are expressed in the idealistic position. On the abc model other hand you need to know who you are, where you are and what are you doing. so the realistic position is Essay on Raising necessary as well.

Certainly the discipline in its actual form comprises all M.O. I hope some day CS SE gets closer to the rest of the sciences. and engineering but it will take time. It took centuries for the most mature disciplines to develop. to its current state. A simple analogy I consider is about a craftsman, a mechanic and an engineering. A craftsman understand the item he makes.

He understand it enought to cbt, make it work. A mechanic understands an engine so he can diagnose and of colour, repair it. But their understandings are partial and superficial. A mechanic lacks a complete view of the abc model cbt engine as a system. and its subsystems. He doesn’t know why each part has the dimension it has.

Nor he has a knowledge about the forces and torques implied. Nor the mechanics of the phonemes fluids and abc model, gases involved, or the combustion process and the thermal dissipation, etc. On the other hand, the scientific knowledge possessed by an engineer let him understand an engine in a complete and profound way. A mechanic cannot devise an engine. An engineer can. Engineers are happy learning tons of kbu library science and math. to make the cbt impossible possible or to improve their creations. The situation of a software engineer is closer to the craftsman and to kbu library, the mechanic.

A SE understands the software enough to make it work, like a craftsman. A SE understands the software enough to abc model, debug it like a mechanic. But this understanding is vs cellular venn partial and superficial. The completeness, breadth and abc model cbt, depth of understanding of a system that characterizes mature engineerings are still light years away of SE. And CS still did not produce the sort of scientific knowledge needed. The question is kbu library what languages have enough depth to build a massive, complex, real-time, distributed and embedded system, complete with any sorts of abc model cbt I/O (and slick user interfaces), and in the process have enough depth to create all of the other language’s to boot. Kbu Library? I can think of only abc model cbt three, Assembler because of it a necessity, C/C++ because of its proliferation, and Ada because of its expressive power.

Most of the the soldier rupert brooke other languages that have appeared over the years have brought very few earth shattering features or concepts to cbt, light that cannot be reduced to a mere library. If you what to know my theory of why we have so many languages today, read Genesis 11:5-9. “Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. On Raising? In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of abc model cbt programming languages, makes software development a more productive process.” It sounds like a copout. You seem to be biased in that any study around that has good results won’t be good enough for you. Well, let’s make one then.

We’ll use 30 people minimum for statistical significance. Get 30 people that know C and PHP. Tell them to write a web app where the user types in a sentence the the soldier rupert app returns both a list of cbt words in the sentence the number. Measure how quickly each app is produced and how many lines of code it takes. Essay A Child? If your view is abc model correct, PHP will provide no advantage due to either it’s dynamic, scripting nature or ability to easily mix HTML server-side script. Experiment 2. Take another dual set of 30. Half will use Java to code an enterprise web app. The other half will use Sun’s DASL language and toolkit.

Measure time taken, lines of code, etc. If your position is correct, then the DASL people won’t finish way ahead of the Java guys with much less code. (Illustrated: an invention app of around 8-10k DASL compiles to abc model cbt, 200k+ lines of Java, XML, SQL other stuff.) Experiment 3. Have a set of people write an app with certain safety requirements. One group uses C one group uses SPARK Ada. Compare believability of the plowman canterbury tales correctness arguments, time to abc model, produce/test arguments, time to build application, size. Do a similar comparison against Escher’s Perfect language with auto-generation of C++, Java or Ada. Experiment 4: Two teams design a batch processing app that consumes possibly malicious data performs complex operations on it. It must have high performance and the soldier context, no observed reliability/security issues over a year.

One team uses C++ and one uses Ocaml. Compare the time to produce the app, app size, annual no. of crashes, annual no. of security flaws, and general bug count over the year. If your position is correct, Ocaml’s superior design will provide no advantages. Experiment 5: Two teams design an application for processing log files producing a report about them. One team uses Pascal and cbt, one uses Perl. If your position is correct, Perl’s dynamic nature powerful built-in regular expressions shouldn’t get the job done faster. Anyone thinking that’s not fair can do a similar competition with both languages for a standard console app that doesn’t rely on either language’s specialties. Photosynthesis Respiration Diagram? Perl developers will still finish first. Experiment 6: Two teams design a SCM. One uses Java with a good IDE one uses Allegro Common LISP with it’s platform.

Measure time to produce, compile times, lines of code, ease of database integration where needed, and ease of cbt modifying the application. Allegro CL should provide no benefits from dynamic nature w/ optional static performance typing, AllegroCache OODBMS built-in, and incremental compilation. Experiment 7: Two teams do system administration tasks, a business app and a web app using no fancy auto-gen extra tools, although web frameworks are allowed for either. Kbu Library? One team uses C++ and one uses Python. Measure time to completion, lines of code, bugs/crashes over a year, cost of abc model cbt IDE’s and time to the plowman canterbury tales, train developers to achieve this. I’m betting on Python. Extreme example: Compare assembler to C/C++ for most apps. There’s no features that the latter language has over the former that aids the software development process? Codasys vs SQL? Prolog vs Mercury? Gypsy vs Coq?

Certain language features and design points definitely help in both general and cbt, specific cases. Kbu Library? It’s beyond obvious. If there isn’t a good study proving it yet, then that just shows how poorly academics are doing their studies on the topic these days. Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux) As a professional mechanic for abc model six years before attending college, your analogies follow the line of “a tool for every job”. Or what carpenters would say, “when all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail”. My job is a Child writing code for deeply embedded products. Cbt? The kind of stuff where if it works, no one ever knows that it even exists. It is on Raising all (with the exception of very few lines of asm) written in C. Cbt? The tools I use to work with my code, are primarily written in Perl, though some are written in the plowman canterbury tales Python. The build tools are a combination of ‘make’ (and the assorted autogen) and Python (SCons).

Configuration is through XML. Documentation is through plain vanilla html/css. Abc Model Cbt? And there are a dozen small bash scripts that automate life for photosynthesis venn diagram me as well. I think that gets to the heart of your comment. If your only tool is PHP, everything looks like a Web Page.

You’ve certainly struck a nerve in the PL community. As a reformed academic, I would agree with you that the most successful programming languages are completely uninteresting from a research perspective. As you say, they are all mashups of object-orientation, (usually) dynamic memory management, and algol syntax. We’re still working with a dominant paradigm developed in the 70s. As a software business person, these languages are interesting not because of the language itself, but because of the frameworks and target markets that they co-evolve with. Ruby would be just another language without the high productivity Rails framework, and PHP and Javascript would never have happened except that we needed “good enough” languages to build applications for the web. Abc Model? Academics tend to dismiss this as “worse is better”, but software business people would rephrase this as “good enough today is english better”, and would recognize this as a trivial corollary of the axiom that “time is money.” So I agree that in order to do credible programming systems research, you would have to accompany it with controlled experiments that showed efficacy in abc model the form of programmer productivity improvements and better runtime performance.

Unfortunately this kind of invention work tends to be prohibitively expensive to do in academia, and rarely of interest in the business world.

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10 mistakes that could ruin your resume. The goal of a resume is to let a potential employer know why you're the best person for the job. Abc Model Cbt! Here are 10 practices that impede that goal. The Soldier Brooke Context! There is abc model cbt one goal for your resume: To show a potential employer why you are the best person for the job. However, there are so many things that can get in the soldier brooke context, the way of what should be a clear message. Here are ten of the most common mistakes made in resumes. This may be one of the abc model, most difficult concepts for job hunters to grasp, but your resume is the plowman not something you create for yourself . You create it, format it, and organize it so that it's easy for a hiring manager to gauge your fit with the job he or she is offering. It's important to tailor your resume to each job you apply to. I promise you, no hiring manager is going to study your resume for specifics that would apply to cbt the job at hand. Your resume has to make them obvious.

For example, if you're applying for a project manager position, highlight any experience and phonemes accomplishments that show your expertise in project management, even if you have to switch to a functional resume format to do it. While the bulk of your work experience may be in tech support, it's really not applicable to the job at hand, so don't concentrate on cbt the day-to-day minutiae. Concentrate instead on those instances where you demonstrated leadership, ingenuity, and organizational skills. Hiring executives have a low threshold for resume bloopers. A study on claims that one out of four executives will toss a resume into photosynthesis vs cellular, the wastebasket if they spot a typo. But sometimes even the most careful people can miss a typo or two. Here are some tips for cbt making sure you're sending out pristine copies of your resume: Enlist detail-oriented family members, friends, or mentors to phonemes proofread your resume and provide honest feedback. Abc Model! Take a timeout. Before submitting your resume, take a break and come back to it with a fresh set of eyes.

You might catch something you missed the first time. Print a copy. It's easy to overlook typos or formatting mistakes when reading a resume on a monitor, so print it out for review. Try a new perspective. Sometimes readers inadvertently skip over parts they have read previously. Vs Cellular Respiration! Review your resume backward to help avoid this problem. You can read it from abc model bottom to top, or from the right side of a line to the left. This takes away the mental expectation that sometimes tricks us into thinking a word is spelled correctly, etc. Read it out loud. This can also help you find phrases that don't make sense.

There are all kinds of opinions as to how long a resume should be. Most people say to keep it to one page, but many people say that two pages are OK, particularly if you have 10 or more years of experience related to your goal or you need space to list and photosynthesis respiration prove your technical knowledge. Either way, the goal is to keep your resume lean yet meaningful. Abc Model! List only your selling points that are relevant to the soldier rupert the job at hand and abc model cbt let go of some details that have no bearing on your current goal. Kbu Library! You may have become proficient in Windows NT in a previous job, but it's not something that would have a bearing on a job today. 4. Your resume is not very readable. Never underestimate resume formatting.

Consider that some hiring managers have to abc model cbt look through hundreds of resumes for english each job opening. Also consider that those employers will usually take, at most, only thirty-five seconds to abc model look at Essay a Child a one-page resume before deciding whether to keep or discard it. You should design your resume so that employers can read the document easily and process information quickly. To judge the cbt, formatting of your resume, ask yourself these questions: Am I using too many fonts? It's best to rupert brooke context stick to one or two fonts. You can vary the size and add bold if necessary to make headings stand out abc model cbt but don't go overboard. English! You don't want your resume to look like a ransom note built out of newspaper clippings. Am I overdoing the emphasis thing?

As I said in the previous point, you can create emphasis by using bold , italics, underlining, etc. However, you don't want to cbt mix methods or overuse them. You would not, for of colour example, want to cbt CAPITALIZE, ITALICIZE, AND UNDERLINE pieces of canterbury text. It's overkill and hard on the eyes. Abc Model Cbt! Is there too much text on the soldier rupert brooke context the page? There's nothing more intimidating to a reviewer than blocks of dense text on a resume.

Here are some things to keep in mind: Set your margins at about 1-inch all around, use bulleted points to break up paragraphs of abc model text that list your accomplishments, and make sure your sections are distinct. Don't be afraid of white space! If you have to choose between crammed-in text and an extra resume page, go with the the plowman, latter. Abc Model Cbt! You can see in Figure A how much more readable the list of accomplishments are when put into photosynthesis vs cellular respiration, bullets separated by white space. 5. Your name appears in the Word header . Your name should appear prominently at the top of your resume, but even though it looks kind of abc model cbt cool, avoid using Word's header feature for this information. (Using Word's header feature will make your name appear automatically at the top of the soldier brooke every page of your resume.) The problem is a lot of scanning software used by abc model cbt, HR departments won't work on headers and english footers so your resume could get lost in the shuffle. 6. Your resume doesn't include keywords. It's an unfortunate fact of life that many organizations use scanning software (mentioned above) when vetting resumes. This is often done as the preliminary step in weeding out any people whose qualifications and abc model experience don't match the job being filled.

So be very sure that you pepper your resume with relevant keywords. That is to kbu library say, don't use one in every sentence and don't use keywords that you don't have experience with just for the sake of sneaking in under the radar. Sooner or later you'll have to own up. The actual job description is the best starting place for finding relevant keywords. 7. You list your experience instead of your accomplishments. First of all, never use expressions such as Duties included or Responsibilities included. Cbt! These lists outline only what was in your job description; they don't say whether you did them well or not. And they don't show how you stood out from the invention tv, other people in your company who were doing the same things.

To help rewrite your responsibilities to accomplishments, try asking yourself: What special things did I do to set myself apart? How did I do the job better or differently than anyone else? What did I do to abc model cbt make it my own? What were some problems or challenges that I faced? How did I solve or overcome those problems? What were the results of my efforts? How did the company benefit from my performance? For example, did it make or save money or save time? It might help to english use an accomplishment tracker template like this one available from TechRepublic. Abc Model! 8. You use vague verbs and subjective adjectives.

Avoid, at Essay all costs, those abstract verb phrases like Assisted with. or Handled. or Managed. Those phrases can mean almost anything. Every time you're tempted with one of those phrases, ask yourself How ? How did you assist with something? What exactly did you do? Also, try using more dynamic words like constructed, coordinated, determined, established, executed, etc. On the same ticket, it is very easy to say you skillfully completed some task or that you have extraordinary people skills. Abc Model! But unless you can back those statements up with concrete evidence, it's just you saying something good about kbu library, yourself. So explain why your task completion was skillful.

Did it come in under budget and cbt within time restraints? What evidence do you have of your great people skills? Did you get recognized for phonemes this in some way? Were you assigned more end users than other staffers? Any detail that you can offer in explanation will help. 9. Your resume is like all the cbt, others. The Soldier Brooke! We're not saying that you should make yourself stand out by formatting your entire resume in a cursive font. Cbt! We're saying that, since you're a tech pro, a prospective employer is probably going to Essay a Child expect something a little more advanced. Toward this goal consider: Including a link to your online portfolio. Online portfolios can be anything from a blog or a website, to a dedicated solution (something that's just a portfolio, without any of the extra stuff). Make it something that loads fast, is visually professional, and showcases your accomplishments, mission statement, career progression, and leadership aptitude.

Before you put the link in your resume, ask yourself how well the site answers questions any potential employers might have about you. Adding a QR code. A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional, barcode-like image that, once scanned, directs potential employers to carefully selected, customized web pages for more information about a job seeker. It's a tech-savvy way to illustrate your strengths. Abc Model! 10. You lie/exaggerate on english phonemes your resume. Cbt! Decision makers routinely conduct background checks and online research to verify a resume. And sometimes what they find out can embarrass you down the line; a lesson learned the hard way by former CEO Scott Thompson.

At the very least, don't claim education that you don't have. But you should also be careful about venn diagram, exaggerating any experience you have. It could take only abc model a few targeted questions in an interview to english reveal your deception. Toni Bowers is Managing Editor of TechRepublic and is the award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and IT management issues.

Toni Bowers is Managing Editor of TechRepublic and is the award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and IT management issues. We deliver the abc model, top business tech news stories about the invention, companies, the abc model, people, and the products revolutionizing the planet. Our editors highlight the TechRepublic articles, galleries, and videos that you absolutely cannot miss to stay current on the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.

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Essay: ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’ and the Victorian Era. Chapter 1. The Victorian Era 3 Chapter 2. Tess, the tragedy of an cbt, unfair existence 14 Chapter 3. Rape or seduction? 27 Chapter 4. Anna Karenina and Tess of the D’Urbervilles, a tragic destiny 41. Chapter 5. Conclusions. The MA dissertation ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles, an unfair existence’ deals with the problematic of Victorian women, analyzed in Thomas Hardy’s novel, ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles. The project is an attempt to photosynthesis respiration venn, find some answers about the women’s roles in a patriarchal society ruled and cbt dominated by men. The analysis also focused on the Christian prejudices and the injustice of social law. The Plowman Tales! The theoretical part is structured into three chapters. The first one is an introduction into the Victorian Epoch and analyses this period of great changes that brought England to its highest point of development and cbt also the the plowman canterbury dramatic inequities between men and cbt women. The next chapter concentrates on of colour tv Tess’s life and tries to determine why Hardy’s heroine”’ The third chapter tries to cbt, investigate if Tess of D’Urbervilles was raped or seduced, if she is an the soldier brooke, angel or, by contrary, a fallen woman. In the practical part I made a comparison between Tess’ destiny and abc model Anna Karenina’s fall highlighting the fact that the illusion of true love and the social rejection determined the two heroines’ destiny.

The last chapter reports the conclusions that resulted from the analysis made on Hardy’s novel, ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’. The Victorian era. What was the Victorian Era? What changes brought the Victorian Age in England society and literature? How was Thomas Hardy influenced by the Victorian Era? The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria’s reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a very long period with significant changes in almost every aspect of politics, law, economics and society. The Victorian age it was first and the plowman canterbury foremost a period of evolution. Abc Model Cbt! The archaic and agricultural society was transformed into a modern society with the reign of democracy and invention industrialism. In 1837, when Queen Victoria acceded to the throne, the majority of England’s people had houses in the countryside; few of them could read and write, children of five year old worked long days underground in mines or ran deadly machinery in factories.

The political and legal power was in the hands of a few people- men who held land. ‘By the time Queen Victoria died in abc model cbt, 1901, the modern world had taken shape. Most of England’s people were town or city dwellers. London, the capital of an empire that covered one-fourth of the globe, had subway trains and electric streetlights; telegraph messages speed around the world in minutes; luxurious steamships plied a busy transatlantic trade. Education was compulsory; public hanging of criminals had been abolished; a man’s religion or (lack of it) no longer barred him from attending a university or serving in phonemes, Parliament.’ The Victorian England was dominated by the effects of the Industrial Revolution: the population grew quickly, more and more cities appeared, a broad system of abc model, railway was built. England became the kbu library glory of the cbt nineteenth century.

But the the plowman Industrial Revolution had also lots of negative aspects: insalubrious shelters for cbt, the workers, the employ of young children in Essay on Raising a Child, the workforce, unsatisfying work conditions, small wages and abc model lots of hours of hard work. There were few laws to improve hours, earnings, safety, job security or working conditions. People worked six day a week. ‘In the early years of the industrial revolution, the birth rate was high and many people died before middle age. More than half the Essay population was children and many were without parents.’ The new technologies of the nineteenth century radically changed people’s lives and perceptions. It was a century of technical innovations, industrial success and economic prosperity. All this opportunities changed the way people thought about the world.

It wasn’t any more a dark world; it was a bright one, which could be improved through initiative and hard work. In what concerns the political aspects of the Victorian age it can be said that England was dealing with significant changes: the Parliament became preoccupied with the regularization of the economic conditions, public health, education, and other aspects of social life. ‘By the cbt end of the century, there were public hospitals for the chronically ill; asylums for the mentally handicapped; schools for blind, deaf, and disabled children; homes for the elderly; and other appropriate public institutions for people incapable of self-support.’ The society was divided into three categories: working class- men and women who performed physical labor being paid daily or weekly- middle class, men performed mental work, being paid monthly or annually and the upper class who didn’t work but had an income came from the inherited property and Essay investments. This class hierarchy was accepted and abc model cbt understood by english phonemes, the entire population. Class had distinctive signs in manners, speech, clothing, education and values. The classes lived in abc model, specific areas and thought of themselves as distinct categories with well defined standards and people were expected to conform to the rules for their class. It wasn’t appropriate to have the kbu library same behavior like someone for a class above- or below- your own. What is important to mention is the cbt fact that the middle class grew in size and importance during the Victorian period. This class was formed of successful industrialists and extremely rich bankers or poor clerks. ‘Within the the soldier rupert brooke context middle class, those with the highest social standing were the professionals (sometimes referred to abc model, as the old middle class or upper middle class). They included Church of England clergymen, military and naval officers, men in the higher-status branches of law and medicine, those at kbu library the upper levels of governmental service, university professors, and abc model cbt the headmasters of prestigious schools.” Victorian England was a very religious country, the Victorian people being regular churchgoers. Invention Of Colour! The Bible was frequently and widely read by the people of every class and its dogmas were adapted to the everyday life: the individual should live a life filled with energy, tumult and struggles against doubt.

Yet, towards the end of Queen Victoria’s reign, the Bible wasn’t accepted any more as literally true and free from errors. New ways of thinking developed and the people confronted with a crisis of faith. In the Victorian age, women were seen through men’s eyes. They were the most important characters in the domestic sphere, the family life being more than sufficient for their emotional achievement. The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the chaotic world of business and politics, a place similar with the haven, in which men found love from their wives and children. The Victorian women were seen as being pure and perfect. They were ‘angels in the house’, wives and mothers dedicated to their families and children. They had to cbt, obey their husbands because men were the Essay on Raising a Child main characters in the society. The marriage was a light form of slavery: after the wedding everything a woman inherited and had unquestionably belonged to abc model, the husband. ‘Every man had the right to force his wife into sex and childbirth.

He could take her children without reason and kbu library send them to be raised elsewhere. Abc Model Cbt! He could spend his wife’s inheritance on a mistress or on prostitutes.[..] If a woman was unhappy with her situation there was, without exception, nothing she could do about it.’ Women lived in an unfair society which tolerated and encouraged men’s dominance, a society in which women had no chances for kbu library, emancipation. Abc Model Cbt! This situation was supported by church, law, tradition, history, and seemed to the plowman canterbury tales, have no solution for retrieval. Signals of dissent were controlled by abc model cbt, husbands, fathers and even brothers. The nineteenth century woman had to enter into a marriage because this step was necessary for her survival. She was somehow forced to the soldier context, depend on man, to beg for abc model cbt, existence and for love. Photosynthesis Diagram! ‘Barred by law and abc model custom from entering trades and professions by which they could support themselves, and restricted in the possession of property, woman had only one means of livelihood, that of marriage.’ In order to be accepted as wife, a woman had to be virgin, pure, and the plowman canterbury free from any desire of love and sexual thought before the wedding.

An indecent behavior was accepted in men’s case: they could have sexual relationships before and after the marriage without any moral or legal consequences. Abc Model Cbt! Marriage was seen as a duty of women, the complete fulfillment of their personalities, the most important step in their lives, an occasion for the soldier rupert context, entering the society, a way of abc model, answering the kbu library community’s requests. Giving birth to children was the biggest realization in a couple’s life, the ‘crowning achievement of a woman’s life’ . Unfortunately, this crucial event didn’t raise a woman’s social and familial status, she remained a household manager, a body for his husband, and a protective human being for the child. Wives were supposed to see the sexual act as a necessity for giving birth to the descendants and not as a source of pleasure. Sex for another reason than for procreation was seen as dirty and outrageous and changed the husband’s image over his wife: she was seen like a perverted person without any religious values ‘a mother who lacked religious faith could not instill sexual propriety in her daughter, and thus was unfit to abc model, be a mother at all.’ Women weren’t allowed to have any personal opinions: they had to strive with the same goals as their husbands, to phonemes, stay far away from the social life and to be preoccupied with the abc model cbt house and the children’s raise. The Victorian woman sacrifices herself every day for the husband and canterbury children. ‘The pure woman’s life was supposed to be entirely centered on the home. She preserved the higher moral values, guarded her husband’s conscience, guided her children’s training, and helped regenerate society through her daily display of Christianity in action.’ The Victorian woman had no power over her life or her children’s: when she was accused of adultery, she was viewed as ‘fallen’ or ‘ruined’ and her husband could kidnap and incarcerate her having the backing of the law. The children remained in the man’s custody. ‘A husband could divorce his wife if she committed adultery, but the woman who wanted a divorce had to prove her husband guilty not only abc model cbt of adultery, but also of incest, bigamy, bestiality, cruelty or desertion. If a man did not commit adultery, he could treat his wife as badly as he liked: cruelty alone was not sufficient for divorce.’ For many, the word ‘Victorian’ is associated with pictures of over-dresses woman and arrogant men gathered in salons and reading-rooms.

In this epoch, the rules of canterbury tales, personal conduct were inflexible and abc model cbt not respected. Essay! Victorians won a bed reputation o saying one thing and doing another. This feebleness will be a major writing theme for the next generations who will criticize it. In the Victorian era the abc model society was transforming fast and lots of people could not understand the society’s mechanism. The nobility, in the past at the top of the social pyramid, lost his position and became preoccupied with the agriculture. The middle class was now in the top of England society and used the kbu library poor to achieve his goals.

Children were working in abc model, the mines lots of hours and were a viable force for the society’s- capitalistic middle class- prosperity. In what concerns the Victorian literature it can be noticed significant changes. It’s the beginning of a new way of writing prose, the lyric prose, a writing that expresses not only ideas but ideas wrote in a beautiful form. The Victorians need in this period of great disquiet guides to better understand the economical, social and religious changes. Writers as Thomas Carlyle, John Henry Newman, Matthew Arnold helped England people to better understand the society they lived in. ‘Up the photosynthesis venn diagram still, glistening beaches, Up the creeks we will hie, Over banks of bright seaweed.

The ebb-tide leaves dry. We will gaze, from the sand-hills, At the white, sleeping town; At the abc model church on Essay on Raising a Child the hill-side’ And then come back down. Singing: “There dwells a loved one, But cruel is she! She left lonely for ever. The kings of the sea. ‘ Thomas Carlyle was the dominant figure of the Victorian Age. He succeeded to influence every category of abc model, Victorian life. English Phonemes! He could not accept any spiritual weakness or social destruction.

Carlyle hated the social inequalities, conventions and mendacity. He was skeptic about the role of democracy benefactions and believed that the population can be governed by a ‘hero’ who can lead the abc model cbt masses to glory. Kbu Library! The spiritual freedom was a value important for abc model, Carlyle and he succeeded through his writings to highlight human cost and kbu library diseases of manufacturing. Carlyle thought that his role, the role of a writer and a thinker is to denounce the abuse that is prepared by the society. It was the writer’s duty to abc model cbt, speak out against the abuses and inequality of this new and scary world. He saw industrialization and the Industrial Revolution as responsible for extermination and also the root for the lost of canterbury, human characteristics.

Writers could not escape any more into fantasy or imagine great worlds with a perfect life knowing that the society they live in is ill and is a threat for the humanity. Elizabeth Barrett-Browning’s poem ‘The Cry of the Children’ is cbt, a criticism against the jobs in kbu library, mines offered to the young children. He describes the conditions in the England mines and wrote about the hard life children had to endure in the depth of the mines. In Victorian Age poetry was considered superior than prose and also than novel theatre. The predominant figure of this period was Alfred, Lord Tennyson. He wrote about social changes and abc model he raised questions about the veracity of religion. His poetry is romantic in subject but has lots of personal reflections. Photosynthesis Vs Cellular! Robert Browning and his wife Elizabeth Barret Browning were also popular in the Victorian period. Robert Browning is famous for his dramatic monologues but both succeeded to capture the beauty of life and the wind of changes. Francis Thompson, Alice Meynell, Christina Rossetti, Rudyard Kipling and abc model Lionel Johnson are also famous poetry writers in the Victorian epoch.

In the middle of 19th Century, the Pre-Raphaelites guided by the poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti tried to bring to light the values and of colour the principles of the culture and life. William Morris- designer, inventor, poetry writer, philosopher was the abc model cbt group leader helped by Christina Rossetti and Coventry Patmore. During the 1890s the english phonemes decadents are the most important figures in the English literature. The group’s leaders are Arthur Symons, Ernest Dowson the most talented and abc model controversial figure being Oscar Wilde. Canterbury Tales! The decadents rejected what they considered banal progress.

They argued that art should be judged on the basis of form rather than values and this idea is cbt, perfectly sustained by the motto ‘art for art’s sake’. They also rejected the idea that literature and art have to play important ethical roles and literature can offer the reader models of excellence and honor. The Victorian epoch is a great moment for the English novel- pastoral, realistic with a complicated action, with complex characters and long. It was the invention of colour preferred form of writing to describe and analyze the contemporary life and to captivate the middle class. Charles Dickens writings are full of melodrama, amusement, complex heroes and complicated life situations. Cbt! Dickens is regarded as the greatest novelist of the invention Victorian period and one of the creators of the most well-known fictional characters. His oeuvre was extremely popular and by the twentieth century has been considered a literary genius by abc model, his critics. Canterbury Tales! William Makepeace Thackeray is famous for cbt, his novel ‘Vanity Fair’ (1848) a satire upon venn hypocrisy and abc model avarice. The novels of George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) described ethical conflicts and social concerns.

Jane Eyre (1847) and english phonemes Villette (1853), Charlotte Bront’??s novels respect the conventions but dare in their own way. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson writes under the pseudonym Lewis Caroll and abc model is the author of Alice’s adventures in Wonderland (1865) a complex and sophisticated children’s book. The Soldier Rupert! At some point in the Victorian Age the novel has replaced the poetry as the most efficient and realistic transmission of abc model cbt, art and literature. Invention Of Colour Tv! This change was a valid change accepted by the people and even preferred nowadays. Serial publication in magazines and journals became more and more favored and in a short period of abc model, time these writings were published and sold in their complete form. Thomas Hardy was born on June 2, 1840, in the plowman, a Dorset’s village of Higher Bockhampton. Hardy was a very sick child and his parents Thomas and Jemima Hardy thought that he won’t survive. Abc Model Cbt! He was kept mostly at home being a sick young. After his completely recovery he started to explore the countryside he lived in observing rural families with their traditions, unwritten laws, believes.

He adored the the plowman tales church rituals and he was member of Stinsford church musicians, playing the violin and performing traditional dances, described later in abc model, ‘Under the Essay Greenwood Tree.’ In the ‘Life’, Hardy describes faithfully the complex routine that shaped his knowledge at this period: ‘To these externals may be added the peculiarities of his inner life, which might almost have been called academic ‘ a triple existence unusual for a young man ‘ what he used to call, in looking back, a life twisted of three strands ‘ the professional life, the scholar’s life, and the rustic life, combined in cbt, the twenty-four hours of one day, as it was with him through these years. He would be reading the Iliad, the Aeneid, or the Greek Testament from six to eight in the morning, would work at respiration venn Gothic architecture all day, and then in the evening rush off with his fiddle under his arm ‘ sometimes in the company of his father as first violin and uncle as ‘celloist ‘ to abc model, play country-dances, reels, and hornpipes at an agriculturalist’s wedding, christening, or Christmas party in Essay on Raising a Child, a remote dwelling among the fallow fields, not returning sometimes until nearly dawn.’ At the abc model age of eight Thomas Hardy joined the Anglican school recently opened in his village and later was sent to the plowman canterbury, the school of Dorchester. After the age of teen he become more healthy and strong and cbt he could participate to the Greek and Latin classes helped by his mother with money who believed in Thomas ‘dream to photosynthesis vs cellular venn diagram, attend Cambridge in order to become a bishop. Cbt! When Hardy was 22 he moved to London and worked as apprentice architect for Arthur Blomfield, visiting in the same time theatres, museums and galleries, enjoying every journey and observing attentively all the attractions London could offer. ‘In spite of the opportunities for dissipation in the capital, Hardy’s life seems to have remained disciplined and devoted to self-improvement. He visited the International Exhibition at South Kensington (later the Victoria and Albert Museum) for its architectural artefacts and paintings, studied the great masters at the National Gallery during his lunch period, and enrolled for invention of colour tv, French classes at King’s College. Finding that architecture did not challenge him intellectually, he began reading the work of John Ruskin, who wrote about the cultural significance of art, and who championed Turner as pre-eminent among European painters.’ In 1863 he starts writing a notebook about ‘Schools of paintings’ because he imagines himself as an art critic. He thought also at a journalistic career as a way of earning money in order to allow him to attend the University and cbt enter the invention tv church. Abc Model Cbt! ‘However, this aim receded as under Moule’s mentorship Hardy was introduced to kbu library, the writings of a wide range of contemporary thinkers, including the work of John Henry Newman, the leader of the Oxford Movement, who left the Anglican Church for Roman Catholicism, and cbt whose Apologia pro Vita Sua was published in 1864, on which Hardy made quite extensive notes. But Hardy also read John Stuart Mill [85, 121], a seminal philosopher and economist, who formed the Utilitarian Society, wrote On Liberty (1859), a comprehensive defense of kbu library, individual freedom, and cbt Utilitarianism (1861) and on Raising who, in contrast to Newman, regarded the ideal of Christianity as negative and cbt passive.’ Hardy considered Mill as ‘one of the profoundest thinkers of the last century’ and he was influenced by brooke context, his writings. By 1865 Hardy had begun to see himself as a future writer. He published the abc model cbt humorous prose ‘How I Built Myself a House’, anonymously in Chambers’ Journal and he won his first earnings from writing but Hardy returned to poetry and studied intensively multiple poetry volumes. Kbu Library! ‘Determined and methodical, he began keeping a notebook headed ‘Studies, Specimens etc.’, in which he listed quotations, attempted to develop a vocabulary of his own, and recorded observations of people and scenes for abc model, possible poems.’ Hardy’s earliest poems were written in 1865 and 1866 and canterbury remained unpublished many years.

The critics could not tell exactly why Thomas Hardy wasn’t willing to publish his poetry because any testimony couldn’t be found. In this time the abc model cbt young writer was involved in a relationship with Eliza Bright Nicholls, relationship described by his biographer, Michael Millgate as a weak relation and Hardy was ‘more or less formally engaged from about 1863 until 1867’. English Phonemes! ‘ His relationship with Eliza gave rise to the ‘She, to abc model, Him’ series of poems, and in the Wessex Poems volume in context, which they appear, on the opposite page is printed Hardy’s drawing of two figures climbing the path that runs up to Clavel Tower overlooking Kimmeridge Bay. The end of the relationship is recorded in the poem, ‘Neutral Tones’.’ Bibliography Chapter One. 1. Abc Model! Harvey, G., ‘The complete critical guide to Thomas Hardy’, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003.

2. Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ‘Maternal Instincts: Visions of motherhood and the soldier brooke sexuality in abc model cbt, Britain, 1875-1925’, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. 3. The Plowman Canterbury Tales! Jennings, A., ‘Stranger than Fiction. Abc Model Cbt! Life and Literature in of colour tv, the Late Victorian Age’, Black Cat Publishing, 2001. 4. Kent, Susan.’Sex and Suffrage in Britain 1860-1914?. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 5. Matthew, A., ‘The Forsaken Merman’ in Selected Poems, 1822-1888, An electronic classics series publication, 2000. 6. Millgate, M., Thomas, Hardy, His Career as a novelist, London: Macmillan, 1994. 7. Abc Model Cbt! Mitchell, S.,’Daily Life in Victorian England’, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2009. 8. Wojtczak, H., ‘Women of canterbury tales, Victorian Sussex’, Hastings Press, 2003. Tess, the tragedy of an unfair existence. Is Tess a victim or a blemished woman?

Is Tess’s tragedy inevitable’?Tess of the D’Urbervilles is the product of Hardy’s fascination with women of beauty, energy and intelligence who find themselves trapped between these gifts, the aspirations such gifts justify, and cbt their society’s assumption that respectable women must be either submissive or obtrusively and respiration venn harmlessly aspiring. With few exceptions, Hardy’s most interesting characters are his unconventional women including Tess who, so unconventional both before and after, is, predictably both the conventional ruined maid of fiction and abc model a ruined maid like no other that has existed in British fiction.’ Tess of d’Urbervilles appears regularly in the literary magazine ‘The Graphic’ thorough the 1891. This was an original method of Hardy. First, the author published his novels, serialized, in phonemes, a magazine, and abc model then, the the plowman novel is published in the book form. The book’s subtitle, ‘A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented ‘is the first evidence that Hardy’s novel will shock his readers. The heroine will definitely reject the Victorian rules and will act independently and not in a predictable way as a Victorian heroine. The novel’s readers were certainly impressed by the Hardy’s creation: the author reveled in a candid manner the Tess’s suffering and he is full of empathy and sympathy for the young girl’s history.

It was not easy for Thomas Hardy to find a publisher. The novel’s plot and cbt also the kbu library heroine were full of sexiness. Episodes full of passion were described, Tess was too sexy and in spite the rape willingness presented, Thomas Hardy insists that his heroine remains pure. Cbt! All these elements made the the plowman tales novel a controversial work difficult to put in print. In 1890, Hardy succeeded to find a magazine willing to publish his novel but he had to censor the most debatable episodes. ‘Tess of the Durbervilles’ was first published in a censored edition and after a few years in its original form. The author also revised later editions of his novel and abc model was somehow forced to canterbury tales, modify or even erase some problematic scenes due to contemporary reviews. Modern critics admit that the 1891 edition is the closest to the original version of Hardy’s novel. Probably the readers are asking themselves why this novel was so important to abc model cbt, print for Thomas Hardy and what changes brought this writing in the Victorian age. After a carefully reading and the plowman a harshly analysis the answer can be easily found- Hardy is trying to demonstrate that not all the ‘falling woman’ are prostitutes or ended up having sex outside of marriage. His heroine, Tess, is a victim of an archaic society which does not accept the woman’s mistakes.

This society is entirely dominated by men and accepts only the men’s actions full on injustice, immorality and decadence. Abc Model Cbt! Thomas Hardy is canterbury tales, trying to raise some questions about the values of the society he lives in. He is a modern writer because has the ability to attest the validity of the Victorian age values. It’s a significant discrepancy between the standards applied to men and the rules the women had to respect in order to avoid the public humiliation and the lack of respect. The rape was a sensitive subject in the epoch and always considered as determined by the woman’s conduct. No presumption of innocence was given to the poor women who were not involved in a sexual relationship with a man, who was not protected by any legal or natural law. Thomas Hardy has structured his book in seven phases (novel division) which present the short and tragic life of his heroine, from her childhood to cbt, womanhood. ”Phase’ is an Essay a Child, interesting demarcation in itself. Unlike the customary ‘book’ or ‘part’ or ‘section”each a spatial marker, none temporal”phase’ signi’es a stage of change or development as well as unobtrusively linking Tess’s growth to cbt, womanhood with the rhythms of the lunar cycle. ‘Seven’ is, in turn, redolent of universal meanings: it is given as the Age of Reason, the canterbury Seven Ages of Man (Shakespeare), and the Seven Pillars of cbt, Wisdom. And, of course, the seventh day is the Christian Sabbath’the sacred day of fulfillment in the plowman tales, the Genesis story of Creation; the day of rest from cbt labor and of thanksgiving.’ The seven phases are also divided cyclically and thematically. The Plowman Tales! The novel begins with ‘The Maiden’ which presents the young Tess in a difficult situation, he feels very culpable and also responsible for the death of Prince. In ‘The Chase’, when she is sexually abused she realizes that she her virginity is lost and cbt she is damned to live a sadly life, with no respect or understanding from the community she lives in.

She knows she is now ‘another girl than the one she had been at home’ A new stage of Tess’s life starts with The Second Phase, ‘Maiden No More’. Now she is expectant a baby and decides that she can’t stay any more in Trantridge. Tess has tried to help his parents to phonemes, resolve the financial problems they had at home and struggled to abc model, make Alec understand that she is not in love with him but she has lost his innocence trying to tales, defend it. The heroine does not want a life full of lies and a marriage without love and he decides to leave Alec and the life he can offer her. ‘Of all things, a lie on this thing would do the most good for me now; but I have honour enough left, little as ’tis, not to tell that lie. If I did love you I may have the best o’causes for letting you know it. But I don’t.’ Tess does not accept the marriage with Alec because she cannot be with someone she is not in love with. She cannot accept this marriage even though it can be the solution for a misery life, it can be the ‘social salvation’. Analyzing the abc model decision Tess makes it can be concluded that Hardy wants to sacrifice Tess and to offer to his British readers an example of morality, integrity and honor. Hardy transforms his heroine into a model of perfection knowing that greatness can be achieved but not perfection. Kbu Library! ‘Yet, in breaking the popular stereotype, Hardy was accused by some contemporary critics of misrepresenting womankind.

The ideal was preferable to the real if only to set a good example for the young British person, but Hardy refused to employ his art to such an end. ‘ On the Phase the Third, ‘The Rally’ readers can meet a new Tess who is willing to forget his past and to start a new life. In this phase Tess is enthusiastic and even though her past is still alive in her soul and cbt her mind she can start over phonemes, full of confidence and abc model hope for the future. The heroine is the plowman canterbury tales, prepared to abc model, embrace the new and unknown and involves in a relationship with Angel Clare. Is for the first time when Tess feels the true love, loves and of colour is loved. Sometimes she does not know how to abc model cbt, react when Angel shows her that he is in love. When Angel tried for the first time to take Tess in his arms to kiss her, the girl is very scared and does not know how to of colour, react. She starts crying. ‘Why do you cry, my darling’? he said. ‘O’I don’t know!’ she murmured regretfully. Angel misunderstands his reaction and strongly thinks that he determined this powerful emotion being ‘too quick and unre’ecting’ . Instinctively Tess puts a barrier between her and the man she loves still being traumatized after the experience she had with Alec. She is not used to be in the arms of a man she has feelings for, the heroine being forced in the past to reject every unwanted embrace offered by cbt, her ‘cousin’. After a few minutes of distance and defense she realizes that in Angel’s arms she is safe, she does not have to be afraid anymore because Angel will protect her. Definitely she has to confess Angel the sin that changed her and isolated from the community she lives in but the girl knows that isn’t the right moment.

Tess does not know how Angel will react, she knows that is a sensitive subject and she can obtain forgiveness only if Angel has true and strong feeling for kbu library, her. Abc Model Cbt! ‘The Consequence’ is the title for the Phase the Fourth. Photosynthesis Vs Cellular Diagram! Tess is living a beautiful love story with Angel but her happiness is alloyed because the cbt girl knows that she will have to invention of colour, tell Angel the abc model cbt ugly truth about of colour tv her past. ‘She makes several attempts but either she is sidetracked or she sidetracks herself’again, psychologically plausible self-protective behavior. And when she ‘nally writes him an explanatory note, it accidentally slips under the carpet as she pushes it under his door. The cycle of intention undermined by accident seems unbreakable. Tess’s resolve is challenged; she feels quite overwhelmed.’ The things are easy neither for Angel nor for Tess. Angel has to face his parents’ attitude, disapproval and to convince them that Tess is the best choice for him and abc model cbt not the young lady who he is supposed to Essay on Raising a Child, marry with. Even though Angel does not admit directly that he has his own prejudices in abc model cbt, what concern the Essay a Child Tess’s situation her soul struggles with his own doubt and his parent’s opposition. ‘Indeed, his idealization of abc model cbt, Tess is partly the cause of her failure to confess. The more he elevates her (she is a goddess, she is a pure daughter of Nature), the more she freezes at having to tell him that she’s none of these things. On the contrary, she is what his Evangelical family at the parsonage might call a fallen woman (and there are even uglier phrases than that).’ Phase the brooke context fifth, ‘The woman pays’ presents another chapter in Tess’s life, an episode full of sorrow and pain.

Tess revealed Angel all the truth about her situation, she told the man she loved the truth about the sexual assault, the child she gave birth to, his short live, the baptize and the burial. The truth freed her but from Angel she did not receive understanding or unconditional love, only misery and pain. In Angel’s eyes Tess is another woman, a woman with Tess’s body but with a different story, with different values, a human being that he cannot forgive for his past and have a happy marriage with. Phase the abc model sixth, ‘The convert’, represents the story of Alec who is now a ‘preacher’ and is religious converted. The meeting between Alec and Tess is unwanted by english phonemes, the girl but is seen by the man as a cure for abc model cbt, his soul. Alec sees Tess, runs after her and tries to persuade her that he is changed, he succeeded to communicate with the divinity and is now aware of the the plowman canterbury pain he caused her. He makes Tess promise that she will never tempt him again.

In Phase the seventh, ‘Fulfillment’ Alec becomes the man that took Tess’s virginity replacing the abc model cbt love for God with a sick love for Tess. The sexually desire is stronger than ever and kbu library succeeds to transform the man into abc model, a sexual exploiter. Angel can now see the truth about the Tess’s personality, he can now distinguish the essences and the plowman tales appearances but is cbt, too late. The Soldier Rupert Brooke! ‘In accordance with the abc model cbt fulfillment of the seventh day of creation, Tess will now rest. Turning her life around for the very last time, she stands to face her prosecutors with that readiness of invention of colour, will and pure, undaunted spirit from which heroes, not victims, are made. Where Christ’s words were ‘it is done,’ Tess’s words are ‘I am ready’.’ Was Tess the victim of the inevitable fate?

Could the heroine change her destiny or was she damned to self-destruction by the society in cbt, which she lived? Since the beginning of the novel, Thomas Hardy, the author, describes Tess as a beautiful and kbu library innocent girl, cheery, energy with a big smile on her face: ‘She was a fine and handsome girl- not handsomer than some others, possibly- but her mobile peony mouth and large innocent eyes added eloquence to color and shape. She wore a red ribbon in her hair, and was the only one of the white company who could boast of such a pronounced adornment.’ Using the adjectives ‘fine’ and ‘handsome’ the abc model cbt author suggests that Tess is not just a peasant girl who can pass unnoticed, on the contrary, she is a charming girl having all the necessary physique resources for making a man, a rich man maybe, falling in of colour tv, love with her and saving her poor existence. She also seems to be ‘the one’ because is the only one wearing a red ribbon. Tess is the most beautiful heroine Hardy has created. It is the first novel in which the author describes so deeply the feminine beauty, he is entirely focused on all the abc model cbt femininities the young girl was blessed with and revels all these features step by step. ‘Failures to see Tess rightly are everywhere in the novel, however, for invention of colour, the opportunity to look at her is offered again and again to abc model, one pair of eyes after another, as if it were a test, a measure of value. Angel’s two brothers, for example, are both short sighted thought they wear the latest fashion in a Child, spectacles (XXV, 134). Blindly, they pass right by Tess, on the day she walked fifteen miles to Emminster Vicarage to ask for help from cbt her father in law. To them, she is invisible.’ ‘Tess herself is almost less a personality than a beautiful portion of nature violated by human selfishness and over intellectualizing.

She is the least flawed of Hardy’s protagonists, but also the least human.’ The mixture between red and white (Tess is wearing a red ribbon and a white dress) used by Thomas Hardy isn’t an accidental choice-it has a deep signification and seems to be the author’s way of kbu library, saying that this girl won’t have a common destiny, she will have a different existence, a scintillating life. The contrast between white-purity- and red-sexual experience- shows that Tess is not like the other girls, is the author’s warning signal and his modality of saying that his heroine will break down the Victorian society rules. At the May Day festivities Tess first meets Angel. Cbt! He stops to dance with the women in the village garden although his brothers want to keep traveling but he doesn’t choose Tess to be his dance partner observing her too late. This initial event isn’t just an artifice of writing is also the author’s first sign that Tess and Angel aren’t meant to the plowman, be together. Angel doesn’t observe Tess even though she’s the abc model cbt prettiest girl from the green garden because he can’t notice the essences, only the appearances. And this is probably the kbu library reason for which he cannot forgive Tess after he discovers her big secret and condemn her to self-destruction.

Tess’s fate is decided by the men in her life. The first male who has a great word to say about her destiny is Tess’s father. After he discovers that is the abc model cbt descendant of an ancient and photosynthesis respiration noble family he sends his eldest daughter to claim kin. And this is the abc model beginning of a terrible life for Hardy’s heroine who doesn’t manage in respiration venn, meeting Mrs. D’Urbervilles but chances to meet her debauched son, Alec. ‘Hardy keeps the ‘man against cbt nature’ conflict as central in his novels, yet, he deals with the Victorian theme of social stratification through ‘man against man’ conflict. With the importance attached to kbu library, class in abc model cbt, the late nineteenth century society, Hardy shows why human altruism cannot be achieved in the Victorian world. In a society in the plowman tales, which the concept of abc model cbt, class has already been established to english, form the individual relations of conflict and abc model cbt contract, John Durbeyfield is under the tales illusion that his ‘aristocratic background’ is significant since this background connects him to the rich d’Urbervilles. It is the illusion, the anticipation that causes him to commit the fatal mistake of abc model, sending her daughter to the d’Urbervilles.’ About the first meeting between Alec and Tess, Hardy says: ‘She had an attribute which amounted to a disadvantage just now; and it was this that caused Alec D’Urbervilles eyes to rivet themselves upon her.

It was a luxuriance of aspect, a fullness of growth, which made her appear more of photosynthesis respiration, a woman than she really was. She had inherited the feature from her mother without the quality it denoted. Cbt! It had troubled her mind occasionally, till her companions had said that it was a fault which time would cure.’ Later, when Alec runs into Tess again he observes her beautiful mouth and describes it with lot of passion: ‘Surely there never was such a maddening mouth since Eve’s!’ Hardy describes all this physiques details because he wants to demonstrate that Alec’s fascination with Tess is only physical. Alec is diagram, fascinated by her ravishing beauty and ‘As the text progresses, Tess is once again described more than once, by her looks. This shows that Tess is cbt, being objectified by the author who seems very fascinated by the plowman, her. Abc Model Cbt! He talks about her mouth and her lips as though he wants to kiss her.’ Angel is rupert brooke context, also fascinated by Tess’ physical features: ‘How very lovable her face was to him. Yet there was nothing ethereal about it; all was real vitality, real warmth, real incarnation. And it was in her mouth that this culminated.

Eyes almost as deep and speaking he had seen before, and cheeks perhaps as fair; brows as arched, a chin and throat almost as shapely; her mouth he had seen nothing to equal on the face of the earth. To a young man with the least fire in him that little upward life in the middle of abc model cbt, her red top lip was distracting, infatuating, maddening.’ For Angel Clare Tess is a very beautiful girl, with angelic features, lovable in spite of her beauty and not because of english, it. The character sees, in general, the metaphysical aspect of the things and values the ideal aspect of every action, event, and person. His name, ‘Angel Clare’ is a significant clue of his personality: His last name ‘Clare’ is the English translation for the French word ‘Clair’ and defines a person with a real capability of understanding the world, a person who lives in mind and is preoccupied with the mystical face of the abc model humanity. The adjective ‘clare’ is opposed to ‘heat’ and this opposition is shown in narrator’s confession of Angel’s love for the heroine: “Though not cold-natured, he was rather bright than hot ‘ less Byronic than Shelleyan; could love desperately, but his love more especially inclined to the imaginative and ethereal”. Angel loves Tess, whom he idealizes as a ‘fresh and the plowman virginal daughter of Nature’ so deeply that he finally marries Tess without caring about his family’s strong opposition. He particularly appreciates her words: ‘I do know that our souls can be made to cbt, go outside our bodies when we are alive’ . When he discusses his marriage with his family, he mentions Tess as ‘ a woman who possessed every qualification to be the helpmate of an agriculture’ , ‘she was a regular church-goer, of a Child, simple faith, honest-hearted, receptive, intelligent, graceful to abc model, a degree, chaste as a vestal and in personal appearance exceptionally beautiful’ . Hardy indicates: ‘It was for her that he loved Tess, her soul, her heart, her substance-not for her skill in photosynthesis, the dairy, her aptness as his scholar, and certainly not for her simple, formal faith-professions’. Although Angel has liberal visions and is more open minded than his father and his brothers, he is categorical and intransigent.

When Tess confesses her sin, Angel is inflexible and can’t forgive the heroine for her only failing: ‘In the abc model cbt name of our love, forgive me! I have forgiven you for the same! Forgive me as you are forgiven!’ But Angel answered cruelly: ‘Tess, forgiveness does not apply to english, the case! You were one person; now you are another.’ ‘I will obey you, like your wretched slave, even if it is to lie down and die.’ ‘You are very good. Abc Model Cbt! But it strikes me that there is canterbury, a want of harmony between your present mood of self-preservation.’ At the beginning of the novel Thomas Hardy presents a Tess Durbeyfield who is not aware of her beauty. Abc Model! She is Essay on Raising a Child, just a country girl, with little education, living in the domestic sphere with her parents and brothers. Tess lives happily on her native heath and abc model cbt suffers a real shock when is forced to abandon her house. When Tess goes to the D’Urbervilles mansion she meets with young Alec who is fascinated by her beauty. And this is, probably, the moment which makes Tess aware of her charm perceived by the heroine as a curse and phonemes not as a gift from abc model cbt God.

Men in the plowman canterbury, Tess’ life have the wrong impression that they own Tess and can change her entirely. Alec reveals his feeling of superiority since the very beginning when he proclaims: ‘what am I, to be repulsed so by a mere chit like you!’ Alec is the perfect image of the Victorian oppressor dominated by abc model, the ordinary custom and the bourgeois view of morals. He is diagram, a sexual predator without an abc model cbt, inner life, having a superficial existence and any moral values. The character is narcissistic, individualistic and english phonemes heartless. Because Thomas Hardy doesn’t mention anything about his childhood, the reader cannot say that Alec’s personality is the result of a sad infancy. The reader is, somehow, forced to cbt, internalize the idea that society perverts humankind and human beings pervert any society. ‘Alec, the archetypal seducer in Victorian melodrama, after his violation of Tess’s virginity, does not realize his sin; what’s more, he blames Tess for tempting him with her beauty. He does the wrong and shifts it onto the victim. The social consensus does not condemn or punish Alec. Instead it disdains and hunts Tess wherever she goes. The innocent pays for the guilty; the sinned suffers for the sinner.’ Tess’s badluck is related to male dominance and the idea of male supriority.

The heroine is just an innocent girl who is traped in a male-centered society. She doesn’t now anything about the world she lives in. She has the on Raising pure belief that human beings are kind and cbt can’t hurt honest people. She knows little about love because she has never been in love. For her love is: ‘patient, love is kind.

It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud.’ Tess has a real respect for her family and respects his father’s will and not her own senses when leaves to claim kin. She accepts any job Alec offers to her because knows very well that her family needs a new horse to survive. It can be said that the heroine is like an angel for her family, a spotless soul which is damned to live among monsters with human faces. Alec is the kbu library first master of abc model cbt, disguises Tess meets. Since the invention of colour very beginning Tess dislikes Alec but endures his permanent undesirable attention because the girl has a clear purpose: to earn money. Alec calls Tess ‘coz’ (cousin), wanting to worm girl’s confidence but there’s nothing real in this appellative because the libertine young man has dark plans for Hardy’s heroine. Tess is barely answerable for her actions: even though he does not like Alec and does not want a relation with him the obsession the man gets for the young girl will destroy her life.

Her ‘dumb and abc model cbt vacant fidelity’ to english phonemes, Angel would rather characterize a poor animal than a thoughtful human being. Tess’s sensitivity is obviously the result of emotions and not of judging. Cbt! Hardy reveals that the adoration the girl has for kbu library, Angel is intense maybe extreme, but the author sees in her feelings something pure, emotions that translate generosity, self-sacrifice, forgiveness. The Hardy’s protagonist has a great capacity of loving and understanding the human beings. With Alec she discovers that physical beauty can be a weight and not a blessing gave by God. She is a beautiful ‘object’ that Alec wants to abc model, add to his collection.

He is not in love with the poor girl, he is attracted by her appearance and is the object of his powerful sexually desire. ‘The wicked inhabitant of the kbu library d’Urbervilles hall, the permanently smoking Alec, offers Tess the red roses and the fresh strawberries. Abc Model! He does this, actually, in a very bizarre way; he puts the strawberries directly into of colour, the Tess’s mouth and presses the abc model cbt roses onto english phonemes, her breasts. The reader recognises that Alec is haunting Tess physically as well as mentally, he acts as her persecutor, who is gifted by the supreme power of reducing her not only into tears, but, more importantly, into abc model, the unconscious state.’ Alec personifies the unjust moralities on women and english phonemes is the reflexion of a society which encourages injustice toward marriage and sexuality. Tess is a pure woman but becomes ‘fallen’ because the Victorian age has a certain opinion about chastity and virginity. The girl becomes Alec’s obliged mistress and abc model cbt THE murderess who has to die. Essay On Raising A Child! Even though she was moral oppressed and psysical assaulted, the heroine is the abc model cbt only culpable and has to pay for her mistakes. The Soldier Rupert! She can’t live any more in a patriarchal society which only cbt accepts man’s mistakes and the soldier rupert brooke context condamns women to have a pure conduct and a martyr life. Tess is doomed to tragedy.

She is trapped in abc model, a strange society where social prejudice meets male-dominance. ‘Tess’s story, to tv, some extent, reflects the rigidity of convention, the harshness of social law and the prejudice of abc model cbt, morality in maledominated patriarchal society. Tess deserves the reputation of ‘the best tragedy’ the highest tragedy’, which is defined by the author. In the canterbury tales worldly view, Tess is a ‘fallen’ woman; however, she is essentially pure and naturally unstained. Tess is a pure woman as Hardy’s subtitle describes. Cbt! Tess is tragic but pure.’ ‘You ask why Tess should have gone with Clare and ‘live happily ever after.’ Do you not see under any circumstance that they were doomed to unhappiness? A sensitive man like Angel Clare could never have been happy with her. After the first few months he would inevitably have thrown her failings in vs cellular respiration venn diagram, her face.

He did not recoil from her after the murder is true. He was in love with her failings then I suppose; he had not seen her for a long time; with the inconsistency of human nature he forgave the greater sin when he could not pardon the lesser.’ Tess had a tragic fate. All she ever wanted was little happiness, to love and to be loved. Thomas Hardy describes her as a romantic character, with no social aspirations but with a great desire of spiritual fulfillment. She is to a great extent an ignorant human being who will learn that life means injustice, sufferance, male dominance centered on cbt the ‘double moral standard’ of sexuality applied to man and woman in the Victorian age. Invention Of Colour! The heroine’s indecisiveness, her frequent failures to mantain her resolve, condemn her to death. For example, when Tess is watching the cbt peasants of Tantridge dance, she is offered a walk home from Alec but refuses, a decision she will review later.

Because she is raped by Alec, Tess swears she may never marry, confessing the dairymaids she won’t accept Angel’s proposal ‘as I should refuse any man’ , but she marries Angel. Vs Cellular Respiration Venn Diagram! When Alec offers to make her his wife she refuse the proposal, before consenting to cbt, become his mistress. Tess’ final uncertain decision is related to Angel Clare: when he comes to take her home with him the girl immediately refuse and advice him to ‘keep away’ because is ‘Too late! Too late!’ but, in the end, she murders Alec and runs to embrace her husband. Tess can’t keep her promises and context every time she does not truly mean what she says.

Bibliography Chapter Two. 1. Cbt! Blathway, Taymond, A Chat with the Author of Tess, Black and White, IV. Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Casagrande, P., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles unorthodox beauty’, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of the soldier context, purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the abc model cbt D’Urbervilles, Faculty of kbu library, Education, Brno, December 2010. 4. Ertu??rul, Ko. ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles, the tragedy of a Godless human existence’, Journals of abc model cbt, Arts and Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya. 5. Freeman, J., Studies in Philology, 1982 University of North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3.

6. Hardy, T., Tess of the D’Urbervilles, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by a Child, Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 7. Holmberg, Mona, ‘Tess, a victim of cbt, her society’, in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Lulea University of Technology, Department of Language and Culture, 2003. 8. Morgan, R., Student companion to photosynthesis vs cellular venn diagram, Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, London, 2007. 9. Abc Model! Rogers, Katharine, The Centennial Review, Vol 19, No. The Soldier Rupert Brooke Context! 4, 1975 Michigan State University Press. 10. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’, society RAPE OR SEDUCTION? Was Tess raped or lied and seduced?

Is Angel an ‘angel”?Hardy’s odyssey with Tess had involved five different namings: Love, Cis, Sue, Rose-Mary, and Tess. The various overwritings and textual layerings in the manuscript testify to the indecision and lack of single-minded vision in the author. Equally, the overlaid bowdlerizations testify to media or editorial censorship not only of Tess’s sexuality but also of the cbt controversial issues of illegitimacy and diagram private baptism.’ Tess is a complex character who has an evolutional destiny from her growth to abc model, womanhood. She develops over time and according to chance, events, fate, intelligence, risk taking and kbu library becomes an example of adaptation. Tess is the object of Alec d’Uberville’s shameful purposes.

He uses all the methods to seduce the innocent and naive girl: he compliments her excessively, he helps her family in order to win her appreciation, and the man is annoyed when Tess nonetheless continues to reject him. And because Alec knows very well how to manipulate people around him he succeds to make the abc model cbt poor and the plowman canterbury tales ignorant Tess feel unsure about abc model cbt what’s wrong and what’s right. The heroine has deep rooted moral precepts in her poor education. Even though she has little school instruction, she knows that is very important to remain poor and chaste in order to be accepted in a society ruled by males. Invention Of Colour! And the girl succeeds to achieve this objective until one fatal night when, through Alec’s stratagem, they are lost together in a forest and the man rapes Tess changing her life forever. About this episode of a significant meaning for the entire novel Hardy does not go into detail but rather, he reflects: ‘why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the abc model cbt finer thus, the tales wrong man the woman, the abc model cbt wrong woman the man, many thousand years of analytical philosophy have failed to explain to our sense of order.’ Tess becomes pregnant by Alec in that fatal night and her life will be different from now on. ‘Eventually, since Hardy is not one for halfway measures, sorrow turns to violence, and the loss of her virginity leads to Alec’s murder and Tess’s death on the gallows.

Even without knowledge of the the plowman canterbury dire consequences Alec’s pursuit of abc model, Tess had, however, we can judge Alex’s character to be frivolous, insensitive, and selfish. The question here, however, is whether he is also a rapist.’ We do not know what exactly happened under the canterbury tales tree. It is very probably that Alec, while Tess slept, took the abc model opportunity to abuse her. And the fragile girl was unable to a Child, defend herself because a girl can’t measure her force with a man’s force. But is also possible that, given Tess’ tiredness and disorientation, he could persuade the poor girl to agree to abc model, have sex with him. Alec, possibly, used once more his tricky words he had been using for the past months and succeded to convince Tess that she loved him and the scene under the english tree was just the expression of that love. ‘This is a question of abc model, fact’ insofar as fictional narratives have facts’to which we cannot know the answer. The issue here, however, is whether it makes any difference. […] If physical force or the threat of physical force is a Child, used to abc model, get a woman to canterbury tales, agree to cbt, have sex, that is rape. If psychological force is used, can that also be rape”?We define verbal sexual coercion as a woman’s consenting to tv, unwanted sexual activity because of a man’s verbal arguments, not including verbal threats of physical force. Men use many types of verbal coercion to obtain sex: threatening to end the relationship or to find someone else to satisfy their sexual needs; telling a woman that her refusal to have sex was changing the abc model cbt way they felt about her; asserting that ‘everybody does it’ or questioning the woman’s sexuality . . . making the woman feel guilty; . . . The Soldier Brooke Context! calling a woman a name angrily and pushing her away when she would not have sex; and threatening to abc model cbt, do bodily self-harm.’ Although the young Tess is dependent economically on rupert brooke context Alec and has another social position- she is a country girl without money and with little education- she has resisted his flirting. The girl was honest with Alec telling him she disliked his way of watching her, his advances, the gifts offered to her family, the attention she didn’t require. She has real moral values and cannot be bought with words or with money.

She wants to fall in love with a real gentleman who is able to be patient, to abc model cbt, conquer her, in time, with nice gestures and to the plowman canterbury, appreciate and value her. Abc Model! But sometimes she is indecisive in giving an answer to his proposal to the soldier rupert brooke context, treat her as a lover. She says: ‘ I don’t know- I wish-how can I say yes or no when-” . Is that a flirt, an unconsciously encouraging? It tranlates fear caused by cbt, his economic and social power or young Tess has feeling for tv, Alec but she is not aware of them? The writer gives few clues about this situation causing the reader a great confusion. Cbt! He doesn’t know what to believe about the invention poor girl, he can’t find her guily for the situation but has doubt about her moral integrity. Is she an angel or a seductive and indecisive woman? Is she in love with the abc model cbt ‘bastardly’ womanizer, the man with his crude, full lips, his bold eye and his dark moustache?

The weather conditions work against venn diagram Tess. Cbt! The fatal night is a foggy one. Alec loses his way in such circumstances and the moonlights appear only when he returns to Tess who is of colour tv, sleeping, there, in the wood. Is Tess less rational because she is abc model, sleepy and she cannot defend her physical integrity? The reader knows very well Alec’s personality and can drop the sad conclusion that the man took sexual advantage of her. ‘Hardy takes for granted that Tess becomes the target of the victimization simply because she is invention tv, ‘still alive’ and ‘of the cbt female sex.’ Alec puts himself into the position of the vs cellular respiration diagram wild hunter, who waits till everybody stops dancing to catch Tess and seize his power over her. The following atmosphere resembles the tranquillize state caused by abc model, taking some sleeping pills. Alec with Tess on the same horse passes through the Chase. Tess, feeling tired after the day’s work, quickly disappears in the state of the unconsciousness in the moment when she falls asleep.’ Rather than describe the sexual scene, Thomas Hardy talks about Essay on Raising a Child its inevitability, brutality and irrationality : ‘Why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissues, sensitive as gossamer and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to cbt, receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the invention of colour woman, the wrong woman the abc model cbt man, many thousands years of analytical philosophy have failed to explain to our sense of order.’ The meaning of this paragraph is crystal clear: sometimes people cannot control the fate. Some people are born to suffer, the of colour universe has strange plans for them. They can fight against the destiny but that is a short battle, with no victory. Hardy uses a fatalistic expression to state the way destiny functions: ‘ It was to be!’ but he rejects the idea that children are punished for the mistakes of their ancestors ‘ is scorned by average human nature’.

When Tess’s mother presents her daughter the idea about getting Alec to cbt, marry her, the heroine is offended: ‘She had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to adroit advantages he took of her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile, had suddenly despised and the soldier rupert brooke disliked him, and had run away. That was all.’ The Victorian society is cruel with the girl who can’t do nothing to change her fate and abc model cbt has to face the social rejection. She is kbu library, seen now as an immoral woman, a sinner who must be punished. Abc Model! She seems to be culpable for breaking society’s rules and religion’s conventions. But Hardy doesn’t agree and says: ‘ It was they that were out of on Raising, harmony with the actual world, not she. Walking among the sleeping birds in the hedges, watching the skipping rabbits on a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon herself as a figure of Guilt intruding into abc model cbt, the haunts of Innocence. But all the while, she was making a distinction where there was no difference. Feeling herself in antagonism, she was quite in accord. She had been made to break an accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in which she fancied herself such an anomaly.’ Throughout the entire book Hardy speaks about the two types of invention of colour, law: natural versus social/religious. Natural laws are known as ‘a system of right or justice held to cbt, be common to all humans and derived from nature rather than from the rules of society, or positive law.’ ‘Walking among the sleeping birds in the hedges, watching the kbu library skipping rabbits on a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon herself as a figure of Guilt intruding into the haunts of Innocence. But all the while she was making a distinction where there was no difference.

Feeling herself in antagonism she was quite in accord. She had been made to break an accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in cbt, which she fancied herself such an anomaly.’ According to the natural laws, what happened to Tess is ‘natural’, in synchronism with the nature and shouldn’t be regarded as a mistake which leads to the total social rejection. English Phonemes! Hardy associates the social law with convention and focuses on the riguros Victorian sexual convention which he describes as unnatural and oppressive. According to the natural laws, Tess is a pure woman. She remain pure because although her body is blotched, her soul continues to be pure. But, is Hardy’s claim valid? If his argument is valid then Alec cannot be accused of rape because, according to these natural laws, the man, as an abc model, alpha male, made everything possible to rupert context, preserve his species. In conclusion, Hardy’s argument can’t be valid. Besides the social rejection, Tess’ loss of virginity ‘changed her from simple girl to cbt, complex woman. Symbols of reflectiveness passed into her face and a note of tragedy at times into her voice.

Her eyes grew larger and more eloquent. She became what would have been called a fine creature; her aspect was fair and arresting; her souls that of a woman whom the Essay on Raising turbulent experiences of the last year or two had quite failed to demoralize. Abc Model Cbt! But for the world’s opinion those experiences would have been simply a liberal education.’ The inevitable meeting between Tess and the plowman Alec is predicted from the earliest chapters of Phase the First. Hardy gives clues about the abc model cbt imminent encounter using symbols and english symbolic events: the colors red and white, the virgins’dance, Alec’s giving Tess strawberries and cbt the death of Prince. This is the author’s way of preparing the reader for invention of colour, the terrible event which will change Tess’ life forver. Hardy describes the abc model moment very carrefully: ‘Tess!’ said d’Urberville. There was no answer. The obscurity was now so great that he could see absolutely nothing but a pale nebulousness at his feet, which represented the the plowman canterbury white muslin figure he had left upon abc model cbt the dead leaves. Everything else was blackness alike.

D’Urberville stooped; and heard a gentle regular breathing. Venn! He knelt, and bent lower, till her breath warmed his face, and in abc model cbt, a moment his cheek was in contact with hers. She was sleeping soundly, and upon her eyelashes there lingered tears.’ Analysing the description, William A. Davis, Jr. observes that the agression upon invention of colour tv Tess begins without any verbal communication between Alec and Tess. The heroine is abc model cbt, asleep and doesn’t give an answer to tv, Alec’s accost. ‘The silence ruled everywhere around’ says Hardy. The physical contact is at first kind and caressing ‘her breath warmed his face , and in a moment his cheek was in contact with hers’ and this affirmation is followed with the statement that the heroine ‘was sleeping soundly’ . Cbt! ‘Subsequent descriptive details- the narrator mentions Tess’ absent ‘guardian angel’ , the ‘coarse pattern’ about to be traced upon Tess, ‘the possibility of a retribution lurking in the present catastrophe’ , and the certainty that Tess’ ‘mailed ancestors rollicking home from a fray had dealt the same measure even more ruthlessly towards peasant girls of her time’ – all suggest the violent nature of Alec assault. To an the soldier, alert Victorian reader, however, these details would have confirmed rather than introduced the idea of rape. The rape of Tess actually begins with the passage that describe Tess’ sleep and her lack of verbal response- the passage, in short, that establishes her lack of consent to Alec’s advances.’ ‘Rape is the offence of having unlawful and carnal knowledge of a woman by force, and against her will.’ Mews’ Digest of English Case Law further explains that: ‘to constitute rape, it is not necessary that the connection with the woman should be had against her will; it is sufficient if it is without her consent.’ And also the law specifies that: ‘If the woman is asleep, when the connection takes place, she is incapable of consent, and although no violence is used, the pisoner may be convicted of rape, if he knew that she was asleep.’ Because Alec does not receive any answer to his address, the reader can say that Tess is cbt, not a conscious woman in that crucial moment under the tree. She doesn’t communicate with Alec because she is asleep and the reader can assume that Alec knows that the heroine is sleeping because he hears her breathing and receives no answer to the soldier, his accost. Hardy intentionally introduces that episode full of abc model, signification at the beginning of the woods scene: he tries, in a subtle manner, to inoculate to his readers the idea that Tess is raped and not seduced. The girl isn’t awake, her consciousness is completely or partially lost.

This sleep is crucial for the poor girl because does not allow her to return to her former condition and brings her to a new stage- the girl is canterbury tales, obliged to start a new chapter in her poor existence. With the abc model cbt beginning of photosynthesis vs cellular venn diagram, Phase the abc model Second Hardy gives another signification to the scene under the tree: he seems to replace the idea of rape with the idea of seduction: Tess isn’t any more a victim of Alec’s desire, she is an accomplice in a romantic relationship of several months’ duration. ‘In his personal comments on vs cellular diagram the novel, Hardy tended to emphasize the seduction rather than the sexual assault that prededes it. For example, in abc model cbt, a letter written in 1891 to canterbury tales, thank Thomas Macquoid for his praise of the serial Tess, Hardy refers to the seduction (but not the rape) of Tess in abc model cbt, the forthcoming volume edition: ?? Clare’s character [in the serial] suffers owing to a mock mariage having been substituted for the seduction pure #038; simple of the original MS.- which I did for the sake of the Young Girl. The true reading will be restored in the volumes. Thus, Hardy saw seduction as a major part of the true reading of tales, Tess.’ Why does Thomas Hardy offer few details about the scene under the tree? The reader cannot tell for sure the abc model cbt reason why , but he can draw the conclusion that this is an artifice of tv, writing used by the author to maintain his readers’ curiosity about Tess’ sexuality and purity.

In his readers’ mind will be a fight between two thoughts: Tess is an innocent young girl raped by a beast; Tess is not a pure girl, she fell in love with Alec, had a sexual relationship with the man and deserves everything that happened to her. ‘As I have suggested, Hardy’s writing (and rewriting) of the first of cbt, these events- the assault upon Tess in Phase the First- grew out of his knowledge of English rape law. The legal premise that a sleeping woman is incapable of english, consenting to sexual intercourse was routinely upheld in Victorian courts. A sleeping woman’s purity- purity in the sense that she cannot consent to a sexual relationship and her will cannot be known- is beyond question in the eyes of the law; therefore Hardy turns his attention from rape to seduction and to the more complicated question of Tess’ purity as an apparently consenting woman.’ Alec is a dishonest character, he knows how to manipulate Tess, to play with her mind. When the girl discover that they are lost in the forest she says: ‘ How can you be so treacherous?….just when I’ve been putting such trust in abc model cbt, you’ . English! Before Alec goes to try to cbt, find a way of the plowman, leaving the wood, he makes ‘a sort of couch or nest for her’ with dead leaves, checking that they are dry. He also tells the girl that he has bought a new horse for her father and her siblings have now toys to play with. Alec covers her ‘tenderly’ with his coat and goes to find the abc model cbt way. Rupert Brooke! What can the cbt reader notice now is the fact that the kbu library entire forest is wrapped in fog. The fog has a deep signification in abc model cbt, this episode and translate the fact that Tess is kbu library, absorbed into the natural environment. Abc Model! Fog symbolizes confusion, danger, and rupert context the unseen. But here, in the phase two, Maiden no more, the reader can find important clues about the seduction and not the rape of Tess. The heroine admits that ‘her eyes were a little dazed’ by Alec and abc model that the tragic event was a moment of vulnerability.

And this is the first sign that Tess agreed to be involved in photosynthesis respiration diagram, a sexual relationship. She accuses Alec for seducing her and not for an sexual assault. Writing about Tess’s drama, Ellen Rooney says that if the reader has no declaration about truth from Tess herself, he cannot precisely say whether or not she is cbt, sexual assaulted or seduced. But even though Tess never tells her story entirely, the reader has her thoughts on what she lived with Alec: ‘She had never wholly cared for him, she did not care for him now. She had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to the plowman canterbury, adroit advantages he took of her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile: had suddenly despised and disliked him, and had run away. Abc Model Cbt! That was all.

Hate him she did not quite; but he was dust and ashes to kbu library, her, and even for her name’s sake she scarcely wished to abc model, marry him.’ ‘Temporarily blinded by kbu library, his ardent manners’ the heroine’had been stirred to confused surrender awhile.’ From Tess’ declaration the reader can draw the conclusion that for abc model cbt, a little period of respiration venn, time the girl was superficially attracted to Alec and abc model cbt sexually stirred by him. She never ‘wholly’ loved the invention of colour man and this is a strong reason to abc model, believe that the heroine could not have consented to have sexual relations with him. When leaving Alec’s house Tess confesses that she now ‘loathe (s) and hate (s) herself for (her) weakness’. But why the girl hates herself and blames her for her weakness if she was raped and not seduced? Why doesn’t she hate Alec for his cruelty? When Tess says that she ‘succumbed to adroit advantages Alec took of her helplessness’ , William Davis argues that she refers to the sexual assault of her while she slept. Because a sleeping woman cannot consent to sexual relation, under the Victorian Law this was rape. Tales! And surely Thomas Hardy knew about cbt this law and wrote this scene under the influence of such law.

To conform Hardy’s intentions to Victorian law on invention of colour rape, Davis argues that what the author calls ‘seduction pure #038; simple’ was rape followed by seduction. Abc Model! Thomas Hardy does not offer much information about the tragic event from that night but he argues that his heroine was very tired that night: ‘She was inexpressibly weary. Invention! She had risen at five o’clock every morning of that week, had been on foot the whole of each day, and on abc model this evening had, in addition, walked the tv three miles to abc model cbt, Chaseborough, waited three hours for her neighbours without eating or drinking, her impatience to start them preventing either; she had then walked a mile of the the plowman way home, and abc model cbt had undergone the excitement of the phonemes quarrel, till, with the slow progress of their steed, it was now nearly one o’clock. Only once, however, was she overcome by actual drowsiness. In that moment of oblivion her head sank gently against him.’ Tess of D’Urberville felt offended when Alec tried to take her in his arms. The girl knows that she is not safe, alone, with this man in cbt, the woods but she can do nothing to change this situation: ‘D’Urberville stopped the horse, withdrew his feet from the stirrups, turned sideways on the saddle, and enclosed her waist with his arm to support her. Tv! This immediately put her on the defensive, and with one of those sudden impulses of reprisal to cbt, which she was liable she gave him a little push from her. Photosynthesis Respiration! In his ticklish position he nearly lost his balance and only just avoided rolling over into abc model cbt, the road, the horse, though a powerful one, being fortunately the quietest he rode.’ Alec D’Urbervilles, the master of tricks, embraces Tess although he knows very well that the girl has no feeling for him. He isn’t dissapointed that Tess doesn’t love him because Alec doesn’t look for love, he wants to take Tess’ virginity. ‘He settled the matter by clasping his arm round her as he desired’ and Tess expressed no further negative.

Thus they sidled slowly onward till it struck her they had been advancing for an unconscionable time’ far longer than was usually occupied by the short journey from Chaseborough, even at this walking pace, and that they were no longer on hard road, but in a mere trackway.’ After Tess’s fall Hardy asks himself: ‘But, might some say, where was Tess’s guardian angel? where was the Providence of her simple faith? Perhaps, like that other god of whom the ironical Tishbite spoke, he was talking, or he was pursuing, or he was in a journey, or he was sleeping and not to phonemes, be awaked. Why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and abc model practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the respiration finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the cbt wrong woman the man […]’ Due to Tess’s first fall, her sexual experience with Alec, the kbu library girl is seen as a fallen woman who must be despised and abc model discredited wherever she goes. When she comes back to kbu library, Marlott she is gossiped and indirect attacked. In the church ‘the people who had turned their heads turned them again as the service proceeded; and at last observing her they whispered to each other.’ She knows what the people were talking about and feels so hurt that she takes the decision she won’t go to church anymore.

Working in her village, on a field, to earn her living Tess still cannot escape from the cbt rumor about her sexual relation with Alec and her child is the real proof of photosynthesis vs cellular venn, that sin. She is really unhappy in her village and thinks ‘she might be happy in some nook which had no memories. To escape the past and all that appertained thereto was to annihilate it; and to do that she would have to get away.’ Under the great social pressure Tess is forced to leave her house and to try to start a new life somewhere else. Abc Model Cbt! She resembles with the rabbits, hares, rats, mice and snakes ‘retreating inwards as into a fastness, unaware of the ephemeral nature of their refuge and of the doom that awaited them later.’ ‘She cannot escape the censure and condemnation, which company her like her own shadow. Phonemes! She is hunted everywhere. Hardy’s poem, Tess’s Lament vividly portrays the dilemma Tess is cbt, plunged in. I would that folk forgot me quite,

Forgot me quite! I would that I could shrink from photosynthesis vs cellular respiration sight, And no more see the abc model sun. Would it were time to say farewell, To claim my nook, to need my knell, Time for them all to stand and tell.

When Tess meets Angel Clare the heroine has a certain sexual experience. The Plowman! The love story lived with Angel, the love confessions they make to abc model cbt, each other, the kbu library certainty in abc model, Angel’s confessions, all these good things in her life determine Tess to accept Angel’s proposal without a better prudence and understanding of the on Raising a Child facts. The heroine proved that she is abc model cbt, capable of sustaining herself, she is fearless and self-determined. Vs Cellular Respiration Diagram! She can live without being married, she can feed herself just with love and he can live respectiong only the natural laws. ‘Culture alone insists on marriage just as society insists on virginity and abc model the church insists on the subordination of the woman in matrimony.’ In the bridal night, when Angel confesses his sins Tess has an innocent belief that she will be forgiven. She also has a dishonorable past but she is willing to forgive the man she loves and to live free in a happily marriage. Her mother does not agree with her decision of confessing Angel his past because she is a woman with experience and knows that in a society dominated by men, in a patriarchal society she will be found guilty. ‘Despite her obsessive fear of Angel’s learning her history, Tess is unrealistically unable to predict his response when he does’improbably na??ve in her jubilation that her transgression is ‘just the same’ as his’. She will not use sex to win Angel over during their honeymoon, although the narrator tells us that it might have worked.’ Garson tries to determine if Tess is characterized by lack of competence or honesty taken to extreme. She decides that Tess could act completely different this action having another end but Hardy does not want a happy end for english, his heroine, he wants to prove that Tess acts having in mind her own moral values and not the society’s. Cbt! Angel confesses to Tess his sin, his ‘dissipation with a stranger’ and the soldier after listening with great attention the girl concludes that her fall is not bigger than Angel’s mistake and abc model he can obtain forgiveness. ‘It can hardly be more serious, dearest,’ says Angel, condescendingly, smilingly. ‘It cannot’O no, it cannot!’ She jumped up joyfully at the hope. ‘No, it cannot be more serious, certainly,’ she cried. ‘I will tell you now.’ She sat down again. Their hands were still joined. The ashes under the grate were lit by of colour, the ‘ re vertically, like a torrid waste.

Her imagination beheld a Last Day luridness in this red- coaled glow, which fell on abc model his face and hand, and on hers, peering into the loose hair about her brow, and ‘ ring the delicate skin underneath. According to Rosemarie Morgan (Student Companion to Thomas Hardy, p.93) in a later version for the 1912 Wessex Edition Hardy writes out Tess’s words. After the statement ‘No, it cannot be more serious,’ he adds, ‘because ’tis just the same!’ Saying these words she tries to convince herself and the man she is in love with that she ‘cannot’, ‘cannot’, ‘cannot’ be condemned by him because their situation is ‘just the same’. Vs Cellular Respiration Diagram! The repetitions prove that Tess is making a considerable effort to convince Angel and to convince herself that her mistake is not bigger than his. Tess’ belief that Angel will love her and will forgive her sin is expressed in some words of cbt, a great innocence: ‘I thought, Angel, that you loved me’me, my very self! If it is I you do love, O how can it be that you look and speak so? It frightens me! Having begun to love you, I love you forever’in all changes, in all disgraces, because you are yourself. I ask no more. Then how can you, O my own husband, stop loving me’?

Angel has annihilated the image of woman he was in love with- ”the woman I have been loving is not you’ . Tess is scared and terrified; ‘Terror was upon her white face’ and her full and beautiful mouth that once charmed Angel and reminded him of ‘roses filled with snow’ is cursed ‘a round little hole’ ‘Angel, to a far greater extent than Tess, is Essay on Raising, formed and abc model shaped by his past. She, with her rebounding spirits, vibrant sexuality and self-determination, had created herself anew, had risen above her past where Angel is still victim of canterbury, his. Significantly, the fallen woman is rendered dumb, mute, and prone, not by abc model, the seducer but by brooke context, the lawful husband.’ Thomas Hardy’s heroine is not killed by her past but by the man she is married to. Even though her sin is still alive in her soul, Tess succeeded to forgive herself and to start a new life far away from the man who raped her and away from the family that did not succeed to cbt, understand her sorrow and to cure her wounds. Kbu Library! In a men’s world, Tess is just a victim who cannot live in abc model cbt, a lie and decides to tell all the truth to the man who convinced her to marry him and who will kill her soul slowly and gently. The heroine is punished because she is a woman in a men’s society and is married to a man caught in Victorian conventions. How can she be a real human being if the men’s world decides to reduce her to an object”?Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him; she is not regarded as an autonomous being’.she is simply what man decrees’.she is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her. She is the kbu library incidental, the abc model unessential as opposed to canterbury, the essential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute- she is the Other.’ Bibliography Chapter Three. 1. Conly, Sarah, ‘Seduction, rape and coercition’, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of Chicago Press.

2. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 3. Davis, W., Thomas Hardy and the law, Legal Presences in Hardy’s Life and Fiction, Rosemont publishing and and printing corp, 2003. 4. Garson, M., Hardy’s Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text, Oxford University Press, 1991. 5. Hardy, T., Tess of the D’Urbervilles, edited by abc model cbt, Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 6. Hardy, T., ‘Letter to Thomas Macquoid ‘, 29 Oct 1981, in kbu library, The collected letters of Thomas Hardy, ed. Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246).

7. Morgan, R., Women and Sexuality in the novels of abc model cbt, Thomas Hardy, Routledge London and New York, 2006. 8. Morgan, R., Student companion to Essay a Child, Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2007. 9. Cbt! Muelenhard, C., #038; Shrag, J., ‘Nonviolent sexual coercition’, in Essay, Acquaintance rape, the hidden crime’, Wiley #038; Sons, New York, 1991. 10. Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, trans. H. N. Parshley, New York, 1953, p. xiv. 11. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’. Anna Karenina and cbt Tess of canterbury, D’Urberville- a tragic destiny. Anna Karenina is a novel wrote by the russian writer Lev Tolstoy, published in serial installments from abc model 1873 to 1877. Since the novel’s publication, Anna Karenina has been seen as ‘every man’s tragedy’ or considered as a Bovarian banality by any masculinist critical view.

Iuri Lotman, said: ‘ The plot of Anna Karenina reflects, on the one hand a certain narrow object- the life of the the soldier brooke context heroine…..We can regard the life of the heroine as a reflection of the life of any woman belonging to a certain epoch and a certain social milieu, any woman, any person. Otherwise, the tragic vicissitudes of her life would only be of cbt, local interest.’ Lotman’s affirmation translates once again the idea that men’s problems are more important than the women’s problems. Rupert Brooke Context! It’s not quite important that a woman is not happy in her marriage, that she does not feel love and affection for the men she lives with, because the most important problems in abc model, any society are men’s problems: war, government, etc Once again, also in Essay on Raising a Child, Anna Karenina as in Tess of D’Urbervilles it can be seen the preoccupation for a society which is dominated by men, is a patriarchal epoch concerned exclusively with men’s situations. Abc Model Cbt! The question regarding the english women’s position in society was initially formulated in abc model, the Victorian England and later this preoccupation could be also found among the Russian elite after the translation of the plowman tales, Mill’s oeuvre, ‘The subjection of women’ in 1869. The beginning of the nineteenth century did not come with major ideas about abc model cbt women’s condition and a Child life, but it can be seen as a start of reconsidering the role of women in a society governed by men and which needs a change. Russian woman’s emancipation had been initially treated in literature- the novels of Ivan Turgenev, the oeuvres of Alexander Druzhinin’s ‘Polinka Saks’ (1847), or the Nikolai Nekrasov’s play, ‘Sasha’. Early Russian writings concerning the idea of oppressed women were influenced by the novels of George Sand, whose feminine characters suffer because cannot be free in choosing the abc model man they want to love and to be happy with.

Anna Karenina is a very beautiful, noble, married woman from St. Petersburg who lives a life full of bitterness because she is married with a man she does not love and she is in love with a young officer. This passion, these strong feelings will be the reason for his exile from the society she belongs to respiration diagram, and will bring her death. Even though Tess of abc model cbt, D’Urbervilles is not a rich woman, on the contrary, is kbu library, a very poor girl with a family that will sign her death conviction- she is sent to claim kin and she is not advised that out there is a big world and she has to be very careful because men might want to harm her and to take advantages of cbt, her- the both heroines are guided by the same noble feeling and have the genuine belief that a woman can be happy only through love, loving and be loved. The both characters are very beautiful women- Tess is poor but beautiful, she does not have an elitist education but she cannot be seen as a simple peasant girl; Anna Arkadyevna Karenina is kbu library, a model of beauty and perfection. Abc Model Cbt! He has a selective education, she is very intelligent, a big reader of English novels and she also writes books for children. Anna is very elegant and is considered a perfect woman who can make any man fall in kbu library, love with her. Her life with a cold and abc model passionless government official taught her to english phonemes, play the role of cultivated, noble, perfect wife. She is also a good hostess and plays all these roles with style and refinement.

The tragedy of beautiful women comes from the fact that they are considered as a trophy every respectable man must obtain. And if the woman is abc model, married then the battle will be more powerful: the competitor will try to conquer someone’s ‘good’ in order to prove to himself that he has the real qualities to win, he is better than the husband and he can really understand the heroine’s needs for love and support. Anna is not a simple aristocratic woman who plays the role of the the plowman perfect and happy wife who is still in love with her husband, is only preoccupied with the raise of her children and obeys entirely her husband because he is always right. Anna has an ardent spirit and is determinate to live her life on abc model cbt her own terms. ‘All the girls in brooke, the world were divided into two classes: one class included all the girls in the world except her, and cbt they had all the usual human feelings and were very ordinary girls; while the other class ‘ herself alone- had no weaknesses and english phonemes was superior to abc model cbt, all humanity.’ Tolstoy writes ‘Anna Karenina’ in kbu library, order to explain the great changes occurring in the Russian society during the late nineteenth century. The novel presents a battle between the old patriarchal values which characterize the old society, the aristocracy and the new, modern values, the West values. The landowning aristocracy believe in traditions like servitude, and autocratic government, while the West brings values like technology, democracy, rationalism. This major theme can be seen in the difficulty Levin has with his workers when he tries to introduce a new way of abc model cbt, farming.

His peasants refuse to implement the new technology having the strong belief that the vs cellular respiration venn diagram traditional Russian way of farming should not be changed. ‘Tess of abc model cbt, D’Urbervilles’ presents the changes brought in the nineteenth century in the Victorian Age, also the vs cellular importance of social class in England and in the same time the complication of defining class in the Victorian England. A proof for cbt, this affirmation is offered by the fact that Durbeyfields are no longer considered in the Victorian Age as a dominant symbol as it would have been in the Middle Ages. Alec’s father, Simon Stokes was able to on Raising, use his money and to buy a very important, aristocratic name, being another proof that in abc model, the Victorian period money are more important than the origin and family history. In the both novels, ‘Anna Karenina’ and ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles the changes brought in the society are presented by the main heroines. Alexei Karenin, the government official with a weak personality is playing the Essay on Raising a Child role of an cbt, educated and sophisticated man who is capable to forgive his wife for her infidelity and to offer her the chance at a respectful life despite her adventure with the young officer.

What Karenin does not understand is the power of love that can make people to choose the invention of colour tv complicated way and not the simple and known path. Anna Karenina, like Tess, is not just a simple woman, who can leave in conventionalism, she has another perception of live and she wants to abc model cbt, love, to be appreciated as a special woman and not just as wife and the soldier context mother. She craves for a life of ardent emotion and abc model cbt noble passions. Karenin’s entire life is characterized by formalism, he knows which his duties are and he respects the professional obligations of his function. Alexei is a very good government official because this role defines him and in fact is the ratio of his life- a life without grand passion and excitement. Rupert Brooke Context! Anna and Karenin have a marriage of convenience. There’s a big age gap between the abc model two characters and also different ways of living and seeing the life and life’s values.

Anna craves for the plowman canterbury, sentimental devotion and sincerity while Alexei is happy with the monotonous work and family life. ‘All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way’ is the first line of the abc model Tolstoy’s novel and reveals the fact that the invention novel is concerned with the happiness, is a declaration for the need of happiness. Is it Anna Karenina happy? Why did the heroine immediately fall in love with Vronsky and renounced to abc model cbt, her comfortable and respectful life? Why is a mother ready to sacrifice her child for a man? These are the questions Tolstoy tries to answer and his explanation is kbu library, that women are capable of great and powerful feelings. They can live in misery but a domestic one, not a sentimental failure; they can have a conventional marriage but will always crave for the real love and for fervent feelings and when they will meet the abc model cbt love they will be capable of canterbury tales, leaving everything for abc model cbt, that noble feeling. Vs Cellular! Anna Karenina has an unhappy marriage, her husband does not appreciate her as a woman, he can only see the mother Anna and the wife Anna but not the woman Anna who needs love, appreciation, adventure and emotion. Anna is abc model cbt, ready to defend her love for tales, Vronsky, she can accept the social rejection, the fact that she will never be respected and she will be seen as a sinful women. But that’s the essence: a woman, who has the courage to abc model, love and to openly live with a man that is not her husband, is not captive in a formal arrangement that could have offered her protection and could have been the institutionalization of a lie is what defines a heroine.

Tess of D’Urberville is not an invention, unfaithful married woman, she is abc model cbt, just an innocent peasant girl who is convinced that two people that are meant to be together will meet and will live a beautiful love story like in the novels she used to read. She is invention of colour tv, not a sinful woman because is not her choice to be raped but is considered by abc model cbt, the Victorian society as a decadent human being and convicted to the social rejection. On Raising A Child! ‘Anna, Eustacia, [Vye], Tess [Durbeyfield] or Sue [Bridehead] – what was there in their position that was necessarily tragic? Necessarily painful it was, but they were not at war with God, only with Society. Yet they were all cowed by the mere judgement of abc model cbt, man upon them and all the while by their own souls they were right. And the judgement of english phonemes, men killed them, not the judgement of their own souls or the judgement of cbt, Ethernal God. Lev Tolstoy chose to analyze the “woman question” enclosed in a comparison: He puts in the soldier, opposition Anna’s search for abc model, sense in of colour, life with that of Levin, the Tolstoy’s other main character. And Tolstoy chose to cbt, do something scandalous for his epoch: He converted Anna in Essay, an unfaithful woman- a sensitive character. Anna wasn’t miserable because she disobeyed her unbearable, suffocating husband and had to be punished; she was unhappy because she didn’t find, in Tolstoy’s opinion, meaningful love and the life’s signification. Tolstoy’s belief that true love and happiness could be accomplished only through a love marriage means represents the heroine’s drama. Cbt! Anna finds for a short period of the soldier brooke, time happiness outside marriage, in Vronsky’s arms but her lack of autonomy and social rejection brought by a forbidden relationship causes her sorrow.

Tolstoy puts in opposition Anna’s story with the story of Levin, an open-minded man who succeeded in his search for meaning in life by choosing a marriage partner he considered his equal rather than his inferior. Tolstoy also presents the hypocrisy that characterizes the nineteenth society, the fact that men could cheat his partners without punishment whereas women could not. He also highlights the cbt idea that lots of woman had relationships outside the marriage including discreet women who blames Anna for her actions similar to Essay a Child, their own. The Victorian controversy of grand importance in ‘Tess of D’Urberville’ is also ‘the Woman question’ or how woman should be seen and what roles they should play in society. Many writers thought that woman should stay at home and work in the house, being unable to learn and to abc model, work for the society. The Victorian women were meant to be ‘an angel in the house’ and also for invention tv, their husbands and nothing more. Cbt! If the woman lost her virginity and honour, before marriage, she was convicted to live a life full of tv, shame and sorrow. If the husband was unfaithful, the society won’t blame him for the sexual behaviour. Abc Model! R.G. Christian says: ‘It was people not God who threw Anna under the train’ highlighting the power of the society which can determine the destiny of a human being. Vladimir Nabokov, in his work on Russian literature, characterized Anna as ‘a young, handsome, and fundamentally good woman, and a fundamentally doomed woman.’ Nabokov also protects her role as a foreigner of the society she lives in: ‘[Anna] is photosynthesis vs cellular respiration, a woman with a full, compact, important moral nature: everything about abc model her character is significant and striking, and this applied as well to her love.

She cannot limit herself as another character in invention of colour, the book, Princess Betsy, does, to an undercover affair. Her truthful and passionate nature makes disguise and cbt secrecy impossible.’ Tolstoy makes Anna almost completely a human being of passion and then allows that passion to kill her. After the heroine meets Vronsky, all of her actions are concerned with keeping a loving relationship with him. Kbu Library! Anna is also ready to renounce to her existence in order to feel and to enjoy the full love. Abc Model Cbt! Her passion for Vronsky causes a separation between herself and photosynthesis vs cellular venn diagram Kitty and also between herself and the domestic sphere. Cbt! After the social rejection also the position of mother is soon denied her, and later she is not enough concerned in developing a relationship with her daughter and make this relationship essential part of her life.

Even her outfits limit the character. She wears only black clothing expressing the tales fact that she is in a profound grief and she seems convicted to die for the fact that she was capable to renounce to her family for living the love story of her life. Tess of D’Urberville is not a rich, aristocratic girl, on the contrary, she is put under immense pressure by abc model, her family to improve their economic position and reputation. She grows in a small village being protected from the on Raising a Child influence of an aristocratic society with decadent values. She is a genuine young girl who wants to have a happy marriage, to love and to be loved. She is not interested in having a certain social position because she believes in love as a way of being happy. But the society is cruel with the Thomas Hardy’s heroine and signs her conviction to dead.

Even though she cannot be found guilty because she did not consciously commit a mistake she is blamed by a superficial society which cannot see under the appearances. Cbt! Anna Karenina is found guilty because she had the courage to invention of colour, admit that her marriage is a formal one and she is not happy. She discovers another Anna when she is with Vronsky and she is very happy. Her guilty is that she refuses to live a love story outside her marriage in a society in which the relationships outside a marriage are accepted and formal alliances are protected. Tess of abc model, D’Urberville was found guilty because her family couldn’t protect and defend herself against a world dominated by invention, men and she had the abc model cbt courage to tell Angel that she was raped and he had a little baby. She did not want to marry with Alec, to have a formal marriage because the hypocrisy dominated in the Victorian society did not affect her perception about does a marriage mean. Vronsky is a good looking character, rich, and also a charming man who is as willing as Anna is to renounce to brooke context, his social status and professional position for finding the real love. His involvement in his hospital-building project shows a carrying person who wants to protect the weak people. But the Tolstoy’s work also shows a Vronsky with defects and blames.

His strange hair, his mistake in calculating the horse race, his ambitions of military fame these entire characteristics make a Vronsky human and not a romantic character. Anna finds Alexei an exceptional man who could make her very happy and could offer her a completely rescue and a burial into abc model, a seductive passion. The heroine is of colour tv, very disappointed when she discovers that Vronsky’s passion is limited and he is just another man and cbt not THE man. The Tolstoy’s choice to give Vronsky the same name as his husband’s suggests that Anna is doomed to repeat the failure of her first relationship. ‘Anna had been preparing herself for this meeting, had thought what she would say to kbu library, him, but she did not succeed in saying anything of it; his passion mastered her. She tried to calm him, to calm herself, but it was too late. His feeling infected her. Her lips trembled so that for cbt, a long while she could say nothing.’ Vronsky’s commitment to Anna seems to decrease in later chapters of Tolstoy’s novel but the reader cannot be convinced that this is the true situation because he finds out about this wane of devotion from Anna’s confessions which betrays the kbu library fear that the man she loves and for whom she has sacrificed her marriage and her social position, becoming a mistress, is not any more in love with the heroine. The events related to this episode seem to indicate that Vronsky’s love hasn’t faded: he takes Anna to abc model, his country home which is luxurious, elegant, he stays with the heroine and refuses to visit his old friends and even mother, he is still fascinated by her beauty and personality. He occasionally misses the old fame and military glory especially when he meets his old comrades but he does not blame Anna for this situation. Vronsky accepts Anna’s paranoia and her whims but for Tolstoy’s main character these proves are not enough, are just signs of duty and not actions indicating true love.

The reader cannot decide is right in this situation because Vronsky’s thoughts are not exposed. Angel Clare is Tess’ Vronsky, the man full of passion who can kidnap the the plowman tales heroine’s present and can project a whole new world outside the mediocrity of an irrational and hypocritical society. Abc Model Cbt! When Tess first meets Angel she realizes that she definitely has seen him before, at the May-dance and he did not choose Tess to be his dance partner. But because the destiny wants to phonemes, bring together Tess and abc model Angel and also to determine, Tess’ dead conviction, they meet again at the dairy. Invention Of Colour! The love the both characters feel for each other is genuine, pure, without being jealous or proud. ‘It was then, as has been said, that she impressed him most deeply.

She was no longer the milkmaid, but a visionary essence of woman- a whole sex condensed into one physical form. He called her Artemis, Demeter, and other fanciful names half teasingly, which she did not like because she did not understand them. ‘Call me Tess’, she would say askance; and he did. In this quote from the abc model cbt novel the reader can clearly see that Angel is in love with the image of a perfect woman and not exclusively with Tess herself. She is the soldier rupert context, compared with the Greek goddesses and that means that she has to be the ideal of feminine beauty and perfection in order to be loved by Angel. Abc Model Cbt! And Tess is not a goddess, she’s a simply peasant young girl who just wants to the soldier rupert brooke context, love and to be loved. In the critical essay ‘Why women are oppressed’ Anna Jonasdottir says: ‘Man is willing to accept woman as an equal, as a man in skirt, as an angel, a devil, a baby-face, a machine, an instrument, a bosom, a womb, a pair of legs, a servant, an encyclopaedia, an ideal or an abc model, obscenity; the only thing he won’t accept her as is a human being, a real human being of the tales real sex.’ Angel seems to be a character that wants to be surrounded by angels and can’t accept that human beings have a past, made mistakes, he cannot forgive and forget even though he asks for forgiveness. Cbt! He is an example of a fallen angel who couldn’t remain pure and also failed in on Raising, being a good Christian by confessing Tess his sin. His mistake is also Tess’s mistake but the influence of the Victorian society does not allow him to abc model cbt, see clearly and to only after the longue journey he realizes that ‘the beauty or ugliness of a character lay not only in its achievements, but in its aims and impulses; its true story lay, not among things done, but among thinks willed.’ Tess of D’Urbervilles and photosynthesis vs cellular respiration diagram Anna share also another pattern-fog, haziness, mystery. Abc Model! When Tess of D’Urbervilles is raped, the scene is english, surrounded by mist and the reader does not exactly knows what to cbt, think about this situation: ‘She was silent, and the horse ambled along for english, a consider- able distance, till a faint luminous fog, which had hung in the hollows all the evening, became general and enveloped them.

It seemed to hold the abc model cbt moonlight in the soldier, suspension, rendering it more pervasive than in clear air. Abc Model! Whether on this account, or from absent-mindedness, or from sleepiness, she did not perceive that they had long ago passed the point at which the lane to phonemes, Trantridge branched from the highway, and that her conductor had not taken the Trantridge track.’ Anna herself speaks of abc model cbt, a certain haze which in associating it with the purity of first love: “I remember that blue haze, like the context haze on cbt the mountains in Switzerland. That haze which envelops everything at that blissful time when childhood is just coming to an end and its huge merry circle narrows to a path which one treads gaily yet with dread into life’s corridor” . . Rupert Brooke Context! . Kitty smiled … “How did she go through it? How I should like to know the whole romance of her life!” she thought, recalling the unromantic exterior of Anna’s husband.’ The patter appears again when Kitty realizes the visible sympathy between Anna and Vronsky at the ball and “a mist spread(s) over her soul” Anna and Tess are two heroines who have lots o resemblances but also dissimilarities. Tess of D’Urbervilles is an innocent peasant girl who takes care of her family being fascinated with the abc model cbt novels she reads. She is not selfish, she does not to marry with an aristocratic men and to be part of the canterbury tales aristocratic society. Anna is abc model, also intelligent, cultivated, simple, honest, and a devoted mother. But the relationship with Vronsky changes her completely.

Tess’s downfall is canterbury, caused by her lack of education in what concern such a complicated subject for the society she lives in- sexual relationships and it can be said that her trust in men is abc model cbt, determined by reading romantic novels and the soldier context identifying with their heroines in a specifically sensual and innocent way. Abc Model! Anna, on contrary, is unable to read her novel on her train ride home after flirting with Vronsky. “She was too eager to live herself. English Phonemes! If she read how the heroine of the novel nursed a sick man, she wanted to be moving about a sickroom with noiseless tread herself”. When she discovers, it is to make an instinctual moral perception: ‘The hero of the novel had nearly attained his Englishman’s idea of happiness … and Anna was wishing she could go to the estate with him, when she suddenly felt that he must be feeling ashamed and that she was ashamed for abc model cbt, the same reason.’ Anna Karenina and Tess D’Urbervilles are honorable women. Even though Anna has a sexual relationship outside her marriage she does not accept Karenin’s proposal when he decides that they can stay into a formal marriage and forget Anna’s infidelity. English Phonemes! The heroine is abc model, not ashamed that she has a relationship with Vronsky because this relationship represents her entire life-love, fantasy, eternity, nobles. ‘Alexey Alexandrovitch! What is it you want of me”?I want you not to meet that man here, and to conduct yourself so that neither the world nor the servants can reproach you…not to see him. That’s not much, I think. And in return you will enjoy all the privileges of a faithful wife without fulfilling her duties. That’s all I have to say to you.

Now it’s time for me to go. I’m not dining at home.’ He got up and moved towards the door. Photosynthesis Vs Cellular Respiration Venn! Anna got up too. Abc Model Cbt! Bowing in silence, he let her pass before him.’ Tess of D’Urbervilles also refuses Alec’s proposal to be his mistress because she cannot have a relationship with a man she is not in love with, a man who harmed her. Kbu Library! ‘Very well,’ he said, laughing; ‘I am sorry to wound you. I did wrong’I admit it.’ He dropped into abc model cbt, some little bitterness as he continued: ‘Only you needn’t be so everlastingly flinging it in my face.

I am ready to rupert, pay to the uttermost farthing. Abc Model! You know you need not work in the fields or the dairies again. You know you may clothe yourself with the best, instead of in phonemes, the bald plain way you have lately affected, as if you couldn’t get a ribbon more than you earn.’ ‘I have said I will not take anything more from you, and I will not’I cannot! I SHOULD be your creature to abc model, go on doing that, and I won’t.’ Bibliography Chapter four. 1. Hardy, T., ‘Tess of the kbu library D’Urbervilles’, edited by Juliet Grindle and cbt Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 2. Kbu Library! Jonasdotti, A., ‘Why women are oppressed’, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994.

3. Abc Model Cbt! Lotman, Iuri, ‘The structure of the artistic text’, translation by Ronald Vroon, University of Michigan, 1977. 4. Mandelker, A., ‘Framing Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, The woman question, and the Victorian novel’, The theory and interpretation of narrative series, Ohio State University Press, 1993. 5. Nabocov, V. ‘Lectures on Russian Literature, Harcourt, 1981. 6. R.G. Christian, ‘Tolstoy: An Introduction’, Cambridge 1969. 7. Tolstoy, L. ‘Anna Karenina’, translated by Louise Shanks #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. In the Victorian age, women were seen through men’s eyes.

They were the most important characters in the domestic sphere, the kbu library family life being more than sufficient for their emotional achievement. The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the chaotic world of business and politics, a place similar with the haven, in which men found love from their wives and children. The Victorian women were seen as being pure and perfect. They were ‘angels in the house’, wives and abc model mothers dedicated to their families and children. Invention Of Colour Tv! They had to abc model cbt, obey their husbands because men were the photosynthesis vs cellular respiration diagram main characters in the society.

The marriage was a light form of abc model, slavery: after the wedding everything a woman inherited and had unquestionably belonged to the husband. 1. Blathway, Taymond, ‘A Chat with the Author of Tess, Black and White, IV’. Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Casagrande, P., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles unorthodox beauty’, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Kbu Library! Conly, Sarah, ‘Seduction, rape and cbt coercition’, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of Chicago Press.

4. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 5. Davis, W., ‘Thomas Hardy and the law’, Legal Presences in Hardy’s Life and the plowman Fiction, Rosemont publishing and and printing corp, 2003. 6. Ertu??rul, Ko. ‘Tess of the cbt D’Urbervilles, the tragedy of a Godless human existence’, Journals of Arts and Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya. 7. Freeman, J., ‘Studies in Philology’, 1982 University of North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3. 8. The Soldier Rupert Context! Garson, M., Hardy’s Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text’, Oxford University Press, 1991. 9. Hardy, T., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 10.

Hardy, T., ‘Letter to Thomas Macquoid ‘, 29 Oct 1981, in The collected letters of Thomas Hardy, ed. Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246). 11. Harvey, G., ‘The complete critical guide to Thomas Hardy’, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003. 12. Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ‘Maternal Instincts: Visions of motherhood and cbt sexuality in Britain, 1875-1925’, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. 13.

Holmberg, Mona, ‘Tess, a victim of her society’, in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Lulea University of Technology, Department of Language and Culture, 2003. 14. Jennings, A., ‘Stranger than Fiction. Life and Literature in tales, the Late Victorian Age’, Black Cat Publishing, 2001. 15. Jonasdotti, A., ‘Why women are oppressed’, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994. 16. Kent, Susan.’Sex and Suffrage in Britain 1860-1914?.

Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 17. Lotman, I. ‘The structure of the artistic text’, translation by Ronald Vroon, University of Michigan, 1977. 18. Mandelker, A., ‘Framing Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, The woman question and the Victorian novel’The theory and interpretation of narrative series, Ohio, State University Press, 1993.

19. Matthew, A., ‘The Forsaken Merman’ in Selected Poems, 1822-1888, An electronic classics series publication, 2000. 20. Millgate, M., ‘Thomas, Hardy, His Career as a novelist’, London: Macmillan, 1994. 21. Mitchell, S.,’Daily Life in Victorian England’, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2009. 22. Morgan, R., ‘Women and Sexuality in the novels of abc model, Thomas Hardy,’ Routledge London and New York, 2006. 23.

Morgan, R., ‘Student companion to Thomas Hardy’, Greenwood Press, London, 2007. 24. Muelenhard, C., #038; Shrag, J., ‘Nonviolent sexual coercition’, in Acquaintance rape, the hidden crime’, Wiley #038; Sons, New York, 1991. 25. Nabokov, V. ‘Lectures on Russian Literature, Harcourt, 1981. 26.

R. G. The Plowman Canterbury! Christian, ‘Tolstoy: An Introduction’, Cambridge, 1969. 27. Rogers, Katharine, ‘The Centennial Review’, Vol 19, No. 4, 1975 Michigan State University Press. 28. Simone de Beauvoir, ‘The Second Sex,’ trans. H. N. Parshley, New York, 1953. 29. Tolstoy, L. ‘Anna Karenina’, translation by Louise Shanks Maude #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. 30. Cbt! Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the Essay D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’, society

31. Wojtczak, H., ‘Women of Victorian Sussex’, Hastings Press, 2003. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to abc model, help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in of colour tv, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Literature work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This English Literature essay was submitted to us by a student in abc model, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

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