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Bp Oil Spill Essays and was thomas hobbes born, Research Papers. BP Oil Spill Chait, J, (2010). Dear Leader. New Republic, 241(10), 2-2. Retrieve June 21, 2010, from Academic . Search Premier. This article discusses the lebara mobile us, present oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The president’s has not changed the born, Minerals Management Service. In reality, the federal government has no agency tasked with capping undersea oil leaks. All the necessary equipment, along with the expertise for operating it, resides with the private sector.

BP will likely bear the full cost of the spill;. BP , Chevron Corporation , Gulf of Mexico 1188 Words | 4 Pages. The BP Oil Spill “Thank God men cannot fly and Resources Essay, lay waste to where was thomas hobbes born sky, as well as the earth,” said Henry David Thoreau . on avon inc, environmental damage. Where Was Thomas Hobbes Born. The BP , or British Petroleum, Gulf oil spill has been widely referred to as the biggest environmental disaster that the United States has ever faced, with over four million gallons of oil pouring into the waters off the Mexican Gulf Coast. The BP oil spill occurred in April of 2010. It was, and still is, the 19th Art Essay, biggest oil spill in all of U.S. history. The massive. Galveston, Texas , Gulf Coast of the where was thomas hobbes, United States , Gulf of Mexico 2831 Words | 7 Pages. ? BP OIL SPILL IN 2010 April 20th was a tragic day for BP and 19th, the crew . of the Transocean’s Deepwater Horizon. “Floating fifty-two miles off the coast of Louisiana in where was thomas 5,000 feet of water was an oil rig drilling in the Gulf of sparknotes, Mexico.” (Hoffman, 2010) What unfolded next will go down in hobbes born history as the worst accidental oil spill in the world. “The oil well a mile below the surface of the Interview With, Gulf blew up from high-pressure methane gas expanding into the drill. As a result of. Alabama , Class action , Drilling rig 2171 Words | 6 Pages. Was Thomas Hobbes. ?Deepwater Horizon Assignment On April 20th 2010 a BP licenses oil rig 50 miles off the coast of Louisiana exploded, killing . 11 people.

For three months millions of barrels of oil poured into the Gulf of Mexico killing sea life, altering the eco-system and affecting towns situated around the Gulf’s livelihood and quality of life. The Deepwater Horizon rig is responsible for the worst offshore oil spill in captive sparknotes history. The corporation lost billions of dollars due to the disaster stemming for hobbes born, systematic. Chevron Corporation , Crisis , Gulf of Mexico 1197 Words | 4 Pages. BP oil spill is ranked as the largest environmental disaster in avon products the world history. As the oil from . BP spill washes ashore, people on Gulf Coast are suffering huge damages they have never met before. The U.S. government estimates that up to 60,000 barrels of where born, oil a day are spewing out from the damaged BP drilling rig to Gulf of Mexico.

It has ruined the captive sparknotes, shoreline, killed animal and was thomas born, sea life, threaten the ecosystem and harmed the tourism and fishing in what means Louisiana. Where. After the Interview With a Human Resources Manger Essay, spilling happened, US government. Drilling rig , Federal government of the born, United States , Oil platform 1509 Words | 4 Pages. ? BP Oil Spill 2010 Elizabeth Morton University of Phoenix SUS/300 3/9/15 Tereza Marks Gulf . Oil Spill Case BP Oil Spill 2010 BP is a world leading international oil and Gas Company. The BP Company however had an oil spill on the unredeemed captive, April 20, 2010 due to hobbes born a gas release in the Gulf of Mexico. A massive explosion followed the gas release on 19th, the Deep Water Oil rig that was working on the exploration of British Petroleum. Hobbes Born. The explosive gas leak resulted in eleven peoples dead and several other. Biodiversity , Bioremediation , Ecology 1696 Words | 8 Pages. Five Lessons from the BP Oil Spill It's very easy to pile onto BP right now. The accident, which . may be due more to negligence, is bad enough. The company lost 11 employees — after losing 15 in a high-profile explosion at is superstition a refinery 5 years ago.

The damage to the Gulf, its species, and the people who depend on it is almost incalculable. But surprisingly, it's even easier to criticize BP's behaviour since the explosion — the company has tried hard to downplay the scale of the tragedy and was thomas, it has. BP , John Browne, Baron Browne of Madingley , Management 1317 Words | 3 Pages. The Unredeemed. relationships between countries and affected the born, world economies, be it the relationship with the board of directors of BP and the US . government or the change in value of Could lightweight future Essay, BP PLC on the stock exchange. Where Hobbes Born. ?As a result of the oil spill the Obama administration imposed a six month moratorium on avon, new deep water drilling operations which ended on the 12th of October. For twenty years previous to the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico there had been a total ban on deep water off shore drilling. But during his presidency.

BP , Gulf of Mexico , International trade 1062 Words | 3 Pages. BP is a British global energy company which is the where was thomas born, third largest energy company and the fourth largest company in products inc the world. As a multinational . oil company, BP is the UK's largest corporation, with its headquarters in London. Where Hobbes Born. BP's headquarters is in means Houston, Texas. The company is among the largest private sector energy corporations in the world, and one of the six private sector oil exploration, natural gas, and petroleum product marketing companies. Was Thomas Hobbes. Tony Hayward took over as the Chief Executive. BP , Exxon Valdez oil spill , ExxonMobil 862 Words | 3 Pages. BP CASE-STUDY 1 BP Case-Study Ethics in Today’s Organizations Nicki Marzolf March 1, 2011 BP . CASE-STUDY 2 Company Summary Beyond Petroleum ( BP ) is a British oil company that was founded over a century ago by an affluent business man, William D’Arcy.

D’Arcy put all of his money into searching for oil in the Middle East; a decision that nearly bankrupted him, because it took six years before any oil could be tapped. It is important to note that locating the oil was not the only. BP , Ethics , Exxon Valdez oil spill 1567 Words | 6 Pages. Oil is a product used by everyone, but sometimes oil is a problem. An oil spill is Century, a leakage from an . Where Hobbes Born. oceangoing tanker, pipelines, or other oil sources. Oil spills occur very frequently, and Interview With a Human, cause enormous ecological harm. About eight million barrels of where hobbes, oil are spilled each year. Tankers usually carry about five hundred million barrels of oil . Many oil spills , large in land or ocean coverage, have had major impacts on the earth and it’s inhabitants.

Many animals die and some are injured in some way. Bird , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Offshore drilling 880 Words | 3 Pages. A Human Essay. occurs today is oil spills . The first major oil spill happened during World War II on the East Coast . of the United States and where, spilled about 590,000 tons of oil . The most recent oil spill happened last year in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico and about 190,120,055 gallons of oil leaked into the Gulf. Oil spills have affected our marine life, seafood industry, houses, health, and fossil fuels. The Unredeemed. Our world will never be the same after these horrifying spills that are destroying our environment. Oil is a source. Earth , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Marine biology 1835 Words | 5 Pages. Who is Responsible? BP is responsible for the disaster and should be held fully accountable for all economic retribution financially and . environmentally. The oil rig was under contract by BP and according to where was thomas born the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 it stipulated that those parties responsible for the rig or facility which oil is being discharged from—is the responsible party held liable for cleanup costs. The conflict revolves around the fact that BP failed to clean-up the With Resources Manger, oil after seven days of trying. Barack Obama , BP , Conflict 1229 Words | 4 Pages.

The 2010 BP Oil Spill allowed about 5 million barrels of oil to flow into the Gulf of where, Mexico before . the gush was capped. Unfortunately, the avon inc, explosion killed 11 people and injured several others (Benoit, 2011). To claim its ultimate negligence and reduce the pollution of the spill , BP created a multi-page website entitled “Gulf of Mexico Restoration” to communicate its message to the public. BP’s “Gulf of Mexico Restoration” website uses these three strategies to was thomas hobbes born repair its reputation: displaying. Is Superstition Means. Exxon Valdez oil spill , Galveston, Texas , Gulf Coast of the United States 973 Words | 3 Pages. Ethics in the Workplace - Bp Oil Spill. Ethics in the Workplace Case Study: BP Oil Spill On April 20, 2010 off the Gulf of was thomas hobbes, Mexico, there was a blowout . of the Macondo well which is owned by inc British Petroleum also known as BP . When the blowout took place it got immediate media attention because aspects of the event were known over the world. Within events transpiring it was discovered how limited the resources and was thomas born, reaction to the disaster was going to With a Human Resources Manger be.

This paper will detail aspects of the event from symptoms of the problem, the root. Where Hobbes. BP , Business ethics , Ethics 1720 Words | 5 Pages. BP COMMUNICATION FAILure DURING GULF OIL SPILL CRISIS An important component of crisis management is . response. Response can include several actions such as communication with stakeholders, the public and the government. Appropriate and 19th Century, effective communication can minimize the where was thomas, distribution of incomplete and inaccurate information, reduce speculation and avon inc, prevent or quell rumors. In fact, studies suggest that the message itself can affect the public’s evaluation of the where was thomas hobbes born, company and perhaps. What Is Superstition Means. Communication , Crisis , Exxon Valdez 2159 Words | 7 Pages. Management Crisis The Frontline report, “The Spill ”, which focused on British Petroleum's problematic management culture and its catastrophic . effects, aired on where was thomas hobbes, October 26, 2010. Around then, the oil giant BP had suffered a crisis with its latest off-shore oil rig, the Deepwater Horizon. However, this was just the latest in Interview Resources Essay accidents concerning its oil operations.

In the years before the Deepwater Horizon accident, BP had also suffered major accidents in its oil production fields in Texas and Alaska. Its. BP , Drilling rig , Exxon Valdez oil spill 2343 Words | 6 Pages. The Economic Impact of the BP Oil Spill. ? The Economic Impact of the BP Oil Spill In April of 2010, a British Petroleum operated oil . drilling rig off the Gulf of where was thomas hobbes born, Mexico, the Deepwater Horizon, exploded suddenly after high pressure methane gas from the oil well rose to the drilling rig, causing it to lebara us ignite and then sink to the bottom of the where hobbes born, ocean floor. The explosion caused a sea-floor level oil blowout, and crude oil was leaked into the surrounding water for three months before a solution was found. After eighty-seven long days, the. Drilling rig , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Oil platform 2342 Words | 6 Pages. Mobile. Bp Marketing Problem After Oil Spill. British Petroleum’s Marketing Problem Florida International University Summer 2011 Alex Del Veccio Yudith Torres BP Marketing Problem . In April 20th, 2010 one of the worst environmental natural disasters that were brought on where was thomas born, by a men happened. We are talking about the British petroleum Oil spill on lebara, the Golf Coast.

The disaster not only affected the plants, animals and where hobbes, people living in what the area but also the image of the company. British Petroleum has been successful on creating a powerful. BP , Canada , Chevron Corporation 2530 Words | 7 Pages. Hobbes Born. BP Oil Madeline O’Hara MGT 2037 S03 Instructor Azadegan South University Online December 14, 2012 I have chosen to . research the management of a large company called BP Oil . This company is one of the world’s largest and is involved in captive sparknotes all aspects of where was thomas born, oil and gas industry. British Petroleum operates in many countries and has had to go through many incidents which cause controversy. What Is Superstition. These controversies make it a highly interesting company to research when it comes to the forms of management. BP , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Management 856 Words | 3 Pages. Ethical Dilemma with the Bp Oil Spill. The BP oil spill , more famously referred to as the Deepwater Horizon Spill , occurred in 2010 in where was thomas the . Century. Gulf of Mexico and flowed unmitigated for as long as 3 months.

The BP oil spill has fared as the largest marine oil spill ever confronted in the history of the petroleum industry. Hobbes Born. The oil spill on the 20th of what is superstition means, April 2010 was primarily the was thomas born, result of a gas release followed by an explosion in the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, in the Gulf of Mexico, established on the Mocando exploration well designed for. Blowout preventer , Drilling rig , Exxon Valdez oil spill 1115 Words | 3 Pages. Questions: What are the environmental implications of oil spills ? What legislative policies have been instituted to products mitigate the . possibility of future oil spills ? How are oil spills cleaned up and where hobbes born, what are the advantages and disadvantages of each method? What type of research and innovation surrounding oil spills has been done to prevent their occurrence? In order to foster an avon products inc, environment for emerging technologies and higher standards of living, the United States, Canada and many other nations. Where Hobbes Born. Bioremediation , Environmentalism , Exxon Valdez oil spill 1899 Words | 5 Pages. BP : The Oil and With a Human Manger Essay, Energy Company BP is an where was thomas born, oil company whose roots start back in Cleveland, Ohio in . the 1870's. BP has grown from a local oil company to now being a global energy group employing over Could lightweight future 80,000 people and operating in over 100 countries worldwide. BP provides fuel for transportation, energy for heat and light, retail services, and petrochemical products for everyday items. They are all about finding oil and natural gas and have several brands that might sound familiar: BP , Castrol.

ARCO , BP , Chevron Corporation 1422 Words | 4 Pages. Ethical Issues Surrounding the Bp Oil Spill. Ethical Issues surrounding the BP Oil Spill By: Angela Higgins December 16, 2010 The BP . Was Thomas Born. Oil Spill which happened on April 20, 2010, was the largest offshore oil spill in U.S. history releasing approximately 185 million gallons of crude oil into the gulf. This event was the Could appliances?, result of where was thomas hobbes born, a wellhead on the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform blowing out in is superstition means the Gulf of Mexico approximately 40 miles southeast offs the Louisiana coastline. Eleven men working on where was thomas born, the oil rig platform were killed and. Drilling rig , Ethics , Exxon Valdez oil spill 1236 Words | 4 Pages. Avon Inc. ?ID#: 2468915 ESOL 0054 Effects of the Oil Catastrophe in where was thomas hobbes the Gulf of Mexico The oil spill . in Gulf of Mexico in the 27th June is the second largest oil spill in the world, bearing in mind that over 7 tones of oil have been spilled between 1970 and 2009 (Jamsey M. 2).

This oil leak recently occurred and made the avon inc, headlines for quite sometime. Now there are over 94000 barrels spilled, knowing that 5000 barrels are added every single day, adding that 154 sea turtles. Arianna Huffington , Effect , Exxon Valdez oil spill 826 Words | 5 Pages. Oil Spills : Their Environmental Impact on was thomas, Our Oceans How do we prevent oil spills ? (The last part) . Oil spills are the most devastating environmental disasters. On the lightweight discover of electricity improve Essay, surface, oil spills directly pollute oceans, kill sea life, and damage the environment we live in. Furthermore, oil spills hurt the nation’s health, environment, tourist and the fishing business. Where Hobbes. Therefore, oil spills impact the captive, entire economy and our standard of living. How do we prevent future oil spills and protect our oceans.

Alternative energy , Energy development , Mediterranean Sea 662 Words | 3 Pages. ? Deepwater Horizon oil spill July . Was Thomas. 5, 2010 Word count: Background: BP plc is a British-based global energy company which is the third largest energy company and it is the mobile, United Kingdom’s largest corporation the fourth largest company in where was thomas hobbes born the world ( BP , Wikipedia). Its name is the unredeemed sparknotes, initials of the company’s former legal names British Petroleum. British Petroleum merged with Amoco. BP , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Ixtoc I 1167 Words | 4 Pages. Professor Quazi Seraj English 112 11 October 2012 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill The . Deepwater Horizon oil spill was a devastating event that lasted several months. It occurred on April 20 through July 15, 2010 offshore Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, USA. Deepwater Horizon is owned and operated by British Petroleum ( BP ). The spill was caused by an oil gusher on the ocean floor. The Deepwater Horizon rig started drilling a well at a water depth of 5,000ft. Born. Exxon Valdez oil spill , Gulf War , Oil gusher 812 Words | 5 Pages. Lebara. Current Ethical Issues on where hobbes born, Oil Spill. their domestic consumptions of oil have led to increased prices of gasoline whereby alternative forms of energy production are sought.

With . this in 19th Century Art Essay mind, offshore drilling can be a viable option for was thomas born, satiating the need of oil and also to is superstition means boost the economy of the nation. Where Hobbes Born. In this report, I am going to discuss how the current Deepwater Horizon rig explosion has led to disastrous oil spill into avon inc the Gulf of Mexico causing environmental problems and also discuss how the oil spill if resolved and with safe and. BP , Hydrocarbon , Natural gas 1476 Words | 4 Pages. Where Hobbes Born. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Damage April 20, 2010 began as a day of avon, celebration, a day that marked 7 years without injury on . the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, and hobbes, ended with 11 people dead, 78 days of oil flow, and 1,074 miles of the Gulf of Mexico contaminated. Three years after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill the beaches may appear clean but we have yet to see the final effects. BP , the is superstition, company behind this tragedy, is still trying to clean up the mess they have created. This is a lot more complicated. Environment , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Gulf Oil 1275 Words | 4 Pages. Effects of where, Oil Spills amp; Fluctuating Gas Prices in the United States of the unredeemed, America Strayer University Spring Semester 2010 . “Every area in was thomas the country is lightweight of electricity improve appliances?, subject to some kind of hobbes born, disaster - flood, hurricane, earthquake, to avon inc name a few. Even man-made disasters - oil spill , civil unrest, fire - can devastate the surrounding neighborhood and economy. Even though an area has never been damaged before, there is no guarantee that it will not happen tomorrow.” Carol Chastang Oil spills not only affect.

Cost , Economics , Economy of the United States 1504 Words | 5 Pages. Essay 1 The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was an was thomas hobbes, oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico which flowed for . three months in 2010. This spill had a catastrophic on the environment causing extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats as well as killing 11 workers and injuring 17 others. This spill is the “worst environmental disaster the US has faced”, according to products White House energy adviser Carol Browner. Where Born. Why did this occur? The staff of the BP Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore drilling Commission.

Chevron Corporation , Cost , Costs 1102 Words | 4 Pages. An oil spill can be defined as an accidental or deliberate dumping of oil or petroleum products into the ocean and . Mobile Us. its coastal waters, bays, and harbors, or onto hobbes born land, or into rivers or lakes (Holum 1977). Between one and ten million metric tons (one metric ton is 1000 kilograms) of lebara mobile, oil are put into the oceans every year. The oil is released, most often, in hobbes small yet consistent doses from tankers, industry, or on shore waste disposal (Boesh, Hersher, et al. 1974). Tanker spills cost the United. Exxon Valdez oil spill , Marine biology , Ocean 2467 Words | 7 Pages.

Seunghwan Lee Professor Poe En 102 11/08/2010 Causes and Effects of Gulf Oil Disaster As the situation of environment is becoming worse . than ever these days, the explosion of Interview With a Human Manger, Deepwater Horizon ship has been making things the worst with the enormous damages since this incident happened on April 20th 2010. This disastrous accident happened under the 2nd biggest oil company BP’s poor responsibility. According to this accident, about 30 laborers died or got deadly hurt then the ship started to. Exxon Valdez oil spill , Northern bluefin tuna , Oil spill 1344 Words | 4 Pages. Where Was Thomas Born. On April 20, 2010 BP’s Deep Horizon oil rig exploded, spilling more than 200 gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of is superstition, Mexico and . killing 11 workers (“11 Facts about the BP Oil Spill ”, 2013). BP’s manual and where born, emergency prevention efforts failed, allowing oil to spill into the Gulf for 87 days, resulting in the largest U.S. oil spill in history (Brown, 2013). The spill hurt the inc, company’s reputation and caused a company crisis that involved BP’s stock price to decrease from $57.45 before the was thomas hobbes, disaster.

BP , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Mexico 1309 Words | 3 Pages. Bp Oil Explosion in the Gulf of Mexico. its worst oil spill disasters in the history of marine petroleum exploration. A deadly oil well blowout at Could of electricity improve appliances? Essay Macondo . Prospect, about born 41 miles off the is superstition means, southeast coast of where hobbes born, Louisiana, spewed huge quantities of mobile us, oil for 87 long days causing major environmental and economic troubles to the Gulf region (Gulf of where was thomas hobbes, Mexico Oil Spill ). It started with a fire and what means, explosion, killing 11 workers, and then unleashed a slow motion disaster that spread across the 600 mile gulf coastline. The massive oil spill disrupted. Drilling rig , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Oil platform 1404 Words | 4 Pages. Oil Spills Pollution in the ocean is a major problem that is where was thomas hobbes, affecting the ocean and the rest of the Earth. Pollution is the . ocean directly affects ocean organisms and indirectly affects human heath and resources. Oil spills is one of the harmful materials that are a major source of pollution in the ocean. “ Oil spills stem from accidents involving tankers, barges, pipelines, refineries, and storage facilities, often while the oil is being transported to its users.” (NOAA 2012) Based on information. Exxon Valdez oil spill , Hydrocarbon , Intertidal zone 1017 Words | 3 Pages. quality Oils consist of a complex mixture of hydrogen and carbon which is used for fuel, lubrication, plastics manufacturing, and many other . 19th Century. purposes. These petroleum products get into water mainly by means of accidental spills from ships, tanker trucks, pipelines, and leaky underground storage tanks Petroleum products affect surface water, impairing water quality with hydrocarbons, salts, nutrients, a host of organic compounds, and various heavy metals. Where Hobbes. Immediately after a spill , Oil slicks on.

Benzene , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Gasoline 2066 Words | 6 Pages. After the tragic BP oil spill in 2010, Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal was quoted saying “the day that we’ve been . fearing is upon us.” It is discover of electricity improve future Essay, obvious that oil spills are a major concern throughout the was thomas, world and products, pose a menacing threat to our environment and our public health. When hearing the was thomas, phrase “ oil spill ,” many immediately think about death, destruction and disaster. Unfortunately, a majority of people only means, acknowledge the devastating and born, highly publicized oil spills , but what they don’t see. Exxon Valdez , Exxon Valdez oil spill , ExxonMobil 1564 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill commenced on April 20, 2010 and continued for next 86 days. It was devastating to the extent that . it killed eleven men and seventeen people severely wounded. Captive. The total estimate of the crude oil spilled is about 4.9 million barrels. It was controlled later on but the devastating effects that last for was thomas born, a longtime, is was the contribution of the deterioration of products, air and water through pollutions. When the oil evaporation happens it creates very small particles called carcinogens.

Air pollution , Barack Obama , Exxon Valdez oil spill 861 Words | 3 Pages. Enviromental Damage from Oil Spill. Where Was Thomas Hobbes. Running head: Environmental damage from the BP oil spill Topic: Ethics and Leadership . Analysis and Application Solns. to Org. Lightweight Of Electricity Appliances? Essay. Challenges: A Capstone Exp. in Integration and Strategy June 2, 2012 Environmental damage from the BP oil spill Oil spills of any form always results in gradual and long-term environmental damage. Some environmental damages caused by oil spillages can last for hobbes born, years and avon products, even decades after it occur. In 2010 the world woke. BP , Crisis , Environmental disasters 1170 Words | 3 Pages. EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL Relevant Facts On March 24, 1989, there were several ruptured tanks of the Exxon Valdez that . allowed approximately 11 million gallons of crude oil to where was thomas born pour into the Gulf of Alaska.

As soon as this happened, it started what would be described as one of the is superstition means, most dreadful environmental disasters in hobbes born the history of oil drilling. A few months after, there were enormous surges of wind and waves that caused the oil to Could lightweight discover improve appliances? Essay spread further out into the shorelines of born, Prince. Alaska , Exxon Valdez , Exxon Valdez oil spill 705 Words | 3 Pages. crisis of the British concern British Petroleum ( BP ). At first I would like to provide more information about the crisis and its consequences, . then I will identify the kind of 19th Century Art Essay, crisis we have to deal with, I will discuss the was thomas, several communication strategies BP have used, I will explain the different reactions of the public on the crisis. At last, I will give the Manger Essay, oil concern some advice, in case a reoccurrence takes place. The BP oil spill The BP oil spill was a big natural disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. BP , Crisis , John Browne, Baron Browne of Madingley 2119 Words | 7 Pages. Bp—Deepwater Horizon Case Study Ethics. Where Was Thomas. BP , Ethics , Gulf of Mexico 1897 Words | 7 Pages.

Writing Assignment: BP Oil Spill Response Analyzing BP’s Oil Spill Response On . April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in what is superstition means the Gulf of Mexico killed 11 rig workers after more than 4 million barrels of crude oil leaked into the ocean, making it the largest oil spill in history (Fisk, 2013). Where. The incident tarnished BP’s reputation and left a devastating imprint on the Gulf's economy and environment. After receiving criticism for its crisis management, the avon products inc, British oil company created a website. BP , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Galveston, Texas 1351 Words | 5 Pages. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Case: A Time for Virtue Ethics In March of 1989 one of the worst environmental disasters took place in . Hobbes Born. Alaska’s northeastern part of the Prince William Sound. The Exxon Valdez oil tanker collided into the Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound. “An eighteen foot wide hole was ripped into the hull, spilling about 11 million gallons crude oil into the ocean” and along the Alaskan coast. The size of the what means, spill is estimated at “The oil spread to about 1,300 miles of coastline. Where Was Thomas Born. Ethics , Exxon Valdez , Exxon Valdez oil spill 1768 Words | 5 Pages. On April 4, 2010 a huge explosion of the Deep Horizon oil rig occurred in the Gulf of Mexico Near Louisiana.

Fifteen out the of one hundred . fifty men who were on board were injured. Approximately two days later, the rig sang and us, oil began spewing. The oil leaked for over one hundred days. Was Thomas Born. The BP oil disaster in the gulf has posed a threat on the people and the environment that surround the oil spill . The effects of offshore drilling can be catastrophic, especially after seeing what has happened in. Atlantic Ocean , Federal government of the United States , Gulf Coast of the United States 867 Words | 3 Pages. THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL Whats an oil spill ? Oil spills happen . when people make mistakes or are careless and cause an mobile, oil tanker to leak oil into the ocean. There are a few more ways an oil spill can occur. Equipment breaking down may cause an oil spill . If the where hobbes, equipment breaks down, the tanker may get stuck on shallow land.

When they start to drive the the unredeemed captive sparknotes, tanker again, they can put a hole in the tanker causing it to leak oil . The Exxon Valdez oil spill : On March 24, 1989 at 4 minutes past. Exxon Valdez , Exxon Valdez oil spill , ExxonMobil 994 Words | 3 Pages. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill ABSTRACT In March of 1989, the was thomas hobbes, Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef in Interview Resources Manger Essay . Where. Prince William Sound, Alaska. An eighteen foot wide hole was ripped into the hull, and 10.9 million gallons of crude oil spilled into the ocean. In the following weeks, many things transpired. This paper will discuss the cleanup, the damage, and the results of the lebara mobile us, biggest oil spill in United States history.

On March 24, 1989, in Prince William Sound Alaska, the Exxon Valdez was moving. Exxon Valdez , Exxon Valdez oil spill , ExxonMobil 1859 Words | 5 Pages. Where Hobbes Born. Business Management Ethics Issue at Bp Name: Date: Class: Professor: MANAGEMENT ETHICS AT BP . Abstract Beyond Petroleum, BP is among the products inc, largest Oil and other energy companies in the world. Its targets and confidence in the market has enabled it reduce Carbone dioxide waste and was thomas hobbes, enhance alternative sources of Could lightweight of electricity future appliances?, energy like solar power. Where Hobbes. This upward success has, however, in the recent past been challenged. BP’s environmental image in captive sparknotes the globe has been tarnished.

Business ethics , Environment , Ethics 1879 Words | 5 Pages. The Legal Issues and Ethical Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Explosion and British Petroleum Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico 2010. BP Gulf Oil Spill 1 Running Head: BP GULF OIL SPILL The Legal . Issues and Ethical Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Explosion and British Petroleum Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico 2010 Terry D. Bollman Park University BP Gulf Oil Spill 2 British Petroleum’s Roll in the Gulf Oil Spill This paper will explain some of the effects of three legal issues and three ethical issues surrounding the born, London-based British Petroleum Company’s involvement in the explosion of the offshore oil. BP , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Ixtoc I 1526 Words | 5 Pages. Effects of Mexico Oil spill as the result of ocean current movement.

Effects of Mexico Oil spill as the result of ocean current movement The Gulf of Mexico oil spill is Century, . recognized as the worst oil spill in U.S. history. On or about April 20, 2010, the mobile offshore drilling unit Deep-water Horizon, which was being used to drill a well for BP Exploration and hobbes born, Production, in the Macondo prospect, experienced an is superstition means, explosion, leading to where was thomas born a fire and its subsequent sinking in the Gulf of With a Human Manger Essay, Mexico. Born. This incident resulted in discharges of oil and other substances from the. Gulf Stream , Marine debris , Mexico 1969 Words | 7 Pages. BP OIL SPILL Under the Century, Deepwater Horizon, an offshore drilling ring of British Petroleum ( BP ) . caused an oil spill in the Gulf of was thomas hobbes, Mexico.

The incident occurred on Interview Resources Manger Essay, April 20th 2010, where equipment failed and caused the explosion sinking the ring, and where hobbes born, causing the is superstition means, death of 11 workers and more than 17 workers injured. The British based energy company also faced other problems at the site of the oil spill . Where Hobbes. More than 40 million gallons (estimated data) of oil spewed into the Gulf of Mexico. Oil spill. BP , Ethics , Exxon Valdez oil spill 822 Words | 2 Pages. Thomas Preston BA 2196 Section 14/Emil Steiner 10-31-2012 British Petroleum’s public image was damaged immensely by the Deepwater Horizon . oil spill and its poor public relations management during the mobile, weeks that followed. BP created the “Gulf of Mexico Restoration” website to inform the where was thomas hobbes born, public about avon its efforts in cleaning up the hobbes, spill and to help restore public trust in the company again. BP’s “Gulf of Mexico Restoration” website uses these three strategies to try to repair its reputation: . Cuba , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Gulf of Mexico 711 Words | 2 Pages. Research The spectrums of oil spill issues are diverse and large. They range from environmental issue to lebara mobile economic, ecological, . ethical, politics and policies. Among many other oil spills , the BP oil spill in where born the Gulf of captive sparknotes, Mexico, occurred on April 20, 2010 was recorded as the greatest environmental disaster in our history ( BP leak the world's worst accidental oil spill , 2010). The goal of our research is to seek possible solutions to reduce the risks of offshore oil spills . To attain this goal, we.

Drilling rig , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Federal government of the United States 6376 Words | 20 Pages. Oil Spill Mitigation Planning and Monetary Recovery. Was Thomas Hobbes Born. Oil Spill Mitigation Planning and Monetary Recovery Andrew Fossa Saint Petersburg College Administrative Law Kenneth Afienko . Us. Abstract FOSSA A (2012) Saint Petersburg College Oil spill mitigation planning and monetary recovery A small Gulf Coast Community in Florida has requested the implementation of a contingency plan in the event of an oil spill that affects the coast line. This paper discusses the regulations, and laws that govern an oil spill and who is responsible for monetary and. Exxon Valdez oil spill , Federal government of the was thomas hobbes, United States , Oil Pollution Act of 1990 2518 Words | 7 Pages. Of Mexico Oil Spill | | | Teia Gill | Com 150June 20, 2010Cheryl Brisbane | [Type the abstract of the mobile, document . here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the where was thomas hobbes born, document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.] | There is Century, a tremendous amount of controversy in the news today about the recent Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill . On April 20th 2010 a catastrophic explosion aboard an oil rig in the.

Exxon Valdez oil spill , Louisiana , Mexico 1979 Words | 5 Pages. May 2010 BP Horizon Oil Spill Back in the '40s and '50s I believe that companies stood behind their products. In . later decades I don't think it was as common and there were a lot of lies, double books, and skimming going around. In this current age how many companies can you honestly say you would invest in where was thomas hobbes born their products for products, the rest of your life? BP is where hobbes, just one of Interview With a Human Resources Manger Essay, thousands of companies that work by the bottom line and only by the bottom line, usually bypassing safety and hobbes, employees. BP just got. Exxon Valdez oil spill , ExxonMobil , Oil spill 3008 Words | 8 Pages.

Gulf Oil Spill Paper ENV/100 January 09, 2013 Gulf Oil Spill Paper On April 20, 2010 an . explosion on an oil rig in the gulf of Mexico killed 11 people but also unleashed “the worst environmental disaster in captive sparknotes U.S. history”(Center for hobbes, Biological Diversity). A study I came across when researching this disaster by the Center for Biological Diversity shows us the more than 82,000 birds, about 6,000 sea turtles, and nearly 26,000 other marine animals were harmed due to means this oil spill . Where. Not only were. Interview A Human Resources Manger Essay. Environmental disasters , Exxon Valdez oil spill , Life 773 Words | 3 Pages. Engineering Ethics Case Analysis and Action Proposal Oil Spills Students: Fatima Al Khouri 100020247 . Was Thomas Hobbes. Hind Al Muhairi 1000020268 Instructor: Dr. Jorge Submission Date: Wednesday October 17th, 2012 ------------------------------------------------- Case Summary Peter has been working for with the Bigness Oil Company's local affiliate and established a trusting relationship with Jesse, manager of the local facility. Jesse was pleased with.

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Thomas Hobbes: A Short Biography

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Thomas Hobbes: A Short Biography

Les commandes fondamentales de Linux. Nat Makarevitch pour ses nombreuses critiques et corrections, Thomas Ortega pour ses bienveillantes remarques et la remise en forme HTML du document, Kim Ashue pour sa relecture, Philibert de Mercey pour son aide a la mise en page, Fanthomas pour sa relecture. L'objectif de ce document est d'enseigner les commandes fondamentales de Linux (et donc d'Unix). Nous explorerons ce qu'offre le shell le plus utilise sous Linux, donc une partie de ce que peut faire un utilisateur capable de diriger la machine en creant des lignes de commandes plutot qu'en se contentant d'un cliquodrome. Pour apprendre il faut pratiquer, donc disposer d'une machine fonctionnant sous Linux qui n'est pas serieusement exploitee. Where Born. Son arret ou sa modification ne doit rien menacer. Si vous en avez deja une negligez la presente section (passez a la suivante). Chacune des sous-sections suivantes (Emulateur, Services Linux de Windows 10. The Unredeemed Sparknotes. ) presente un moyen de disposer d'une machine sous Linux. Un emulateur animant Linux sous votre navigateur web est le moyen le plus simple de commencer.

Votre navigateur simulera une machine qui executera Linux. Hobbes. Pour cela cliquer ici, ce qui doit ouvrir un nouvel onglet ou vous trouverez une machine virtuelle fonctionnant sous Linux, immediatement utilisable. 19th Century Art Essay. Elle fonctionne dans votre navigateur et ne peut rien casser. Where Hobbes. N'hesitez pas a explorer et a experimenter car il n'y a aucun risque d'endommager quoi que ce soit. Certaines commandes n'y sont pas installees mais c'est le moyen le plus facile, immediat et sans danger d'aborder le sujet.

Il faut toutefois employer un navigateur recent et un ordinateur au processeur puissant. Si vous disposez d'une machine il n'est pas necessaire d'y installer d'emblee Linux, il suffit dans un premier temps de l'amorcer de facon «live». Vous devrez graver un CD ou un DVD. Nous recommandons une version de Linux («distribution») appelee Knoppix. Telecharger tout d'abord l'image de CD ou de DVD, par exemple (en France Metropolitaine) de ou (en anglais) via le document officiel. 19th. Il est recommande de verifier a tout le moins son empreinte SHA et, au mieux, GPG, toutefois cela depasse le cadre du present document. Graver le disque correspondant. Amorcer la machine grace a ce disque.

Une invite libellee «boot:» apparaitra (en bas). Was Thomas Hobbes Born. Saisir «knoppix lang=fr». Captive Sparknotes. Si vous n'y parvenez pas attendre demarrage complet puis, ouvrir un «terminal» et saisir «setxkbmap 'fr(multi)'» (la documentation officielle n'existe qu'en anglais). Linux fonctionne alors sans etre installe, toutefois il est possible de modifier le contenu des disques de la machine donc ne pas faire n'importe quoi. Si vous le pouvez, installez Linux sur une machine, de preference virtuelle (VirtualBox, VMware, Microsoft Virtual PC. Hobbes Born. ). Nous recommandons la distribution utilisee par ceux qui vous aideront, ou a defaut Ubuntu ou Debian. «Linux» est le nom du seul noyau, le c?ur du systeme d'exploitation qui est lui-meme un ensemble de logiciels grace auxquels la machine est rendue plus facilement utilisable par l'humain comme par une application. Une famille de logiciels appeles shells fournit un moyen de diriger ce dernier en lui communiquant des commandes.

Nous exposerons ici la facon d'employer le shell le plus repandu sous Linux, nomme «Bash», ainsi que certains utilitaires. La plupart des distributions Linux demarrent d'emblee, sitot le systeme amorce, une interface graphique fournie par un ensemble logiciel appele X Window et donnant a l'ecran d'accueil une apparence agreable dont voici un exemple (cliquer sur l'image pour zoomer): Si X Window n'est pas demarre, vous ne verrez aucune fenetre et pas de graphisme sauf peut-etre un Tux en haut a gauche, mais des caracteres sous forme de charabia termine par la mention «login:» suivie d'un curseur clignotant: (Cette etape n'est pas necessaire si vous employez l'emulateur preconise) Connectez-vous au systeme en tant qu'utilisateur root, donc saisir root en guise de «login» (et soumettre grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment!), puis le mot de passe («password») adequat (qui a ete defini lors de l'installation ou est fourni par la documentation). Si la machine emploie X Window, explorez les menus afin de demarrer un «terminal» (il peut etre appele «Terminal», «Konsole», «KTerm», «Gnome terminal», «xterm», «rxvt». Could Of Electricity Appliances?. ), par exemple via le menu «Applications», «Accessoires» ou «Systeme». Vous vous trouvez alors devant le shell, qui est un logiciel grace auquel vous pourrez passer des commandes, afin de demarrer d'autres programmes par exemple. Where Was Thomas Hobbes. Plusieurs shells existent, le plus repandu est nomme bash (csh et zsh en sont d'autres). Le shell affiche, en debut de ligne, quelques caracteres fournissant diverses informations et invitant a lui communiquer une commande. C'est ce que l'on appelle son invite (synonyme: prompt). (Ceci ne vaut pas sous l'emulateur preconise, toutefois c'est une necessaire habitude a contracter) Ne jamais eteindre brutalement la machine, il FAUT INFORMER Linux de votre souhait de l'arreter afin qu'il prenne les dispositions necessaires (en particulier ecrire sur toute memoire de masse tout ce qui doit l'etre).

shutdown -r now reamorce immediatement l'ordinateur. Century. shutdown -h now arrete completement le systeme. Where Was Thomas Born. Vous pouvez eteindre l'ordinateur lorsque sera affiche: Nous traiterons du shell nomme bash, le pus employe sous Linux. Commencons par nous assurer que c'est bien le shell employe. Saisir echo $SHELL . Soumettez cette commande au systeme grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment!

Le systeme retourne le nom du fichier executable fournissant le shell courant. Lebara Us. S'il ne s'agit pas de «/bin/bash» certains des elements ci-apres exposes ne seront pas corrects. (Sous l'emulateur preconise aucun nom ne sera retourne. Hobbes. Il fournit en fait d'«ash», assez compatible et complet pour que le plus gros de ce qui suit soit utilisable) En realite echo est la commande proprement dite, qui fait office de verbe d'action, et $SHELL l'argument que nous lui fournissons, qui precise sur quoi elle doit travailler.

Les arguments qui suivent le nom d'une commande lui indiquent ce qu'elle doit faire, sur quoi, comment. La commande echo se contente de repeter les arguments qui lui sont fournis, de sorte que echo toto affiche toto et echo titi tutu affiche titi tutu. «$SHELL» designe le contenu d'une variable d'environnement (c'est ce que le signe dollar place en prefixe revele) nommee «SHELL». 19th Century. Lorsqu'il lit un caractere '$' suivi d'un groupe de caracteres le shell remplace l'ensemble par le contenu de la variable d'environnement ainsi nommee. Pour examiner le contenu d'une variable, saisir echo $ nom_de_la_variable . echo $SHELL affiche le contenu d'une variable d'environnement nommee «SHELL», qui par convention recele le nom du shell actif. La variable PATH contient la liste des chemins ou sont cherches les fichiers executables invoques. Was Thomas. Pour examiner son contenu: echo $PATH . 19th Art Essay. Le separateur est le caractere ':'.

Si le PATH contient /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin, alors a chaque fois que le systeme tentera, sous votre compte, de lancer un executable, il cherchera le fichier l'abritant tout d'abord dans le repertoire nomme /usr/local/bin puis, s'il ne l'y trouve pas, dans /usr/bin, puis dans /bin. Si vous souhaitez ajouter au PATH un repertoire /home/delcros/bin qui contient vos programmes personnels, il vous faudra editant le fichier /.bash_profile de sorte qu'il contienne: PATH=$PATH:/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/home/delcros/bin. Was Thomas Hobbes. Pour que son contenu soit pris en compte apres une modification, vous devez vous reloguer (ou utiliser la commande «source», non exposee ici). La variable PS1 contient la definition du prompt: PS1=[u@h w $] affichera votre nom d'utilisateur (u), puis le caractere @, puis le nom de la machine (h, pour h ost), puis une espace, puis le repertoire de travail courant (w, pour w orking directory), puis un caractere '#' si vous etes root et '$' sinon. Voici un autre parametrage de prompt: PS1=[t d u@h w $] Se deplacer dans l'arborescence de repertoires ( cd ) L'invite est parametrable et ressemble souvent a ceci: [root@mistra /root]$ ( mistra est le nom de ma machine). Le premier root signifie que vous vous etes actif sous le compte utilisateur de l'administrateur systeme.

Vous etes donc en pleine possession de la machine, vous pouvez faire absolument n'importe quoi, jusqu'a supprimer des fichiers necessaires a son fonctionnement. 19th Century Art Essay. faites donc tres attention. Born. En theorie il ne faut utiliser la machine sous ce compte que pour l'administrer. Interview With Essay. Des comptes dits «d'utilisateurs» permettent de travailler en temps normal sans risquer de mettre le systeme en panne en cas d'action inconsideree ou de «mauvaise manipulation». Where Was Thomas Born. Nous exposerons ci-apres comment creer un compte utilisateur. Dans le prompt [root@mistra /root]$ la mention /root exprime que vous vous trouvez dans un repertoire nomme «/root». 19th. Sous Unix un repertoire n'est pas essentiellement different d'un fichier, vous lirez ou entendrez donc souvent le mot «fichier» utilise pour designer un objet a la nature non determinee qui peut etre un fichier ou un repertoire. Tout fichier (ou repertoire. Where Was Thomas Hobbes. ) se trouve a un endroit precis, appele son chemin d'acces, constitue: du nom du repertoire racine qui est present sur tous les systemes, donc commun a tous les chemins et par convention appele «/» («barre oblique», plus communement appele slash ) ou Le tout premier repertoire, , est appele «/». What. Tous les autres repertoires y prennent plus ou moins directement racine) suivi de la serie des noms des repertoires qui y menent, deux noms consecutifs etant separes au moyen de la barre oblique suivie de son nom. Si un repertoire nomme «repertoire1» contient un repertoire appele «repertoire2» recelant lui-meme un fichier «monfichier» le chemin complet de ce dernier est «/repertoire1/repertoire2/monfichier». Actuellement, donc, vous vous trouvez connecte sous le compte de l'administrateur systeme et dans le repertoire appele «/root», ou peut-etre «/var/root». Deplacons-nous dans la racine du systeme en saisissant cd / . Separez bien cd et / par un caractere espace car Unix exige une grande precision.

En pratique cd est la commande et / l'argument que nous lui fournissons. Born. Les arguments suivent la commande et sont parfois precedes d'un tiret. Vous etes maintenant dans le repertoire racine et le prompt devient [root@ nom_de_votre_machine /]# . Tapez la commande ls ( l i s t) afin d'obtenir la liste de son contenu, vous devez obtenir quelque chose comme: Si certains fichiers ou repertoires manquent sur votre machine, ce n'est pas important. Deplacons-nous dans le repertoire qui contient une grande partie des programmes (souvent simplement appeles «binaires») nomme /usr/bin en saississant cd /usr/bin . Interview With Essay. La commande reste cd mais cette fois l'argument est /usr/bin. Was Thomas. Vous pouvez la aussi obtenir le contenu du repertoire en utilisant la commande ls . Maintenant allons voir ce que contient le repertoire /etc (apercu lorsque nous avons liste le contenu du repertoire racine / ). Sparknotes. Nous avons deux possibilites pour nous y rendre: soit nous revenons dans le repertoire racine et nous nous rendons ensuite dans le repertoire etc ; soit nous nous rendons immediatement dans le repertoire /etc . Methode n°1: cd / (pour se rendre a la racine) puis cd etc. Cette methode est fastidieuse car elle necessite de taper deux commandes successives. Was Thomas Born. Nous pouvons utiliser la deuxieme methode pour nous rendre directement dans le repertoire «/etc» en ecrivant le chemin complet: . Discover Essay. et nous voici directement places dans le repertoire «/etc». Where. Nous avons indique que pour se rendre dans le repertoire «etc», il fallait d'abord se rendre dans le repertoire racine. Us. Pour ce faire, nous avons place un «/» devant «etc». Lorsque l'on fournit a la commande cd un « » au lieu d'un chemin, elle nous deplace automatiquement dans notre repertoire personnel, egalement appele «repertoire utilisateur» ou «home, celui ou nous pouvons stocker nos travaux.

Si vous etes l'administrateur systeme la commande cd. Pour revenir dans votre repertoire personnel cd. A quel programme correspond une commande? (type) Certaines commandes sont dites «internes» car le shell contient le programme correspondant (reagissant a la commande, par exemple «cd»). La plupart des commandes se trouvent dans les repertoires nommes «/bin», «/usr/bin». Was Thomas. Les repertoires «/sbin» et «/usr/sbin» recelent des commandes utiles a l'administrateur, et «/usr/local/bin» abrite des commandes mises au point qui ne furent pas fournies par la distribution, donc par exemple des realisations de l'administrateur. Lorsqu'on soumet a un shell une commande qu'il ne connait pas il determine s'il s'agit du nom d'un programme executable, et si c'est le cas le demarre. Pour diverses raisons certaines commandes existent a la fois sous forme interne et externe.

En ce cas la version interne est par defaut executee, sauf si l'on fournit le chemin d'acces de la version externe. Century. La commande «ls, par exemple, se trouve sur la plupart des machines sous les deux formes. Where Was Thomas Hobbes. Invoquer «ls» demarre la version du shell, pour lancer la commande externe il faut par exemple invoquer «/bin/ls». Pour determiner si une commande est interne ou externe, fournir son nom a la commande «type». What Is Superstition Means. Exemple: D'autres, par exemple «time», sont des mot-cles plutot que des commandes car ils ne sont pas autonomes (ils doivent porter sur une commande). Pour determiner ou se trouve, parmi les repertoires du PATH, le fichier executable d'un programme, par exemple d'une commande externe, employer la commande «which» (qui signifie «lequel») suivie de son nom, par exemple «which ls». Where Was Thomas Hobbes. Si aucune reponse n'apparait, le programme n'existe pas ou est une commande interne.

Pour obtenir une liste complete utiliser l'option «-a»: Pour chercher un fichier independamment du contenu du PATH on products, peut employer «find» ou (s'il est installe) «locate» qui repose sur une sorte de base de donnees des noms de fichiers periodiquement rafraichie (donc peut fournir un resultat obsolete). Dans quel repertoire suis-je actuellement? ( pwd ) Lorsque l'on se deplace dans les repertoires, par defaut le prompt bash n'affiche que le «nom court» de celui ou l'on se trouve. Was Thomas. Le nom court ne comprend pas le chemin complet. Century Art Essay. Or il se peut qu'un meme nom court corresponde a plusieurs repertoires bien distincts, donc que seuls les chemins qui y menent permettent de les distinguer. Hobbes Born. C'est par exemple le cas du nom court bin , que l'on trouve par exemple en «/bin» et en «/usr/local/bin». A Human Resources. Il existe beaucoup d'autres exemples. Pour connaitre le chemin du repertoire ou l'on se trouve, on where, utilise la commande pwd ( p ath of Interview a Human Resources Essay, current w orking d irectory). Lister le contenu d'un repertoire ( ls ) La commande ls permet d'obtenir beaucoup d'informations sur les fichiers et repertoires. Deplacons-nous par exemple dans le repertoire «/bin»: cd /bin. Puis demandons liste de son contenu: ls.

Nous pouvons demander a ls de lister uniquement les fichiers dont les noms contiennent des caracteres donnes. Where Was Thomas Born. Gagnons le repertoire /bin: cd /bin puis demandons par exemple la liste des seuls noms de fichiers dont les noms commencent par la lettre g: ls g* L'argument g* que nous venons de fournir est un motif, auquel on Interview With Manger, peut penser comme a une sorte de filet dont les mailles sont definies par nous (utilisateur), en respectant un certain nombre de conventions, et qui est ensuite applique ( jete ) par le shell afin de selectionner des noms de fichiers qui y correspondent. Les principales conventions valides dans ce contexte, donc lorsque l'on definit un motif de selection de noms de fichiers destine au shell, sont: l'etoile (ou plutot l'asterisque) est un caractere generique selectionnant n'importe quel ensemble de caracteres le point d'interrogation selectionnant n'importe quel caractere. Lorsque nous invoquons ls g* : dans un premier temps le shell applique le motif (jette le filet) et selectionne les noms de fichiers du repertoire courant qui correspondent au motif dans un deuxieme temps le shell lance ls en lui communiquant ce qu'il a selectionne, donc par exemple (si les seuls fichiers du repertoire courant dont le nom commence par g sont «grep», «gunzip», «gzexe» et «gzip»): ls grep gunzip gzexe gzip. Cette interpretation de motif puis selection des noms de fichiers y correspondant est en anglais appelee glob.

Elle fonctionne pour toutes les commandes, on where, peut donc saisir echo g* . Century. et obtenir le meme resultat qu'avec ls g* . On peut egalement interdire au shell d'effectuer ce «glob» en placant l'argument entre apostrophes. Where Born. Exemple: ls 'g*' , qui produit ici «ls: ne peut acceder g*: Aucun fichier ou repertoire de ce type», car ls cherche bien entendu alors un fichier nomme g* (g suivi d'un asterisque), qui n'existe pas. echo 'g*' , en revanche, fonctionne parfaitement puisque 'g*' devient alors un litteral qui sera traite par echo comme n'importe quelle autre chaine. 19th Century Art Essay. qu'il se contente donc d'afficher, independamment de ce que contient le repertoire courant. Voici quelques options interessantes de la commande ls : ls -l liste les attributs de fichiers (les droits de lecture, d'ecriture et d'execution, le proprietaire, le groupe, la taille en octets, sa date de creation ou de modification). (Note: la mention «total 3615» exprime la taille cumulee des fichiers, exprimee en blocs de 512 octets.) Ici, tous les fichiers appartiennent a l'administrateur systeme (root) et a son groupe (root). Where Was Thomas. Nous traiterons du sens de la fin de chaque ligne, qui contient parfois une fleche visible ici sur la ligne awk - gawk , dans la section consacree aux liens ln. -a liste tous (penser au mot a ll) les fichiers du repertoire, y compris les fichiers caches. Products. Cette option est tres utile lorsque l'on se trouve dans son repertoire personnel car il contient les fichiers de configuration de l'utilisateur dont les noms commencent generalement par un point et seule l'option -a permet de detecter leur existence. D'autres options de ls sont utiles: -m affiche en separant par une virgule au lieu de les presenter en colonnes. Where Was Thomas Hobbes Born. -t trie par date, c'est-a-dire en les classant du recent au plus ancien (penser a t ime). Mobile Us. -F trie par type.

Ainsi un fichier suivi d'un slash (/) est un repertoire, un fichier suivi d'une etoile est un fichier executable et un fichier suivi d'un @ est un lien (nous reviendrons sur les liens dans la section consacree a ln ). Where Was Thomas Born. -S trie par ordre de taille decroissante (penser a s ize). Lightweight Discover Future Appliances? Essay. -X trie par extension. Where Was Thomas Hobbes. -r trie par ordre alphabetique inverse (penser a r everse). What. Cette option a la particularite d'inverser l'effet de toutes les autres options de tris requises. Where Hobbes Born. ls -tr affichera ainsi les fichiers par date (-t) en commencant par les plus anciens pour finir par les plus recents. La commande less permet de lire le contenu d'un fichier texte. Avon Products Inc. Nous avons vu que le repertoire /root contenait des fichiers de configuration. Where Was Thomas Born. Ces fichiers sont simplement des fichiers textes avec un agencement et une syntaxe particuliere.

Regardons le contenu du fichier .bashrc qui permet de configurer a souhait son shell: less .bashrc . Pour passer d'une page a l'autre, tapez sur la touche espace. Could Lightweight Of Electricity Improve Future Appliances? Essay. Pour revenir sur la page precedente tapez sur «b» ( b ack). Where Hobbes Born. Pour quitter tapez «q». Une option utile de less est -N qui numerote les lignes (la numerotation de ligne apparait a l'ecran mais le fichier n'en est pas pour autant modifie). Si vous souhaitez connaitre les autres options de less , invoquez less --help . Modifier le contenu d'un fichier (l'editer) ( emacs , joe ) joe est simple et leger. The Unredeemed Sparknotes. C'est l'editeur que j'utilise pour faire une petite modification dans un fichier de configuration.

La touche Ctrl (Control) permet de le commander. Ctrl-k h afficher le panneau d'aide en ligne (un nouveau Ctrl-k h l'effacera). Where Was Thomas. Note: dans les textes d'aide de joe le caractere ^ (circonflexe) represente par convention la touche Control, donc ce que nous presentons ici par Ctrl-k h y est note ^KH Ctrl-k e ouvrir un fichier Ctrl-k d sauvegarder Ctrl-k x sauvegarder et quitter Ctrl-c quitter sans sauvegarder. GNU nano est lui aussi populaire et repandu. En tant qu'utilisateur root editer, dans le repertoire «/etc/joe/», les fichiers nommes «joerc» et «jmacsrc» de sorte que. «-asis» se trouve en debut de ligne (pas d'espace avant le tiret), afin de pouvoir editer des caracteres accentues «-backpath path» se trouve en debut de ligne et soit suivi de «/tmp», la ligne devenant donc «-backpath /tmp», afin que les fichiers de sauvegarde de la precedente version d'un fichier edite se trouvent dans «/tmp» plutot que dans le repertoire courant. Emacs date de la fin des annees 70 et ne cesse d'evoluer depuis.

Ce qui fait de lui, sans aucun doute possible, l'editeur le plus puissant. Bien plus qu'un editeur, il est un environnement de travail: edition, programmation, mail, news, shell . Century. bref on where hobbes, peut rester sous Emacs sans avoir besoin de quoi que ce soit d'autre. Ses adeptes sont tres nombreux, et ne leur dites pas qu'il est lourd . The Unredeemed. vous vous tromperiez lourdement (je sais de quoi je parle . Where Hobbes. j'ai fait l'erreur et en ce moment je suis sous Emacs. Avon Products Inc. ;-)) Lancons Emacs: emacs. Ses combinaisons reposent sur les touches Ctrl (Control) et Meta (qui correspond souvent a Alt ). Ouvrons un fichier nomme «linux-test» grace a la combinaison de touches suivante: Ctrl-x Ctrl-f , donc enfoncer la touche Control et la maintenir en position basse, taper «x» puis «f», et relacher «Control».

La mention Find File: / apparait (en bas, derniere ligne, dans le «minibuffer»). Where Was Thomas Hobbes Born. Saisir le nom du fichier et valider grace a la touche Entree. Interview With Essay. Son contenu apparait et vous pouvez le modifier. Born. Les touches Backspace et Suppr fonctionnent comme sous n'importe quel editeur. 19th. Pour sauver tapez la combinaison de touches: Ctrl-x Ctrl-s . Si vous etes bloque apres avoir effectue de mauvaises manipulations, tapez Ctrl-g , si necessaire plusieurs fois. Si vous avez fait des erreurs, Ctrl-x u supprime les dernieres modifications. Si vos touches de deplacement du curseur ne fonctionnent pas: Ctrl-p : monter d'une ligne. Where Hobbes Born. Ctrl-n : descendre d'une ligne. Century Art Essay. Ctrl-f : avancer d'un caractere.

Ctrl-b : reculer d'un caractere. Was Thomas. Ctrl-v : avancer d'une page. Lebara Mobile. Alt-v : reculer d'un ecran. Where Hobbes. Ctrl-d : supprimer le caractere sur lequel le curseur se trouve. Lebara. Ctrl-s : recherche incrementale. Where Was Thomas Born. Meta-% : rechercher et remplacer. Pour quitter Emacs, composer Ctrl-x Ctrl-c . Il m'est impossible de decrire dans ce document les milliers de fonctions disponibles.

Exemple: si vous editez un code source et le faites traiter (par exemple pour verification lexicale-syntaxique, compilation. 19th Century. en particulier via l'utilitaire «make» ou equivalent) via Emacs, alors pour aller a la premiere erreur il suffit de taper C-x `. Where Was Thomas. Emacs place alors votre curseur a la ligne ou s'est produite l'erreur. Inc. Corrigez, puis pour aller a l'endroit correspondant a l'erreur suivante tapez encore C-x ` et ainsi de suite. Was Thomas Hobbes Born. Pour parametrer d'autres combinaisons de touches: Si vous souhaitez en savoir plus, explorer ses panneaux d'aide ou des documents publies: joe peut emuler Emacs, ce qui epargne d'assimiler ses commandes propres tout en beneficiant d'un editeur compact et quasi partout disponible. A Human Manger Essay. L'invoquer pour cela avec la commande jmacs . Nous entrons maintenant dans une zone a risque.

Mieux vaut donc se connecter en tant qu'utilisateur de la machine et non pas en tant qu'administrateur systeme (root), car nous risquerions par une mauvaise manipulation de supprimer des fichiers fondamentaux necessaires a son bon fonctionnement. Where Was Thomas. Nous allons donc creer un compte utilisateur, lui attribuer un mot de passe et nous loguer sur ce compte. Executez les commandes suivantes (une explication detaillee vous sera proposee dans la partie consacree a l'administration systeme): adduser le_nom_de_choix (votre prenom par exemple, mais sans accent et si possible long de moins de 8 caracteres) su le_nom_de_votre_choix (la commande su permet de se loguer sous un autre compte). Avon. Il suffira de saisir exit pour «revenir» a la session de travail root. Invite (prompt) de root ou d'utilisateur. L'invite proposee lorsque l'on est connecte sous compte root est souvent differente de celle d'un utilisateur sans droits etendus. Where Was Thomas. Cela rappelle qu'il faut faire attention, car le compte root permet de tout casser.

Traditionnellement l'invite de root est terminee par un signe diese (#) et celle d'un utilisateur (non root) par un signe dollar ($). Declarer qui est proprietaire d'un fichier ( chown ) Preambule: cette section necessite d'etre administrateur systeme, il vous faut donc vous loguer sous ce compte, par exemple en utilisant la commande su : [delcros@mistra. Chaque fichier appartient a un utilisateur ainsi qu'a un groupe. Si, par exemple, nous avons effectue un ls -l linux-test et obtenu: -rw-r-r-- 1 delcros users 9 Jul 19 19:03 linux-test. ( Note: couleurs ajoutees pour simplifier l'expose) delcros est le nom du proprietaire du fichier et users est celui du groupe auquel appartient le fichier. L'administrateur systeme peut decider des utilisateurs membres d'un groupe, et permettre a un utilisateur de determiner lui-meme qui fera partie du groupe. Is Superstition Means. Le fichier /etc/group decrit les groupes.

Je peux decider par exemple que le fichier «linux-test» n'appartient plus a l'utilisateur delcros mais a l'utilisateur thomas: Pour changer a la fois le proprietaire afin de le donner a olivier et le groupe (ici: testeurs ): chown olivier.testeurs linux-test. Pour ne changer que le groupe: chown .testeurs linux-test. Copier un fichier ou un repertoire ( cp ) La syntaxe est: cp [option] nom-fichier(s)-origine nom-fichier-ou-repertoire-destination. Par exemple pour faire une copie d'un fichier du repertoire ou l'on se trouve nomme «linux-test» en un fichier «linux-test2»: ATTENTION: si vous effectuez une copie d'un fichier sur un autre qui existe deja, le contenu de ce dernier sera remplace par celui de l'autre! Si vous souhaitez copier le fichier linux-test dans un repertoire (par exemple «/tmp»):

Pour lui donner un autre nom: ). Where Hobbes. -v affiche les noms des fichiers copies (pensez a v erbeux). Means. Utile si vous souhaitez verifier le bon deroulement. Was Thomas. -p lors de la copie les attributs des fichiers seront preserves (proprietaire, groupe, date de creation. Lebara Mobile. lire chown). L'option -r copie de maniere r ecursive, donc l'ensemble d'un repertoire et de ses sous-repertoires. Exemple: je possede dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel» un repertoire intitule «mygale» qui contient 3 sous-repertoires («echecs», «linux», «xcaissa»): Je copie le repertoire «mygale» ainsi que ses sous-repertoires dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/» en commencant par me placer dans le repertoire recelant l'ensemble: cd /home/delcros/personnel/ puis en le recopiant: cp -r mygale /home/delcros . En associant l'option -v et -r : cp -rv mygale /home/delcros : J'ai par exemple deja copie dans le repertoire d'un utilisateur (pour qu'il en dispose) de la documentation qui se trouvait dans un repertoire «doc» dont le proprietaire etait l'administrateur systeme. Was Thomas Born. Pour cela j'ai copie tout le repertoire et ses sous-repertoires dans le repertoire de l'utilisateur grace a la commande cp et a son option -r , puis j'ai declare l'identite du nouveau proprietaire de la copie et de ses sous-repertoires: [root@mistra delcros]# chown -R delcros.users doc . What. L'option -R ( r ecursive) de chown le contraint a propager son action dans les sous-repertoires, etablissant par cette seule commande le proprietaire de plusieurs repertoires et de leurs fichiers. Declarer les droits d'acces (permissions) accordes ( chmod ) Linux permet de specifier les modes d'acces (a un fichier ou repertoire) autorises, que l'on appelle droits d'acces ou «permissions». Pour voir ces droits, il suffit d'utiliser la commande ls -l nom_du_fichier , qui produira par exemple: Il y a la de nombreuses informations, certaines ne seront decrites que plus tard.

Le nom du fichier, «bidule», apparait a la fin de la ligne. Le premier «adelcros» signifie que le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur «adelcros». Where Was Thomas Hobbes Born. La mention «users» signifie qu'il appartient au groupe «users». La partie qui contient -rw-r--r-- revele la nature du fichier ainsi que les permissions (droits d'acces). Le premier de ces 10 caracteres correspond a la nature du fichier. Avon. Un tiret signifie qu'il est tout ce qu'il y a de plus classique. Hobbes Born. Si, a la place du premier tiret, on Interview With Manger, observait un d cela signifierait qu'en realite le fichier est un repertoire ( d irectory). Born. Si on 19th Art Essay, observait un l , alors le fichier serait un lien.

Decomposons les 9 derniers caracteres en 3 segments: rw- , r-- et r-- Le premier revele les droits accordes au proprietaire du fichier Le deuxieme revele les droits accordes aux comptes qui ne sont pas celui du proprietaire et faisant partie du groupe auquel appartient le fichier Le troisieme revele les droits accordes aux autres comptes. Dans chaque segment le premier caractere correspond au droit de lecture (note r , penser a r ead), le deuxieme correspond au droit d'ecriture ( w rite) et le troisieme correspond au droit d'execution ( x , e x ecution). Where. Si a la place d'un des ces caracteres nous ne voyons qu'un tiret - , c'est que le droit correspondant n'est pas accorde. «-rw-r--r--», par exemple, exprime que tous les utilisateurs ont le droit de lire le fichier et que seul son proprietaire a le droit de le modifier.

Personne ne peut lancer l'execution de ce fichier puisque x n'apparait pas. Lorsque l'on traite de permissions la lettre u ( u ser) designe par convention le proprietaire du fichier, la lettre g le g roupe d'utilisateurs qui possede le fichier et la lettre o ( o thers) les autres utilisateurs. The Unredeemed Sparknotes. La lettre a ( a ll) fait reference a tous les utilisateurs. Where Hobbes Born. Cette notation est la plus facile a employer avec la commande de modification des permissions chmod . Seul le proprietaire du fichier (ainsi que root, qui dispose des pleins pouvoirs) a le pouvoir de modifier ces permissions. Etablissons par exemple que n'importe qui pourra lire et modifier un fichier nomme «linux-test»: chmod est la commande ch angeant les « mod es d'acces» a indique que tous ( a ll) les segments seront touches par la modification des permissions + signifie que l'on accorde une ou plusieurs permission(s) supplementaire(s), qui s'ajoute a celles qui sont deja etablies. With Resources Manger Essay. Pour en retrancher il suffit d'utiliser en lieu et place le signe - . Was Thomas. Pour etablir les permissions independamment de ce qu'elles sont deja il suffit d'employer le signe = . Is Superstition Means. w signifie qu'il s'agit de la permission d'ecriture ( w rite) r signifie qu'il s'agit egalement de la permission de lecture ( r ead) Pour verifier que tout a bien fonctionne, faites un ls -l linux-test qui montrera une premiere colonne contenant -rw-rw-rw- Pour supprimer les droits d'ecriture et de lecture accordes aux membres du groupe proprietaire du fichier ainsi qu'aux autres utilisateurs: chmod go-wr linux-test. dans go le g signifie que la commande affectera les permissions accordees au g roupe proprietaire, et le o qu'elle affectera egalement celles que l'on accorde aux «autres utilisateurs» (ceux qui ne sont ni le proprietaire, ni membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient, o ther users) wr signifie que la modification portera sur les droits d'ecriture ou de lecture. Where. On aurait pu aussi ecrire la commande en mettant rw car l'ordre n'a pas d'importance. Si je souhaite que le proprietaire du fichier ne puisse pas executer un fichier:

Pour definir d'un seul mouvement toutes les permissions d'un fichier, on lebara, peut utiliser la syntaxe suivante (nous voulons que «linux-test» soit en lecture, en ecriture et en execution pour le proprietaire, que le groupe n'ait le droit que de le lire et executer, et que les autres utilisateurs ne disposent d'aucun droit): Pour oter le droit d'y ecrire a tous sauf au proprietaire: Lorsqu'un programme (quel qu'il soit, y compris le shell) tente d'acceder a un fichier, le noyau Unix sait pour quel utilisateur le programme fonctionne. Where Was Thomas. Si le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur les droits accordes au proprietaire s'appliquent. 19th Art Essay. Sinon, si le fichier appartient au groupe auquel l'utilisateur appartient, alors les droits accordes au groupe auquel le fichier appartient s'appliquent. Born. Sinon les droits accordes aux autres utilisateurs seront respectes. 19th Century. Exemple: Il n'est pas stupide d'interdire ainsi l'acces alors que l'utilisateur peut modifier les permissions du fichier (exemple: chmod u+r important.txt ) donc s'en accorder le droit, car cela constitue une sorte de garde-fou en cas d'erreur: un logiciel tentant d'acceder au contenu de ce fichier se le verra refuser et devra, pour obtenir satisfaction, modifier ses permissions, ce qui ne sera pas fait par hasard. Expression numerique des permissions (systeme octal) Il n'est pas necessaire d'assimiler cette section, elle n'est destinee qu'a eclairer des choses etranges parfois rencontrees, par exemple dans des documentations. Une autre facon de declarer (definir) les permissions existe.

Elle repose sur une notation numerique remplacant, d'une part par un 0 (zero) chaque droit non accorde (ceux que ls revele au moyen d'un tiret) et, d'autre part, les autres (accordes!) par un 1 (chiffre un ). Pour chaque fichier les trois segments de permission (le premier decrit les droits du proprietaire, le deuxieme ceux des membres du groupe auquel appartient le fichier, le troisieme ceux de tous les autres comptes) rassemblent chacun 3 droits (r, w, x), il y a donc 2 3 donc 8 combinaisons possibles. Hobbes Born. C'est pourquoi un systeme numerique de notation des permissions parfois adopte est dit octal. ' chmod digere cette notation. Century Art Essay. C'est pourquoi chmod u=rwx,g=rw,o=r nom_de_fichier equivaut a chmod 764 nom_de_fichier car rwx (droits du proprietaire) correspond a 7, rw (droits des membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient) correspond a 6, et r (droits des autres comptes) correspond a 4. Was Thomas. Les chiffres doivent etre exprimes dans l'ordre, le premier pour le proprietaire, le deuxieme pour le groupe, le troisieme pour les autres. Effectuons a nouveau une copie du fichier «linux-test» (tapez au prealable cd pour vous retrouver dans votre repertoire personnel): cp linux-test linux-test2.

Pour supprimer le fichier linux-test2: rm linux-test2. Pour creer un repertoire, il suffit de taper la commande suivante (ici je cree dans «/home/delcros» un repertoire nomme personnel): mkdir personnel. Une option de mkdir est souvent utile: mkdir -p permet de creer une suite de repertoires. Supposons que je veuille creer dans mon repertoire /home/delcros la suite de repertoires suivante: doc/mygale/mail . Lebara Mobile Us. Je peux faire soit: mkdir doc , cd doc , mkdir mygale , cd mygale , mkdir mail. Ou bien utiliser l'option -p qui me permet de creer la suite de repertoires parents le plus simplement du monde: mkdir -p doc/mygale/mail. Deplacer ou renommer un fichier ( mv ) Pour comprendre la commande mv (penser a m o v e), voyons une suite de commandes qui effectuent des operations differentes: mv linux-test perso renomme le fichier linux-test en perso mv perso perso ecrase le fichier existant avec le fichier copie (dit «source»). mv personnel mon-repertoire : renomme le repertoire «personnel» en «mon-repertoire». mv perso /home/delcros/mon-repertoire : deplace le fichier «perso» dans le repertoire /home/delcros/mon-repertoire. ». Where Was Thomas Born. -i demande pour chaque fichier et chaque repertoire s'il peut ou non deplacer fichiers et repertoires (penser a i nteractif) -u demande a mv de ne pas supprimer le fichier si sa date de modification est la meme ou est plus recente que son remplacant (penser a u pdate). Chercher un fichier ou repertoire ( find , locate , which ) Exemple simple: comment trouver un fichier portant un nom donne? find /home -name linux-test2. /home indique que nous voulons chercher a partir du repertoire «/home» -name indique que nous voulons trouver un fichier portant un nom donne.

Pour chercher tous les fichiers commencant par linux-tes et definir a partir de quel repertoire on what is superstition means, souhaite effectuer la recherche, on where was thomas born, utilise cette syntaxe: find /home/delcros -name 'linux-tes*' Le nombre d'options de find est impressionnant. Interview With A Human Resources. En voici quelques-unes: Indique le type de fichier que l'on recherche. Was Thomas. Si vous cherchez seulement un repertoire vous pourrez utilisez cette option ainsi: find /usr -type d . Could Discover Appliances? Essay. . Where Was Thomas. Ici, on lebara mobile, demande a find de trouver des repertoires, et non des fichiers, grace a l'option -type d (penser a d irectory, qui signifie repertoire ) Execute une commande sur les fichiers trouves. La difference entre -exec et -ok est que la deuxieme vous demandera pour chaque fichier trouve si vous souhaitez reellement realiser l'operation: find -name 'linux-tes*' -print -ok rm ; ./linux-test. Avec l'option -exec la paire d'accolades indique l'endroit ou se trouvera, lors de l'invocation de la commande, le nom du fichier trouve.

L'anti-slash lie au point virgule forme une sequence d'echappemment. La commande locate a la meme mission que find mais explore une base de donnees qui contient la liste des fichiers et repertoires. Where Born. Cette base de donnees est en general automatiquement mise a jour quotidiennement par le systeme. La syntaxe est: locate nom_du_fichier . Bien que la commande locate soit tres interessante, elle ne possede pas la puissance des options de find . Inc. De plus, si vous creez des fichiers pendant la journee elle ne trouvera pas avant mise a jour de sa base de donnees (le lendemain). La commande grep est un pivot des commandes UNIX. Hobbes. Elle cherche une expression reguliere dans un ou plusieurs fichiers. Avon Inc. Exemple: grep fouille linux-commande.html cherche les lignes contenant le mot fouille dans le fichier nomme «linux-commande.html». L'option -n produira le numero de chaque ligne contenant un resultat. Was Thomas Born. Une autre option tres utile est -l qui permet de n'afficher que les noms des fichiers contenant ce que l'on cherche.

Compactage et decompactage ( compress , gzip , bzip2 , 7zip ) Il est obsolete, ne pas utiliser. Si vous rencontrez un fichier d'extension .Z vous pouvez le decompacter grace a gzip: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .Z . Efficace et tres repandu. Pour compacter un fichier: gzip nom_du_fichier , cela creera un fichier nom_du_fichier.gz et detruira l'original. Pour decompacter: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .gz , qui recreera l'original et supprimera la version compactee. Sa syntaxe et son comportement correspondent a ceux de gzip. Pour compacter un fichier: bzip2 nom_du_fichier. Pour decompacter: bzip2 -d nom_du_fichier .bz2. La commande tar gere des archives, contenant chacune au moins un repertoire ou fichier.

Vous aurez souvent besoin de tar xzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz , qui decompacte une archive au format .tar.gz ou .tgz . L'extension .tar.gz indique que le fichier est une archive tar et qu'il est compacte ( .gz revele qu'il l'est avec gz ip). Les arguments employes dans la commande precedente («xzf») peuvent etre ainsi compris: x (e x traction) declenche l'extraction de certains fichiers d'une archive (lorsque l'on ne specifie pas les noms des fichiers que l'on souhaite extraire de l'archive, tar les extrait tous) z compacte ou decompacte l'archive grace a g z ip f traite un f ichier-archive dont le nom suit (ici: « nom_du_fichier .tar.gz») Pour connaitre la liste des fichiers contenus dans une archive compactee on avon, emploiera tar tvzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz. t dresse lis t e du contenu de l'archive v est le mode v erbeux, qui montre tout. Si je me trouve dans le repertoire ««/home/delcros/»» la commande suivante creera une archive du repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel»: tar cvjf personnel.bz2 personnel. c tar va c reer une archive j tar compacte l'archive grace a bzip2. Connaitre l'espace disque utilise ( df et du ) La commande df permet de connaitre l'emplacement de montage des systemes de fichiers accessibles sur votre systeme et leurs capacites restantes. La commande du permet de connaitre l'encombrement sur disque du repertoire specifie et ses sous-repertoires. Controler les ressources utilisees par les processus ( top , ps , kill ) La commande top affiche en continu des informations decrivant l'activite du systeme. Was Thomas. Elle permet surtout de suivre les ressources que les processus utilisent (quantite de memoire, pourcentage de CPU. Products. ).

Vous pourrez utiliser l'option -d pour specifier des delais de rafraichissement (en secondes). Sous top il est possible d'expedier de maniere interactive un signal a un processus, par exemple afin de le stopper, en tapant k . top demande ensuite quel signal il doit envoyer et 15 (SIGTERM) est le signal par defaut qui met fin a un processus, 9 (SIGKILL) est beaucoup plus brutal et a eviter. Pour quitter top , appuyer simplement sur la touche q. La commande ps dresse liste des processus actifs: ps. Le PID est l'identificateur d'un processus, c'est un nombre. Was Thomas Hobbes. Chaque processus est identifie dans le systeme par un nombre unique. Inc. Le TTY indique a quel port de terminal est associe le processus. Where Hobbes Born. STAT indique l'etat ( stat us) dans lequel se trouve le processus. Dans l'exemple, trois processus sont endormis (S comme s leep), et un autre en cours d'execution (R comme r un). Art Essay. Ce dernier n'est autre que la commande ps que nous venons de lancer, qui se «voit elle-meme».

Le TIME indique le temps total durant lequel le processus profita du microprocesseur. Where. COMMAND precise, comme son nom l'indique, la commande qui crea le processus. Une simple commande ps n'indique pas tous les processus du systeme. Discover Of Electricity Improve Future Appliances? Essay. Le simple fait de lancer ps nous a juste indique les processus associes a un terminal qui dependent de l'utilisateur courant. Was Thomas Hobbes Born. En fait, il est tout a fait probable que d'autres processus non lies a un terminal soient actifs: ps -ax les revelera. Si en plus vous voulez connaitre les utilisateurs associes a chaque processus, il vous suffit d'utiliser l'option aux . Mobile Us. Vous verrez alors plusieurs colonnes s'ajouter, dont USER qui indique a quel utilisateur appartient le processus. Born. %CPU indique en pourcentage les ressources actuelles du microprocesseur utilisees par le processus. Appliances? Essay. %MEM montre en pourcentage la proportion de memoire vive dans la memoire utilisee par le processus, elle-meme fournie dans la colonne RSS. Where Was Thomas Hobbes Born. START indique l'heure a laquelle le processus a ete lance. Cette commande permet d'afficher les processus sous forme d'arborescence, donc de voir leurs inter-dependances: pstree. On voit par exemple ici que j'utilise «Fvwmpager» qui a lui-meme ete lance par «fvwm». La commande kill permet d'expedier un signal a un processus. Sa syntaxe est la suivante: kill [options] PID.

Elle est souvent utilisee afin d'interrompre un programme sans IHM ou recalcitrant. What Is Superstition Means. Si j'ai lance un programme donne, par exemple xeyes , un processus sera actif. Hobbes. Si je le lance deux fois, deux processus seront actifs, et ainsi de suite. Mobile. Pour demander a un processus de cesser de fonctionner (on parle de le «tuer»), je peux d'abord invoquer ps auxw pour connaitre son PID, si par exemple le PID est 592, le tuer en invoquant kill 592. La premiere colonne presente le PID et la derniere le nom du programme invoque. Where Was Thomas Hobbes Born. La seconde ligne, ici, correspond au grep invoque, qui se «voit ainsi lui-meme». Seul l'utilisateur auquel le processus appartient (ou root) peut le tuer.

La commande killall tue un processus mais au lieu de fournir son PID vous indiquerez son nom (la commande qui le lanca). A Human Manger Essay. Si plusieurs processus y correspondent vous tentez ainsi de tous les tuer, mieux vaut utiliser l'option -i (pour i nteractif) qui demande confirmation avant de tenter d'arreter un processus. Un processus peut se trouver dans un etat ne permettant pas de lui demander de s'interrompre. Where Was Thomas Hobbes Born. Tenter en ce cas de lui expedier le signal HUP puis INT en invoquant par exemple kill -HUP PID . Could Of Electricity Improve Essay. S'il fait la sourde oreille demander au noyau de le tuer sans condition en lui expediant KILL («KILL» est ici le libelle d'un signal). Hobbes Born. Attention: le signal KILL ne laisse pas le processus ainsi condamne prendre des dispositions parfois souhaitables ou necessaires, par exemple fermer un fichier, donc peut endommager ou perdre des donnees voire causer des dysfonctionnements. Redirection (des entrees/sorties d'executables) Lorsque vous saisissez des donnees a mesure recues par un processus vous fournissez des elements a traiter, appeles entrees, grace au clavier. Lebara. L'activite des processus produit des sorties (resultats), le plus souvent par defaut affiches. L'entree de donnees peut se faire par un canal autre que le clavier, en indiquant par exemple un fichier qui contient les donnees a traiter. Born. Le canal de sortie peut lui aussi etre dirige ailleurs que vers l'ecran, par exemple vers un fichier dont on is superstition means, pourra ensuite continuer a traiter le contenu. On peut egalement recevoir ou expedier des donnees a chacun des peripheriques connectes, auquel correspond un «fichier special» dans le repertoire «/dev».

Le shell offre un moyen de gerer tout cela, en interconnectant a loisir ces canaux, grace aux redirections. Comment faire, par exemple, pour que la commande less , qui affiche le contenu d'un fichier, le place plutot dans un fichier? C'est le signe qui va nous permettre cela. Dans un premier temps, je veux voir le contenu du fichier nomme «test»: less test . Where Hobbes Born. La commande less affiche son resultat vers la sortie standard qui est le terminal. Dans un deuxieme temps, je veux placer le fichier «test» dans un fichier «test2»: less test test2 . 19th Century. Ce n'est qu'une copie du fichier test en test2.

La commande cp permet aussi de le faire. Plusieurs types de redirections existent: nom_de_fichier redirige vers le fichier nomme ce que produit le programme. Where Was Thomas Hobbes Born. Exemple: ls ls.txt nom_de_fichier permet comme le signe de rediriger le canal de sortie standard vers le fichier nomme. The Unredeemed Sparknotes. Si ce dernier existe deja, ce qui provient du canal de sortie sera ajoute apres ce qui y existe deja alors qu'avec un simple le contenu existant serait remplace (ecrase) nom_de_fichier redirige le canal d'entree standard, qui devient le contenu du fichier nomme. Where Was Thomas Hobbes Born. Exemple: less ls.txt . The Unredeemed. Cela revient apparemment a ce que montre less ls.txt mais est subtilement different car interdit a less d'acceder directement au fichier en demandant au shell d'en copier le contenu sur le canal d'entree standard de less , qui ne pourra savoir d'ou il vient nom_de_fichier redirige sortie standard et erreur standard vers un seul et meme fichier. Ce sont les formes les plus frequemment employees.

Toutes ces formes sont des versions simplifiees. Where Born. Pour maitriser tout cela il faut savoir que l'entree standard dans un systeme Unix est le clavier, designe par le descripteur de fichier numerote 0. Century Art Essay. Par defaut le terminal est la sortie standard, ce descripteur de fichier est designe par le chiffre 1. Where Was Thomas. Il existe un troisieme descripteur de fichier classique qui est le canal de sortie des erreurs produites par l'execution d'une commande, designe par le chiffre 2. Is Superstition Means. Dans les exemples suivant la lettre n remplace l'un de ces chiffres: n nom_de_fichier redirige ce qui sort via le descripteur n (vers le fichier nomme). Where Hobbes Born. Par exemple, si vous souhaitez obtenir les erreurs standards (donc le canal 2) dans un fichier nomme monprogramme.err : nom_de_commande 2 monprogramme.err n nom_de_fichier declare le fichier nomme comme correspondant au descripteur n duplique la sortie standard vers le fichier correspondant au descripteur n n duplique l'entree standard depuis le fichier correspondant au descripteur n. A premiere vue, on the unredeemed, se demande bien a quoi servent certaines des redirections. Where Hobbes Born. On le decouvre en employant le shell. L'une des plus utiles redirections est 21 qui redirige le canal des erreurs vers la sortie standard. Lightweight Of Electricity Improve Future Essay. Elle est tres appreciee des utilisateurs lorsqu'ils souhaitent conserver la liste des messages d'erreur produits par un programme: nom_du_programme 21 erreurs nom_du_programme .tmp. Les canaux sont autant de tuyaux vehiculant les donnees, que l'on peut assembler librement grace aux redirections fournies par le shell. Was Thomas Hobbes. Cela mene a la plomberie.

Interconnexion de commandes: les pipes. Le mot pipe designe la barre verticale (|) obtenue avec la combinaison de touches AltGr + 6 sur les claviers francais classiques, ou Altgr + 1 sur les claviers franco-belges. Un tube passe le resultat d'une commande a une autre, sans passer par une redirection qui impliquerait un fichier temporaire. Un exemple permettra de comprendre tout cela. Je veux savoir quels sont les processus bash qui fonctionnent sur le systeme, mais je veux que la commande ps aux ne me fournisse que les lignes qui contiennent le mot bash pour m'epargner de lire tout ce qu'elle produit. Avec ce que nous connaissons deja il nous faudrait une premiere commande visant a obtenir la liste des processus bash actifs et a la placer dans un fichier temporaire: ps aux temporaire.tmp . Lightweight Discover Improve. Puis nous pourrions mobiliser grep: grep bash temporaire.tmp afin d'obtenir le resultat souhaite. Was Thomas. Il ne resterait plus qu'a nettoyer: rm temporaire.tmp . Employer un tube realise l'equivalent en sollicitant moins le systeme, qui n'aura rien a stocker temporairement: ps aux | grep bash. On peut dire que l'on a lance un traitement qui connecte les deux commandes ( ps et grep ) entre elles, de sorte que ce que la premiere citee produit soit immediatement communique a l'autre. 19th Century Art Essay. Vous pouvez ainsi en connecter autant que vous voulez: commande1 | commande2 | commande3 . Where Was Thomas Hobbes. | commandeN. Si on what is superstition means, prend conscience de l'utilite des tubes, on where was thomas born, les utilise et on captive sparknotes, finit par ne plus vouloir s'en passer. Un lien est un type special de fichier qui permet a plusieurs noms de fichiers de faire reference au meme contenu sur le disque.

Ce sont des sortes de «synonymes», d'aliases. Un lien dur associe deux ou plusieurs fichiers a un meme espace sur le disque, en preservant toutefois leurs independances lors de modifications de leurs contenus. Exemple: creons un fichier (dont le contenu importe peu) nomme linux-test grace a echo toto linux-test. Puis creons un lien dur vers ce fichier: ln linux-test linux-test-lien-dur. Le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est cree dans le repertoire courant.

Si vous faites un ls -l vous constaterez que «linux-test» et «linux-test-lien-dur» ont la meme taille. Where Was Thomas. Ils semblent independants mais en realite un seul contenu (commun aux deux) existe pour le moment. What Means. Si le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est modifie, nous aurons automatiquement une modification du fichier «linux-test» (et vice-versa), car elle s'effectuera physiquement sur le disque dur a l'endroit stockant le contenu des deux fichiers. Si nous creons un lien symbolique : ln -s linux-test linux-test-lien-symb. ls -l montrera le nom du fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» suivi d'une fleche revelant qu'il pointe sur «linux-test». Was Thomas Hobbes. Toute reference au fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» impliquera en realite le fichier «linux-test».

En resume un lien symbolique est un fichier de petite taille qui a une existence propre et contient le nom du fichier auquel il correspond. Dans le cas d'un lien dur , la suppression de l'un des deux fichiers n'affectera pas l'autre. What. Dans le cas d'un lien symbolique, la suppression du fichier originel (la cible du lien) rendra le lien symbolique inutilisable car il ne correspondra plus a un fichier valide et sera donc dit casse (pendouillant). Les liens sont utiles si vous souhaitez qu'un fichier apparaisse dans plusieurs repertoires, ou sous un nom different. Where Hobbes. Si le fichier est encombrant une copie par cp entrainerait un gachis alors qu'un lien permettra de reduire l'utilisation d'espace disque. Avon Inc. Mieux: n'etablir que des liens (au lieu de copier) garantit que toute modification concernera toutes les «copies» dispersees. Syntaxe: ln nom-fichier-source nom-fichier-lien. -s cree un lien symbolique. Was Thomas. Dans la plupart des cas c'est ce qui est adequat, le lien dur est en fait rarement employe. Art Essay. -b realise une sauvegarde d'un fichier existant et dont nous aurions utilise le nom, avant de l'ecraser. Was Thomas Born. -i demande a l'utilisateur, si le lien existe, s'il souhaite l'ecraser. Lorsque l'on utilise les memes commandes avec de nombreuses options fixes il est utile de remplacer le tout par un ordre tres court declare comme une sorte de synonyme.

Il est appele «alias». Les alias sont declares dans le fichier « /.bashrc»). Art Essay. Voici un exemple classique de declaration d'alias: alias ll=ls -NlF --color=auto , qui cree une commande ll appelant ls avec des options ameliorant la presentation. La variable $* designe tous les parametres communiques lors de l'appel de l'alias: Plutot que de saisir souvent tar -tvzf nom_de_fichier ou pourra ainsi preferer creer un alias: alias montar=tar -tvzf $* , puis employer montar nom_de_fichier. La commande unalias supprime de facon definitive un alias.

Son option -a (pour all ) commande suppression de tous les alias. Certains alias sont declares dans des fichiers executes par bash lors de son demarrage, par exemple « /.bashrc». Where Was Thomas Hobbes Born. En ce cas il faut commenter la ligne definissant l'alias dans le dit fichier pour le supprimer definitivement, sinon il ne le sera que durant la session en cours. La commande man est utile. Products Inc. Lui fournir en argument le nom de la commande ou du logiciel sur lequel porte la question. Hobbes. Exemple: man cp . Interview With. Pour quitter le man appuyer sur la touche q.

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Thomas Hobbes: A Short Biography

An essay to compare different productions of 'Romeo and Juliet' with reference to the Balcony scene. Extracts from this document. An essay to compare different productions of 'Romeo and Juliet' with reference to hobbes, the Balcony scene. Sara Misra William Shakespeare, a well-known dramatist wrote and directed many famous plays such as 'Macbeth' and ' AMid Summer's Night Dream' that made a great impact on his audience and resulted in Could discover of electricity improve appliances? Shakespeare becoming one of the where was thomas hobbes, world's best-known dramatist. However, a tragic love story of Romeo Montague and captive, Juliet Capulet is probably his best-known theatrical production in which two teenagers fall in love, with a complication of hatred between their two families. During Shakespeare's time, only a limited amount of people had access to was thomas born, the theatre that could watch on a fantastic production until a director, Franco Zeffirelli changed that. However, thirty years later another director by the name of Baz Luhrmann created another replica of 'Romeo and Juliet,' which would match the audience of what means today's society.

Both of these directors present their production in different ways due to the fact that they were affected by their culture. Franco Zeffirelli is an Italian director and his adaptation of 'Romeo and Juliet' added a powerful realism because the play is was thomas hobbes born, set 'in fair Verona,' that is actually set in Italy. In comparison, Zeffirelli obeys Shakespeare's rules on scenery by setting the captive sparknotes, film in where was thomas Verona. Is Superstition! By contrast, the was thomas hobbes born, Australian director, Baz Luhrmann set his version in a mythical and artistically created California town called Verona Beach. Luhrmann took a modern approach to William Shakespeare's 'Romeo and 19th Art Essay, Juliet' due to the fact that his film work was about youth and where hobbes born, how its optimism, energy and of electricity appliances? Essay, inexperience were so ultimately human and real. . read more. It also pays more attention to Romeo's movements as if there had been music Luhrmann's audience would have been distracted. The humorous effect also makes the romantic scene more upbeat and the clumsiness of Romeo is also intentionally done to add to the humour. Luhrmann uses the element of climbing in the scene and was thomas hobbes born, similarly, so does Zeffirelli. In the traditional film, Romeo is climbing up Juliet's balcony and speaks to her there.

However, Luhrmann's scene involves Romeo climbing up a balcony that leads to Juliet's room, but Romeo is instead talking to the nurse that destroys the captive sparknotes, clich?. It is also ironic that Romeo briskly retreats just as Juliet comes from the lift and in was thomas hobbes born the process makes a lot of noise due to his clumsiness. Luhrmann creates humorous situations and in this way there is continuous attention to the film from the audience. Interview A Human Resources Manger Essay! There is more focal point of Juliet in Zeffirelli's version than compared to the Romeo who, at first, is the focal point in the Luhrmann's re-make but gradually it is both Romeo and hobbes born, Juliet who are captioned together more than in the Zeffirelli's film. The Italian director has deliberately done this so that the viewer can see Juliet and Romeo's individual thoughts for one another separately and mobile, consequently, depicts the complication of them becoming an item. The obvious use of imagery is the where was thomas, use of water in both productions of inc 'Romeo and Juliet,' and appears in many key scenes, such as the was thomas born, balcony scene that symbolises purity and clarity of thought. . With A Human! read more. Zeffirelli, however, tries to suggest the fact that although their love has a strong bond, it is still, physically separated due to their families hatred for one another. Nevertheless, both directors have successfully achieved their point by where hobbes born, altering the camera. In conclusion, Zeffirelli and Luhrmann's variations generated from the original and thus brought about new concepts to the stage.

Both the productions were distinct and intense in their own execution of the balcony scene and also the rest of the film. The English accents constantly was used throughout the Zeffirelli version that unlike Luhrmann's adaptation, brought about is superstition, no hints in the setting to allow understanding of the meaning of love and where born, tone. However, it presented a more concise version of the play to the viewer, accurately delineating the setting, characters and atmosphere and consequently, it allowed a significant understanding of he world of William Shakespeare. On the other hand, Luhrmann's edition of Romeo and Juliet was an entirely different contrast to Zeffirelli's that portrayed and brought about more contemporary aspects to the stage, for example, the setting being modernized, the Interview With Resources Manger, American accents used to draw in predominantly young viewers. However, both the productions did succeed in hobbes born delivering two fantastic versions of Romeo and Juliet to their specified audiences to fit their individual genres. However, I personally preferred the Luhrmann's version, as there was an element of understanding, especially for younger adults that were able to comprehend it easily. It produced a new variation that was still exciting and enjoyable to lebara mobile, watch in which it gave many connotations from the where was thomas, tense, romantic and humorous situations throughout the film. 1 . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Romeo and Juliet section. With A Human Resources Manger Essay! Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.

Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by where born, 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Romeo and Juliet essays. Compare and contrast the two 'Romeo and Juliet' films,by Franco Zeffirelli and Baz Luhrmann. . At the start of the Franco Zeffirelli production Tybalt enters with a very dark costume with puffed sleeves; the puffed sleeves could be symbolising his arrogance as we often use the term that someone can be very 'puffed up' and the darkness of his costume has probably been chosen purposely. Discuss the different types of love shown in romeo and juliet. One of the first lines of the 19th Century, play is: 'A pair of star-crossed lovers take their life' Right at the beginning of the play the audience are told that Romeo and Juliet are doomed to die. Comparing two versions of Romeo amp;amp; Juliet (Zefferelli and Baz Luhram). Zefferelli doesn?t use any change of scene in his version of the fight, which dampens the effect and seriousness of where hobbes Tybalt?s death. Shakespear would have greatly preferred the Luhrman version of is superstition this scene I think because it has much more impact on the audience, and is more exiting than the Zefferelli version. Romeo and Juliet Luhrmann and Zeffirelli Film Comparison Essay. It may well have been a sly hint at it because both actors were black.

When Tybalt and Mercutio are fighting in the book at first they are just joking but in the film they are properly fighting, and Mercutio doesn't joke around so much he says it is merely. How effectively do Baz Luhrmann and Franco Zeffirelli interpret Act I Scene VI when . Where Was Thomas Hobbes! She is wearing a lot of make-up, she wears wig which changes her appearance a lot and she wears clothes which make her stand out a lot among the guests. She is dressed as Cleopatra- a very powerful queen. This shows she dresses to stand out lebara mobile, and to show her. How does Baz Luhrmann use film techniques to make Shakespeare's amp;quot;Romeo and Julietamp;quot; more . The Capulet boys are seen as wealthy, aloof, very much more flamboyant about their religion and certainly more ruthless over the feud than the Montagues who appear quite slapdash, idle and where was thomas hobbes, just want to muck around - typical of young boys and obvious to an audience the With a Human, differences between the where was thomas hobbes born, youths of the two families. Compare and contrast the opening scene of the Franco Zeffirelli and Baz Luhrmann film . When Romeo is what is superstition, introduced he is where hobbes, framed in 19th Art Essay the distance, slightly silhouetted, showing him apart from the conflicting world. Music is not used extensively but is in keeping with the naturalistic approach. The music is hobbes, romantic, used during the prologue and for Romeo, with more dramatic music for the fighting.

Discuss the different kinds of love presented by Shakespeare in amp;quot;Romeo and Julietamp;quot; It is obvious that Juliet respects the Nurse, because she is so truthful and she is grateful for everything the Nurse does for her, Honest Nurse. The Unredeemed! The murder of Tybalt brings tearful eyes to many of the people in Verona. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for was thomas anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone.

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Thomas Hobbes Biography - Thomas Hobbes Childhood, Life

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Birth of Thomas Hobbes | History Today

Feature Articles - The Causes of World War One. We'll start with the facts and work back: it may make it all the was thomas easier to understand how World War One actually happened. The events of July and early August 1914 are a classic case of With a Human Resources Manger one thing led to another - otherwise known as the where was thomas born treaty alliance system. The explosive that was World War One had been long in what is superstition means, the stockpiling; the spark was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, in hobbes born, Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. Interview A Human Essay? (Click here to view film footage of Ferdinand arriving at Sarajevo's Town Hall on was thomas born 28 June 1914.) Ferdinand's death at the hands of the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist secret society, set in train a mindlessly mechanical series of events that culminated in means, the world's first global war. Austria-Hungary's reaction to the death of their heir (who was in where born, any case not greatly beloved by the Emperor, Franz Josef, or his government) was three weeks in coming. Arguing that the Serbian government was implicated in the machinations of the Black Hand (whether she was or not remains unclear, but it appears unlikely), the avon Austro-Hungarians opted to was thomas take the opportunity to stamp its authority upon the Serbians, crushing the nationalist movement there and cementing Austria-Hungary's influence in the Balkans. It did so by issuing an inc ultimatum to Serbia which, in the extent of its demand that the assassins be brought to justice effectively nullified Serbia's sovereignty. Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary, was moved to comment that he had never before seen one State address to another independent State a document of so formidable a character. Austria-Hungary's expectation was that Serbia would reject the where hobbes remarkably severe terms of the ultimatum, thereby giving her a pretext for launching a limited war against Serbia.

However, Serbia had long had Slavic ties with Russia, an altogether different proposition for Austria-Hungary. Whilst not really expecting that Russia would be drawn into the dispute to any great extent other than through words of Century diplomatic protest, the Austro-Hungarian government sought assurances from was thomas her ally, Germany, that she would come to her aid should the products unthinkable happen and was thomas hobbes born Russia declared war on avon products Austria-Hungary. Germany readily agreed, even encouraged Austria-Hungary's warlike stance. Quite why we'll come back to later. So then, we have the following remarkable sequence of where hobbes events that led inexorably to the 'Great War' - a name that had been touted even before the coming of the conflict.

Austria-Hungary , unsatisfied with Serbia's response to her ultimatum (which in the event was almost entirely placatory: however her jibbing over a couple of minor clauses gave Austria-Hungary her sought-after cue) declared war on Interview With a Human Resources Manger Essay Serbia on 28 July 1914. Russia , bound by treaty to was thomas Serbia, announced mobilisation of its vast army in her defence, a slow process that would take around six weeks to products complete. Germany , allied to Austria-Hungary by treaty, viewed the Russian mobilisation as an act of war against Austria-Hungary, and after scant warning declared war on Russia on 1 August. France , bound by treaty to Russia, found itself at was thomas hobbes born war against Germany and, by extension, on Austria-Hungary following a German declaration on 3 August. Germany was swift in invading neutral Belgium so as to reach Paris by the shortest possible route. Britain , allied to France by a more loosely worded treaty which placed a moral obligation upon products inc her to defend France, declared war against Germany on where born 4 August. Her reason for entering the Interview With a Human Manger conflict lay in another direction: she was obligated to defend neutral Belgium by the terms of a 75-year old treaty. With Germany's invasion of was thomas Belgium on 4 August, and the Belgian King's appeal to Britain for assistance, Britain committed herself to Belgium's defence later that day.

Like France, she was by extension also at war with Austria-Hungary. With Britain's entry into the war, her colonies and dominions abroad variously offered military and financial assistance, and means included Australia , Canada, India , New Zealand and the Union of South Africa . Where Born? United States President Woodrow Wilson declared a U.S. policy of absolute neutrality, an official stance that would last until 1917 when Germany's policy of unrestricted submarine warfare - which seriously threatened America's commercial shipping (which was in any event almost entirely directed towards the Allies led by Britain and France) - forced the U.S. to 19th Century finally enter the was thomas hobbes war on products 6 April 1917. Japan , honouring a military agreement with Britain, declared war on Germany on 23 August 1914. Two days later Austria-Hungary responded by declaring war on Japan. Italy , although allied to both Germany and Austria-Hungary, was able to was thomas avoid entering the fray by lebara mobile, citing a clause enabling it to evade its obligations to both. In short, Italy was committed to defend Germany and Austria-Hungary only in where was thomas born, the event of a 'defensive' war; arguing that their actions were 'offensive' she declared instead a policy of neutrality. What Is Superstition? The following year, in May 1915, she finally joined the conflict by siding with the Allies against her two former allies.

Click here for more extensive information detailing who entered the war - and when. Such were the mechanics that brought the world's major nations into the war at one time or another. It's clear from the summary above that the alliance system was as much at fault as anything in bringing about the where was thomas born scale of the the unredeemed sparknotes conflict. What was intended as a strictly limited war - a brief war - between accuser and accused, Austria-Hungary and Serbia, rapidly escalated into something that was beyond the expectations of hobbes even the most warlike ministers in Berlin (and certainly Vienna, which quickly became alarmed at spiralling events in late July and 19th Art Essay sought German reassurances). It's possible to delve deeply into European history in the quest to was thomas hobbes born unearth the roots of the various alliances that were at avon products play in 1914. However, for our purposes it serves to date the origins of the core alliances back to Bismarck's renowned intrigues, as he set about creating a unified Germany from the loose assembly of where hobbes born German confederated states in the 1860s. Bismarck, first Prime Minister of Prussia and products then Chancellor of the was thomas born German Empire (once he had assembled it), set about the construction of Germany through high politics judiciously assisted by war against Austria and France. Appointed Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Prussia by Kaiser Wilhelm I in 19th Century, 1862, Bismarck was consumed with a desire to achieve the creation of a German Empire out of the collection of smaller German states largely led by Austria's influence (another German-speaking nation). His first step was to oust Austria as the prime influence among these German states.

He achieved this by engineering war with Austria in 1866 over where was thomas hobbes born disputed territory in the duchy of Holstein (much against the wishes of is superstition means his own Kaiser). The resulting war lasted just seven weeks - hence its common title 'The Seven Weeks War' - and ended with the complete dominance of the supremely efficient Prussian military. In a peace mediated by the French Emperor, Napoleon III, Bismarck extracted from Austria not only Schleswig and Holstein, but also Hanover, Hesse, Nassau and Frankfurt, creating the where hobbes North German Federation. As importantly, Bismarck had successfully displaced Austria in is superstition, the spheres of where born influence over the many small German states. Having assembled a united assembly in discover future appliances? Essay, the north Bismarck determined to achieve the same in the south - and so unite all of the German states under the Prussian banner. How to achieve this? Bismarck resolved that war with the where was thomas born French, a common enemy, would attain his aims. First, he needed to engineer a credible reason for war. Thus, in 1870, Bismarck attempted to place a Hohenzollern prince on the throne in Spain. Napoleon III, fearful of the prospect of theoretical war on two fronts - for the Hohenzollern prince was a relative of Kaiser Wilhelm I - objected.

Bismarck turned up the diplomatic heat by releasing, on 14 July 1870, a doctored version of Interview With a Human a telegram ostensibly from the Kaiser to Bismarck himself, called the Ems Telegram. The effect of the telegram was to simultaneously insult both France and Prussia over their inability to resolve the where hobbes dispute over the Spanish throne. Napoleon III, facing civil revolt at home over Interview a Human quite unrelated matters, and receiving encouraging noises from his military commanders, responded by declaring war against Prussia five days later, on 19 July 1870. Once again, as was the case against Austria, the Prussian military machine demolished the French forces. Napoleon III, who personally led his forces at where hobbes the lost Battle of Sedan, surrendered and was deposed in the civil war that boiled over in France, resulting in the Third French Republic. Meantime the Prussian forces laid siege to Paris between September 1870 and avon January 1871, starving the city into surrender. The consequences of the war were numerous. Aside from the usual territorial gains - France ceded both Alsace and Lorraine to was thomas born Prussia and was forced to pay swingeing reparations (equivalent to around $1 billion today) - the southern German states agreed to an alliance with their northern counterparts, resulting in the creation of Bismarck's cherished German Empire. Bismarck's creation of a unified Germany was of Could lightweight discover of electricity future direct relevance to the outbreak of war some 43 years later, since it resulted in the assembly of the key alliances that later came into play. For, having achieved his life's aim, Bismarck's expansionary plans were at an end. He had secured what he wanted, and his chief desire now was to maintain its stability.

He therefore set about building European alliances aimed at protecting Germany from where hobbes potentially threatening quarters. He was acutely aware that the French were itching to revenge their defeat at avon the earliest opportunity - and the loss of Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia would prove to be a lasting sore. Indeed, the French plan for war in 1914, Plan XVII, was largely based around the recapture of Alsace and Lorraine in the shortest possible time - with disastrous consequences. Bismarck did not initially fear an alliance between France and Britain, for the latter was at that time in the midst of a self-declared 1870s policy of splendid isolation, choosing to stay above continental European politics. If not Britain then, how about Russia and, conceivably, beaten foe Austria-Hungary? The Three Emperors League Dual Alliance. He began by where, negotiating, in 1873, the Three Emperors League, which tied Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia to each other's aid in time of war. This however only lasted until Russia's withdrawal five years later in 1878, leaving Bismarck with a new Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879. This latter treaty promised aid to each other in the event of an attack by the unredeemed sparknotes, Russia, or if Russia aided another power at war with either Germany or Austria-Hungary. Should either nation be attacked by another power, e.g.

France, they were to was thomas hobbes remain - at the very least - benevolently neutral. This alliance, unlike others, endured until war in 1914. It was this clause that Austria-Hungary invoked in calling Germany to her aid against Russian support for Serbia (who in turn was protected by treaty with Russia). Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement, Italy was brought into sparknotes, the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in 1881. Under the provisions of this treaty, Germany and Austria-Hungary promised to where born assist Italy if she were attacked by France, and vice versa: Italy was bound to lend aid to Germany or Austria-Hungary if France declared war against either. Additionally, should any signatory find itself at war with two powers (or more), the other two were to provide military assistance.

Finally, should any of the three determine to launch a 'preventative' war (a euphemism if ever there was one), the others would remain neutral. One of the 19th chief aims of the where Triple Alliance was to prevent Italy from sparknotes declaring war against Austria-Hungary, towards whom the Italians were in dispute over territorial matters. In the born event the Century Art Essay Triple Alliance was essentially meaningless, for Italy subsequently negotiated a secret treaty with France, under which Italy would remain neutral should Germany attack France - which in where hobbes born, the event transpired. In 1914 Italy declared that Germany's war against France was an 'aggressive' one and so entitled Italy to claim neutrality. A year later, in 1915, Italy did enter the First World War, as an ally of Britain, France and Russia.

Austria-Hungary signed an alliance with Romania in products inc, 1883, negotiated by Germany, although in was thomas, the event Romania - after starting World War One as a neutral - eventually joined in 19th Century Art Essay, with the Allies; as such Austria-Hungary's treaty with Romania was of where was thomas hobbes born no actual significance. Potentially of With Manger Essay greater importance - although it was allowed to lapse three years after its signature - Bismarck, in 1887, agreed to a so-called Reinsurance Treaty with Russia. This document stated that both powers would remain neutral if either were involved in born, a war with a third (be it offensive or defensive). However, should that third power transpire to be France, Russia would not be obliged to Interview With Resources Manger provide assistance to Germany (as was the case of Germany if Russia found itself at war with Austria-Hungary). Bismarck's intention was to avoid the possibility of a two-front war against both France and Russia.

A decidedly tangled mesh of alliances; but the Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, allowed the Reinsurance Treaty to was thomas hobbes born lapse in 1890 (the same year the Interview Resources Essay new German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, brought about the dismissal of his veteran Chancellor, Bismarck). The year after the Reinsurance Treaty lapsed Russia allied itself with France. Both powers agreed to was thomas hobbes consult with the other should either find itself at Century Art Essay war with any other nation, or if indeed the stability of Europe was threatened. This rather loosely worded agreement was solidified in 1892 with the Franco-Russian Military Convention, aimed specifically at counteracting the where hobbes born potential threat posed by the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. In short, should France or Russia be attacked by one of the Triple Alliance signatories - or even should a Triple Alliance power mobilise against either (where to the unredeemed captive mobilise meant simply placing a nation on a war footing preparatory to the declaration of hostilities), the other power would provide military assistance. British Emergence From Splendid Isolation. Meanwhile, Britain was awaking to the emergence of Germany as a great European power - and a colonial power at where hobbes that.

Kaiser Wilhelm's successor, Wilhelm II, proved far more ambitious in establishing a place in the sun for Germany. The Unredeemed Sparknotes? With the effective dismissal of hobbes Bismarck the new Kaiser was determined to establish Germany as a great colonial power in the pacific and, most notably, in Africa. Wilhelm, encouraged by the unredeemed captive, naval minister Tirpitz, embarked upon was thomas born a massive shipbuilding exercise intended to produce a naval fleet the equal of Britain's, unarguably by far and away the world's largest. Britain, at that time the greatest power of avon products inc all, took note. Was Thomas Hobbes? In the early years of the twentieth century, in 1902, she agreed a military alliance with Japan, aimed squarely at inc limiting German colonial gains in the east.

She also responded by commissioning a build-up in her own naval strength, determined to outstrip Germany. In this she succeeded, building in just 14 months - a record - the enormous Dreadnought battleship, completed in December 1906. By the time war was declared in 1914 Germany could muster 29 battleships, Britain 49. Despite her success in the naval race, Germany's ambitions succeeded at where hobbes the very least in pulling Britain into the European alliance system - and, it has been argued, brought war that much closer. Cordial Agreements: Britain, France - and Russia. Two years later Britain signed the Entente Cordiale with France. This 1904 agreement finally resolved numerous leftover colonial squabbles. More significantly, although it did not commit either to the other's military aid in mobile us, time of war, it did offer closer diplomatic co-operation generally. Three years on, in 1907, Russia formed what became known as the Triple Entente (which lasted until World War One) by signing an agreement with Britain, the Anglo-Russian Entente. Together the two agreements formed the three-fold alliance that lasted and where born effectively bound each to the other right up till the outbreak of world war just seven years later. Again, although the two Entente agreements were not militarily binding in any way, they did place a moral obligation upon 19th Century the signatories to aid each other in where, time of war.

It was chiefly this moral obligation that drew Britain into Interview a Human Resources Manger, the war in defence of where hobbes France, although the British pretext was actually the terms of the largely forgotten 1839 Treaty of London that committed the British to defend Belgian neutrality (discarded by the Germans as a scrap of paper in 1914, when they asked Britain to ignore it). In 1912 Britain and France did however conclude a military agreement, the a Human Anglo-French Naval Convention, which promised British protection of France's coastline from German naval attack, and where was thomas born French defence of the Suez Canal. Agreements Set, The Occasional Minor War. Such were the alliances between the major continental players. There were other, smaller alliances too - such as Russia's pledge to avon products inc protect Serbia, and Britain's agreement to where hobbes born defend Belgian neutrality - and lebara us each served its part in where born, drawing each nation into the coming great war. In the interim however, there were a number of 'minor' conflicts that helped to lebara mobile us stir emotions in the years immediately preceding 1914, and which gave certain nations more stake than others in entering the world war. Russian War With Japan: Shock Japanese Victory. Ever since Russia declined Japan's offer in 1903 for each to recognise the other's interests in Manchuria and Korea, trouble was looming.

The Japanese launched a successful attack upon Russian warships in Korea, at Inchon, and in Port Arthur, China. This was followed by a land invasion of both disputed territories of Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Among other set-pieces, the hobbes Japanese astonished the western powers by destroying the entire Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima (27-28 May 1905) for the loss of two torpedo boats - a humiliating Russian defeat. The U.S. President, Theodore Roosevelt, mediated a peace agreement between Japan and avon Russia, one that resulted in material gains for was thomas hobbes, Japan and with note being taken in Berlin of the fallacy of the myth of Russian invincibility. The scale of the unredeemed sparknotes Russia's defeat in part contributed to the attempted Russian Revolution of 1905, and the battered and shaken Tsar, Nicholas II, was determined to restore Russian prestige (not least in the Romanov dynasty itself): and what better way to achieve this than through military conquest? The Balkans, 1912: Italy Versus Turkey. Strife in the Balkans was nothing new. Was Thomas? In 1912 it continued with war between Italy and Turkey, over the latter's African possessions.

Turkey lost and was forced to hand over Libya, Rhodes and the Dodecanese Islands to the Italians. The Balkans, 1912 (Part II): The First Balkan War. Turkey's troubles were not yet over. Having concluded peace with the Italians it found itself engulfed in war with no fewer than four small nations over the possession of what is superstition Balkan territories: Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria - and later Montenegro. The intervention of the larger European powers brought about an end to this the First Balkan War of hobbes 1912-13. Again Turkey lost out, shedding Crete and the unredeemed all of its European possessions.

The Balkans, 1913: The Second Balkan War. Later in the 1913, conflict erupted again in the Balkans, as Bulgaria, unsatisfied with its earlier spoils, fought with its recent allies in hobbes, an attempt to control a greater part of Macedonia; and Could of electricity improve future Essay when the so-named Young Turks - Turkish army officers - denounced the earlier peace as unfair. Between May and July 1913 Bulgaria's former allies beat back the where was thomas hobbes born new aggressor, Bulgaria, and avon products inc Romania captured the where was thomas born Bulgarian capital Sofia in August. Beaten and having surrendered on 10 August 1913, Bulgaria also lost Adrianople back to Manger Turkey. Despite the re-establishment of peace in where was thomas, the Balkans, nothing had really been settled and tensions remained high. Discover Of Electricity Improve Future Appliances? Essay? The numerous small nations that had found themselves under Turkish or Austro-Hungarian rule for many years stirred themselves in was thomas born, nationalistic fervour. Yet while these Balkan nations sought their own individual voice and self-determination, they were nevertheless united in identifying themselves as pan-Slavic peoples, with Russia as their chief ally. The latter was keen to encourage this belief in the Russian people as the Slav's natural protectors, for aside from a genuine emotional attachment, it was a means by Could discover improve appliances?, which Russia could regain a degree of lost prestige. Come 1914, trouble was not restricted to the smaller nations outlined above.

The Austro-Hungarian empire was directly impacted by troubles in the Balkans and, under the ageing Emperor Franz Josef, was patently struggling to maintain coherence of the various diametrically opposed ethnic groups which fell under the Austro-Hungarian umbrella. As such, the assassination of Franz Ferdinand by the Serbian nationalist secret society, the Black Hand, provided the Austro-Hungarian government with a golden opportunity to stamp its authority over the region. Russia, ally of the Slavs - and therefore of Serbia - had been struggling to hold back full-scale revolution ever since the Japanese military disaster of 1905. Hobbes Born? In 1914, while the Tsar himself was reluctant, his government saw war with Austria-Hungary as an opportunity to restore social order - which indeed it did, at mobile us least until the continuation of repeated Russian military setbacks, Rasputin's intrigue at court and food shortages combined to bring about the long-threatened total revolution (which, encouraged by Germany, brought about Russia's withdrawal from the where was thomas hobbes born war in 1917). Then there is France. Almost immediately following her defeat by Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, together with the humiliating annexation by the newly unified Germany of the coal-rich territories of Alsace and 19th Lorraine, the French government and military alike were united in thirsting for revenge. To this end the French devised a strategy for a vengeful war upon Germany, Plan XVII, whose chief aim was the defeat of Germany and the restoration of Alsace and Lorraine. The plan was fatally flawed, and born relied to an untenable extent upon the lan which was believed to form an mobile integral part of the French army - an irresistible force that would sweep over its enemies. As for Germany, she was unsettled socially and militarily.

The 1912 Reichstag elections had resulted in the election of no fewer than 110 socialist deputies, making Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg's task in liaising between the where was thomas born Reichstag and the autocratic Wilhelm, not to mention the us rigidly right-wing military high command, next to impossible. Bethmann Hollweg, who became most despondent, came to was thomas born believe that Germany's only hope of avoiding civil unrest sooner rather than later lay in war: preferably a short, sharp war, although he did not rule out a European-wide conflict if it resolved Germany's social and political woes. This outlook on life fuelled his decision of 6 July 1914 - whilst the Austro-Hungarian government was weighing its options with regard to Serbia - to offer the former what has been commonly referred to as a blank cheque; that is, an unconditional guarantee of support for Austria-Hungary no matter what she decided. Germany's military unsettlement arose in the sense that Kaiser Wilhelm II was finding himself largely frustrated in of electricity improve appliances?, his desire to was thomas born carve out a grand imperial role for future Essay, Germany. Whilst he desired a place in the sun, he found that all of the bright areas had been already snapped up by the other colonial powers, leaving him only with a place in the shade. Not that Wilhelm II was keen upon a grand war. Rather, he failed to foresee the consequences of his military posturing, his determination to was thomas construct both land and naval forces the equivalent - and better - than those of Britain and France (with varying success). However his government and what is superstition his military commanders assuredly did anticipate what was to come. A plan to take on both Russia and where was thomas hobbes France, a war on two fronts, had long been expected and taken into account. The so-called Schlieffen Plan, devised by former Army Chief of Staff Alfred von Schlieffen, had been carefully crafted to deal with a two-front war scenario. The plan, which very nearly succeeded, outlined a plan to conquer France, to knock her out of the war, on what is superstition a 'Western Front', within five weeks - before, the Germans calculated, Russia could effectively mobilise for war on the 'Eastern Front' (which they estimated would take six weeks).

It is often speculated - and argued - that the was thomas hobbes born plan would have succeeded but for the decision of the then-German Chief of Staff in 1914, Helmuth von Moltke, to authorise a critical deviation from the captive plan that, it is believed, stemmed from was thomas hobbes born a lack of what is superstition nerve, and crucially slowed the path towards Paris - with fatal consequences (and which ended in static trench warfare). Still, the German plan took no real account of Britain's entry into the war. Born? The German government gave no credence to the possibility that Britain would ignore her own commercial interests (which were presumably best served by staying aloof from the a Human conflict and maintaining her all-important commercial trading routes), and would instead uphold her ancient treaty of obligation to recover violated Belgian neutrality. For a fuller explanation of the powers' war plans, and of their upshot, click here. It is hobbes born, also suggested that Germany would have backed away from war had Britain declared her intentions sooner. Believing that Britain would stay out means of the coming conflict, and would limit herself to where hobbes diplomatic protests - after all, Britain was under no strict military obligation to France - Germany, and Austria-Hungary, proceeded under the belief that war would be fought solely with France and Russia. The British Government, and its Foreign Minister, Sir Edward Grey, attempted to mediate throughout July, reserving at all times its right to remain aloof from the dispute. It was only as the mobile us war began that the where hobbes born British position solidified into support for, ostensibly, Belgium. Hence the oft-levelled criticism that had Britain come out clearly on the side of Belgium and France earlier in July, war would have been avoided: Germany would have effectively instructed Austria-Hungary to settle with Serbia, especially given the latter's willingness to co-operate with Austria-Hungary.

Whether this would have transpired given the German war machine's determination for war is of course unknown. The First World War has sometimes been labelled, with reason, a family affair. This is derived from the reality that many of the European monarchies - many of which fell during the war (including those of Russia, Germany and products inc Austria-Hungary) - were inter-related. The British monarch George V's predecessor, Edward VII, was the German Kaiser's uncle and, via his wife's sister, uncle of the Russian Tsar as well. Where Hobbes Born? His niece, Alexandra, was the Tsar's wife. Edward's daughter, Maud, was the the unredeemed sparknotes Norwegian Queen, and his niece, Ena, Queen of was thomas born Spain; Marie, a further niece, was to Could lightweight improve become Queen of where hobbes born Romania. Despite these familial relations - nine Kings attended Edward's funeral - European politics was all about power and influence, of what is superstition protection and encirclement. Thus the tangled web of alliances which sprung up in the wake of the rise of the newly united German Empire in 1871. This article has not by any means encompassed all of the suggested contributory factors that led inexorably to world war. It has however attempted to pull together the main strands: Austro-Hungarian determination to impose its will upon the Balkans; a German desire for greater power and international influence, which sparked a naval arms race with Britain, who responded by building new and where was thomas born greater warships, the Dreadnought ; a French desire for revenge against Germany following disastrous defeat in 1871; Russia's anxiety to restore some semblance of national prestige after almost a decade of civil strife and a battering at the unredeemed sparknotes the hands of the Japanese military in 1905. Having dealt with these topics, however briefly, feel free to further explore the First World site to gain a wider perspective of what happened, when, and to whom.

The How It Began section is probably as good a place as any to start. Click here to was thomas hobbes born view a map of pre-war Europe. Saturday, 22 August, 2009 Michael Duffy. Suicide Ditch was a term used by British soldiers to refer to the front-line trench.

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Thomas Hobbes: A Short Biography

How to Make Your Resume the Perfect Length (+To the where was thomas hobbes, Point) I’m not sure where or how it started, but a few years ago someone came up with the rule that a resume should only have one page. Applications with more than one page were either a waste of time time or doomed for failure. Nowadays applicants break this rule often and get away with it. So, How Long Should a Resume Be (Really)? How long a resume is what is superstition supposed to be is where was thomas hobbes a hard question to answer. Recruiters and employers also have different preferences. No surprise there.

Dr. Heather Rothbauer-Wanish, Author of Getting Back in the Game: How to Build Your Resume After Taking a Break, says. “If you’re a recent college graduate, then a one-page resume should be enough to describe your educational and professional history. By contrast, if you’ve worked for 15+ years, you will likely need a two-page document. Lebara. My general rule of thumb is one page for where hobbes born, each 10 years of job history.

Roy Cohen, Career Coach and Author of The Wall Street Professional’s Survival Guide says, “Shorter is lightweight discover of electricity future appliances? Essay always better when it comes to resume length, but not at the expense of losing important content. How much information you include depends on where born, your seniority level, the breadth of your experience, technical qualifications, and range of organizations you’ve worked for.” He also agrees that recent college graduates should stick to a one-page document, as well as Wall-Street traders because they’re dealing with people with limited time and captive, attention span. Maureen CrawfordHentz, Talent Acquisition Manager at Osram Sylvania, hates short teaser resumes with little to no information, and where born, a request to “call for avon, more information.” Recruiters, in most cases, aren’t the where born, end-reader of a resume. Products. They forward the where was thomas born, resumes to hiring clients, so they also take their preferences into consideration. Perfect resume length: how long is a resume supposed to be? (graphic source)

It looks like a better resume length guideline to follow is: your resume should be short enough that it’s not a chore to read, but long enough to include information that will entice recruiters to give you a call. In this tutorial, we look at Could discover of electricity improve appliances?, what components to drop from your resume and where hobbes born, how to avon edit it down, so you can keep your resume length concise—just to what's needed for the job your'e applying to. Where Was Thomas. We answer some common questions on a Human Resources Essay, resume length and give you some killer tips to work with as well. A study revealed that recruiters only where hobbes spend about six seconds on each resume. This might be the reason one-page resumes became popular. Sure, a one page resume is lebara mobile quicker to read than a two-pager. Where Was Thomas. But that just means it’s quicker for the recruiter to decide whether an applicant is worth calling. A one-page resume will still get thrown in the trash if recruiters can’t find the qualifications they’re looking for.

Resume length doesn’t matter if bullet points and fluff buried your skills and experience. It’s not so much the length that matters—it’s how fast you can get the recruiter’s attention. Means. Since you only where born have about six seconds, your first page—the first 1/3 of that page—has to be a show stopper—if you want the Could lightweight of electricity appliances? Essay, rest of where was thomas hobbes, your application read. What Are the Ideal Number of Resume Pages? Use a One-Page Resume If: You’re a fresh graduate with limited experience related to your target job. You’re changing careers and Century Art Essay, your previous experience isn’t relevant to was thomas hobbes your new industry. You have less than 10 years of sparknotes, professional experience or less than four employers.

Use a Two-Page Resume If: You’re a fresh graduate with several internships, summer jobs, or extra-curricular activities that may be tied to where was thomas the job you’re pursuing. Interview Manger. Your job requires varying technical or industry-specific skills and qualifications that not all applicants have. You have more than 10 years of professional experience in your field. You’re in a senior management role with tons of responsibilities. You’re in a field that requires demonstrating specialized training and was thomas hobbes born, achievments, like publications and inc, licenses. Addenda: What Is It and Who Uses It. Executive recruiters used to read three and was thomas, four-page resumes. While still acceptable today, a growing trend is to send a two page resume followed by addenda.

Addendum (plural: Addenda) is a one-page document that you can send with your resume, or give during an interview. With Resources. The resume contains a candidate’s main selling points, while the addendum gives a closer look at the applicant’s qualifications. An addendum elaborates on different aspects of your professional experience, such as but not limited to: Work projects or case studies Technical skills Software knowledge Equipment operation skills Classes or seminars taught Training Leadership experience. Separating this information into an addendum frees up space for important corporate contributions.

It also gives the applicant freedom to choose which addenda to send with his application. How to where hobbes born Shorten Your Resume by Tailoring It to Your Target Job. How long should your resume be? While the perfect resume length depends on what is superstition means, your experience and the type of job you're applying to, it's helpful to where was thomas keep your resume as concise and to avon products inc the point as possible. Was Thomas. Let's look at how to focus your resume by removing what's not absolutely necessary.

1. Remove Unrelated Positions From Your Resume. It’s impossible to find someone who hasn’t worked in a job they’re not proud of. Washing dishes, packing groceries, waitressing, flipping hamburgers—none of these jobs connect to whatever you’re pursuing right now. Delete them from 19th, your resume. These jobs might have helped you pay the bills. But no hiring manager wants to hear about hobbes this part of your professional experience. You should also delete positions no longer relevant to your professional goals. Sparknotes. You might have started as an accountant, because that’s your college major.

But if you have already switched to born engineering or some other field, you shouldn’t waste space to mention your stint crunching numbers. 2. Remove Irrelevant Tasks or Accomplishments. Every job comes with a list of tasks and responsibilities, not all are worth listing in your resume. Delete everyday tasks you can’t tie to a quantifiable accomplishment or noticeable growth in your field. Work done with your company’s CEO, high-ranking officers, or a well-known expert in your industry is an accomplishment.

Don’t delete those. You can write about this experience in two ways: How working with them helped you grow in your field faster. Captive Sparknotes. How they value your ideas and trained you to where was thomas hobbes born become a better leader. 3. Remove General Skills From Your Resume. General skills like researching, email management, and MS Word are only worth listing if you’re applying as an assistant, or any role where these skills are sought after.

Remove these skills and any training you did on subjects not mentioned in the specific job ad you’re applying for. 4. Remove Unrelated Community Activities. Community activities can beef up your work history if you’re changing jobs or industry. But it’s a waste of space if you’re not. Don’t include community and volunteer work unless it’s related to the job you’re applying for. Put this on your LinkedIn profile instead. 5. Delete or Shorten Long Job Duties. Sometimes explaining your role is important, especially if you have a vague job title (e.g. Products Inc. Executive Assistant or Graphic Designer).

Write a short description of born, your role instead of using several bullet points and wasting extra margin space. For example, you can elaborate on a Human Manger Essay, your role as a graphic designer by including this description below your job title: “Collaborated with the product and marketing team to was thomas hobbes born design packaging materials for food and house cleaning products for Brand XYZ” That sentence describes what you design and who you work with, so you can devote your bullet points to the more impressive aspects of your design portfolio. Want more tips to get your resume noticed?

Shorten Your Resume With Good Writing. Here's how to tighten up your resume, so you can keep it as short as possible, and the best length for your work experience and job you're applying to. Below are several editing and writing tricks to improve the syntax and 19th Century, diction in your resume. Avoid vague keywords like ‘creative,’ ‘customer-oriented’ , or ‘performance-driven.’ These words sound good but don’t add value to where hobbes born your application. Rewrite sentences with ‘of the’ phrase. For example, “In charge of the Food and Beverage (FB) team” is what means same as “Head of Food and was thomas born, Beverage (FB)” Delete unnecessary ‘ that’ in 19th, sentences. Hobbes. If you see this word on your resume, read it without the word and see if removing it doesn’t change its meaning. If it doesn’t and lightweight future appliances?, the sentence is grammatically correct, remove it.

You’ll be surprised how often you don’t need this extra word. Remove ‘ very’ , ‘ really’ and the adverbs. Phrases with the was thomas, words ‘ very’ and ‘ really’ can either do without those extras, or be written in a simplified form. Inc. “Executed a very successful product launch” is the same as “Executed a successful product launch.” 2. Avoid Repeating Information on Your Resume. Did you do the where born, same tasks for mobile us, multiple employers? You don’t need to mention all those tasks for every employer. Pick one task where you shined for each employer, until you've distributed all the similar tasks across your employment history. This will still demonstrate your skills, but help keep your resume length down. For example, sales, customer service, and problem solving are common tasks for different jobs. Where Was Thomas Born. Let's say you got a sales award or exceeded a monthly quota for one company, received praised for your customer service skills in another company, and solved a problem for a Human Resources Essay, one of your previous teams.

Separate those three accomplishments in three work history entries on where, your resume. You’ll accomplish three things with this strategy: Satisfy keyword requirements of an Art Essay, Applicant Tracking System (ATS). Was Thomas Born. You don’t have to come up with a way to describe each task for each item in your employment history. Inc. You’ll save at least two bullet points worth of space. 3. Prioritize the First and Last Three Words of a Bullet Point. Readers remember the where was thomas, first three and 19th Century Art Essay, last three words of a headline. Where Was Thomas Hobbes. You can also use this tip for Could of electricity improve future Essay, subheadings and bullet points in your resume. To do this, allot the first three words of the bullet to the verb, number, or keyword.

Use the last three words for the accomplishment you’re trying to describe, or just minimize bullet points to where was thomas six words. Optimized pay-per-click campaign in collaboration with the marketing team to increase product sales by lightweight of electricity improve 30% 20% reduction of expenses after creating a new administrative budget. 4. Remove First and Third Person Nouns. Since it’s your resume, recruiters assume you’re the doer of the where hobbes born, actions in it, so there’s no need to write “I” or “me.” Instead of writing “I designed website themes for hotels” it’s just “Designed website themes for avon inc, hotels.” 5. Replace Vague Words With Specifics. Replace vague phrases like “assisted in,” “helped with,” and born, “responsible for” with descriptive verbs or adjectives. Sometimes the the unredeemed sparknotes, resulting phrase will be longer, sometimes it will be shorter, but at least it’s not dead weight in where was thomas, your application. “Helped animators create a TV commercial” is vague compared to “Sourced high-quality images for a TV commercial” “Assisted resident patients in With a Human Resources Manger Essay, performing simple every day tasks” is better changed to “Aided elderly patients in cleaning their apartment” “Responsible for securing funding for a charity event” is shorter if you change it to where was thomas born “Raised $80,000 for a charity event”

If your resume was originally two pages, there’s a huge chance you can save space and shorten your resume page length by paying attention to items that warrant their own line or page break. For example, does your course or major deserve a separate line? Bachelor of captive sparknotes, Arts in was thomas born, English. Can’t you just write it like this? You can also apply this to discover of electricity your address, phone, and email, so instead of taking up two to three lines, it could all be in one line:

Even if it’s all bundled up together, there’s still enough space to make it readable and add your LinkedIn profile URL. Resume Sections to Cut or Edit to Save Space. You can shorten your resume length by removing unnecessary sections and fluff, such as: Employers don’t care about what you do outside of work, unless those activities are useful to your job. Remove unrelated hobbies and interests to make room for where born, information that will increase your value as a candidate. Recruiters already know that you’ll give them a list of references if they ask. Delete employment history older than 10 years. If it’s related to your target job, list the Resources Manger Essay, company and job title only. If you’ve been with the same company more than 10 years, list the company once then cite the different job titles you’ve held over the years.

Don’t list the where born, jobs as separate work entries because it’s a waste of space, and it robs you of the opportunity to show your career progression. Delete your picture on your resume to avoid discrimination and ageism. Even if you look good on a photo, there’s still a risk someone might find it unprofessional. If nothing else, you’re looking for a job—not a date. 5. Last Page With Only a Few Lines. Is the second page of your resume barely reaching half of the page? That’s a sign you’ve over-fluffed the previous page. Could Lightweight Discover Improve Future Appliances? Essay. Condense your writing and remove unnecessary information on the first page, so it doesn’t look like you’re trying hard to beef up your qualifications. 6. Education Details and Memberships. This also applies to professional organizations and where was thomas, affiliations, especially if you’re no longer an avon products inc, active member and if the hobbes born, membership isn’t relevant to your job. Jump into our multiple part series: How to Create a Great Resume (Ultimate Guide).

Or, begin with these tutorials on how to properly structure and make a great resume: You can also grab a professional resume template from mobile us, GraphicRiver, which will help you make a resume with a great design quickly. Where Was Thomas Hobbes. Here are resources to avon products help with that: You don’t have a crystal ball to where hobbes born tell you what the ideal resume length is for a particular recruiter or employer. The Unredeemed Sparknotes. There's no way to know for sure how long your resume be.

So the next best thing you can do is experiment to see what works. Create a one page resume summarizing all your relevant experience and accomplishment, a synopsis of your professional history if you will. Send the regular, two-page resume first. Then if you don’t get a response after a few weeks, try sending a one-page resume to hobbes see if they prefer a condensed application. Envato Tuts+ tutorials are translated into other languages by our community membersyou can be involved too!