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THE EVOLUTION OF CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORIES

autism essay titles Each time you break through the. barrier of silence and speak to me, I know again the first light of a. childhood Christmas Day, And I am blessed. so that you can see into my eyes, I know that somewhere in criminological theories the vary. essence of you is a child like any other, And I am blessed. your autistic world, I know that you are not like other children and. I know again the darkness of Good Friday, Do people realize how lucky they are? Do we as one species realize how vulnerable we are? Do families who's worries revolve around picking Little Joey up from practice and what they will do for colin mudford, family vacation this summer realize that they have been blessed with a normal family? And do families that have an autistic family member realize that they too, have been blessed? I have worked with autistic adults and criminological, children for two and a half years and in this time I have pondered the above questions. I realize that I grew up in nurses notes examples a family that didn't know how fortunate we were to have four happy, healthy children. This realization led me to the topic of criminological theories, this paper: how does having an autistic family member affect a family? In order to understand the effects this disability has on a family it is first mandatory to understand the characteristics of an The Korean individual living with autism.

This paper will introduce the criminological history, current theoretical causes and treatments of autism. After doing research to write a concise paper addressing the above topics I realized something was missing; the admiration I feel for the parents of autistic children, the emotions behind working and colin mudford, living with autistic children and the grief of realizing these children are autistic. So, also included in this paper are personal statements and theories, stories of mothers and fathers of autistic children. Thank you to all of them for sharing their stories, for their stories taught me more than any textbook or journal article could have. The word autism stems from the Greek word autos which means self. Definition Of Quality! This term was first applied to schizophrenics by criminological Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist. Bleuler used this term to definition address the characteristic of criminological, certain schizophrenics who appeared to have their own style of thinking, autistic thinking. Autistic thinking is the War and The Korean view that the universe revolves around oneself and criminological theories, that the Songs Politically Effective? outside world has no effect on the self (Nevid et al., 1994).

It was not until 1943 that another psychiatrist used the word autism. Dr. Leo Kanner, a professor at criminological, Johns Hopkins University at examples, the time, applied the word autism to a group of children who he observed as having behavioral problems, social problems, communication problems and theories, appeared to be self-absorbed (Edelson, 1995.). It is due to the lack of Songs Essay, social interaction that Kanner applied the term autism (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). In the fifty three years that autism has been the term of choice for the developmental disorder consisting of avoiding social contact, stereotyped behaviors and slow, or lack of, development of a useful language; much has been discovered. Much more needs to be. The diagnosis of autism is a difficult one to make. Theories! Autism, although one of the largest disabilities to affect children, five in every ten thousand births, is not constant. It affects individuals in varying ways and in examples varying degrees.

This is something I have noticed a great deal. Criminological! I work with some autistic children who can have a complete, logical conversation with me. Are Protest Politically! I have also worked with autistic children who don't seem to know I am three inches from theories, their nose. A diagnosis of of colour, autism is usually made by the child's third birthday but, there are signs from birth that the child is different. An autistic child is more likely to resist affection, arching back and not staying still when being held, than is criminological theories, a child without autism. Autistic children are also usually described as being easy babies to take care of. It is nurses examples, not until the child should be developing language and social skills that parents realize something is different about criminological theories, their child. One-third of autistic children develop normally until age two (Edelson, 1994.). The Diagnostic and colin mudford, Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th Edition, has changed the diagnosis drastically. The DSM-IV is the first psychologically based text that identifies the criminological theories varying degrees of autism.

Autism is now found on Axis I, the axis that deals with pervasive developmental disorders, instead of Axis II, which covers mental retardation and personality disorders. Are Protest Songs Effective? Essay! For a diagnosis of autism to be made six symptoms from three major areas: social interaction, communication and stereotyped behavior patterns must be present before the age of three. Criminological! There must be at least two symptoms associated with social interaction and one in each of the The Cold War Essay other areas (Edelson,, 1994.). Criminological! There are a number of other characteristics associated with autism although they need not be present for a autistic diagnosis. Features of autism may also include the following: resistance of being touched, ignorance of of intertextuality, heat and cold, no sensation of pain, fascination with sounds and tastes, giggling or weeping for no apparent reason, absence of emotions or reactions, self-injurious behaviors and self-stimulatory behaviors (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). I observe these associated features of autism on a daily basis.

An example of an autistic child's ignorance of heat and cold occurred recently when we were at the beach. The water at the beach was very cold to the touch of my co-workers and yet, a young girl who is criminological theories, diagnosed with autism ran straight into the water with no reaction to the coolness of Politically Essay, it. Another example of these associated features is the numerous children I work with who put everything possible into their mouths and then spit it out theories or throw it away. Almost all of Are Protest Politically Essay, these children smell the object before placing it into criminological, their mouth. Self-stimulatory and self-injurious behaviors are the more prevalent of the associated features of autism and War and The Korean War Essay, will be discussed in length below. Self-stimulatory behavior is defined as repetitive body movements or repetitive movement of an object. Self-stimulatory behaviors can be split into the five senses. An individual with a visual self-stimulatory behavior is criminological theories, likely to stare at lights, move fingers in front of his/her eyes and Songs Politically Essay, flap his/her hands. I have observed this behavior in an adult male living with autism.

His hand flapping behavior is usually preceding a self-injurious behavior or an act of injurious behavior towards another person. The fact that his hand flapping precedes such events makes the point that those working with autistic individuals must realize that behaviors vary, for most autistic individuals hand flapping is purely a self-stimulatory behavior and not one that leads to violence. Auditory behaviors include tapping of the ears, snapping fingers and criminological theories, making vocal noises (Edelson, 1995.). I am unclear as to why but, the children I work with who are nonverbal are the children more prone to make vocal noises. I have also observed that these noises occur either in a time of excitement or fear. War And The Korean War Essay! For example, I have three children who have never spoken a word but, each time I take them on the trampoline and jump with them they vocalize high pitched squeals and others scream. I will have to criminological look into the reason for this.

I do notice that tactile stimulation is highly prevalent. Tactile stimulation can include any of the following: rubbing objects with hands, rubbing skin or picking at War Essay, the skin and scratching (Edelson, 1994.). Scratching is definitely the criminological biggest self-stimulation I have observed. This behavior is nurses examples, a varying one for if a child scratches to the point of bleeding, which most do because they like to watch the theories blood come out, it is then considered a self-injurious behavior. The final two areas of self-stimulatory senses are taste, which an example has already been given for, and smell, which again has already had an example. There are many theories behind why autistic people perform these behaviors, none of which have been proven through research. One theory states that these behaviors are performed for internal pleasure while another states that the behaviors are the only way an autistic knows how to calm oneself when overly excited or anxious (Edelson, 1994.). The best way to handle a child that is exhibiting a self-stimulatory behavior is to redirect their attention with a more appropriate form of stimulation, such as a book or crayons. As seen in the above paragraph self-stimulatory behaviors and self-injurious behaviors can overlap.

Self-injurious behaviors refer to examples those behaviors that an individual does to him/herself causing a bruise, red mark or open wound. The most common forms of such behaviors include head-banging, hand-biting and theories, as noted above scratching to the point of bleeding (Edelson, 1994.). One of the most difficult things for me to adjust to at a previous job was the scars on children's hands from biting. Due to the lack of response to definition of life pain, autistic individuals will bite their hand out of criminological theories, frustration until they calm themselves, regardless of the depth or size of the bite. Again, theories behind these behaviors range from that of internal pleasure to over arousal. Another theory suggests that these behaviors may be the result of nurses notes examples, sub-clinical seizures, which is an abnormality in EEG patterns (Edelson, 1994.). The characteristics of autism are universal but, vary from person to criminological theories person. Although the characteristics are universal the guidelines for Are Protest, the diagnosis of autism are not universal which is why some countries report higher rates of occurrence whereas other countries, Japan for theories, example, report lower rates of occurrence. Possibly the biggest barrier to joining psychology professionals on the diagnosis of autism is the examples cause, or more accurately the criminological lack thereof. The cause of of quality, autism remains unknown yet, many theoretical causes exist. Early views on the cause of autism focused on the family structure of the child.

It was believed that parents of criminological theories, autistic children must be cold and detached. The term given to Are Protest Politically such parents, usually the mother, was that of emotional refrigerator or refrigerator mother (Nevid et al., 1994). There is criminological theories, no evidence to support this theory. The Cold War And! Currently, there are many beliefs as to what may be the cause of this disability. The general thought in the psychology field today is that autism may be caused by criminological theories a variety of coexisting problems (Edelson, 1995.). There is some evidence to support the claim that autism may be an effect of exposure to a virus. The virus at colin mudford, hand is criminological, that of examples of intertextuality, rubella. Studies have shown that there is an increased risk of a child being born with autism if the mother was exposed to rubella during the first trimester of pregnancy.

It has also been proposed that toxins and pollution may lead to autism (Edelson, 1995.). This theory has no scientific evidence at this time. The widest held beliefs about the criminological causes of autism appear to be in the fields of genetics and neurology (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Researchers have identified four possible neurological explanations: over arousal of the tv reticular system, dysfunction of the limbic system, left hemisphere dysfunction and perceptual inconstancy associated with brain stem dysfunction (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996). The hypothesis that autism may be due to over arousal of the reticular system has been set aside due to the results of recent studies that do not allow researchers to claim that there is in fact a relationship between arousal and theories, overt behaviors (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). A recent theory uses behaviors of animals with hippocampal lesions to compare with behaviors of autistic children. Animals with lesions possessed the War and The Korean same behavior patterns as children who have autism. Although this similarity suggests underlying mechanisms, there also appears to be behavioral differences which is why this theory is compatible with the current knowledge of autism (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). The left hemisphere of the brain deals with language and some aspects of theories, cognition.

The fact that the invention areas of language and cognitive thought are affected by theories autism has led researchers to The Cold War and War Essay the theory that the limbic system of theories, those living with autism may have impairments. The only fault with this theory is that because the onset of of quality of life, autism is at a young age the criminological theories right hemisphere of the brain should compensate for what the left side does not accomplish but, this does not appear to be the case (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Finally, the definition theory that those living with autism have an inability to regulate sensory input, which affects ones view of external reality, is known as perceptual inconstancy. Again, this theory has not been able to show the nature of criminological, these instabilities (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Although there is no or little evidence for of quality, the neurological theories concerning the cause of autism, there is criminological theories, some evidence that points to genetic causes. Examples Of Intertextuality! The idea that autism has a genetic basis has been in existence since 1964 when Dr. Bernard Rimland discovered that monozygotic twins had a more prevalent showing of autism than did dizygotic twins. Since 1964 this finding has been confirmed by other researchers.

One supporter of the genetics theory is University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). In the 1980's UCLA did a study that resulted in the following findings: of eleven families where the father was diagnosed with autism twenty-five children, over fifty percent , were also diagnosed with autism (Edelson, 1995.). Criminological! The general population only examples has an incidence rate of five autistic children born in every ten thousand births, thus giving further evidence to criminological theories the genetics theory. The remaining two genetic theories; that of a genetic mutation and tv, a genetic predisposition, I feel can be integrated together. The theory of genetic mutation is part of Darwin's theory of evolution, naturally occurring mutations through selection of partners . Genetic predisposition means simply that there may be a susceptibility to autism in some people (Edelson, 1995.). In combining these two theories it is my belief that if genetic mutation is due to criminological the selection of a partner and then a child is produced who has been diagnosed autistic, that there must have been a genetic predisposition to autism for the child due to nurses examples the genes of the parents. Therefore the predisposition is not in criminological the child's genes rather, it is the combining of the parents genes. An example of this would be the of quality of life fact that exposure to rubella while pregnant may cause autism in some children but, all mothers exposed to rubella do not produce children with autism. There must be a missing link as to why some children do, and theories, some don't, have autism; the genes of the of life parents and their predisposition to autistic characteristics. Although this is just my theory, it has been shown that there is theories, evidence of nurses examples, genetics playing a part in the cause of autism. I look forward to criminological the day, if there is one, when the true cause of autism is discovered.

Although there is no known cause for autism there are numerous treatments that have been shown to help autistic people. Again, there are varying degrees of autism therefore the treatment given to colin mudford an individual may work for him/her but, may not work for another. Treatments for autism range from medical findings to parents of autistic children developing their own treatments. Some therapies are: Anti-Yeast Therapy, Dimethylglycine (food substance) Supplements, The Son- Rise Program and criminological, Higashi (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Whereas the Anti-Yeast and the Dimethylglycine therapies focus on medical findings and/or vitamins to help modify the behaviors of an examples autistic individual, the criminological theories Son-Rise Program and Higashi, which means Daily Life Therapy in The Cold The Korean War Essay Japanese, focuses on the roles that the people around an autistic person have in modifying behaviors (,A HREF=http://www.rmplc.co.uk/eduweb/sites/autism/autism5.htmlSociety For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). The therapies that are most interesting to criminological theories me include Mega-Vitamin Theory and Facilitated Communication. Dr. Bernard Rimland researched the The Cold The Korean claims from parents that certain vitamins and foods affected their autistic child's behaviors (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996. Treatments). It was concluded that Vitamin B6 is an effective treatment for forty-five percent of theories, autistic people. The taking of vitamin B6 helps to colin mudford improve: speech, sleeping patterns, lessened irritability, attention span and decrease self-stimulatory behaviors (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.).

This treatment once started takes sixty to ninety days for an observed affect to be seen. I know some children who are currently on this from of treatment. I have only criminological theories experienced the Effective? Essay full treatment with one child and theories, there has been a noticeable difference in examples of intertextuality self-stimulatory behaviors and mostly with attention span. This child will now look me in the eye, which in itself is rare for autistic children, and listen to what I am saying. I know that the child is criminological theories, listening because the actions taken are what I have instructed him to do. I can see why this theory would be a blessing to parents. Examples! The type of therapy that I most intrigued by is Facilitated Communication.

I first heard of this therapy in 1992. Facilitated Communication is criminological theories, a method of helping an autistic individual express him/herself by giving physical support to an arm or fingers, enabling the examples of intertextuality individual to use a typewriter, picture board or alphabet board. This form of therapy is very controversial because of the fact that there is a facilitator and that the autistic individual does not do this on his/her own. Criminological Theories! When using this form of therapy it has often been typed by the autistic individual that he/she is not retarded or stupid but intelligent (Society For The Autistically Handicapped, 1996.). Through my own research of this treatment method, I have also come across stories where the autistic individual has expressed anger because he/she understands everything happening in daily life yet, can not express thoughts or feelings. There have also been stories of autistic children hiding under their covers at night with flashlights reading books and then typing the book word for word when using facilitated communication.

This amazes me! What if these children are just trapped inside themselves but, are cognitively and emotionally the same as you and I? Although this treatment has not yet withstood the rigors of scientific investigation I do not see the harm in allowing it to be practiced. If it does in of quality of life fact prove to be a scientifically sound treatment then the world of autistic individuals and their families will forever be changed. Criminological! It is clear that although autism has been a known disability for fifty years it remains a mystery. Invention Of Colour! With so many varying characteristics, no sound cause and no treatment that is universal, there is much more that needs to be learned. Working with autistic children has shown me that there are in fact many different types of autism. Also, working with these children has made me wonder many things: Am I going to be the mother of a child with a disability, is that why I have ended up in this type of work? How do the parents deal with having an autistic child? Why, do some parents appear so relaxed and comfortable with what life has handed them while others are clearly depressed? How does having an autistic sibling affect brothers and sisters? Wanting answers for these questions I turned to those who could answer them, parents of autistic children.

Donna Reagan, the mother of an autistic child, touched me with her story. David, her son, is now twenty years old. Criminological Theories! When asked how she felt finding out her child was autistic Donna responded, Basically, when I found out that my son was autistic, I was hopeful. Since then I have moved pretty much into heartbreak and invention, despair. Criminological Theories! I imagine the next step will be acceptance.

It seems to The Cold The Korean me that this is like the grieving process and we move from one step to another, it just takes longer when the object of your grief is theories, living. Donna has experienced other effects of invention, having an criminological theories autistic child. David was diagnosed at age four and a half as being severely mentally retarded but, Donna knew this was not the case because of her own experience with this population. Donna was labeled as being in denial. This is an example of how much more needs to notes examples be learned about the characteristics of autism and as previously discussed the DSM-IV has taken the first step in clarifying the criminological theories varying degrees of the disability. Donna's husband, a minister, was in denial, believing that God would heal their son and make him a minister. Her husband had found an old encyclopedia that claimed the cause for autism was refrigerator mothers, as discussed earlier (Reagan, 1996). This lead to the physical, emotional and mental abuse of Donna. And the physical abuse of David at colin mudford, the hands of his father. Donna moved her family away from the man that was once her husband. It is not uncommon for parents of an autistic child to divorce, most do with-in the first five years of the child's life.

Atop of what was going on with her marriage and criminological theories, own life , Donna still had to nurses care for a hyper autistic child. She tells of criminological theories, times she found David ready to jump from a bridge into a creek, on the window ledge on their third story apartment and she says there are many other stories she could tell. David's safety was her biggest concern, with reason. David was eventually placed into a special care facility, Placing him was the most heart-wrenching decision I have ever made. David has been in placement care for ten years now. His father has seen him once. In two years he will again move to other placement. Donna's biggest worry, who will care for David when she is gone?

More and more I understand why people with special children pray that they will out live their children. I have begun to pray that prayer as well. Donna's story was the first I received and it made me eager to colin mudford receive more. I then received an criminological theories email from Suzanne, the mother of a seven year old autistic girl. Before I tell Suzanne's story I would like to The Cold War and point out a common theme I have found among parents of autistic children, those who's children are young appear to be hopeful and optimistic whereas those who's children are older seem to criminological theories realize that autism is a lifelong disability with many hardships. The most common theme I have found though is Are Protest Politically, this; what will happen when I, the parent, am gone. Every parent I spoke with, those that I contacted through email and those I see each day at work with their children, expressed concern about their child's life once they had passed on. Suzanne expresses this very well, as you will see. Suzanne says that the theories diagnosis of Songs Politically Effective?, her daughter was not a surprise, because the criminological theories word had been thrown around so much in all of the invention tests that were being done but, she does say that, It is certainly a life sentence. Suzanne expresses the feeling of theories, loss that can be felt by of life parents upon hearing the diagnosis.

No longer are there hopes for the child to accomplish all that the theories parents could not accomplish; no medical school, no academic scholar. Of Intertextuality! Due to the stress of raising an autistic child Suzanne and her husband sought counseling for criminological, six months and have now learned to work through all of the emotions and responsibilities of having a special child together. Suzanne sounds tired and still in a stage of sorrow due to her daughter's diagnosis. Examples! She explains how the criminological family doesn't go out much, It is very tiring to have this kind of kid. Her and her husband assume that their daughter will live with them until they are gone and yet, she speaks of the hope that maybe her daughter will be able to colin mudford buy her own groceries, pay taxes and get a job she will enjoy. There are plans to set up a trust for their daughter to ensure that when they, Suzanne and her husband, pass on she will be taken care of. Suzanne ends by criminological saying, We haven't given up on her yet but, we are also realistic about what may happen.

I would like to point out of colour a couple that I know through work. Their daughter is criminological theories, nine years old and I have taken a liking to her. She amazes me each day and I look forward to what she will teach me next. There are times when I wonder what she would be like if she were not autistic but, then I realize she wouldn't be the same little girl I have grown so close to. I admire her parents greatly for their outlook on her disability. They both appear well adjusted and they treat her just as they do their other children. The mother even says that she is easier to care for than her children without disabilities.

She, like Suzanne, says that she would like to see her daughter do things on her own when she grows up but, she has no need to rush that time. As the mother of an colin mudford autistic child, she says her daughter is criminological, her best friend, they do everything together. I know, from definition of quality, working with her daughter that she is not of the highest functioning autistic children but, she is criminological, not the lowest either. Her daughter understands when spoken to and will say things that are appropriate to colin mudford the surroundings. I can not express how wonderful it is to work with this child.

And I hope that if I do have a child with a disability that I will have the same outlook as her parents do. Most of the theories research that has been done concerning autistic families is colin mudford, how siblings are affected. In a study done by Royers and Mycke in 1995, it was found that siblings of criminological, autistic children had a fair understanding of the disability and this finding was independent of age. Also found was the fact that children who have an autistic sibling rate their relationship with their brother/sister better than two siblings of which neither has a disability. From what I have seen at work, the siblings of the examples autistic children take responsibility for their brother/sister and at the same time do not truly understand why their brother/sister can't do such things for criminological, him/herself. I believe that there is Are Protest Songs Effective? Essay, a very unique bond between autistic children and theories, their siblings. Autism is of colour, a lifelong, developmental disability. The characteristics of the disability; little or lack of speech development, avoiding social contact or awareness and routines of behaviors are not experienced in the same degree for everyone living with autism. The lack of a single identified cause for autism leaves much to be discovered in the field.

Theoretical causes, such as neurological and genetic, may prove to be a link to the true cause of the disability. It has been shown that those living with autism may be helped, not cured, with available treatments. Such treatments include a high dosage of criminological theories, Vitamin B6 in the diet and the Son-Rise Program. A controversial treatment, Facilitated Communication, may allow autistic individuals a chance to communicate with the definition of life rest of the world without becoming frustrated at the inability to communicate. Parents of theories, autistic children deserve all the support and help they can handle. Songs Politically Effective? Essay! By hearing Donna and Suzanne's stories I have learned more about autism and the range of emotions that are felt by parents than any textbook could of taught. Donna's story of basically having to start a new life due to criminological theories having an autistic child and all the hardships she has gone through in trying to do the best for David. And Suzanne's hopefulness and clear feeling of loss due to having a young autistic child. I am thankful for examples of intertextuality, all of the children that I work with and criminological, I treasure each day I spend with them and all they teach me. I hope that their siblings realize how special their autistic brother/sister is.

Doing this paper and the research involved in it I have come to realize that I am blessed for having known each and invention tv, every one of the autistic individuals I work with, for they may live in a world all their own but, every so often they let you in and that, that is a blessing.

THEORIES OF CRIME

Criminological theories

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Criminology - Wikipedia

resume patent format This application claims the benefit of Provisional Application No. 60/215,709, filed Jul. 03, 2000. FIELD OF INVENTION. This invention relates generally to the field of database management and, specifically, to the management of resumes received by employers. BACKGROUND OF INVENTION. Employers have long been confronted with the problem of how to manage the receipt of resumes from persons seeking employment with the theories employer. This problem becomes even greater as the employer's business starts expanding, causing its need for more employees to examples, increase. Similarly, as the number of employees increases, the employee attrition rate will normally increase, giving rise to the need to hire new employees.

Recently, several database management companies have developed and are marketing computer based systems that attempt to manage the inflow of resumes in theories order to enable the employer to of intertextuality, more efficiently process the resumes and the information contained in theories the resumes. These resume database managers typically create extensive databases for an employer that are used to organize the resume information or content into colin mudford various categories, which may be related to employment positions which need to be filled, or may be archived so that the applicant's resume information can be retrieved at some later time when the need arises. Although the resume database managers perform their resume management functions quite well, a significant limitation in their usefulness is that the resumes' content must be manually inputted into the computer based system by a data entry person who enters the theories information contained within the resume into a resume data entry form. This limitation arises due to the fact that resumes are not organized or formatted in the same manner, and the type and The Cold The Korean, extent of information included within resumes varies considerably. The data entry limitation has become even more significant now that large volumes of criminological theories, both solicited and unsolicited resumes are received by employers over the Internet every day. At the present time, there are over Are Protest Essay, a hundred different Internet Job Board sites that job seekers can use to create and post a resume on-line and to send the resume over the Internet to a prospective employer who is identified on the site. Theories. Since each Job Board site requires the job applicant to create his/her resume using the Job Board's resume format, a certain amount of resume format consistency has been established on the Internet. However, since each of the Job Boards have created their own proprietary resume format, there is no uniformity as between the numerous Job Board sites. It is the goal of the present invention to examples of intertextuality, overcome the data entry limitations of the resume based data management systems. SUMMARY OF INVENTION.

The present invention comprises a computer based system and method for creating a standardized or normalized resume format, extracting information from the normalized resume, and automatically inputting the information into a resume database management system. Initially, a parcel identifier database is created based upon the different types of criminological, Internet Job Board resume formats being used. It has been determined that each Job Board resume format contains a unique piece of information or character sequence referred to in this Specification as a parcel identifier which can be used to identify a particular resume as having been created using a specific Job Board. Accordingly, the parcel identifier database is created by storing in the memory of the computer system a list of unique parcel identifiers. Examples. Further, each parcel identifier in the database is associated with a unique Job Board resume template, also stored in a Job Board database. In this regard, it has also been determined that each Job Board resume's format can be identified or characterized by certain keywords and certain information associated with a specific keyword. As a result, each unique Job Board template is predetermined or created by specifying a list of keywords and associating one or more resume field names with each keyword.

The keyword identifies a specific resume heading or subheading (e.g., Education) and one or more possible field names (e.g., High School, College, and criminological, Degree) are associated with the colin mudford information or content contained within the theories heading or subheading. The possible resume field names will correlate to of colour, the specific field names that the criminological theories database management system assigns to the same information. Once the parcel identifier database has been created, the system's computer program is ready to process resumes that are received by an employer from a Job Board. The program searches each line of the resume to colin mudford, determine if any character sequence within a line matches a parcel identifier in criminological theories the parcel identifier database. If a match is found, the of colour tv program also identifies from the database the theories specific Job Board resume template which corresponds to the specific resume being processed. At this point, the system's program normalizes the resume by mapping it into the resume template such that for each section of resume content following a heading or subheading, one or more fieldnames are associated with the resume content. The final steps of the present invention involve the program's extraction of the correct information from the normalized resume and having the program enter the information into the correct field locations within the information management database. The program accomplishes this task by colin mudford transferring the information or content associated with a fieldname from the normalized resume to the same field within the information management database.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of the theories general system and method of the The Cold The Korean War Essay present invention. FIG. 2 is a flow chart of the normalization process for a formatted Job Board resume. FIG. 3 is a continued flow chart of the normalization process for a formatted Job Board resume. FIG. 4 is a flow chart for an unformatted resume normalization process.

FIG. Criminological. 5 is an illustration of the transfer of resume content to colin mudford, a resume database. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION. FIG. 1 generally describes the criminological computer based system and method of the present invention. Initially, at step 1 , a resume is obtained which contains a plurality of headings and subheadings which introduce the resume's content or information which relates to the heading. The resume may be either a formatted Job Board resume or an unformatted resume. At step 2 , the resume is inputted into a computer system, either by scanning in a paper copy of the resume in order to create a digital copy or by nurses simply obtaining a digital copy over theories, an electronic network, such as the Internet. The system's program also, at this step, retrieves an appropriate resume template.

The template contains keywords which correspond to the resume's headings or subheadings, and at least one fieldname which corresponds to the content within a heading. In general terms, the of intertextuality system's program uses the template in order to map or associate the appropriate resume content to the appropriate fieldname. The details of the mapping or association process, which are illustrated in FIGS. 2 , 3 and 4 , are referred to in the present invention as the normalization of the criminological resume, which is illustrated at step 3 . After normalization has been completed, step 4 illustrates a normalized resume which contains content (shown in the figure as content which is in italics) that has now been associated to unique fieldnames. Finally, step 5 depicts the transfer of the content from the normalized resume to an information management database where the Songs Effective? content is stored in predetermined locations within the database. Referring now to FIGS. 2 , 3 and 4 which illustrate the resume normalization process in detail. As shown in FIG. 2 , input to the system includes data from a parcel identifier database 10 , a linguistic database 15 and a fieldname list database 20 . The parcel identifier database 10 contains a list of unique character sequences or parcel identifiers which are used by theories the system to identify a specific type of Job Board resume which is to be normalized. The list of colin mudford, parcel identifiers is further separated into sublists of parcel identifiers which are applicable to theories, a specific language.

The linguistic database 15 contains a list of unique character sequences or linguistic identifiers which are similarly used by colin mudford the system to identify the theories Job Board resume's language. Finally, the fieldname list database 20 contains a list of unique fieldnames that the program associates with resume content. At step 25 , the computer system loads the parcel identifiers, linguistic identifiers and the fieldname list into the computer's memory. The Cold War And The Korean War Essay. At step 30 , the system's program displays to the operator the list of criminological theories, fieldnames that were stored in notes memory at step 30 , and the operator, who is theories operating the computer display device, keyboard and mouse, uses the keyboard or mouse to select each resume fieldname from the definition of quality list which corresponds to the content within a resume that the operator wants to extract and transfer to an information management database. Additionally, the theories operator may identify the resume's language. At step 45 , the computer system's program determines whether the resume's language has been predetermined by the operator. If the language is known, program control proceeds to step 60 . If the language is of quality not determined, the system's program at step 50 searches the resume to determine whether it contains any character sequences that match one or more linguistic identifiers, and the program counts the number of theories, matches which are located for each linguistic identifier. At step 55 , the resume's language is then determined by selecting the language which corresponds to the linguistic identifier which has the invention of colour tv largest match count, and program control proceeds to criminological theories, step 60 . At step 60 , the computer's program searches the resume to determine if it contains a character sequence which matches a parcel identifier in the language previously identified. If at Songs Essay, step 65 a parcel identifier match is theories found, the system's program utilizes the parcel identifier, at step 70 , to identify the resume template, from the template database 75 , which is associated with the resume, and Are Protest Politically Effective?, stores the resume template in memory. For each specific Job Board resume format, the template database 75 contains a template which comprises a list of template keywords and template fieldnames. The template keywords correspond to a resume heading or subheading (e.g., Name, Address, Education and theories, Experience) and are used to locate the beginning of specific resume content.

The template fieldnames correspond to Are Protest Songs Effective?, the resume's content which follows and relates to a heading or subheading (e.g., Susan B. Anthony following the keyword Name; and 35 Tweed Terrace, Santa Cruz, Calif. 92301 following the keyword Address). The template fieldnames are used to normalize the resume by identifying the criminological specific portions of the resume's content which is to nurses examples, be extracted and theories, transferred to an information management database. For each Job Board resume, a corresponding Job Board template associates one or more template fieldnames to each keyword, and each fieldname, as described above, is associated with specific resume content. The template may be illustrated as follows: Now, turning to FIG. 3 , the system's program performs a repetitive process, illustrated in War and War Essay the figure as a loop between the start of the loop at criminological, 80 A and the end of the loop at 80 B. Examples. The first time through the loop the program searches the resume, at step 85 , for the first template keyword (i.e., keyword 1(1) ). Once the template keyword is found, then at criminological, step 95 the program locates the of quality of life resume's content which follows and relates to the keyword and criminological theories, associates the content to one or more template fieldnames (i.e., fieldname 1(1) fieldname 1(2) . Colin Mudford. . . Criminological. fieldname 1(p) ). For example, if there is colin mudford one template fieldname (i.e., fieldname 1(1) ) associated with the criminological first keyword, then the program associates all of the content with the fieldname. If the template contains two or more fieldnames, then the program applies certain rules in order to locate the appropriate content to be associated with each fieldname. One rule is definition of life that if the content consists of only two words, then the first word is associated with the first template fieldname and theories, the second word is associated with the second template fieldname. Another rule is that if one or more commas separate character sequences from The Cold War Essay adjacent character sequences, each separate character sequence is theories consecutively associated with a consecutive template fieldname.

For example, fieldname 1(1) is associated with a first character sequence, fieldname (2) is associated with a second character sequence and fieldname 1(3) is associated with a third character sequence. Another rule is that if there are more template fieldnames than character sequences, then the first fieldnames are associated with consecutive character sequences, and the extra fieldnames are left empty. Are Protest Songs Effective? Essay. Finally, if there are more character sequences than there are template fieldnames, then the program deletes the shortest character sequence and determines if the criminological number of fieldnames then matches the number of character sequences. If the number of character sequences still exceeds the number of colin mudford, template fieldnames, the deletion process continues until a match is made. Once the first template keyword (i.e., keyword 1 ) and its associated template fieldnames and each fieldname's content has been identified, the data is stored at step 100 in a normalized resume table 105 as follows: Program control then passes to the end of the loop at step 80 B where the program determines if any additional template keywords need to be searched.

If more keywords exist, the program returns to the start of the theories loop at 80 A and repeats the process described above until all keywords and each keyword's associated fieldnames and each fieldname's content has been identified and stored in the Normalized Resume Table 105 . At step 110 , the system's program selects each template fieldname that matches a fieldname that was identified by the operator at notes, 30 in FIG. 1 , and the program automatically associates the template fieldname's content to the resume fieldname that was selected by the operator as described in FIG. 1 . Then at step 120 , the content associated with each resume fieldname is criminological transferred to a database record which is stored in memory at tv, 125 . Theories. The database record is designed to correctly interface with a resume database 135 . The Korean. Next, at step 130 , the database record containing the appropriate content is output to the resume database 135 . Returning to FIG. Theories. 2 , if at step 65 the system's program is examples of intertextuality not able to locate a parcel identifier within the resume, control passes to the process illustrated in theories FIG. 4 . At step 150 , a default resume template is created from the Job Board resume templates which are stored in the template database. The system's program identifies a group of keywords from the Job Board resume templates that have the same template fieldnames. For example, the keywords Name and Name and Address would constitute a single keyword group because each keyword within the group has the same template fieldname; similarly, the keywords Education and College Education would comprise another group.

In this manner, the default resume template's keyword contains a group of colin mudford, several possible keywords. The system's program next performs a repetitive process or loop commencing at step 155 A and ending at step 155 B. At step 160 , the criminological program searches the colin mudford resume for a character sequence that matches one of the keywords within the first group of criminological, keywords. If at step 165 a match is found, the program proceeds to step 170 where it associates the invention resume's content, which follows and relates to the group of keywords, with one or more fieldnames. The process and criminological, rules which are applied are identical to that described above in definition of quality of life connection with FIG. 3 , except that at step 165 the program determines if a keyword is located. If a keyword is found, the criminological theories process continues to steps 170 , 175 and to the end of the loop. If a keyword is not found, control passes immediately to the end of the loop.

Similarly, at step 175 , the content which has been identified and associated with each fieldname is stored in the normalized resume table 105 . Once all keyword groups have been utilized to locate matching character sequences, program control passes to step 180 A- 180 B where the program attempts to identify content that has not been associated with a fieldname. This process is carried out by determining if: 1) the nurses examples content contains a sequence of characters or a field locator which matches a predetermined character sequence; or 2) the content is located at the top of the resume. The predetermined character sequence may be any sequence of characters that are normally found within a resume. For example, the criminological words Street, Avenue, Boulevard, Terrace or Lane and the abbreviations St., Ave., BI., Terr., and Ln. are normally set forth in the address portion of a resume. Similarly, five (5) sequential numbers normally would be a zip code. Accordingly, at step 190 , the Effective? program searches for a field locator. If at step 195 the field locator is found, then at theories, step 200 , the program associates a default template fieldname to definition, all of the content which appears before the sequence and immediately after the applicant's name in accordance with certain rules.

For example, the criminological applicant's name is recognized by locating on one line two words, two words separated by a single letter, three words, or the characters Mr., Mrs., Ms., or the like. Of Colour Tv. And, the program stores all of the content after the sequence until a line break. And, second, if the content appears at the top of the resume page, the program associates a default fieldname with the applicant's name. If at 195 no field locator is found, control passes to the end of the loop. At step 205 , the content and its associated default template fieldname is stored in criminological theories the normalized resume table, and control returns to the top of the loop. The process continues until, at step 195 , no field locator is found and control is returned to the end of the loop at 180 B. At this point, the program executes steps 110 through 130 set forth in FIG. 3 , where the resume fieldnames that were selected by Politically Effective? Essay the operator are matched with the criminological theories default template fieldname and the resume content is of intertextuality output to the resume database 135 . FIG. 5 presents an example of the present invention from the vantage point of an operator who is using the invention's computer program in order to process resumes received by an employer. Criminological Theories. Once the resume has been stored in the memory of the employer's computer system, the operator initiates the normalization process by inputting a predetermined command which instructs the computer to nurses, execute the normalization process.

The resume on criminological theories the left side of the figure is the resume after it has been normalized, with the normalization illustrated by showing the textual content in Essay italics. The right side of the figure shows that the content has been automatically transferred to the resume database. While the present invention has been described with reference to a few embodiments, the criminological description is of colour tv illustrative of the criminological theories invention and is not to invention, be construed as limiting the invention. Various modifications may occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.

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Free Downloadable Resume Templates. Free resume templates designed selected by RG professionals. Simply choose your favorite and get started. Just scroll down and find a Microsoft Word template that suits your work experience and sense of design. Dont worry using a template is criminological theories perfectly acceptable. If you dont feel like designing your own resume, you can instead jump to The Cold War Essay our free and easy to criminological theories use online resume builder. Save time and effort it does all of the writing and formatting for War and War Essay you. Click the button below and theories get started! Resume Template Library 1: Resume Genius' Original Designs - Expert's Choice.

The above basic resume library was designed by our resident resume experts and have been battle tested by examples job seekers. As this set performed the criminological theories, best, we included them in our resume builder software and now we are offering them to definition of quality you for free to download in Microsoft Word format. Each professional template comes in five colors. Explore these templates, download them, personalize them, and theories start getting more interviews. Resume Template Library 2: Advanced Layouts.

Professional Brick Red. Timeless Dark Blue. Elegant 2.0 Dark Blue. Modern Brick Red. Due to the popularity of our professional Microsoft Word templates, we decided to invention of colour spend more time adding to our database after hearing from criminological, customers about what theyd like to see. For these new designs, weve created five NEW layouts and Are Protest Politically Effective? updated three of our most popular selections from our resume builder software. Each resume has its own unique aesthetic but dont let that fool you. Each resume is thoroughly tested for criminological theories clarity and readability, meaning that you could use ANY of these resumes and land more interviews. So have fun, and pick one that suits your sense of examples design. But remember the criminological, way you format your resume is extremely important depending on how much experience you have, or if you have any job gaps.

So be sure to modify downloaded files to you get to match your experience accordingly. Template Library 3: Professional Profile Layouts. Washington Brick Red. Murray Dark Blue. Trump Brick Red. Introducing our newest batch of invention of colour tv Microsoft Word templates, hot off the theories, presses. Examples Of Intertextuality! We created these new designs due to the growing popularity of criminological theories our explainer on how to write a professional profile.

People interested in a layout featuring a PP introduction skyrocketed, so we toiled to create 8 brand new HR-approved documents for you to download for free. Remember this particular template is best for those of you with some or significant work experience only. Template Library 4: Creative Layouts. Brooklyn Bridge Black. Taj Mahal Dark Blue. White House Brick Red. Empire State Gray. Mount Rushmore Dark Blue.

Are you having trouble separating yourself from your competitors? Have you been using the same resume format since you graduated college over a decade ago? Then it might be time to add some style to War and your resume! Weve come up with a new set of creative designs that are the theories, perfect blend of nurses notes examples professionalism, personality, and criminological just the Are Protest Politically, right amount of style. These styles are great for graphic designers, artists, or anyone who wants to add a hint of character to criminological their job search. Template Library 5: Career Life Situations. Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Whether its entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career.

Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on colin mudford a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career. Remember: You can download any of criminological these resume templates for free and notes add the bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. Criminological Theories! However, if youd still like to make the resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, dont forget to check out our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Choose?

The answer is yes if you want to. Every persons experience is unique, so youll need to colin mudford choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats. The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there. We are proud of the designs weve created, and have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. But were not finished yet well be adding template designs to theories this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, thats fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to Are Protest Politically Essay showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on theories the Internet that its inappropriate to use a resume template. Youll hear these arguments:

1. Of Colour Tv! It shows youre lazy and criminological uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows youre efficient. The Cold The Korean! (Creating your own is theories fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template wont cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at Are Protest Songs, that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. Its the criminological, content of your resume that matters, not the colin mudford, aesthetic (unless its not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. Theories! We invite you to scroll back to invention of colour the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing.

cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like.

With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the theories, templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Examples Of Intertextuality! Best of criminological theories luck! Ive worked in the same industry for Are Protest Songs Politically Effective? the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. Theories! The jobs have been similar, so the Songs Effective?, experience looks a bit repetitive. Criminological Theories! I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on War and War Essay the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and criminological theories coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc.

How would I write that on nurses examples my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the criminological theories, company name and nurses notes included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath.

Good luck! Consider trying the Job Hopper or the Executive. They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the Gatsby Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our Professional template.

In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our Entry-Level template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.Im a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Im trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since Im from the medical profession, Im having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is theories more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the The Korean, Murray template.

Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in criminological, service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578;

Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for notes a career in education? Check out theories our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the of colour, Freeman template. Best of criminological luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the Entry-Level template would be a good fit for what youre trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi!

Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and Songs Effective? Essay accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the Entry-Level template. Theories! Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and colin mudford online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in criminological, the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the Job Hopper template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)??

Apparently, resume making and interviewing is Effective? our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldnt find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the Elegant 2.0 template. Good luck on criminological your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out our How to Write a Resume guide to get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume.

Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, its a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so its hard to examples go wrong with any of criminological them it just depends on your preference. Politically Effective? Essay! Good luck! It really depends on what job youre applying for. Theories! Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out colin mudford this page and criminological theories choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats.

Good luck on of life the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether youre qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over theories, the years it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain. If that doesnt seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Colin Mudford! Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in criminological, major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume.

Our Classic template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at of colour tv, the job fair! I recommend you first check out criminological our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and examples of intertextuality you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to criminological theories introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in of intertextuality, todays competitive job market. Criminological! We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and nurses notes easy export to MS Word and PDF.

Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and criminological Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of War and The Korean a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and criminological theories learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is nurses examples a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of criminological errors throughout.

See why. How to Modify and colin mudford Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to criminological theories unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the Songs Effective?, differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what.

Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to criminological choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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1036 Words Essay on Indian Economy: Adopting New Approach. After independence, India chartered a path of economic development based on mixed economy, building a new industrial structure around the public sector and theories a closely monitored, regulated and controlled system where government played the role of of colour tv licenser in the process of building industry. There were few hiccups in between. In the late 70s Mrs. Indira Gandhi brought in theories, small doses of of intertextuality liberalization. In the mid 80#8217;s Rajiv Gandhi did likewise but the criminological theories, real change came in 1991 when economic crises were looming large on the horizon. India#8217;s economy could be termed as a developing economy which is War and The Korean War Essay, characterized by the co-existence, in greater or lesser degree, of utilized or unutilized manpower on the one hand and of unexploited and exploited natural resources on the other. A developing economy bears the common features of criminological theories technological backwardness at low per capita income coupled by widespread poverty, heavy population pressure, low grade productivity, high unemployment, low level utilization of War and country#8217;s natural resources, rigid social structure, pre-dominance of old beliefs, lack of opportunity for capital formation, pre-dominance of agriculture and scanty participation in international trade etc. Image Source: transformasi.org. But all this is amidst a possibility of economic development, small pockets of high rates of economic growth and affluence. It is gain saying truth what the world economy has experienced that colonization directly lead to the exploitation of the colonized country by the colonial rulers.

Colonization is also a factor for the underdevelopment of criminological theories a country#8217;s economy. India was a victim of the colonial feature of economic exploitation for invention of colour tv more than hundred years. The British colonial exploitation in India can be broadly divided in three periods. They are (i) the period of merchandised capital, (ii) the period of industrial capital which leads to the drain of Indian wealth for the interest of British industry and (iii) the period of financial capital. Theories? During British period foreign capital flowed into India. However in real terms those capitals were not according to the proper needs of Indians and directly helped the capital growth of Britishers. The overall impact of British rule in Indian economy can be summed up as stagnation of per capita income ever a long period of time, high priority to tv, the traditional method of agricultural activities, repeated famines and acute poverty of handicrafts and traditional village industries defective land holding and erroneous implementation of zamindari practices etc. The basic aim of British administration in India was to transform Indian subcontinent as a consumer market for British furnished goods, Technological up gradation and criminological development of infrastructure as well as social infrastructure were negligible. During the definition of life, independence Indian economy had almost all the features of an underdeveloped economy.

In the last fifty years of self-rule, a lot of criminological theories policy initiative has been taken up by the government of India to upgrade the economic base of the country. Still Indian economy is gripped by poverty, population explosion, backwardness both in agriculture and industry, low grade technological development, high unemployment and wide difference between the high and low income levels. Now in India incidence of poverty is coexisting with sophisticated nuclear technology. Definition Of Life? The policy measures taken within the last five decades metamorphosed Indian economy to break the stagnant per capita income to achieve self sufficiency in food grain production. Indian economy is a unique blend of criminological public and private sector otherwise known as a mixed economy. It is also a dualistic economy both modern industry and traditional agricultural activities exist side by side. The mandatory economic rights which the Constitution promises are (i) equality of opportunity unemployment or appointment to any office irrespective of race, caste and sex, (ii) all the citizens of India shall have property or carry on Essay, any occupation, trade or business, (iii) right to acquire private property by the state with compensation paid under the procedure established by law, iv) ban on begging, child labour and trafficking of human beings.

The federal economic structure of India includes the central government and criminological the state government within a unitary system. Demarcations of responsibilities are divided between the central and state governments. However, the residuary power is vested with the central government. Invention Tv? Besides finance commission, other economic commissions are set up by the central government time to time to look after the parity of resources distribution among the states. Annual budgets (both general and railway) and five year plans aye the backbone of India#8217;s economic policy initiatives. Indian Economy since Independence-After India#8217;s independence long spell of criminological stagnation was broken with the introduction of economic planning. Since 1950s net national product at factor cost had arisen from The Cold War and The Korean Rs. 40,454 crore to 11,224 crores in 1999-2000. The growth of theories national income was 3.8 percent.

India#8217;s per capita income has been running since 1950-51. India#8217;s per capita income at current price was Rs. Are Protest Effective?? 160, 47. Apart from the growth in quantitative terms, there have been significant changes in India#8217;s economic structure since independence. During the second plan priority was acceded to capital intensive manufacturing units. These industries now account for more than fifty percent of the theories, industrial production. The transport system in India over the past four decades has grown both in terms of capacity and invention tv modernization. Then road network is criminological, one of the nurses, largest in the world as a result of criminological theories spectacular development of roads under various lanes.

The total road length comprising national high ways state high ways and definition of life other road accounted for 24.66 lakhs km in theories, 1996-97 progress of shipping, railways and civil aviation has equally been impressive. Though the country is presently facing an energy crisis but this sector has also gained much in terms of production. Songs Politically Essay? Similarly irrigation facilities in the country have increased raising irrigated area. Since independence significant reformation has taken place in the banking and financial sector of India. The process of nationalization was initiated after independence. First the Reserve Bank was nationalized in 1949, thereafter in 1995 the Imperial Bank of theories India, a leading commercial bank of that time, was nationalized and renamed the State Bank of India. In 1969 fourteen big commercial banks were nationalized.

This act of government undermined the control of big capitalists on the finance capital. From the above argument we can conclude that the Indian economy is no longer caught in low level equilibrium trap. Welcome to notes examples, Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to theories, discuss anything and everything about Essay. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Essay on this site, please read the following pages:

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THE EVOLUTION OF CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORIES

Essay on Equilibrium: Top 9 Essays. In this essay we will discuss about criminological theories, Equilibrium in invention tv, Economics. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Equilibrium 2. Static Equilibrium 3. Criminological Theories. Dynamic Equilibrium 4. Stable and invention tv Unstable Equilibrium 5. Neutral Equilibrium 6. Partial Equilibrium 7. General Equilibrium 8. Working of the General Equilibrium 9. Theories. Uses of General Equilibrium Analysis. Essay on the Meaning of Equilibrium Essay on Static Equilibrium Essay on Dynamic Equilibrium Essay on Stable and colin mudford Unstable Equilibrium Essay on Neutral Equilibrium Essay on Partial Equilibrium Essay on General Equilibrium Essay on the Working of the criminological theories, General Equilibrium Essay on the Uses of General Equilibrium Analysis. The word equilibrium is derived from the examples, Latin word an equilibrium which means equal balance.

Its use in economics is imported from physics. In physics, it means a state of even balance in theories, which opposing forces or tendencies neutralize each other. Prof. Stigler defines equilibrium. in this sense in these words An equilibrium is a position from which there is no net tendency to move, we say net tendency to emphasize the of life, fact that it is not necessarily a state of sudden inertia but may instead represent the cancellation of power forces.

In economics, equilibrium implies a position of rest characterized by absence of change. It is a state where there is complete agreement of the economic plans of the various market participants so that no one has a tendency to revise or alter this decision. In the words of Prof. Mehta Equilibrium denotes in economics absence of change in movement. In other words, it is a market situation where all decisions by the participants are in criminological theories, unity with each other. A market, or an The Cold The Korean War Essay, economy, or any other group of persons and firms is in equilibrium when none of its members feels impelled to criminological change his behaviour. For a group to The Cold War and be in equilibrium, therefore, all its members must be in equilibrium; and the equilibrium behaviour of each member must be compatible with the equilibrium behaviour of all the other members. Suppose a continuous and constant supply of fish conies to market daily which is bought with the same degree of eagerness by prospective buyers. For this, the market price must be such as to equate the demand and supply of fish. When demand and supply are equal at a particular price, it is the state of equilibrium.

The price at criminological theories which fish is bought and War and The Korean War Essay sold is the equilibrium price and the quantity of fish bought and sold at that price is the criminological, equilibrium quantity. At the equilibrium price neither buyers nor sellers have an incentive to buy and sell more or less. To illustrate, in Figure 1 the supply curve S intersects the demand curve D at E which is the equilibrium point, and examples of intertextuality OP and OQ represent the criminological, equilibrium price-quantity combination. If for some reason, price falls below the equilibrium price to OP 2 , the quantity demanded will increase and quantity supplied will diminish, i.e. P 2 d P 2 s. Forces will set in, which will tend to definition of quality of life push the price back toward the theories, equilibrium position E. Similarly, a price rise above the Are Protest Songs Politically, equilibrium level to OP will increase the supply and reduce the demand, P 1 s 1 P 1 d 1 and it will instantly be brought back to E. The equilibrium position explained above reveals another feature of the notion of equilibrium that it is a state of theories, rest, characterized by movement where opposite colin mudford, forces are counteracting each other. Theories. Once this position is reached, there is no tendency to move away from it. According to Prof. Mehta: Static equilibrium is that equilibrium which maintains itself outside the period of time under consideration. It is a state of The Korean War Essay, bliss which every individual firm, industry or factor wants to attain and once reached, would not like to criminological theories leave.

A consumer is in equilibrium when he gets maximum satisfaction from a given expenditure on different goods and services. Of Colour Tv. Any move on criminological his part to reallocate his expenditure among his purchases will decrease rather than increase his total satisfaction. A firm is in equilibrium when its profits are the maximum and it has no incentive to expand contract its output any deviation from this position will lead to diminution in The Cold War and War Essay, profits. Similarly, an industry is in equilibrium when it has no incentive to change its total output. It is a position in which neither the existing firms have any tendency to leave nor for new firms to enter the industry. In other words, industry s equilibrium when all firms are earning only normal profits. A productive resource is in equilibrium when in its highest paid employment so that its income is maximised. It has no incentive to otter more or less of its service and not to seek employment elsewhere.

If it does so, it will reduce its income Prof. Boulding has explained static equilibrium in these words: A mechanical analogy may be found in a ball rolling at a constant speed or better still of a forest in equilibrium where tree sprout grows or dies but where the composition of the forest as a whole remains unchanged. Or, a train running at a constant speed. This is static equilibrium, which is based on criminological given, and constant prices, quantities, income, tastes, technology, population, etc. In dynamic equilibrium prices, quantities, income tastes, technology, etc. are constantly Thus over a period of time, a state of disequilibrium rather than of equilibrium is to be found if there is disagreement in the decision being made by colin mudford some of the market participants; it tends to alter the existing equilibrium situation, and there is disequilibrium. Those participants who are in disequilibrium in their efforts to reach the equilibrium position throw others into disequilibrium. Criminological Theories. Thus a chain reaction sets in which ultimate brings the decisions of all the participants in harmony and a new equilibrium position is established As Prof. Mehta has said, when after a fixed period the equilibrium state is disturbed it is called dynamic equilibrium. To continue our example, suppose some more persons develop the taste for fish as a result the demand for fish will increase. It will upset the previous plans and of quality dispositions of all the participants in the market.

Seller will at once raise the price and thus change the behaviour of the old buyers. The market will be thrown into criminological a state of disequilibrium and will remain so till the supply of fish is increased to the level of the new demand, whence new equilibrium will be brought in by the contending forces. Figure 2 explains this process from the state of disequilibrium to equilibrium with the help of the Cobweb Theorem. The initial equilibrium position from which disturbance starts is point a where D and S curves intersect. When demand increases to invention of colour tv D 1 price at once shoots up to OP 5 . (= qb), but as the supply of fish is increased gradually over a period of time, it continues to fall till it reaches g, the new equilibrium point where Oq 3 quantity is demanded and supplied at the new equilibrium price OP 3 (= q 3 g). This explains dynamic equilibrium. Criminological Theories. But the question arises as to when and how this new equilibrium position will be reached. The supply of fish cannot be increased within a day. It may take some period of time for the producers to plan and bring the additional quantities to the market. This is known as lagged adjustment which can be explained with the help of the Cobweb Theorem In Figure 2 when with the increase in demand from D to D 1 , price shoots up to qb (=OP 5 ) It is expected to stay at that level for some time.

It, therefore, induces the producers to increase the supply by qq 1 or the total supply toOq 1 . But this is more than the equilibrium quantity Oq 3 . which is needed in the market It will, therefore, lower the price to q d (= OP 5 ) and thus again lead to alterations in the production plans of the producers whereby they will reduce the supply to Oq 1 . But this quantity is The Cold War and The Korean less than the equilibrium level Oq 3 Therefore price will rise to OP 4 , in turn will stimulate the supply to criminological Oq 3 . Thus equilibrium will ultimately be established at point g where S and D 1 , curves intersect and 3 Oq 3 is the price-quantity combination. This is dynamic equilibrium with lagged adjustment. Essay # 4. Stable and Unstable Equilibrium : The different positions of equilibrium presented above pertain to War and War Essay stable equilibrium. Any disturbance in the equilibrium situation is theories self-adjusting so that the old equilibrium position is restored as shown in Figure 1. When the demand price is equal to the supply price, the amount produced has no tendency either to of colour be increased or to be diminished; it is equilibrium. Such equilibrium is theories stable; that is, the price, if displaced a little from it, will tend to return, as a pendulum oscillates about its lowest point. According to Pigou, a ship with a heavy keel is in stable equilibrium. Another famous simile is that of a bowl and a ball given by Schumpeter. A ball that rests in a bowl is in stable equilibrium because if disturbed it will eventually come to rest in its initial position after moving back and forth, as shown in Figure 3. On the other hand, equilibrium is unstable when any distur­bance in of intertextuality, equilibrium situation brings in forces which move the system away from it, never to be restored.

In Pigous words, If the small disturbance calls out further disturbing forces which act in a cumulative manner to drive the system from its initial position, it is in criminological, unstable Fig. 4 equilibrium. As an egg if balanced on one of its ends would at the smallest shake fall down, and lie length ways, as pointed out by Marshall. If the bowl is inverted and the ball is perched on examples its top, it will be in unstable equilibrium. For once the criminological theories, ball is War Essay pushed; it falls off the top of the bowl to the ground and does not return to its original position, as shown in Figure 4.

Another type of equilibrium generally referred to is neutral equilibrium. When an initial equilibrium position is theories disturbed, the forces of disturbance bring it to the new position of equilibrium where the system has come to rest. A ball on the billiard table if disturbed will come to rest at the new position to which it has moved. According to Prof. Pigou, An egg lying on its side is in neutral equilibrium. The Cold. The static neutral equilibrium condition is illustrated in Figure 5 and the dynamic in Figure 6. In Figure 5, E is the initial equilibrium point where.

OO quantity is demanded and criminological theories supplied at OP price. With the rise in the price to Are Protest Songs Politically Effective? OP E. becomes the new equilibrium point but the quantity demanded and supplied remains the same, i.e., OO. Thus the price range PP 1 (=EE 1 ) represents neutral equilibrium. In case the criminological theories, market is dynamic, an increase in demand leads to a rise in the price to OP 1 (=Qb) which induces the producers to increase the supply to OQ 1 , in Figure 6. Invention Tv. But the demand price Q 1 d being less than the supply price if, Producer tends to reduce the supply to criminological theories OQ. But the The Korean, demand is more than the supply at this level; price will, therefore, again rise to Qb(=OP 1 ). In this way, the prices and quantities will move in a circle with oscillations of constant amplitude around the equilibrium point e. Theories. It may be noted here that of the three equilibriastable, unstable and nurses notes examples neutralit is only the stable equilibrium which is of use to economists for criminological, analysing complex economic problems.

The unstable and The Cold The Korean War Essay neutral equilibrium are, however, of academic interest only. Partial or particular equilibrium analysis, also known as microeconomic analysis, is the study of the equilibrium position of an individual, a firm, an industry or a group of industries viewed in isolation. It is a market process for the determination of criminological, product prices and factor prices in which one or two variables are discussed, other things remaining equal (ceteris paribus). In the words of colin mudford, Prof. Stigler: A partial equilibrium is one which is based on criminological theories only a restricted range of data, a standard example is price of definition of quality of life, a single product, the prices of all other products being held fixed during the analysis. The Marshallian economics is mostly a study in partial equilibrium analysis. Partial equilibrium analysis is concerned with two types of economic problems. First, those pertaining to only particular aspects of the theories, economic behaviour of a certain individual, firm or industry.

For instance, it may limit itself to the market for a single product where its price, the technique of colin mudford, production, and the amount of factors used in its production are taken into consideration, while all other factors affecting it are assumed to be constant. Second, it studies only the first-order consequences of the economic events it analyses. Criminological Theories. It ignores the effects on the prices of other commodities brought about by the product being analysed and in turn secondary influences of the former on the product. We may briefly study the equilibrium conditions of an individual, a firm, an industry and The Cold War Essay a factor. A consumer is in equilibrium when he spends his money income on different goods and services in criminological theories, such a way that he gets the maximum satisfaction. (1) the marginal utility of each good is equal to its price (P) MU A /P A = MU B /P B = MU N /P N ; and. (2) the costumer must spend his entire income (Y) on the purchase of goods, i.e., Y= P pB A Q + P B Q B P N +P N Q N. It is invention of colour assumed that his tastes, preferences, money income and the prices of the goods he wants to buy are given and constant. A firm is in equilibrium when it has no tendency to change its output. In the short-run, it equalizes its marginal revenue with marginal cost and in the long-run it satisfies the conditions of full equilibrium, LMC = MR = AR = LAC as its minimum.

Thus, it earns only normal profits and has no tendency to leave the industry. In the analysis of the firm, the given data are the techniques of production, the prices of its products and of the factors. An industry is in criminological theories, equilibrium when all its firms are earning normal profits and there is no tendency for the existing firms to leave or for new firms to enter it. In the market for a single product, only colin mudford, one price rules at a time at which the quantity which the criminological theories, consumers wish to buy exactly equals the quantity being produced by the different firms. Each firm in the industry sells its product at the ruling market price and produces that level of output where its marginal cost equals marginal revenue. In the short-run, it can produce even at a price less than its average costs of production, but in the long-run the price must equal its minimum long-run average costs (LAC) of production.

A factor of production (land, labour, capital or organization) is in The Cold, equilibrium when it is employed in its highest paid employment so that its income is maximized. It is a position where its price equals its marginal revenue product. At this price, it has no incentive to offer more or less of its service and not to criminological seek employment elsewhere. Thus, there is one price for the factor which rules throughout the market at any time. Moreover, the quantity of the factor which its owners are willing to nurses notes sell at the ruling price must equal the quantity which the entrepreneurs are willing to hire. This partial equilibrium analysis of the market assumes that the price of the product is given and constant for consumers. Their incomes, tastes, habits and preferences also remain constant.

For the firms, the prices of the productive resources of the product and of other related products are known, and constant. Factors of production are easily available to criminological the industry at invention of colour tv known and constant prices in accordance with the techniques of criminological theories, production in War Essay, use. If there is any change, say in consumers tastes or techniques of production, the producer- consumer plans are revised and equilibrium is re-established, though at a new level. The analysis of the market for a factor assumes that the prices of the products which the factor helps in producing are known and constant and the prices and quantities of all other factors are also given and constant. Moreover, factors of production are perfectly mobile between occupations and places. In the criminological theories, short- run, a factor may be earning less than its marginal revenue product, but in the long-run its price must equal the marginal revenue product at all places and in all employments. The analysis discussed above relates to a perfectly competitive market which can also be extended to monopoly, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopsony markets. Partial equilibrium analysis possesses certain advantages: 1. It helps us in colin mudford, analysing the causes of criminological theories, a change in the price of a product or service. Are Protest Politically Essay. Similarly the theories, cause of a change in the behaviour of an War and The Korean, individual, a firm or an industry can also be understood.

2. This method helps in predicting the consequences of changes in the behaviour and plans of the market participants. The consequences of interferences by the state in the working of the market system can also be analysed. For example, what are the effects of an excise duty on the prices, output, sales, and profits, etc. on cotton textiles fall within the ambit of the partial equilibrium analysis. 3. It is an indispensable tool of analysis for the solution of practical problems. By concentrating on a limited and narrow range of economic subjects and by reducing the field of enquiry to criminological theories one or two variables, it makes the economic problems simple and intelligible.

4. For an understanding of the War Essay, general working of the economic system which involves the interdependence of economic variables, partial equilibrium analysis acts as a stepping stone. Theories. Without it, we cannot understand and analyse general equilibrium analysis. But partial equilibrium analysis has its limitations. 1. It is confined to one particular field, may it be an individual, a firm or an notes examples, industry and ignores the criminological, study of the economy. 2. If unrealistic assumptions which separate the study of a specific market from the rest of the economy are dropped, partial equilibrium analysis breaks down. 3. It fails to explain the consequences of an examples, economic disturbance in the market that leads supply and theories demand changes, moving from one market to colin mudford another and thus initiating second, third and higher order waves of change in the entire economy. 4. Partial equilibrium analysis is incompetent to study the interrelations of all parts of the criminological theories, economy. General equilibrium analysis is an extensive study of Effective?, a number of economic variables, their interrelations and interdependences for understanding the working of the economic system as a whole. It brings together the cause and effect sequences of changes in prices and quantities of commodities and services in criminological theories, relation to the entire economy. An economy can be in general equilibrium only examples of intertextuality, if all consumers, all firms, all industries and all factor-services are in equilibrium simultaneously and criminological theories they are interlinked through commodity and factor prices.

The theory of General Equilibrium is the of life, theory of interrelationship among all parts of the economy. Thus, partial equilibrium analysis is encompassed in the general equilibrium analysis. General equilibrium exists when all prices are in equilibrium; each consumer spends his given income in a manner that yields him the criminological, maximum satisfaction; all firms in each industry are in equilibrium at all prices and outputs; and the supply and demand for productive resources are equal at equilibrium prices. The general equilibrium analysis is based on the following assumptions: (1) There is examples perfect competition both in theories, the commodity and factor markets. (2) Tastes and habits of colin mudford, consumers are given and constant. (3) Incomes of consumers are given and constant.

(4) Factors of production are perfectly mobile between different occupations and places. (5) There are constant returns to scale. (6) All firms operate under identical cost conditions. (7) All units of a productive service are homogeneous. (8) There are no changes in the techniques of production. (9) There is full employment of labour and other resources. Essay # 8. Working of the General Equilibrium: Given these assumptions, the economy is in a state of general equilibrium when the demand for theories, every commodity and service is equal to the supply for it. It implies perfect harmony of the decisions made by all the nurses notes examples, market participants. The decisions of consumers for the purchase of each commodity must be in perfect accord with the criminological, decisions of producers for the production and sale of each commodity.

Similarly, the definition, decisions of criminological, owners for selling each factor service must be in perfect harmony with the decisions of of intertextuality, their employers. It is only when the decisions of buyers of theories, goods and services fit in perfectly with the decisions of nurses, sellers that the criminological theories, market is in general equilibrium. Given the tastes, preferences and aims of the consumers in the economy, the quantity of each commodity demanded depends not only on its own price but also on the price of each other commodity available in the market. Thus, each consumer maximizes his satisfaction relative to the prices ruling the War and War Essay, market. For him, the marginal utility of each commodity equals its price.

Each consumer is assumed to spend his entire income on consumption, so his expenditure equals his income. His income, in turn, depends on the prices at which he is selling his productive services. Theories. In other words, a consumer earns by selling the productive services he owns. Thus, the demand of consumers for the various commodities depends upon their prices and the prices of services. Let us take the supply side. Given the market structure, the state of technology and the aims of firms, the price at which a commodity sells depends on its costs of production. Nurses Notes. The costs of production, in turn, depend on the quantities of the various productive services employed and the prices paid for them. Assuming constant returns to scale and criminological theories identical cost conditions for all firms, each producer will produce and sell that quantity of output at which the demand price for examples of intertextuality, the commodity equals both the minimum average cost and theories the marginal cost.

The equilibrium of the commodity market is illustrated in Figure 7(A). The market is in equilibrium at point E where the market demand and supply curves D and S intersect. It determines OP price at which OQ M quantity of the definition of life, product is bought and sold in the market. There being identical cost conditions, each firm in the market produces and sells the theories, commodity at the given price OP. It is in of intertextuality, equilibrium when MC = MR and AC=AR at point E 1 producing OQ units of the commodity, as shown in Panel B. If, say, there are 100 firms in the market each producing 60 units of the commodity, the total production will be 6000 (=100 x 60) units. This analysis inter alia can be extended to all commodities being produced in the economy. Like the equality of demand and criminological theories supply of commodities, the equality of demand and supply of factor services is also essential for the general equilibrium system. The demand for productive services comes from the producers and supply from the consumers. Given the state of technology and the profit maximisation objective of the producers, the quantity of a factor used in producing a commodity depends on the relationship between the of quality, prices of that factor and of all other factors and on the prices of commodities. Each producer maximises his profits relative to the ruling factor prices by employing the criminological, various factors in such proportions and quantities that their marginal revenue productivities are equal to their prices.

Since there is full employment in the economy, the markets for factors are in equilibrium when the total quantities of factors offered and the total quantities employed are equal, The equilibrium of the factor market is illustrated in Figure 8 where in Panel (A), the price of a factor OP and its quantity ON are determined in the market by the interaction of its demand and supply curves D and notes examples S at point E. Panel (B) shows that the supply curve of this factor to an individual firm is perfectly elastic and is the same as the marginal cost of that factor, MFC. The firm will employ units of the factor at the given factor price OP where MFC = MRP and criminological AFC = ARP to the firm. Such an equilibrium point is E at which it employs OM units of the factor. If there are 10 identical cost firms and each employs 100 units of the factor, the colin mudford, total market demand and supply of this factor will be 1000 units in the market. This analysis can be extended to the economy as a whole.

Thus the economy is in general equilibrium when commodity prices make each demand equal to its supply and factor prices make the criminological, demand for each factor equal to its supply so that all product markets and factor markets are simultaneously in equilibrium. Such a general equilibrium is characterised by two conditions in which the set of prices in definition of quality, all product and factor markets is such that: (1) All consumers maximise their satisfactions and all producers maximise their profits; and. (2) All markets are cleared which means that the total amount demanded equals the total amount supplied at a positive price in both the product and criminological theories factor markets. To explain it, we begin with a simple hypothetical economy where there are only two sectors, the household and the business. The economic activity takes the form of flow of Are Protest Songs Politically Essay, goods and services between these two sectors and monetary flow between them. These two flows, called real and monetary, are shown in Figure 9 where the product market is theories shown in the lower portion and the factor market in the upper portion. In the product market, consumers purchase goods and services from producers while in the factor market, consumers receive income from the former for The Korean, providing services. Thus consumers purchase all goods and services provided by producers and make payments to the latter in lieu of these. The producers, in turn, make payments to consumers for the services rendered by the latter to the businesswage payments for labour services, interest for capital supplied, etc. Thus payments go around in theories, a circular manner from producers to The Cold The Korean consumers and from consumers to producers, as shown by arrows in the outer portion of the figure. There are also flows of criminological, goods and services in the opposite direction to the money payments flows.

Goods flow from the business sector to the household sector in the product market, and definition of quality of life services flow from the household sector to the business sector in the factor market, as shown in the inner portion of the figure. These two flows are linked by product prices and factor prices. The economy is in general equilibrium when a set of prices is allowed at theories which the magnitude of income flow from producers to consumers is equal to the magnitude of the money expenditure from consumers to colin mudford producers. The general equilibrium analysis of the economy has several limitations. Firstly, it is based on a number of unrealistic assumptions which are contrary to actual conditions prevailing in the world. Perfect competition, the theories, very basis of this analysis, is a myth. Secondly, it is a static analysis. All consumers and producers in this analysis consume and produce the products day in and day out without any time-lag. Their tastes, preferences, and aims are the same, and their economic decisions are in perfect harmony with each other. In reality, nothing of this sort happens.

Producers are as consumers never act and think alike. Changes are taking place continuously in tastes and preferences. There are no constant returns to scale and no two factor services are homogeneous. Thus cost conditions differ from producer to producer. Since the given conditions are continuously changing, the movement towards general equilibrium is ever thwarted and its attainment has ever remained a wishful ideal. Essay # 9. Uses of General Equilibrium Analysis: The general equilibrium analysis possesses some important uses also. 1. The Korean War Essay. A Picture of Economy Equilibrium: It presents a picture of a private enterprise economy in equilibrium, where consumers are attuned to a position of maximum satisfaction and the producers to that of maximum profits.

There is no wastage of criminological theories, resources. All are fully employed. Economic efficiency is at its maximum so that economic welfare of the community is maximised. Thus it helps in understanding the tv, determinants of the pattern of an economy. 2. To Understand the Working of Economic System:

Even otherwise, the theories, theory is a schematic point of departure from which, by removing certain unwarranted assumptions, the actual working of an economic system can be understood. Nurses Notes Examples. We can know whether the economy is working efficiently, or whether there is any discordancy in its smooth functioning. The problems of disequilibrium and the restoration of equilibrium can be studied with the help of this analysis. 3. To Understand the Complex Problems of the Market: The general equilibrium analysis further helps in predicting the consequences of an autonomous economic event. Suppose the demand for commodity X rises which may lead to a rise in theories, its price. This, in turn, reduces the prices of its substitutes and nurses notes raises the prices of complements. These may thus reduce the demand for X somewhat. Criminological. The demand for X may be further affected if the prices of productive services also tend to rise. Thus the general equilibrium analysis aids in understanding the nature of the colin mudford, complex chains of relationships of the market on a step-by-step basis. 4. To Understand the criminological theories, Working of the Pricing Process:

The general equilibrium analysis is also useful in explaining the functions of prices in an economy. As relative prices change, three main decisions are made for the entire economy: what to notes examples produce and how much to produce, how to produce, and who will buy them when the commodities are produced. These decisions are made by individual producers and criminological theories a consumer because each commodity and service they want to produce, sell and buy, has a price that reacts to changes in their demand and The Cold The Korean War Essay supply. The general equilibrium analysis helps in integrating a variety of individual decisions affected by price changes. 5. To Understand the Input-Output Analysis: The main importance of general equilibrium analysis lies in its providing the conceptual basis for the input-output analysis developed by Leontief. In this analysis which is regarded as an outstanding variant of the general equilibrium analysis, the theories, household and industries are related in an invisible interdependent system of inputs and outputs of the economy.

This analysis is being increasingly used for planning the economic development of backward regions and countries. 6. Basis of Modern Monetary and Welfare Economics: In recent years, general equilibrium analysis has been extended to monetary theory and welfare economics thereby making them more realistic fields of economic study. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: