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Narmada Bachao Andolan Case study. International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering Case Study Series. Narmada Dams Controversy – Case Summary. MJ Peterson with research assistance from Osman Kiratli and Ilke Ercan Version 1; September 2010. Need essay sample on Narmada Bachao Andolan Case study ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. The construction and maintenance of public facilities involves several sets of stakeholders: the political leaders who ultimately decide when, whether, and what to Relationship of Breakdown Essay, build; the engineers and other government staff who provide or oversee design, construction, and maintenance; the Essay about Social private firms supplying design, construction, or maintenance services; the taxpayers whose money will fund the project; the lenders who supply loan funds permitting the project to go ahead in advance of tax or toll collections; the Relationship of Breakdown Poem users of the facility; and nearby residents. The question of which stakeholders should have what role and influence in of self deception the design, construction, and maintenance of public facilities has become more contentious as they have become larger and affected more people.
Proposals to construct large dams have inspired considerable contention in the last few decades as political mobilization of Relationship of Breakdown in The Second nearby residents who will be displaced by the reservoirs they create and of environmentalists concerned with the consequences of large dams for the river basin and nearby forests, wildlife habitat, or farmland have led to demands for greater public information and participation in project definition and design and greater transparency and accountability in construction, operation, and maintenance. Spark The Jungle? Most dam projects proceed within a single country, meaning that stakeholders have to secure their influence within the Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Poem Essay national political system using whatever processes for citizen mobilization and input that system allows. Essay On Destruction? Yet, some dam projects have transnational dimensions, either because the project itself involves more than one country or because the government hoping to build the dams needs loans from outside. These transnational aspects sometimes allow stakeholders unable to gain much influence in the national political processes to find outside supporters who pressure the government into listening to Second Poem, the previously ignored. This case study looks at one of the more famous instances of transnational involvement in stakeholder struggles over large dams, the long-running contention over dam construction on Essay Social Order the Narmada Rover in India. Most of the controversy has addressed the size and construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam at Navagam in Relationship in The Second Coming Poem Essay Gujarat, but the Narmada Project also includes several large dams at various points in Madhya Pradesh as well as medium and small-size dams on Essay by knowledge the Narmada’s tributaries in Madhya Pradesh and This case was created by the International Dimensions of of Breakdown in The Poem Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (IDEESE) Project at the University of Massachusetts Amherst with support from the National Science Foundation under grant number 0734887. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in importance this material are those of the of Breakdown Second Poem author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
More information about the IDEESE and copies of its modules can be found at http://www.umass.edu/sts/ethics. This case should be cited as: M.J. Peterson. Importance Of Self Confidence? 2010. “Narmada Dams Controversy.” International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering. Relationship Second Coming Poem? Available www.umass.edu/sts/ethics. © 2010 IDEESE Project. Maharashtra. Though proposals to build large dams on the Narmada inspired political controversy from the day the first proposals were made in 1947-48, only in Essay about to Maximize Organizational Efficiency the mid-1980s did the controversy take on the transnational aspects for which it is now famous as critics took up the Relationship of Breakdown Essay cause of on Destruction by knowledge those who would be displaced as the Relationship of Breakdown in The reservoirs created by the dams filled up and raised environmental concerns about the project. Contentions over the planning or construction of large dams in developing countries provide some of the best documented examples of local stakeholders.
using transnational connections to secure greater influence in the domestic decision-making and implementing processes. Dam projects in developing countries create a number of opportunities for stakeholder efforts to gain influence at home by building transnational connections. No government finances a large dam project from current tax collections; these are large physical capital investments with costs beyond the ability of governments to finance from current taxes given all the other demands on the budget. The governments of industrial countries can easily borrow the money they need for construction from private investors, but the The Cold War and governments of developing countries often find that difficult. Of Breakdown Second Essay? The World Bank and other multilateral development banks (MDBs) (sometimes also called international financial institutions or IFIs) were established to help developing countries secure loans by acting as an intermediary. The MDBs are owned by the governments of member states, which pay in a certain amount of money (their “quota”) based on their current level of economic prosperity, meaning that the Essay Order industrial state members pay in more money and hence own more shares – and Second have more votes on the board – than the developing country members. The MDB uses the paid-in capital as the War and War Essay reserve against which it borrows money on private investment markets that it then re-lends to the developing country members. Because of the industrial state backing and borrower promises to give the MDB priority in loan repayment, private investors are more willing to of Breakdown in The Essay, buy bonds issued by the MDB than bonds issued by an individual developing country. This allows the MDB to charge borrowing countries lower interest rates than they would be able to secure on Essay Social their own.
The World Bank, the largest and most prominent of the MDBs, initially operated only in this fashion. By the late 1950s, however, both development economists and Relationship in The Poem Essay member governments realized that this design was insufficient because the poorest of the developing countries could not afford the interest rates. Essay Personality Organizational? In response to Relationship Poem Essay, proposals that the about Social Order United Nations General Assembly establish a large Capital Development Fund financed through UN budget assessments on member states, the World Bank expanded its lending through establishment of the International Development Association (IDA) in 1960. Relationship In The Coming Poem Essay? IDA would not sell bonds to private investors; rather, its industrial country members would provide money for re-lending to the developing members on terms significantly less costly than prevailed in private bond markets by charging. approximately 0.5% interest on 30- to 45-year loans rather than a more standard private market rate of 67% and to Maximize Organizational Efficiency 25-year loans. Relationship Of Breakdown Coming Poem? Like other lenders, MDBs impose certain conditions on of self confidence borrowers regarding how they use the Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Poem money. Each MDB has policy guidelines their staffs follow in identifying and selecting projects, recommending that the MDB make a loan, and monitoring use and confidence repayment of the Second Coming Poem loan. As long as the MDB can operate with its existing capital and the income it derives from loan payments, it is somewhat removed from the Essay about domestic politics of member states. Relationship Of Breakdown Second Essay? When, however, an MDB needs a new infusion of the jungle money, either to increase the reserve or to sustain a loan program financed by grants of Relationship Second Coming Poem Essay money from the of self industrial country members, the question of financing can get caught up in Relationship Second Coming Poem the domestic politics of the member states providing the money.
This happened to the World Bank, which until 1993 was a major source of the loans supporting construction of the large dams on the Narmada River, because of the need for periodic replenishment of IDA funds. In the mid-1980s a broad coalition of activists in Essay by knowledge the Western industrial countries supporting poor and marginalized groups in Relationship of Breakdown in The Coming Poem developing countries (such as urban slum dwellers, landless and Essay on Destruction other poor rural groups, indigenous peoples, disadvantaged ethnic or religious minorities) began a transnational Multilateral Development Banks Campaign intended to pressure the MDBs, particularly the World Bank, into adopting policies that would require paying greater attention to Relationship of Breakdown Poem Essay, mitigating the negative socioeconomic and environmental impacts of projects being funded with MDB loans. Importance Confidence? By the late 1980s, they had found political allies in the industrial countries where the legislature had to approve contributions to the IDA replenishments. These connections were particularly strong in the USA, where the separation of power between the President and Congress allows congressional majorities to adopt policies even over presidential opposition, and of Breakdown Second Coming Essay the political culture was particularly open to private lobbying on behalf of causes as well as for direct material benefits. This.
influence was institutionalized in the International Development and Finance Act of 1989, which included provisions requiring that: a) the US Treasury use US votes and influence in the MDBs to Essay Order, promote adoption of public access to Coming, the pre-lending environmental impact assessments developed by each in the process of considering loans, and b) the US Director to abstain from voting on a proposed loan if the environmental impact assessment relating to the project for which the loan is sought has not been released to about Assessments Organizational, the public at Relationship Second Coming, least 120 days before the date of the vote.1 The US government also became the source of much current information the activists could not get from the World Bank itself because activists learned how to use the by knowledge US Freedom of Information Act to secure it from the US Treasury Department, which houses the office of the in The Second Coming Poem Essay US-appointed member of the World Bank executive board. Campaigners developed a two-part approach: using their connections first to pressure the notes the jungle World Bank and other MDBs into adopting stronger social and environmental policies, and then to ensure that the MDBs required borrowing governments to conform to them. Simultaneously, MDB Campaign activists worked to develop a more balanced transnational network by making connections with and providing support to citizen groups in developing countries active in Relationship in The Second Poem Essay social and Assessments to Maximize Efficiency environmental causes, an evolution also encouraged as members of the World Bank reacted against pressure from Western-based NGOs and coalitions by requiring that complaints addressed to the Inspection Panel established in 1994 be made by of Breakdown Second Essay affected people within the territory of the borrowing country.2 The Narmada River. The Narmada River, the fifth longest in The Cold The Korean India, begins its 1312 km (813 mile) flow to the sea near the village of Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh state. In The Coming? It flows through a relatively narrow basin defined on about Social the north side by the Vindhaya Hills and on the south side by the Satpura Hills westward through Madhya Pradesh to a point where it becomes part of the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. 35 km later it becomes part of the Relationship Coming Essay boundary between Maharashtra and Gujarat, and 39 km after that enters Gujarat for the last segment of its run to the Gulf of Khambat, which connects to the Arabian Sea. Its origin point is 1Title. V, International Development and Finance Act of 1989 (Public Law 101-240).
Text available at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgibin/query/D?c101:6:./temp/ c101PKqVuC: (accessed 12 Aug. 2010). The act followed a fine line: the provision for abstaining rather than voting against was meant as a signal to improve policy; it also avoided debates over whether member governments may tell MDB Directors how to vote on individual loans, an issue discussed in Bertram S. Brown 1992. The United States and the Politicization of the World Bank: Issues of Essay by knowledge International Law and Policy (London and New York: K. Paul International), p. 236. David A. Wirth. 1998. “Partnership Advocacy in World Bank environmental reform,” in Jonathan A. Of Breakdown In The Coming Essay? Fox and L. Spark? David Brown, eds., The World Bank, NGOs, and Grassroots Movements (Cambridge MA: MIT Press) p. 68. 1051 meters (3447 feet) above sea level. Relationship Coming? Just west of Jabalpur it enters a deep channel faced by natural marble rocks 30 meters high on both sides, and then drops over Essay the Dhaundhar Falls. The river then descends slowly until it reaches the narrow gorge bound by high rocks lying along the state borders and extending into of Breakdown eastern Gujurat. After leaving this gorge, the waters flow across flat plains to the sea.
Along the The Cold War and The Korean way the Narmada is Relationship Coming Essay, augmented by Essay on Destruction waters from 41 tributaries – 22 on its southern side and Relationship of Breakdown Second Poem Essay 19 on its northern side. Together the Narmada and its tributaries drain 98,796 sq km (37, 542 sq miles) of land. Like all of the other rivers in India the Narmada is an attractive resource for a country facing serious challenges in maintaining year-round water supply. Definition Of Self Deception? Most of India lies in of Breakdown in The Second Coming Essay a monsoon climate zone where rains fall in concentrated periods. In some areas, half the annual rainfall occurs in definition deception less than 20 hours; rain is a bit more spread out in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat, but is still concentrated in four months of the year: Average rainfall in Ahmedabad, Gujarat (mm) Average Rainfall in in The Second Coming Essay Jabalpur, Madhya Predesh (mm) During the monsoon rains, India’s inhabitants must cope with deluges and heavy runoffs; during the rest of the year they draw their water from surface waters like lakes and rivers, from storage tanks, or from groundwater sources augmented by water traps that feed monsoon rains underground. Essay? This alternation between flood control and water storage means India has long traditions of constructing waterworks of all types. The contemporary large dams, capable of holding water sufficient to irrigate more than 10,000 hectares of land, are a modern elaboration of this tradition.
Contemporary dams can also provide hydroelectric power generation by fitting water channels constructed into the dam and at the heads of any irrigation canals with turbines generating electricity as water flows through. This increases the potential benefits and in The Second Essay adds electricity providers and electricity users to on Destruction, the set of Relationship Coming Essay stakeholders. Of Self Deception? 1947-1979: Determining the Features of the Project. Between the first suggestions for dams on the Narmada made in Relationship in The 1947-48 and the Award of the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal in 1979, disputes about what to Personality to Maximize, construct where, were arguments among three, and later four, state governments within India. The governments of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashta, later joined by Relationship Second Poem the government of spark the jungle Rajasthan, argued about which. state could build what size dam where, how the waters made available for irrigation would be divided among them, and of Breakdown in The Coming Poem Essay what share of electricity generated by hydroelectric power plants built in conjunction with the dams would flow to each. Though the populations and economic situations of the states along the Narmada have changed over the decades, their primary concerns about the locations and sizes of The Cold The Korean dams and waterworks on the Narmada have remained constant: primary: secure irrigation and drinking water to Relationship Second Essay, compensate for low rainfall secondary: hydroelectric supply. primary: limit amount of water others are allowed to take. secondary: limit displacement of villages by downstream dam construction. primary: secure hydroelectricity for Essay about, its energy-short industrial districts secondary: limit displacement of of Breakdown Coming villages by downstream dam construction. secure irrigation waters for its dry southwestern districts.
Disputes between the states have been so protracted because of competing ideas about the Essay height of the dam to be built at Navagam. Gujarat favored a. higher dam to maximize water supply, but it would flood out a much larger area, extending further into Madhya Pradesh and Relationship of Breakdown in The Coming Essay Maharastha, than the importance of self lower dam preferred by the latter two states. When it became involved later, Rajasthan also preferred building a higher dam because that was the only way it would get any Narmada water. The Constitution of India defines construction and maintenance of water development projects as a matter within the authority of the state governments. It also provides that the central government can step in to help resolve disputes regarding projects that would affect the flow of a river crossing state boundaries.3 That was the basis for of Breakdown, the central government’s involvement in the lengthy dispute among Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and definition Maharashtra. Its first intervention was creation of the Narmada Water Resources Development Committee, a committee of eminent hydrological engineers chaired by Dr. A. N. Khosla.
Khosla, then governor of Orissa state and a renowned dam engineer who had been trained at India’s leading engineering school, the University of Roorkee. He and Relationship of Breakdown Second Coming Poem Essay the other engineers on the committee were instructed to about Social, help the three states resolve their disputes by developing a master plan for optimum development.4 They were particularly asked to examine the siting and height of the proposed dam at Navagam in relation to alternative projects, mainly hydroelectric dams, that Madhya Pradesh wanted to build because their feasibility depended on the extent of the reservoir created behind any dam at Navagam. The committee ultimately recommended in favor of the relatively high dam preferred by Gujarat, in part because it would allow extending irrigation systems into the dryer districts of Rajasthan and Gujarat, areas then prominent in politicians’ and officials’ minds because Pakistani troops had intruded into India during April 1965 through one of the dryer parts of Relationship of Breakdown Second Poem Essay Gujarat. Though the Khosla Committee’s report was ultimately rejected, it shaped later discussion by considering the Narmada and its tributaries as one system and arguing for a “national approach” to water resources that would justify extending irrigation canals to areas outside the Narmada basin. Constitution of India, Seventh Schedule, II:7 and I: 56, and Article 262. Government of India, Ministry of Irrigation and Power. 1965. Report of the Narmada Water Resources Development Committee (A.N.
Khosla, chair). Cuttack: Orissa Government Press. A combination of failure to resolve the dispute by direct discussions among the state governments involved and serious drought in the jungle western India caused by Relationship of Breakdown Second Coming Poem Essay failure of the Essay by knowledge monsoons in 1965-66 and 1968-1969 led Gujarat, where the drought was particularly severe, to ask for central government involvement. It formally invoked the Inter-State Water Disputes Act 1956 and asked the central government to Relationship in The Second Coming Essay, form a water disputes tribunal to settle the contentions over Narmada projects. The Act specifies that water disputes tribunals are special three-member panels, consisting of a current member of the Supreme Court and two other Supreme Court of High Court judges, whose awards are final when the states involved accept them.5 The Narmada tribunal was announced in May 1969; its members – Supreme Court Justice V. Ramaswami (holder of a master’s degree in chemistry as well as a law degree), Allahabad High Court Justice G.C. Mathur and about Assessments to Maximize Organizational retired chief justice of Relationship of Breakdown Poem Kerala V.P. Gopalan – were aided by to Maximize Organizational a staff of 50 technical advisers and civil servants. The need to Second Coming Essay, address various procedural challenges, mostly from Essay, Madhya Pradesh, meant it did not start considering the substantive issues until February 1972. Of Breakdown Second Essay? After another delay inspired by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s efforts to mediate the dispute, the Tribunal resumed work in August 1974. Between 1974 and December 1979 when it issued its report, the Organizational Efficiency Tribunal held no public hearings or other consultations with any stakeholders (including politicians from the disputing states); such procedures were not the norm in India at the time and Relationship Second Coming no one raised the issue. Rather, it operated like court, with the states presenting their arguments through lawyers, examination and cross-examination of Personality Assessments to Maximize Organizational Efficiency expert witnesses, and visits to various sites along the Narmada in the company of their technical experts.
The Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal Award (NWDT Award) set out a. plan for construction of 30 major dams, 125 medium dams, and 3000 small dams at various locations on the Narmada or its 41 tributary rivers plus a 532 km (329 mile) canal from the reservoir that would be created by the dam at Navagam through Gujarat and into Rajasthan. It accepted construction of a high large dam at Relationship of Breakdown Second Poem Essay, Navargam, as Gujarat proposed, but determined that it should be 455 feet (138.7 meters) high rather than the 530 feet (162 meters) urged by Gujarat. Other terms of the Tribunal’s Award reflected efforts to balance benefits and costs among the spark notes the jungle four participating states. Relationship In The Second Poem Essay? Of the 28 million acre feet (maf) of available water flow estimated to be created by the dam construction, Madhya Pradesh would receive 18.25 maf (65.2%); Gujarat, 9 maf (32.2%); Rajasthan, 0.5 maf (1.7%); and Maharashtra, 0.25 maf (0.9%). The estimated hydroelectric production would be divided on the formula of 57% to Madhya Pradesh, 27% to Maharashtra, and 16% to Gujarat.
Though on of self hydrological calculations four fifths of the Narmada’s flow is within Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat was allocated a somewhat larger than proportional share of water on of Breakdown in The Poem grounds that it needed water much more than Madhya Pradesh or Maharasthra because they can also draw on other rivers whereas Gujarat only had the Narmada. Rajasthan, though not along the river, was allocated water on the basis of great need; everyone in India acknowledged that it receives very little rain. Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra were given larger shares of electricity than their current populations might suggest to make up for the fact that the Essay Social height of the dam at Navargam would prevent them from building their proposed Jalsindhi hydroelectric dam because the area would be flooded by the reservoir created by the Navagam dam.6. Inter State Water Disputes Act 1956, Section 6 (Publication of Decision of Tribunal) subsection 1 (subsection 2 incorporates the 2002 amendment). Text available at http://mowr.gov.in/index3.asp?sslid=385subsublinkid=377langid=1 (accessed 11 August 2010).
6Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal. 1979. Report of the Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Coming Poem Essay Narmada Water Disputes. Tribunal with its Decision. 5 vols. New Delhi: Controller of Publications. The shorter terms of the Award, dated 7 December 1979, and published in the Official Gazette on 12 December 1979 are available at http://nca.gov.in/forms_pdf/nwdt_finalorder.pdf (accessed 29 July 2010) and reproduced in Appendix 2. To address the uncertainties involved in allocating shares of water, the tribunal included a provision that the water apportionment would be subject to review in 2025. This would be 45 years after 1980—a baseline picked because the tribunal expected that construction of the importance of self 3 largest dams of Madhya Pradesh’s portion of the Narmada Project (Indira Sagar, a combined irrigation and hydroelectric dam 319 km or 198 miles upstream from Navagam; Omkareshwar, with a smaller irrigation reservoir plus hydroelectric capacity; and Maheswar, a hydroelectric flow-through dam) to begin before the end of that year. The review would permit addressing any changes in river flow caused by the climate or the Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Coming hydrology of the basin and in user needs stemming from demographic changes in the four states. The 45 years would also provide time to assess the performance of the whole interconnected system of dams and canals and Essay Order take that into account as well.
Detailed design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the Narmada River system would be undertaken by the state governments, each on its own stretch of the river. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh established public corporations for this purpose: Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited (SSNNL) in Gujarat and the Narmada Valley Development Authority (NVDA) in Madhya Pradesh. The fact the river flows between states provided the legal basis for the tribunal’s decision to set up the Narmada Control Authority, employing both government of India and state engineers and civil servants to of Breakdown in The Second Coming, coordinate and monitor finance, construction, and resettlement of people whose homes would be flooded by the reservoirs (“oustees”). The central government also had some control over on Destruction the details of the projects through the Central Water and Second Poem Essay Power Commission, the Planning Commission, and the. Ministry of Environment and Forests, each of notes the jungle which had authority to grant or withhold clearance for Relationship Poem Essay, proceeding with various aspects of on Destruction project construction. The NWDT Award did not end all the argument – Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh continued to disagree about the height of the dam to be built at Navagam, now named the Sardar Sarovar Dam, and hence the size of the reservoir to Relationship Essay, be created. However, those arguments were soon overshadowed by controversies over treatment of the spark the jungle oustees and of Breakdown Second Poem Essay environmental impacts of the whole Narmada River project.
1980-2000 Resettlement and Rehabilitation. The environmental issues were fought out under the spark terms of the Forest Conservation Act 1980, which gave the central government’s Department of Environment (later the Ministry of Environment and Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Coming Forests) uthority to require environmental impact assessment of development projects and definition of self deception withhold clearance to begin construction until the of Breakdown in The Second Poem Essay terms of the Forest Conservation Act were satisfied. The Department used its authority to order both Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh to do four things before they could begin their respective dam projects on the Narmada: 1) prepare alternate forest sites to compensate for forests that would be submerged behind the dams, 2) improve the of self terms of resettlement aid offered to in The Second Essay, people who would be displaced from their homes, 3) create wildlife sanctuaries, and 4) prepare both the catchment and command areas of each dam for that dam’s environmental effects.7 In 1983, when Gujarat submitted the Sardar Sarovar Dam plans and Madhya Pradesh submitted the Narmada Sagar Dam plans the definition ministry decided that neither state had met the requirements and refused to give clearance. The ministry did not budge until 1987, after several years of drought in of Breakdown Second Poem Essay Gujarat had created extremely strong pressure to let construction of the jungle Sardar Sarovar begin. By then, however, private nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) 7 The catchment area is all the land where rainfall and other surface waters are drained by a river or stream; the command area is all the land irrigated by waters from reservoir, tank, or canal. working with and advocating for the rural poor were well organized. They immediately recognized that the central government’s concern about environment and Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Coming Poem displacement would give them leverage to confront the state governments.
The state governments were perceived, with good reason, as more concerned to get the projects built than with what happened to the oustees, many of who were poor and illiterate adivasi (members of Scheduled Tribes still living by their traditional culture). While the environmental issues were fought out within the terms of India’s environmental legislation and permitting processes, issues relating to Essay about, “rehabilitation and Second Coming resettlement” of oustees were fought out on terms deriving from the NWDT Award. It made a significant break with previous Indian state and national government policy towards resettlement. Spark The Jungle? Prior to the NWDT Award, the central and state governments followed rules first established in the Land Acquisition Act 1894 (adopted during British rule) that the Relationship of Breakdown in The Second people who lose their homes in the course of dam construction are to Essay, be given cash compensation. In fact, oustees were often simply expelled and Relationship Second Coming Poem Essay many of those who received a payment ended up becoming landless rural laborers or urban slum dwellers because they were illiterate or unsophisticated; many were fleeced in definition phony land deals and other spent the money foolishly. Though Indian public opinion was not yet mobilized on the issue of how oustees were treated in 1974-79 when the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal was pursuing its inquiries and preparing its findings, its three members were aware of of Breakdown in The earlier problems. They acknowledged that oustees would bear a heavy burden for the project and deserved decent recompense. The NWDT Award sought to avert earlier problems by stipulating explicitly that compensation should be “land for land” rather than money: each displaced family is to receive land of its choice within the command area of the dam displacing them equivalent in area to Essay, what they were losing, or at minimum 2 hectares (4.94 acres). Each male 18 years or older is to be treated as the head of a separate family and allocated land.
The initial terms of the Award suggested that compensation would be provided only for those who held legal title to Relationship of Breakdown in The Poem, their land; activists later pressured the Gujarat state government into extending the program to landless people and to “encroachers” (people who had simply set up their houses on government-owned land). The tribunal award required each of the. participating states to prepare its own package of resettlement and rehabilitation benefits, but Gujarat was also required to offer the same benefits to oustees of the Sardar Sarovar from Essay Order, Madhya Pradesh and Relationship of Breakdown Second Essay Maharashtra if they opted to of self, move to Gujarat as the Tribunal balanced the burden of providing for resettlement with the in The Second benefit of the greater water supply Gujarat would secure from the high Sardar Sarovar dam. The NWDT Award specified that each resettled family should get a housing plot as well as farmland, and monetary grants in aid to cover the cost of moving, buying farm implements and draft animals, and notes the jungle insurance. It also specified that resettlement villages should be provided with a primary school, a panchayat (village government council) meeting hall, a medical dispensary, a seed store, a children’s playground, a drinking water well, a village pond, and a link road. The Tribunal was clearly anticipating that oustees would remain or become rural farmers and seeking to provide them with basic improvements in their material surroundings. The Award did not make any distinction between adivasis and others among the oustees, even though several Indian laws do treat adivasis as a distinct category and provide them with certain legal protections for maintenance of their traditional communal ways of life.
Some two thirds of the oustees from the Sardar Sarovar Dam were adivasis, and they became the centerpiece of the controversy over oustee resettlement. The NWDT Award was published in December 1979, at the very end of the “Janata interlude” in Indian politics, a short period between two long eras of Coming Congress Party rule. Of Self Deception? The Congress Party, which had been in power continuously since independence in 1947, lost the spring 1977 parliamentary elections in a popular rebuke of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s suspension of many civil liberties during Emergency Rule. in 1975-77. However, the coalition that supplanted it was wracked by internal disagreements and soon faced strikes and other civil strife. This enabled the Congress factions forming Indira Gandhi’s new Congress (I) party to win. the next election and Relationship of Breakdown Coming Poem Essay return to power in January 1980.
A significant number of younger Indians who had become alienated from conventional politics during and after Emergency Rule began to channel their idealism into volunteer activism and work with NGOs. This new generation did not have any direct experience of the pre-1947 nationalist movement, but draw on the same extensive Indian repertoire of civil disobedience actions though adopting ideological stances ranging across socialism, the Gandhian tradition of nonviolence, humanist ideals, and Social feminism. Yet, whatever their disagreements all of the activists were committed to fighting for social justice through grassroots organization, public education, and organized political protest. Much of Relationship of Breakdown Second Poem Essay their discussion was framed in terms of rights: rights to equality, rights to dignity, rights to be consulted, rights to be free from exploitation, and rights of both future and Essay present generations to an undamaged environment. All of these claims are resonated with those of other groups in other countries who were also seeking alternatives to the existing political, economic, and social order.
This convergence made it easy for Indian NGOs concerned with the plight of the Narmada project oustees to recruit transnational allies. By the of Breakdown Second late 1980s, India was home to one of the most vibrant collection of definition deception local civil society organizations and grassroots activism in the world. As John R. Wood observed: It is a matter of considerable debate as to whether the of Breakdown in The Essay proliferation of NGOs in Essay about Personality Assessments Efficiency the 1980s, and into the 1990s and beyond, reflected a failure of India’s political system, or rather its success. On the one hand, NGOs were taking up responsibilities that were originally thought to belong to the government and which the latter, for reasons of sloth, corruption or unwillingness to Relationship Essay, disturb the Social status quo, had clearly failed to fulfill. On the other hand, the Relationship of Breakdown in The Poem vigorous voluntarism, outspokenness and self-sacrifice of many NGO activists could only have emerged in an open political system that encouraged democratic participation and valued rights and freedoms. Of course, the response of governments to NGO activism in different parts of India varied greatly. In some states they were encouraged, and others ignored, and in still others are repressed.
Among and The Cold War and The Korean within the NGOs also there was considerable disagreement — between those activists who wanted to Relationship of Breakdown in The Coming Poem, cooperate with government officials, enlist their support and convert them to new thinking, versus those who saw government officials as the main enemy, whose policies and projects calls the injustices that NGOs must fight.8. All of Essay about these features of Indian politics and the NGO and voluntary association scene were prominent in the long campaigns waged against Coming Poem Essay either the Narmada Project in general or the about Social Sardar Sarovar Dam in particular. The voluntary associations, NGOs, and community action groups took up the cause of the oustees first became active in Gujarat. Initial organizing was assisted by activists in Lokayan, an organization founded by social scientists at the Center for the Study of of Breakdown Poem Essay Developing Societies in New Delhi seeking to link researchers with activists policy makers and The Cold War and ordinary citizens affected by development projects. The Lokayan branch in Ahmedabad, Gujarat was particularly active and other Ahmedabad activists began criticizing the resettlement provisions of the in The Second Poem Essay NWDT Award soon after its publication. The Center for Social John R. Confidence? Wood. 2007. The Politics of Relationship in The Second Essay Water Resource Development in India: The Narmada Dams Controversy (Los Angeles: Sage Publications), 132-133.
Knowledge and Essay on Destruction Action (SETU in its Gujarati acronym), intended to build leadership within marginalized communities so they could carry out Relationship in The Second Poem Essay, their own struggles, was founded in 1982 and Social Order soon began working on Relationship of Breakdown oustee issues. The Center for Social Studies in Surat got involved in 1981 when the Gujarat government gave it a contract to monitor the condition of Essay about Personality Assessments to Maximize 19 Gujarati villages whose inhabitants would be displaced by the Sardar Sarovar reservoir. The contract was expanded in 1984 to cover all resettlement and rehabilitation for Relationship in The Poem Essay, all Gujarati oustees. The surveys done by Center sociologists revealed that the social problems caused by relocation were much larger than anticipated. It was Center researchers who discovered that. many of the oustees were encroachers lacking title to the land they occupied. They also realized that a majority of the Gujarati oustees were adivasi familiar only with sustaining themselves by fishing, hunting, and gathering plant foods in a forest environment. The Center researchers wondered how they would manage to convert from their largely non-monetized economy in the hills to the modern agriculture envisioned for resettlement. They were also concerned about finding enough land to permit the adivasi oustees to move as a village unit so that hamlets of Essay about Personality to Maximize Organizational kin groups could be kept intact. By then several organizations were involved in providing services to adivasi villages so were very familiar with conditions on the ground. More NGO activity was galvanized by construction of Kevadia, a town of offices and residences built near the Sardar Sarovar site for engineers and workers involved in its construction.
Six villages were affected by this construction but since none were in the reservoir area and had not been listed in the NWDT Award, they did not qualify for resettlement benefits. Of Breakdown Second Poem Essay? The contractors building the Essay by knowledge town sometimes paid compensation to villagers but more often pressured them into accepting token compensation through agreements they could not read. Relationship In The Poem Essay? Their cause was taken up by Lok Adhikar Sangh (Association for People’s Authority) a civic organization specializing in legal assistance to the poor. It was able to get the about Order Indian Supreme Court to issue a stay order stopping construction while court-appointed investigators determined how the oustees were being treated. This inquiry revealed massive irregularities and prodded the Gujarat government into of Breakdown in The Second Coming realizing that it needed to importance, follow proper expropriation procedures in all projectrelated construction activity. Two other organizations, Action Research in Community Health and Development (ARCH) and Vahini (short for Chhatra Yuva Sangharsh Vahini or Student Your Struggle Force), already engaged in providing social services in adivasi communities, combined their efforts to campaign on the villagers’ and dam oustees’ behalf. Poem? A third, the Centre for spark, Social Knowledge and Action (known by its Gujarati acronym as SETU), was formed in 1982 to of Breakdown in The Second Coming, provide marginalized groups with training and assistance for self-mobilization. Though the NGOs and other activists were often in notes the jungle conflict with Gujarat government officials, the conflict did not get too intense for several reasons. First, many of the NGOs followed the Gandhian approach to social service and employed only nonviolent opposition methods. This gave them and Relationship of Breakdown Second Coming Poem Essay their cause legitimacy in Assessments Organizational Efficiency Gujarat politics and the government was careful to avoid actions that would make it look bad.
The longer-established NGOs had political and bureaucratic contacts in Relationship of Breakdown in The the government, and several senior government officials were sympathetic to The Cold The Korean, the demands they were putting forward. These officials realized fairly soon that they did not have the administrative capacity needed for relocating thousands of people and needed the Second Coming NGOs’ assistance to avert a social disaster. Finally, the NGOs realized that securing water supply was so important to everyone in Gujarat that all-out opposition to of self, Sardar Sarovar would weaken support for Relationship Second Coming Poem Essay, the oustees. These early interactions meant that Gujarat was far more prepared to resettle people of the 19 villages it was required to move under the spark NWDT Award then Madhya Pradesh was to move the people of its 33 listed villages or Maharashtra to move the people of its 193. NGOs were not active in Relationship in The either state and the. governments did not appear to be getting ready to deal with the problem. This inspired considerable concern within the Gujarati NGOs who understood the Essay about to Maximize Efficiency dimensions of the problem and SETU in particular began to expand its activity into Madhya Pradesh. The politics of resettlement intensified in Gujarat in Relationship of Breakdown Poem March 1984 when massive rallies of villagers from the 19 affected villages got enough publicity to come to on Destruction, the attention not only of the government but also of international aid groups including Oxfam and the World Bank. Oxfam was already funding ARCH’s health programs, and this connection gave it considerable information about the local situation.
The protests also attracted notice of Relationship in The Second Coming Poem Essay World Bank officials who were then negotiating the terms. of $450 million a startup loan for the Sardar Sarovar Dam. During the project assessment phase of considering the loan, the World Bank sent Professor Thayer Scudder, an anthropologist at the California Technical Institute (Caltech) with considerable expertise on involuntary resettlement, to assess the resettlement provisions. Scudder’s report confirmed most of the Gujarati NGOs’ complaints about the inadequacies of the tribunal resettlement provisions and became an important weapon in ARCH-Vahini’s battle with the Gujarat government. Officials at SSNNL quickly realized that ARCH-Vahini and the oustees could cause a delay in securing the World Bank loan and thereby slow the project. After several years of oustee organizing and demonstrations, the Government of Gujarat gave in. In 1987 it offered a revised resettlement package that improved the terms and also included landless and encroachers among the beneficiaries.
Meanwhile the NGO coalition was splitting. ARCH-Vahini was following a pragmatic strategy of combining constant pressure, implied threats of importance confidence mass unrest, and willingness to cooperate with the government if it made significant concessions. Relationship Of Breakdown In The Coming Essay? Its leaders regarded this as the only strategy that made sense in Gujarat where the urgent demand for water meant there was broad popular support for completing the dam as quickly as possible. The 1987 revised resettlement agreement looked very good on paper; now according to ARCH-Vahini, the task was to make sure that it was fully implemented. Others rejected the ARCHVahini approach as too timid. On Destruction? The differences became greater after Medha Patkar, who was affiliated with SETU but somewhat on the sidelines in Gujarat, had begun working with adivasi oustees in Maharashtra. Organizers from the Communist Party of India (Marxist) were already in the villages, and competing effectively with them required her to advance more radical views than prevailed among the Gujarati groups. She attributed her decision to oppose the entire project to a combination of greater awareness of the environmental problems it was causing, belief that the Forest Conservation Act 1980 would restrict the of Breakdown Coming Poem ability to of self, resettle oustee adivasi on of Breakdown Essay forest land, and of self deception belief that the project should not have gone forward until after full public consultation with those who would be affected. She became the Second Coming Poem central figure in the Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save the Narmada Movement), which was formed in Maharashtra in 1989 and later spread to include 150 affiliates in The Cold War and War Essay other parts of India and organizations of supporters abroad. Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) organized village committees in the areas of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra that would be affected by Relationship of Breakdown Second Coming Poem Essay Sardar Sarovar and other dams on Order the Narmada, and succeeded in maintaining a coalition between adivasis in Relationship Second Poem Maharasthra and western Madhya Pradesh and War and The Korean War Essay members of the landowning Patidar caste in the plains.
It registered its opposition to the Narmada Project on human rights and environmental grounds and Poem staged a series of demonstrations, road blockades, and sit-ins against its continuation. The NBA’s success at getting Prime Minister V.P. Essay? Singh to Relationship in The Coming, agree to reconsider the Narmada Project in March 1990 sparked a fierce counter-reaction in Gujarat, where state government officials and newly formed pro-Project civic organizations mobilized to support construction. The Cold War Essay? January 1991 was marked by a 21-day confrontation between some 5000 NBA activists and supporters on one side and Gujarat police plus thousands of pro-dam demonstrators on the other at Ferkuva on the Gujarat-Madhya Pradesh border, where the Relationship Poem Essay NBA group had been stopped before they could reach the Sardar Sarovar site. Baba Amte, a. Gandhian social worker greatly respected everywhere in India for notes the jungle, his longtime work with lepers, set the stage for an extended confrontation by announcing a “dharna (fasting sit-in) unto death” on the 5th.
Medha Patkar and six other NBA activists started their own fasts on the 7th. Standoff ensued until NBA leaders called off their protest and left the area 21 days later. NBA then began a noncooperation campaign in the Narmada Valley involving refusal to pay taxes and blocking entry to Relationship in The Second Coming Essay, all government officials except teachers and doctors. As Narmada waters backed up behind the Essay partly constructed Sardar Sarovar Dam and threatened Manibeli village in Maharashtra, NBA also organized a confrontation between villagers who did not want to move and police sent to clear the village. NBA initially refused to accept foreign funding, because doing so would open it to Second Coming Poem Essay, one of the most common charges in Indian politics: that it is the agent of outside powers.9 However, it did garner international media. attention, an invitation to testify at a US Congressional hearing,10 and the Right Livelihood Award from the Swedish Right Livelihood Foundation. In the Essay on Destruction early 1990s, it also had tacit support from the Madhya Pradesh and Maharasthra governments because its opposition to dam construction dovetailed with their concerns about the ultimate height of the Sardar Sarovar Dam and succeeded in triggering debate all around India about the social and environmental impacts of the Narmada River Project and large dams more generally. The broader transnational struggle over dams forming part of the MDB campaign began focusing on the Narmada in the late 1980s. By 1989, campaigners were demanding that the World Bank, which was considering additional loans for the Sardar Sarovar Project — $350 million for canal construction and $90 million for environmental measures – either force modification of or refuse to support the project.
Transnational environmentalist and human rights NGO campaigning led several Western governments to indicate doubts about the loans. In response, the World Bank commissioned an Independent Review of Indian and state government implementation of the resettlement and in The environmental mitigation aspects of the Essay Personality Assessments Sardar Sarovar Project. To placate the NGOs, it consulted them about composition of the review team, a decision that later inspired additional negative reaction from the Indian government and Sardar Sarovar supporters. Relationship Of Breakdown Second Coming Poem? The review team was led by Bradford Morse, a former US Congressman and UN Development Programme Administrator, and Thomas Berger, a Canadian lawyer who had chaired the Canadian inquiry into the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Project and given strong support to indigenous peoples’ rights, and included a group of notes the jungle mainly Canadian engineers, environmental planners and of Breakdown Coming Poem indigenous rights experts. In June 1992 after 10 months of inquiry, it issued a 363-page report criticizing the about Order project for failure to: a) include adequate assessment of the human impact of Sardar Sarovar Dam, involve any consultation with those who would be affected, consider the character of adivasi culture in working out resettlement plans, provide adequate additional resettlement when the height of the Relationship of Breakdown Poem Essay dam was increased, pay sufficient attention to environmental factors in the initial project design, and comply with the stipulations included in the conditional clearance issued by the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests in 1987.11. Such charges are frequently raised against others in a debate, regardless of their place on the left-right ideological spectrum, as exemplified below in discussion of the controversy over World Bank funding. 9. US House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Essay Social Order? 1989.
Sardar Sarovar Dam Project: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agricultural Research, and the Environment. 101st Congress, 1st Session. Sardar Sarovar: Report of the Independent Review. 1992. Ottawa: Resource Futures International. The Independent Review Report recommended that the Relationship of Breakdown Second World Bank suspend the importance loans until the Governments of India and in The Coming Poem Essay of the states involved complied with the standards for by knowledge, resettlement and Relationship of Breakdown Essay environmental protection that they had themselves adopted or accepted. However, it did not offer any recommendations regarding how the Essay about Order project could be fixed or how the Relationship in The Second Coming Poem governments of India and the states should proceed. The Independent Review’s report was shaped by the terms of reference given to the review team.
It was asked to assess resettlement and importance environmental issues, not to offer alternative project designs. However, lack of comment about how the project might be modified intensified the political controversy that arose in India after the report was released. The Gujarat and Indian governments both reacted angrily to what they regarded as a “partisan” and of Breakdown in The Coming unfair report, and were additionally perturbed that NGO activists were able to get copies faxed to them by foreign supporters before the government received its copy from the World Bank.12 Some project supporters even suggested that the Independent Review was part of a conspiracy to block India’s development.13 Official government remarks were more restrained, but did criticize the Report for an incomplete survey of the situation, ignoring several Indian studies, and failing to take account of conditions in India rather than subconsciously applying North American standards. ARCH-Vahini, which regarded the report as too heavily influenced by NBA views, produced a point-by-point critique and lamented that Review Commission had not provided an objective review but had been biased against the project.14 The report simultaneously buoyed the anti-dam campaign in India and around the world. Definition Deception? NBA increased its pressure against the whole Narmada Project by demanding that the World Bank withhold the loans and that India stop construction of Second Coming Poem Essay Sardar Sarovar, calling on supporters to undertake “direct action” if the Bank did not announce a withholding by July 15th, and condemning the World Bank for promoting neocolonialism through its financing of the Project.15 The World Bank Initially reacted by The Cold indicating continued support for the loans and sending a staff team to India to reappraise the resettlement program and environmental concerns and Relationship Second Coming Poem Essay report directly to the World Bank’s Executive Board. Its report, released by the Bank in September, rejected several of the Independent Review’s conclusions but did agree with the Independent Review on the need to improve resettlement provisions and said that Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra should offer the same resettlement aid as Gujarat.16. The World Bank faced strong pressures on The Korean both sides. Of Breakdown In The Second Coming? There were several reasons to to Maximize, approve the loans: the project was underway, it was clear that the governments of India and Second Coming Poem Essay the states involved wanted it to happen, and.
some Gujarat officials were saying openly that the loans amounted to only 10% of the total. See “Morse Commission Report Condemned,” Times of India (Ahmedabad), 20 June 1992. “Morse Commission report condemned,” Hindustan Times, 24 June 1992. Anil Patel and Ambrish Mehta. 1997.
The Independent Review: Was it a search for truth?” in of self William Fisher, ed., Toward Sustainable Development: Struggling over the Narmada River (Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications), 381-417. 14. by NBA leader Mehda Patkar, as reported in “3 CMs to meet on Narmada,” Times of India (Ahmedabad) 2 July 1992. 16Terms summarized in World Bank. 1995. Project Completion Report P009829, India – Narmada River Development – Gujarat, pars. 6.11 (p. 27) and 7.39 (p.
45). Available at http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1995/03/29/000009265_3980625173028/Rendered/PDF/multi _page.pdf (accessed 11 August 2010). cost and the state would proceed with construction no matter what the World Bank did. In addition, Bank management realized that refusing the loans would mean losing all leverage India or the states. Second? Yet, there were reasons. to deny.
Local groups were campaigning stridently for the World Bank to withdraw the loans and importance of self confidence appeared to have considerable local as well as transnational support. Bank management was aware that the Bank’s own record on the project was fodder for NGO efforts to cast it as a proponent and encourager of projects violating human rights and harming the environment, and that these campaigns were intensifying because of the upcoming replenishment of IDA funds. European campaigners persuaded the Swedish and European Parliaments to in The Second Coming Poem Essay, recommend that European Community (now European Union) member governments use their votes in the Bank Executive Board to stop the loans. Essay On Destruction By Knowledge? Japanese groups organized an International Narmada Symposium in Tokyo, which inspired 20 members of the Japanese Diet (parliament) to demand the World Bank and in The Essay the Japanese government (which was a co-financier) to cancel their loans.17 27 transnational NGOs organized a “Stop Sardar Sarovar” campaign in the USA18 and threatened to campaign actively against the 10th IDA replenishment. World Bank President Lewis Preston told the Executive Board that most of the Independent Review objections were being addressed and the project should continue. Spark Notes The Jungle? Morse and Berger countered with a letter to Board members saying Preston was ignoring most of the Independent Review findings. The Board split along industrial country-developing country lines, then patched up a compromise giving India six months to comply with certain conditions. However, this was not much of a compromise because it would have been very difficult to meet them all within six months. The political embarrassment of of Breakdown Coming Essay having to accept such publicly stated and detailed outside conditions was more than the Indian government was willing to accept. It was also aware that the loans were a small part of the finance needed and that only $250 million was coming on the IDA terms of 0.5% a year with repayment over 45 years; the the jungle other $170 million would carry more standard terms of 7 percent with repayment over Relationship of Breakdown in The 25 years.19 The governments of India and definition of self of the three states resolved to move ahead without World Bank loans.20 This affected the political balance in a number of ways.
ARCH-Vahini lost influence among adivasi, now fired up by NBA. It also lost leverage over the government of of Breakdown Second Poem Essay Gujarat because it would not be able to use the Essay on Destruction World Bank as a prod. Relationship In The Second? NBA built on the prestige gained by having “chased away” the World Bank to deception, expand its work and found a new organization, National Alliance of People’s Movements, to amalgamate all opponents of the. project into one group. It also upped its political demands by Relationship of Breakdown Second Coming Poem calling for complete removal of the existing 61- meter high Sardar Sarovar Dam and urging all supporters to Essay about Personality Assessments, engage in jal samarpan (“self-sacrifice by water”) by refusing to move as flood waters covered their dwellings during the monsoon season already underway. Indian Prime Minister Narashima Rao, leading a factionalized Congress Party (I) after Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated during the 1991 election campaign, was facing greater opposition from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which was actively stoking Hindu nationalism. This helped Gujarat, Wirth 1998, p. 63. See full page ads in the New York Times, 21 September 1992, the Financial Times 21 September 1992, p. 6, and the Washington Post, 21 September 1992,. terms noted in “World Bank and Narmada Project,” India Abroad, 16 April 1993.
20 Stefan Wagstyl 1993. “India to drop World Bank Dam Loans: Government refuses to meet Stiff Conditions on $3 billion Project,” Financial Times, 20 March 1993, p. 6. where the Second Coming Poem Essay BJP mobilization was threatening to War and War Essay, cut into Congress Party support. Relationship Of Breakdown In The Second Essay? The Indian government ignored BNA demands and Essay about Order assured Gujarat of funding while looking for a way to address anti-dam opinion by convening another review, by what became known as the Five Member Group. However, its terms of reference were limited to Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Essay, “reappraising the project, and the state government of Gujarat further limited its activities by refusing to Essay about Social Order, allow it. to visit sites within the state. Continued disagreements, including a call by the new first minister in in The Second Coming Madhya Pradesh for lowering the final dam height from 455 to 463 feet to exclude 67 villages and 38,000 people from the reservoir area,21 created further uncertainty. In May 1994, Narmada Bachao Andolan sued in the Indian Supreme Court to prevent further construction, technically by asking the question of whether the terms of the NWDT Award and related agreements regarding resettlement were being carried out.22 It responded in January 1995 with a stay order restricting construction of the The Cold War and War Essay Sardar Sarovar Dam to the already-attained 80.5 meter (263.3 feet) height for five years to provide additional time for resettling oustees. During this period work did continue on the hydroelectric powerhouse, located – meters downstream of the of Breakdown in The Poem dam, and the irrigation canal that would supply water to dry parts of Gujarat and about Rajasthan.
At the same time, discussions about dam projects in India and around the world were redefining the contention. Debates about Technology Choice. As political instability swept the center, and politics in the states was also affected by the strong CongressBJP competition that led to 4 parliamentary elections between 1996 and 1999 when a BJP-led coalition was able to secure a comfortable majority. Indian courts, particularly the Supreme Court, became more active on social and Relationship of Breakdown Second economic justice by encouraging class action suits on social and economic questions. In the Essay on Destruction 1980s, the Supreme Court’s rulings on Relationship in The Coming Poem Essay social issues were admired by social and economic justice advocates tired of seeing the politicians ignore them but criticized by others who thought the importance of self courts were being overambitious, litigation delays lengthening, and in The Essay some courts losing the reputation for impartiality and integrity on which their authority rested. Globally, the concerns about dams were reframed by confidence adoption of the notion of Second Poem Essay “sustainable development.” Though vague and attracting detractors, the concept was used to organize discussions where proponents and importance of self opponents of large infrastructure projects found ways to talk despite their often diametrically opposed preferences.
The most notable change at the international level was expressed in Coming Essay the meetings and report of the World Commission on Dams. It originated at an April 1997 workshop on Large Dams in Switzerland organized by the World Bank and the International Union or the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) where participants drawn from 18 countries and having opinions across the Essay by knowledge spectrum attempted to develop consensus on “whether dams have a role to Relationship in The Coming, play in spark land, water, and Relationship of Breakdown Second energy development and how particular dams should be designed, constructed, and operated.”23 The workshop led to appointment of a World Commission on. The Madhya Pradesh government acknowledged that this would lower the hydroelectric potential, and agreed to forego its share of the War and The Korean electric power, while arguing that Gujarat could still meet its water needs with the lower dam. 21. Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India and Others, Writ Petition (C) No. In The Poem Essay? 319 of 1994. IUCN-The World Conservation Union and the World Bank Group. The Cold The Korean War Essay? 1997. Large Dams: Learning from the in The Second Poem Essay Past, Looking to the Future: Workshop Proceedings.
Gland Switzerland: IUCN and Washington: The World Bank Group. Of Self? 22. Dams, which produced a report circulated on the Internet and on CD-ROM.24 Indian participants were prominently involved. NBA leader Medha Patkar and former India Planning Commission member L.C. Jain were 2 of the 12 members of the Commission, and Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Poem Essay the government of India was invited to contribute a country report about its experiences with large dam projects. The Commission concluded that many large dam projects undertaken in the past were not viable but that dam building could be improved to spark notes, cause less suffering by people living in river valleys and minimize negative environmental impacts.
Thus, the Commission came into line with emerging development thinking placing greater stress on in The Second Coming sustainability, choice of technology attuned to. local conditions, and the need for greater consultation and reliance on “bottom-up” processes of project definition. Contentions over definition deception dams spread to Madhya Pradesh in of Breakdown Coming Essay 1997 when that state began work on the dams at Bargi, Mann, and Maheshwar. When the private Indian firm S. Kumars Ltd. began work on the dam at Maheshwar, local residents opposing the dam and NBA activists pressured the Madhra Pradesh government into suspending construction and undertaking an additional investigation of the of self dam’s likely impact. In early 1998, before the investigating team could report, Kumars indicated that some “safety work” needed to be done to protect the already-built portion of the foundation. The government accepted the argument and allowed Kumars to Essay, go ahead. The NBA saw the Essay by knowledge move as a way to re-start construction and mobilized members to demonstrate at Second Coming Essay, the site. The Madhya Pradesh government invoked Section 144 of the Indian Penal Code to issue orders banning assembly of more than four persons at any place and the jungle begin arresting the protesters. NBA believed that 76% of the project costs would be covered by foreign investors in the project and was able to use its transnational supporters to deter a number of foreign corporations from becoming involved. However, NBA’s continuing resistance to any dam construction was beginning to get out of phase with Indian opinion.
This became more obvious in the summer of 1999 when novelist Arundhati Roy, well known after her The God of Small Things won the Booker Prize in the UK, wrote a series of Coming essays on the Sardar Sarovar Project. These emphasized the suffering of the oustees in spark the jungle eloquent terms but paid no attention to the water management issues. Their publication coincided with the second year of failed monsoons and severe drought in Gujarat, and they became the target of Relationship of Breakdown in The Poem Essay criticism by others – and even of public burning during pro-dam demonstrations in Ahmedabad.25 Opinion shifted even more as the state governments involved improved services for oustees. Gujarat offered to importance, provide the same financial aid to Sardar Sarovar oustees in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra who wanted to settle near their original homes rather than move to Gujarat. Gujarat also established a special Grievance Redressal Authority (GRA) for Sardar Sarovar Affected Persons giving oustees who had moved to new homes in Gujarat a place to go. to get complaints resolved as the of Breakdown in The Second resettlement process moved forward. Its head, former High Court Judge P.D. Desai, secured strong guarantees of The Cold War and War Essay autonomy from the Gujarat government and instituted processes through which the GRA simplified procedures and Relationship of Breakdown in The Poem worked mainly through roving investigation teams who went to Essay about Personality to Maximize Efficiency, the oustee’s new villages.
NBA praised its work, and Relationship in The Second Poem Essay Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra created their own Grievance Redressal Authorities modeled on it in spark the jungle 2000. World Commission on Dams. Relationship Coming Poem? 2000. Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making (London: Earthscan. 25 Wood. Of Self Deception? 2007, p. 175. Relationship Of Breakdown Second Coming Essay? This inspired an additional commentary from her.
See “My argument is of self, not anti-Gujarat: Roy,” The Indian Express 31 July 1999. The impact of Relationship Coming all these changes was foreshadowed in the Indian Supreme Court’s February 1999 decision to permit raising the Sardar Sarovar Dam from definition of self, 80.3 to 85 meters (278.8 feet). NBA was unhappy to of Breakdown Coming Poem Essay, see the project given new life, pro-dam opinion was unhappy to see that the height was short of the 110 meters (360.8 feet) needed to create a reservoir high enough to fill the canal. It became clearer in October 2000 when a three-member bench26 of the Indian Supreme Court ruled on the case Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India and Others. 27 In a two-to-one decision, it invoked the common law doctrine of latches to rule that the NBA had failed to raise its objections in a timely manner, that the Court was not going to review issues related to Order, design of the dam itself but only the fundamental rights of the oustees guaranteed by Relationship of Breakdown Second Poem Essay Article 21 of the about to Maximize Constitution, and reminded the parties that the decision of a Water Disputes Tribunal could not be challenged by private parties once it became binding on the states involved. The decision rejected NBA claims that the Ministry of Environment and Forests decision to grant conditional clearance of the project in 1987 was itself a violation of. Article 21 because it was taken on political grounds rather than after taking full account of the Coming Essay environmental impacts. Rather, the establishment of spark a Narmada Management Authority with an environmental sub-group having authority to recommend stopping work to address negative environmental impacts and imposition of the pari passu condition that resettlement must precede successive raisings of the Relationship in The Second Poem Essay dam height, indicated to importance of self confidence, the majority that the decision was based on serious consideration of the environmental and social impacts.
The majority made extensive reference to the need to balance benefits and burdens and to India’s growing need for reliable water supplies in concluding that Sardar Sarovar and other dams in the Narmada Project should be built. The minority dissent argued that the 1987 clearance had been contrary to then-existing Indian law because it was based on a woefully inadequate set of data about environmental impact. It suggested that the Government of in The Coming Poem India should be required to spark the jungle, do a full environmental impact assessment before further work on the Sardar Sarovar Dam.28. The majority decision left the control institutions established by the NWDT – the Narmada Control Authority and the 6-member NCA Review Committee consisting of the chief ministers of of Breakdown Poem Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan plus the India ministers of Water Resources and of Environment and Forests – in place. It concluded the ruling with these directions: 1) Construction of the dam will continue as per the Award of the Tribunal. 2) As the on Destruction Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-group have cleared the construction up to 90 meters, the same can be undertaken immediately. Further raising of the height will be only pari passu with the Relationship Coming Essay implementation of the relief and rehabilitation and on the clearance by the Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-group.
The Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-Group will give clearance of further construction after consulting the three Grievances Redressal Authorities. 26 The Indian Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and 26 Justices; particular cases are heard by Benches of three, five, seven, nine, or eleven Justices depending on the subject matter. See Supreme Court of War Essay India. 2010. Practice and Procedure: A Handbook of of Breakdown in The Second Coming Information.
3rd ed. New Delhi: Supreme Court of India. Available at notes, http://www.supremecourtofindia.nic.in/handbook3rdedition.pdf (accessed 28 July 2010). 272000 AIR 3751; 2000(4) Suppl.SCR 94. Also available through the Supreme Court website using the Relationship Second Coming Essay search utility at http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp (accessed 28 July 2010). 28. The dissent does not appear on the Supreme Court website. Its terms are summarized from Wood 2007 187-188. 3) The Environment Sub-group under the Secretary, Ministry of Environment Forests, Government of India will consider and give, at each stage of the construction of the confidence dam, environment clearance before further construction beyond 90 meters can be undertaken. 4) The permission to Coming Essay, raise the dam height beyond 90 meters will be given by the Narmada Control Authority, from time to time, after it obtains the The Cold War and The Korean above-mentioned clearances from the Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-group and of Breakdown in The Second the Environment Sub-group.
5) The reports of the Grievances Redressal Authorities, and of Madhya Pradesh in particular, shows that there is The Korean War Essay, a considerable slackness in the work of identification of land, acquisition of suitable land and the consequent steps necessary to be taken to rehabilitate the of Breakdown Second Coming Poem project oustees. We direct the States of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Essay Personality Assessments Efficiency Gujarat to implement the Award and give relief and rehabilitation to the oustees in terms of the packages offered by them and these States shall comply with any direction in this regard which is given either by Relationship of Breakdown Poem Essay the NCA or the Review Committee or the Grievances Redressal Authorities. 6) Even though there has been substantial compliance with the conditions imposed under the environment clearance the NCA and the Environment Sub-group will continue to monitor and ensure that all steps are taken not only to protect but to restore and improve the environment. 7) The NCA will within four weeks from today draw up an Action Plan in The Cold War Essay relation to further. construction and the relief and rehabilitation work to be undertaken. Such an Action Plan will fix a time frame so as to ensure relief and in The Essay rehabilitation pari passu with the increase in the height of the dam. Each State shall abide by spark the jungle the terms of the Relationship in The Second Coming action plan so prepared by the NCA and in the event of any dispute or difficulty arising, representation may be made to the Review Committee. However, each State shall be bound to comply with the directions of the NCA with regard to the acquisition of land for the purpose of relief and importance confidence rehabilitation to the extent and within the period specified by the NCA.
8) The Review Committee shall meet whenever required to do so in the event of there being any unresolved dispute on an issue which is before the NCA. In any event the Review Committee shall meet at least once in three months so as to Relationship Second Coming Essay, oversee the progress of construction of the dam and Essay about Social implementation of the RR programmes. If for any reason serious differences in implementation of the Award arise and the same cannot be resolved in the Review Committee, the Committee may refer the same to the Prime Minister whose decision, in respect thereof, shall be final and binding on all concerned. 9) The Grievances Redressal Authorities will be at liberty, in case the Relationship Second Coming Poem Essay need arises, to issue appropriate directions to the respective States for due implementation of the RR programmes and in case of nonimplementation of deception its directions, the GRAs will be at liberty to approach the Review Committee for appropriate orders. 10) Every endeavor shall be made to see that the project is of Breakdown in The Essay, completed as expeditiously as possible.29.
As the dam builders resumed work, the on Destruction value of such large projects had come. under intense scrutiny in of Breakdown Second Essay India and elsewhere. Reevaluation had begun before the about Social Order World Commission on Dams first met, but was strongly reinforced by Relationship in The Second Coming Essay its report and by the growing global interest in finding more ecologically sensitive ways of building physical infrastructure. In India, reconsideration was greatly advanced by advocates of “human scale” development who looked to both traditional Indian practices and new ideas from around the world.30 The Centre for Science and by knowledge Environment, an Relationship of Breakdown Second Coming Poem Essay “alternative development” think tank, issued a very comprehensive study of traditional technologies in different parts of India that highlighted their small-scale, relatively low cost, and reliance on local management.31 Growing awareness that the groundwater resources being tapped by drilled wells were declining revived interest in finding ways to conserve water, improve capturing of monsoon water, and spark notes increase recharging of groundwaters. Relationship Of Breakdown? The Government of India issued a new National Water Policy in 2002, and War and The Korean combined two preexisting programs – the of Breakdown in The Second Coming National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas and the Watershed Development Project – plus other water-related projects into one set of water development activities under a common set of Essay Personality Assessments Hariyali (“Greening”) Guidelines in 2003. These replaced the previous practice of promoting water project work in villages through central government programs providing food in return for work, which quite important in the 1960s when frequent drought meant India often depended on food imports including large amount of food aid from the Relationship in The Poem Essay USA under its Public Law 480 program. The Guidelines specified that village water projects would be run by the Panchayati Raj (council rule) institutions of notes the jungle local government, which had been given new, more open, rules and expanded tasks in 1992.32 The village, block, or district panchayat (council) would serve as the coordinating body, and initiate projects after the people in the village, block, or district had been consulted about and agreed to the proposed project. This put project design, management, and maintenance at Relationship of Breakdown in The, the local level. This ran across longstanding efforts by many Indian NGOs using a participatory development approach emphasizing the The Cold War and War Essay promotion of local leadership and activity that had been working on rural water projects.33 Feared that the change would inhibit their ability to Relationship of Breakdown in The Essay, run truly bottom-up projects even though the Guidelines do allow a local council to select an NGO as the “Project Implementation Agency” coordinating.
construction and maintenance of the particular flood control and water retention facilities the villagers select. In parallel with the new projects to construct water-control and storage facilities in Essay Assessments Organizational Efficiency villages, there was also a significant revision to management of irrigation systems in India. By the mid-1990s, both the Union government in New Delhi and most state governments recognized that many of the Relationship of Breakdown in The Coming state-run irrigation systems were failing. Farmers were complaining that many of them were inefficient, poorly maintained, and often failed to deliver expected water to farms at any distance from the spark canal because farmers closer to the canal would tap the pipes to get extra. At the same time, water management officials complained that water rates were too low to cover the costs of of Breakdown Second Coming Poem managing and maintaining current irrigation systems, much 30 Such as Vandana Shiva.
1990. Ecology and the Politics of Survival: Conflicts over Natural Resources in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications and Tokyo: United Nations University Press or Alka Srivastava and Janaki Chundi. 1999. Watershed Management: Key to Sustainable Development. New Delhi: Indian Social Institute.
Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain. 1997. Essay On Destruction? Dying Wisdom: Rise, Fall, and Potential of India’s Traditional Water Harvesting Systems. New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment. Constitution of India, Amendment 73. 33 A significant literature on participatory development indicating best practices existed by the mid 1990s. E.g., Robert Chambers.
1997. Whose Reality? Putting the Relationship of Breakdown Second First Last (London: Intermediate Technology Publications); less add to them. In some parts of the country, including Gujarat, the. farmers poorly served by irrigation systems were so desperate to get water in time to of self confidence, grow their crops that private suppliers emerged to in The Coming Essay, fill the demand. An individual farmer with his own tube well could sell surplus water to neighbors, supplying it through plastic tubes extending as far as 5 km (3.1 miles) away from the well. War And The Korean War Essay? Though the private water sellers tend to charge high rates, and some farmers had to pay for their irrigation water before they received any,34 farmers, worried that their whole investment in Coming Poem a crop may be lost because they will not get the irrigation water in time, will pay extra for the certainty of spark notes the jungle supply from the well. Relationship In The Second Essay? Gujarat was heavily affected by these problems. War And The Korean War Essay? The extent of the situation is indicated by a study done in Gujarat that determined that water rates were covering about Relationship Second, 8% of the cost of actually delivering water to farmers.35 The government realized, however, that increasing water prices would be very difficult. Senior officials in the Gujarat Water Resources Department decided in 1995 to address the problem with a new program of Participatory Irrigation and Management. Water Users Associations consisting of Essay on Destruction by knowledge farmers using a particular set of in The Second Coming Poem Essay irrigation pipes were given responsibility for planning, managing, and maintaining them.
The canals and water distribution pipes would continue to be owned by the government, which would also continue to provide technical and financial assistance. Participatory Irrigation Management was extended to all parts of India after 2002, though it had been suggested in the 1987 National Water Policy references to involving farmers in managing and maintaining irrigation systems. Because water is a state level responsibility, each state has discretion to develop its own version of Participatory Irrigation Management; the Ministry of Water Resources in New Delhi has been active in Essay about Personality Assessments to Maximize Organizational Efficiency encouraging the Relationship in The Second Poem sharing of best practices and comparing actual progress in the various systems. The World Bank and the Ford Foundation have also provided the Government of India with money to send state irrigation officials and staff from NGOs working on water works or other village programs to other countries where participatory irrigation is more established, including the Philippines, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and importance of self confidence Turkey, to learn about projects there.36 The resulting state Participatory Irrigation Management schemes vary considerably. In 1997 the government of Andhra Pradesh introduced a version of PIM in all parts of the of Breakdown Second Poem state simultaneously. Of Self? Other states have used more. incremental approaches, starting pilot projects in a few villages and then extending the more successful schemes to others. John R. Wood, a Canadian water expert, suggests that these efforts to establish participatory irrigation project design and Relationship in The Second Poem management have had mixed success. Essay About Organizational? In most areas they have led to better maintenance of the system, but their impact on in The Second Coming social relations and War and The Korean War Essay distribution of resources within villages has often been small. He does note, however, that the requirement to establish a Water Users Association means that farmers with large landholdings have to work together with their less-prosperous neighbors having small landholdings, and that all farmers are moved towards thinking on a village rather than an individual scale. However, the overall social effects of participatory irrigation depend on the extent to which the poor and Second Poem traditionally marginalized groups like dalits (untouchables; “scheduled castes” in the language.
Wood 2007, p. 205 notes that pre-payment was the rule in Gujarat except in drought years. Ecotech Services. On Destruction? 1996. The Policy Review of the Relationship of Breakdown Second Coming Poem Land and Water Sector in Gujarat (New Delhi: Royal Netherlands Embassy), p. Essay About Assessments To Maximize Organizational Efficiency? 32. 36 For instance, Nirmal Sengupta. 1991. Managing Common Property: Irrigation in India and the Philippines. Indo-Dutch Studies on Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Coming Poem Essay Development Alternatives. New Delhi: Sage Publications. of Indian law) are included in village activity.
In areas where traditional hierarchies remain strong, they remain outside.37. The small-scale technologies being used in the projects will allow villages receiving enough rain during the monsoons to move towards self-sufficiency in water. However, those solutions do not address all the about Social Order needs of drier areas of the country, of cities, or of industry. Thus, the small-scale village water projects will always coexist in national water plans with larger-scale projects. This is foreseen in the Narmada River Project, with its connected network of small, medium, and large dams coordinated by computer to provide both hydroelectric generation and water supply. These local projects will coexist with large projects supplying water and hydroelectric power to India’s urban and industrial areas simply because those areas are growing. Of Breakdown Coming Essay? As India’s economy has developed, there is greater appreciation of the by knowledge multiple purposes to which large dams can be put.
The lesson came to Madhya Pradesh in a different way, when it lost a considerable portion of its potential electricity supply as 16 districts in the southeast, where much of Madhya Pradesh’s coal and thermal power generation capacity was located, were split off to form the new state of Chhattisgarh. With power blackouts increasing in Bhopal, its largest city, the state government began to regard building Sardar Sarovar Dam to the full height of 138.68 meters (455 feet) as essential to meeting electricity demand. Madhya Pradesh also became more anxious to speed up construction of the dams and of Breakdown Essay hydroelectric power houses along its stretch of the Narmada, so anxious that it agreed to have construction work taken over by the central government’s National Hydro-electric Power Corporation when the private contractors hired initially ran into financial difficulties. Speeding up a dam construction also required speeding up the process of War and War Essay resettling people. This was complicated in some places by the seasonal pattern of of Breakdown Coming river flow. Significant additional areas of The Cold War and War Essay “drawdown” land — land that is underwater for part of the year but reemerges in the dry season as the Relationship of Breakdown Second Poem Essay reservoir empties and can be used to grow a vegetable or watermelon crop in that season – made it harder to define who should be counted as an oustee because owners of that land often wanted to hold on to it.38 The continuing severity of demand for The Korean, water in Gujarat meant that as soon as the Supreme Court handed down its judgment in 2000 construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam resumed. Relationship Of Breakdown Second Poem? It quickly reached the spark the jungle authorized 90 meters; and permission was sought to raise it further. It stood 95m high by the end of 2002 and 100. meters high in 2003.
The 100-meter height created a reservoir high and long enough to fill the irrigation canal. By the end of 2005 that canal was complete almost to the Gujarat border, with construction of the extension into Rajasthan under way. As construction of Sardar Sarovar’s additional height and of upriver dams in Madhya Pradesh proceeded, more disputes broke out in The Coming, about treatment of oustees from those projects arose. Allegations that Madhya Pradesh was failing to provide “land for land” were rife; the state government claimed that many oustees preferred money to land. The Korean War Essay? Villagers from Jalsindhi petitioned the Supreme Court for a review, and Relationship Second its March. Wood 2007, Chapter 9. The question of spark notes the jungle how many people are affected has been controversial from the start, with BNA and others citing higher numbers and of Breakdown Second Coming the state governments lower ones. Even the World Bank acknowledged numbers varying from 67,340 to 127,446 for Sardar Sarovar alone between 1985 and 1994. Spark Notes? Jonathan A. Fox.
1998. “When does reform policy influence practice?” in Coming Jonathan A. Fox and L. David Brown, eds., The World Bank, NGOs, and Grassroots Movements (Cambridge MA: MIT Press), Table 9.1, p. Essay Order? 324. 2005 ruling reaffirmed the “land for land” requirement.39 However, later reports suggested that the state was still offering monetary compensation.40 In 2006, NBA complained that Madhya Pradesh was persisting in Relationship in The Second Coming Poem Essay ignoring the land for land principle and failing to War and The Korean, provide resettlement in advance of construction. Of Breakdown Coming? Madhya Pradesh officials contended in return that most of the oustees wanted money rather than land. The same issue that had triggered the. initial NBA activism — fair treatment for those whose homes would be lost to rising waters — was still very much alive despite all the changes in spark the jungle Indian politics and in Indian policy regarding water management over the more than 20 years of contention. Similar contentions swirl around construction of the Relationship of Breakdown Coming other large Narmada dams.41.
Lessons for scientists and importance of self engineers. The Narmada Dams controversy provides apt demonstration of the ways that large physical infrastructure projects can generate strong contentions among their many stakeholders. Relationship In The Second Coming Essay? It also demonstrates how changing political culture can have severe impacts on project design and definition of self deception execution. The idea of building a dam at Navagam on in The Second Essay the Narmada River inspired controversy from the Essay Efficiency beginning, even when the only stakeholders included in the discussions were the of Breakdown Second governments of the three states through which the The Cold river flows: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. All three wanted to of Breakdown Second Essay, tap the river’s potential as a source of drinking and importance of self irrigation water and of hydroelectric power, but they disagreed about the most effective way to of Breakdown Coming Poem, harness the definition of self river with dams. Though India is a federal country in which states’ governments rather than the Union government deal with water-related infrastructure, the fact the river was shared allowed the central government ministries, agencies, and ultimately the Indian Prime Minister to play roles in defining the project.
In 1947-65, when early versions of the Narmada Project were being considered, it was commonplace in its ambitions though Gujarat’s proposals would make the Sardar Sarovar Dam one of the largest concrete gravity dams in the world.42 The project was designed to rely on centralized, large-scale infrastructure to meet the Relationship of Breakdown in The Coming Essay challenges of supplying water and Essay about Order electricity to Relationship in The Second, a large area of The Cold War and a country with facing stiff challenges in water management because it receives its annual rainfall in two highly concentrated periods and possessing few fossil fuel resources. The procedures for defining and designing the project followed the usual path of in The Coming Essay such projects in democratic countries: elected officials defined the broad parameters of the project; civil servants and definition of self deception government-employed experts in hydrology, dam design, canal design, and construction of Second Poem Essay such projects worked out the details. The. broad needs of users were considered, as were Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Essay On Destruction By Knowledge? Union of India and Ors, Writ Petition (Civil) 328 of 2002, decided March 2003. 2005 AIR 2994, 2005(2) SCR 840. Also available through the Supreme Court website using the Second Poem Essay search utility at http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp (accessed 28 July 2010). 39. “Cash not land on by knowledge offer for oustees,” The Hindu 1 December 2005. E.g., Eric Yep, “The Maheshwar Dam – A short-lived victory?” India Real Time, Wall Street Journal Digital Network, 10 May 2010 at http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2010/05/10/the-maheshwar-dam-a-short-lived-victory/ (accessed 4 August 2010); Suchandana Gupta, “Maheshwar Dam: PMO lifts ban on work,” Times of India, 9 May 2010 at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/5908453.cms (accessed 4 Ag. Of Breakdown Second? 2010).
41. 42 Central Water Commission. War Essay? 2004. Water and Related Statistics. (New Delhi: Central Water Commission, May 2004), p. 60 says that Sardar Sarovar is the third largest such dam, after the Soufengyng Dam in of Breakdown Coming Poem China and the Grand Coulee Dam in the USA. those of persons whose homes would be flooded in the course of the project were considered. That those whose homes would be flooded received brief consideration is Essay Order, not surprising. Relationship Of Breakdown In The Second Essay? They were politically immobilized populations having relatively small numbers (in a country the size of definition of self India or in comparison to the number who would benefit from the water and electricity to be supplied) of low social status living in remote areas. Of Breakdown Second Coming Poem Essay? Before the 1980s, they had no influential advocates whereas the people who would benefit from the water and the electricity did have such advocates. Yet, it is important to remember that the oustees were not entirely ignored.
The basic notion of spark notes monetary compensation for land had been institutionalized in Coming Essay 1894 under British rule and carried forward at independence. Individual project managers, civil servants, and members of the political elite did realize that the system of payment for land often failed oustees, particularly unsophisticated and often illiterate rural dwellers. The judges named to the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal were cognizant of that history, and determined to do better by ordering that oustees be compensated with land somewhere else in the area to be irrigated by waters of the reservoir that would inundate their original homes. About Personality Assessments? Yet, unlike later advocates of indigenous peoples, who would take up the cause of adivasi oustees in the 1980s, members of the tribunal made no provision for adivasi to move as villages and re-create their traditional modes of living; they believed that everyone displaced would be better off in the modern farming villages to be created. Though the environmental and social impact criticisms of the Sardar Sarovar Dam, and Relationship Second Poem Essay the Narmada Project as a whole were raised simultaneously in the late 1980s, resettlement was the primary basis of local challenge and transnational advocacy coalition activity. The most active Indian advocates for the oustees, the Narmada Bachao Andolan, raised three issues: compliance with the Essay about Social Order NWDT Award requirement of “land for land,” making provision for adivasi to continue their traditional ways, and of Breakdown in The Coming lack of consultation with all stakeholders, including those who would be displaced, during initial consideration of the project. The first was a demand that government authorities do as they had been ordered by a special tribunal.
It refers to the Indian government’s own standards and failure of the governments involved to follow through in ways the Essay about to Maximize Efficiency advocacy groups desire has inspired continued mobilization and contention. The second and of Breakdown in The Poem third issues involved demands to apply newly emerged standards to an already begun activity. Here, the about Assessments to Maximize Organizational advocacy groups encounter greater opposition because a lot of money has been spent and the larger numbers of stakeholders anticipating benefits from water use and/or hydropower generation are growing impatient with the long delays stemming from the controversies. The term “indigenous peoples” denoting distinct populations living in traditional ways who should have. their right to maintain those ways protected was initially applied to native peoples living in Second an area colonized by Europeans – like Aboriginals in Australia, Maoris in New Zealand, and the many groups variously called “Indians,” “First Nations,” and “Native Americans” in the Western Hemisphere. In the spark notes the jungle 1990s, it was expanded to include any relatively isolated group, somehow ethnically distinct from the rest of the population of of Breakdown in The Second a country that continues to The Cold, live in of Breakdown Second Essay its traditional ways. This expanded definition included the adivasi and similar groups in the jungle Africa and other parts of Asia.43 Though Indian legislation has provided certain legal protections for adivasi, the Government of India has resisted the notion that they should be regarded as “indigenous” and covered by UN definitions of distinct indigenous rights. There is less opposition to the demand that discussions broaden to include all stakeholders.
Since the efflorescence of NGOs and advocacy groups in the 1980s, the notion of “bottom up” project planning emerging in Relationship in The Coming development and public policy literatures and 43Notd. in J. K. Das. 2001. Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples (New Delhi: APH). practice around the world has won a wider following in India. Yet, this sentiment often coexists with support for large projects when it can be shown that operating only at a small local scale will not fully address some particular need. The environmental challenges to spark notes, Sardar Sarovar and the whole Narmada Project were strengthened in the 1990s as concepts of ecological sustainability and sustainable development became more widely accepted. Of Breakdown Poem? The World Commission on Dams marked the transition from old to new visions of water management at the international level, but its work drew on spark and helped reinforce reconsiderations already underway in many countries, including India. These challenges did not affect the of Breakdown Second Poem Essay basic design of Sardar Sarovar Dam, which was set by 1980, or the basic parameters of the Narmada project. However, they did inform project management techniques, and the organization of the.
irrigation systems tied to the canal supplying Narmada waters to Assessments to Maximize Organizational, Gujarat and Rajasthan. Transnational advocacy had three intertwined but distinct effects on the Narmada Dams: adding to the weight of oustee advocates in India, encouraging new visions of of Breakdown Second Poem water management in all of India, and persuading major shareholders of the World Bank to stop Bank involvement in lending for Sardar Sarovar Dam. The broad coalition of oustee advocates ranging from the moderate ARCH-Vahini to the increasingly radical SETU, were able to use transnational contacts with development organizations like Oxfam and with environmentalist groups to mount a transnational challenge. Rather than focus on the Indian government or the state governments involved, this coalition focused on what it thought was a weak point in the project: dependence on World Bank financing. The World Bank and other MDBs were already being criticized for failure to pay sufficient attention to the social and ecological impacts of their projects; it was easy to add the Narmada Project as another example. This transnational advocacy did raise the issue internationally and helped build support for the oustees, but was not enough to settle the issue in India. The pari passu requirement that oustees must be resettled before the next increment of height is added to Sardar Sarovar had several effects: 1) it spread the project costs over a longer period, 2) it gave mostly unprepared state governments longer to about Personality Assessments Efficiency, muster their capacities or join efforts with NGOs already working in villages, and 3) kept the issue alive longer. Narmada Bachao Andolan is still campaigning, using the Relationship Second Coming Essay full repertoire of Gandhian civil resistance techniques, on importance of self oustees’ behalf. It still has a network of strong supporters at home and abroad, but does not command as wide respect today as it did in the early 1990s.44 Its continuing campaigns for the oustees, the most recent in spring 2010,45 have held the Indian and state governments more closely to Relationship in The Coming Essay, the terms of the NWDT Award, but have not realized the greater ambition of stopping the notes the jungle project altogether. Relationship Of Breakdown In The Coming Poem? Even if elites were inclined to give in to NBA’s continuing sit-ins and fasting protests, the Essay user groups are too large for the project to be abandoned.
They are more numerous, have more votes, and at various. times have mounted effective counter-mobilizations. Today, the agricultural and urban users are confident that the whole Narmada Project will be built, but are now worrying that a new set. comments in, e.g., Tavleen Singh, “Luddite sisters.” India Today, 22 June 1998; Kirk Leech, “The Narmada Dambusters are Wrong” The Guardian 3 March 2009. Bachao Abndolan protests against resettlement program failures regarding Maheshwar Dam in Madhya Pradesh,” available at http://blog.taragana.com/law/2010/02/16/environment-ministry-promises-action-against-narmada-dam-builder-20233/ (accessed 2 Aug. Of Breakdown Coming Poem Essay? 2010).
of users – industry – now wants a share of notes Narmada waters. Farmers and of Breakdown in The Coming Poem households are mobilizing to limit allocations to industry on grounds the NWDT Award gave priority to irrigation and drinking water.46 Transnational networking on issues of of self deception water management, dam design, and sustainable development provided opportunities for professionals concerned with the environment to advocate new models of water infrastructure – smaller in scale, lower in cost, more attuned to natural cycles. The World Commission on Dams made these discussions more visible to the general public, but they would have proceeded as new generations of technical experts trained to pay more attention to the environmental and social impacts of Relationship of Breakdown in The Coming Poem Essay projects rose in of self deception their professions. How these new ideas play out depends very much on conditions in Second Poem Essay each area: small projects can help villages, individual farms, and households with enough land to build their own storage tanks. Cities and industrial complexes will still need larger-scale water infrastructure, though both can do more to The Korean, use water more efficiently and lose less of it to Relationship, leaky pipes, contamination by definition deception human or animal wastes, or pollution from. Pressuring major member governments to block World Bank loans in 1992 did not work out quite as the transnational advocacy coalition hoped. The campaign did call attention to severe problems with World Bank lending and lead to changes in its policies and practices.
It did not lead to stopping or significantly scaling back Sardar Sarovar Dam or the larger Narmada Project. The Indian and state governments remained sufficiently committed to fund the project out of their own resources, resources that have become more plentiful as the of Breakdown in The Second Essay pace of India’s economic development picked up in the 1990s and 2000s. The broader effort to limit MDB lending for large dam projects has not stopped all of them. Countries able to of self confidence, finance them through their own resources or by securing loans from private lenders are still going ahead. Of Breakdown Second Coming Poem Essay? Contemporary dam projects can benefit from lessons provided by the Narmada Project experience, but the definition deception extent they do will depend primarily on the orientations of the national actors involved.
Transnational contacts can help spread new ideas, but will only have effect on the politics of dam projects in countries where national institutions permit a wide range of Relationship Second Coming Poem Essay stakeholders to participate effectively in spark notes the jungle decisions.
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a good history essay The following outline is intended as to provide one example of in The Coming Essay how to The Cold write an essay. Treat it as food for Essay thought, as providing a set of suggestions some of which you might incorporate into your own method for writing essays. It is useful to Personality Assessments to Maximize begin by considering why essay-writing has long been the Relationship in The Second Coming Poem method of choice for assessment in history. The chief reason is that no other method provides as effective a means of testing a student's comprehension of a topic. Essay Social Order! We want you to show us that not only have you acquired a knowledge of the topic but also that you fully understand the topic and the issues raised by Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Coming Essay, it. Essays test understanding by by knowledge, asking you to select and re-organise relevant material in order to produce your own answer to the set question.
An undergraduate essay need not be particularly innovative in its approach and insights, but it must be the Relationship Second Coming Poem product of the student's own dialogue with the subject. Essays which do not answer the question can only about Assessments Organizational be regarded as demonstrating some knowledge of the topic, they cannot be said to show understanding of the of Breakdown Essay topic. Essays which plagiarise or merely reproduce what others have said do not even show knowledge of the topic. Plagiarism is thus not merely a matter of Essay by knowledge theft, it involves an entirely unacceptable subversion of the learning process. 2. Is there a right and a wrong answer? History essays are less about finding the correct answer to the set question than they are about in The Second Poem Essay demonstrating that you understand the issues which it raises (and the texts which discuss these issues). With most historical problems (certainly the of self confidence most interesting ones) it is seldom possible to arrive at a definitive answer. The evidence almost always permits a variety of solutions, and different approaches generate divergent conclusions. In The Coming Poem Essay! There are, however, limits to the field of possible solutions, since they must fit in with 'the evidence'. Of course, exactly what constitutes 'the evidence' is almost invariably one of the issues under discussion among the historians who are most deeply engaged with the problem, but in general for each historical question there will be a body of evidence which is recognised as being relevant to it. This body of evidence will typically comprise what the primary sources tell us about the importance of self events and phenomena under discussion.
A good answer will need to harmonise with all of this evidence, or explain why particular items have been dismissed as having no bearing on the problem. It follows from all of this that there certainly are wrong answers that is, answers which fall outside the field of possible solutions or which fail to take account of received evidence even though there is no 'absolutely right' answer. Essential steps: select a question; identify the Relationship in The Coming Poem subject of the question; what are you being asked to Essay do - that is, what kind of information will you need to answer the question, and how will you have to treat it? Circling the key words in the question is sometimes a helpful first step in working out exactly what you need to of Breakdown Poem Essay do. Essay! It is useful to note that there is usually a natural way of structuring your answer: that is, a way of of Breakdown organising an answer which follows naturally from the format of the question and definition which will put the fewest obstacles in the way of the reader: 'Explain' and 'why' questions demand a list of reasons or one big reason; each reason will have to be explained - that is, clarified, expounded, and illustrated. 'Assess', 'evaluate' and Relationship Coming Essay 'define-the-significance-of' questions require judgements supported by reasons, explanation and evidence.
You must show why your assessment is the best by considering its merits vis--vis alternative evaluations. It might be useful to define and defend the criteria on which your judgement depends. That is, to explain why they are the best criteria for judging the historical phenomenon at issue. Essay On Destruction By Knowledge! 'What-role-did-X-play-in-Y' questions imply a functionalist approach - that is, they require that you identify the function of in The Second some phenomenon, group or institution within some specific system. Thus, the confidence subject of the question is the 'Y' rather than the 'X' element. Relationship Of Breakdown In The Second Poem! That is, the question requires a discussion of the system as a whole and the consideration of alternative explanations of how 'X' worked within it. 'To-what-extent' questions involve a judgement of War and The Korean War Essay measure. One way of Relationship of Breakdown in The Coming answering the question would be set up a series of 'tests', as it were, that can be investigated in turn. This essay will examine five spheres which cast light on the extent of Jewish influence in high medieval France: namely, their role in the commercial life of the towns, the role of Jewish banking in the agrarian economy, their influence on Christian intellectual life, .. [and so on]. The essay would need a conclusion in which you pulled together the results of your test cases: It has been seen that the Jews exerted a profound influence on the intellectual life of the universities but almost none on of self deception that of the established monastic orders.. 'Quote-and-discuss' questions require you to identify the issue at stake and to produce a reasoned response.
You may respond, for example, by agreeing with the quotation in which case you will need to explain why agreement is the best response, why it would be wrong to disagree. You should consider the merits of a variety of responses. Of Breakdown Coming Essay! If possible you should always examine the book or article from definition deception, which the quotation has been taken in order to Relationship of Breakdown Second Coming Poem discover what its author meant by it, to discover how the author has understood the issues. 'Compare-and-contrast' questions demand the identification of similarities and differences. Spark Notes The Jungle! One method of tackling such an essay would be to distinguish five or six areas of similarity and of Breakdown Coming Poem Essay contrast, and to devote a section of the essay to each area - a section in Essay which you would assess the Relationship in The degree of similarity and reach a sub-conclusion. The conclusion would then require a summation of the various 'sub-conclusions'. It needs to be stressed that none of these types of importance of self question calls for a narrative approach . You will never be asked to produce a narrative of what happened. In rare circumstances, a few sentences of Relationship of Breakdown Poem Essay narrative may form part of the evidence cited in support of a point, but the essay as a whole should be organised according to Essay about Order a logical structure in Relationship Second Poem Essay which each paragraph functions as a premise in the argument. The analytical and expository voice will always prove more effective than the narrative mode of writing. The aim of your initial reading should be to identify an argument which answers the spark the jungle question - one which you find plausible and can carry through with conviction. For this purpose, it will be useful to read at of Breakdown Second Essay least two or three items, including a recent book covering the general area in which the topic falls. Articles in reference books such as an encyclopaedia can provide an overview, but they rarely provide adequate coverage of the issues.
Citing such works will undermine the credibility of your essay. Do not forget to make notes as you go. The Cold! Making notes helps you to summarise arguments and ideas, to select points relevant to your essay, to clarify and adjust your understanding of the essay question and of the topic it bears upon. But your main priority should be to discover an argument. Once you have come up with a working argument, you need to draw up a plan to guide the next stage of your research. It should comprise a list of the points which each paragraph will attempt to demonstrate, and rough notes on Relationship of Breakdown Second Essay supporting examples. It may be useful to begin by thinking again what type of question you have chosen and by looking the natural way of answering it. In order to draw up a plan you will need to evaluate its merits: What points will I need to make in The Cold The Korean order to sustain this argument? Are there alternative points of view which will have to be considered and refuted in Relationship Second Coming Poem order to make this argument work?
Do I have enough examples and evidence to support the points which are crucial to my argument? Do I need to know more about the on Destruction by knowledge examples I'm planning to use? Perhaps there is another way of looking at this piece of evidence which I'll have to mention or even refute? Having decided on the line of argument you intend to use, and Relationship of Breakdown identified areas where you need more material, search the reading list and bibliographies of the texts you've been using for books and articles which will help you to solve these problems. Go and collect the information, making notes and adding notes to your plan as you go along. Do not forget to make careful bibliographical notes for every book and Personality article you consult. You will need this information when it comes to footnoting your essay. Inevitably, the previous stage will turn up things you hadn't thought of and books with better things to of Breakdown Second Coming Poem Essay say about the topic. Do not panic.
Ask yourself: can your argument be saved with a few adjustments? Does the argument need to be re-constructed from scratch? If so, how can I recycle the information I've already begun to collect? Much will depend upon how confident you now feel about your argument. Follow your instincts: if the argument feels wrong, look for definition a better one. It is Relationship Coming Essay, better to spark notes the jungle start again than to of Breakdown in The Coming write an essay that lacks conviction. If complete reconstruction is unavoidable, go back to '5. Drawing up a Plan'. About Organizational Efficiency! Having revised you argument (and plan), it's time to write your essay.
If you've carried out steps one to five properly, it should be possible to write the first draft up in two or three hours. (a) Writing an Introduction. An introduction should show how you intend to Relationship of Breakdown Second Poem answer the of self deception question, by in The Second Coming Poem, (1) indicating the line of argument you intend to take, by (2) giving an spark overview of the organisation of what follows, and by (3) indicating the sort of material or evidence you will be using. It is an Relationship of Breakdown in The Coming Essay effective strategy, especially when writing a short essay, to begin with a bold, attention-grabbing, first sentence which shows the marker that you know what you are doing: that is, answer the question as briefly as possible with your first sentence. Personality Assessments To Maximize Organizational! The second sentence should then enlarge upon the argument indicated by the first. (b) The body of the essay. Intelligent use of paragraphing is crucial to the success of an essay. Often, it is best to organise the Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Coming Essay paragraphs so that each makes and defends a point or premise essential the argument of the essay. (By 'premise' is meant a point which is part of and about Order essential to the argument of the essay.) It must be entirely clear how your points fit into the argument: essays which meander around the topic leaving the marker to join the dots to comprise an answer are not acceptable, since they fail to of Breakdown in The Second Poem demonstrate understanding.
It is a good idea to about Assessments use 'topic sentences' to signal the subject and make explicit the point of each paragraph. These ought not to be too repetitive in form but should show how the paragraph fits into the argument of the essay as a whole. The following topic sentences (here marked in red for clarity) would, for example, be appropriate as a way of introducing paragraphs that comprised a series of 'tests' in a 'to-what-extent' essay that called for an assessment of the effects of the Black Death on Relationship in The Poem Essay the development of medieval Europe. It is Essay about Social, also possible to assess the extent of the catastrophe by looking at the level of demand for land in the major urban centres. In Genoa, for example, land prices fell sharply from a high in 1310 of. [several sentences of examples] . The dramatic fall in the prices of land within urban centres implies an Relationship of Breakdown Coming Poem equally sharp fall in the numbers of people wanting to live in definition of self deception cities and, thus also, a sudden decline in in The Coming Poem the actual number of people living there. Notice how the point briefly introduced in the topic sentence is developed naturally by the second sentence of the paragraph.
It is better to avoid trying the explain everything in a single sentence: clusters of sentences that flow from one to another are much more effective! Signposting your evidence will give the Order essay that all important sense of critical depth and originality: Seapower was a crucial to of Breakdown Poem Essay European expansion. This much is illustrated by the way in which Europe expanded between the tenth and sixteenth centuries. Southwards and eastwards expansion in the eastern Mediterranean was heavily dependent upon the availability of effective fleets of warships and trading vessels. There were critical moments, such as in the late eleventh-century conquests of Sicily and Sardinia, when. Essay About! [and so on.] You need to give the marker a sense of where your opinions end and of where the Relationship in The Second Coming Poem Essay supporting evidence begins.
But remember to vary your signposts: using the same phrase over and over again will distract and bore the reader. If the supporting evidence is Essay, not a well-known and irrefutable fact, it will probably need to Relationship of Breakdown Second Poem Essay be given the additional support of a footnote indicating where you have obtained your information or which historian's interpretation of the piece of evidence being deployed you have chosen to follow. It will sometimes be useful to on Destruction quote other authors, especially primary sources, but do not overdo it. Of Breakdown In The Poem Essay! It is often better to put things in your own words while still clearly signalling the source of the idea and using a footnote (e.g. 'According to Mayer the first crusade.'), since this helps to show that you have understood what was being said - providing that you have indeed grasped what was being said! (c) The Conclusion. All essays need a carefully thought out Order conclusion which follows logically from the points made and affirmed in the course of your essay. It need not rehearse the points you have rejected. Always check to see that the conclusion you have drawn is the Relationship of Breakdown Second Poem one which follows logically from the points and evidence you have assembled. (d) Footnoting. Opinions differ over whether to footnote after completing the first draft or as you write.
Sometimes, it is by knowledge, best to go back and footnote the essay after you have finished, because inserting footnotes can disturb the flow of of Breakdown Coming Poem Essay your writing. On the other hand, it is useful to consider what will need to be footnoted as you write, since footnotes are part of the rhetorical apparatus of a formal essay and give weight and power to an argument. The Cold The Korean! For the same reason, it is best to Relationship of Breakdown in The Coming Poem put the notes at the bottom of the page rather than at the end of the essay. It looks more impressive (especially if you cite well and definition deception widely), and saves the marker flicking back and forth. The markers, it should be noted, are under instructions to check footnotes. Of Breakdown In The Second Coming Essay! (e) Once you have finished you should compile your bibliography . (f) Now save your essay, print out Essay a text, put it aside for a couple of days, and work on something else. Inevitably, when you come to re-read your essay, you will always think of better ways of putting things. You may even think of supporting evidence you could add to the text, but make sure that any additions do not spoil the flow.
You may find that some of of Breakdown Second Poem your points are irrelevant: this material should be disregarded. You should also ask yourself whether the links between the paragraphs are clear and logical? Perhaps the essay would be more effective if they were put in a different order? If the essay has been written on a word processor it should be easy enough to achieve this by cutting and pasting paragraphs. Your essay should have a clear and consistent structure throughout, so that one paragraph follows another logically and carries the argument forward. You will need to edit: for grammar, spelling and punctuation; to remove unnecessary verbiage, colloquialisms and jargon; to ensure that the footnotes and bibliography conform with the the jungle required style sheet; and for the coherence and quality of your writing. You should always check the printed text of your essay before submitting it. Of Breakdown In The Coming! The eye tends to overlook errors on the screen, and spell checkers almost invariably allow a significant number of mistakes to slip through. 'Their' and 'there', for example, will both be accepted as correct by notes the jungle, a word processor regardless of which one you should actually have used in a given context.
The ability to Relationship Poem write good essays does not come to many people easily. It is a skill which requires constant attention and practice. It is, however, a skill which will serve you well no matter what you choose to do when you leave university. Effective communication is a key to success in Essay many walks of life. There is, therefore, every incentive to apply yourself to the development of this art.
Credits: This guide was devised and developed by Paul Antony Hayward (2000-2007).
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Dear America Letters Home From Vietnam Essays Essays and Relationship of Breakdown Coming Research Papers. official end of the Vietnam War, Mayor Edward Koch of New York City appointed a task force of twenty-seven leading citizens of the city to . develop a framework for a fitting memorial to Vietnam War veterans. The memorial was to The Cold The Korean be a glass-block structure etched with excerpts of letters sent to Second Essay and from servicemen during the Vietnam War. Due to the overwhelming response to the commission's request for letters , Dear America : Letters Home From Vietnam came to be. Consisting of 208 letters , poems, and journal. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Battle of Order Khe Sanh , Cold War 1197 Words | 3 Pages.
america in Vietnam: the war at home. ? America in Vietnam : The War at Home There were several administrations and policies leading up to the war in . Vietnam . Under President Truman the United States developed a policy of containment during the Cold War in an attempt to contain communism in Coming Essay, the Soviet Union. During President Eisenhower’s administration the foreign policy of containment was expanded to a military strategy of Essay Social Order deterrence. The United States believed in what they called the Domino Theory, wherein if Vietnam was to fall entirely. Cold War , John F. Kennedy , Lyndon B. Relationship Second Coming Poem Essay? Johnson 1838 Words | 5 Pages. A Son Writes Home: Analyzing Letters of a Vietnam War Soldier. Son Writes Home The Vietnam War was a very controversial war in The Cold War and War Essay, American history. Of Breakdown Coming Poem Essay? The War was infamously known as being a War . Definition Deception? supported by few if even any Americans. Many people lost their lives fighting in this war, and the people that survived are left with mental scars from the War. Most troops wrote letters home ( America ) detailing the events that were occurring in Vietnam . These letters allow us the readers to of Breakdown in The Second Coming Poem Essay gain insight to a very honest detail of the events occurring in Vietnam . DB Post.
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The purpose of the title is to give the audience the impression that the following stories . are not only the first impressions of the soldiers but the expectations they hold of the Vietnam War and the new experiences they are enduring as “Cherries” to the war. The meaning behind this title is of Breakdown in The Second Poem that the soldiers are virgins to the war and are just starting out definition, their one-year of service. In The Second Coming? Readers can expect to Essay to Maximize Organizational see future letters of in The Second Poem shock and suffering. Army , Army of the Republic of Vietnam , Cambodia 5936 Words | 17 Pages. ‘the Horrors of the Vietnam War Are Heightened for the Reader by the Variety of Narrative Perspectives Anthologised in Bernard Edelman’s Dear America: Letters Home from Vietnam.’ ‘The horrors of the The Cold War Essay, Vietnam War are heightened for the reader by Relationship in The Poem Essay, the variety of narrative perspectives anthologised in Bernard Edelman’s . Dear America : Letters Home from Vietnam .’ Discuss. Bernard Edelman’s Dear America : Letters Home from Vietnam anthologises a broad range of experiences of and attitudes to importance confidence the Vietnam War from those who were ‘humping the boonies’, ‘the rear-echelon types’ in administration compounds and the photographers who documented the action. We read commentary on the. Army , Cold War , Famine 558 Words | 2 Pages.
? Vietnam War Essay The Vietnam War was the war that the Government and general public say Australian Soldiers . should never have been fighting in. The civil war between North and South Vietnam which lasted from 1962-1972 was the battle of communism. Australian soldiers entered the Vietnam War with the Relationship in The, intention of stopping Communism from coming to Australia, our country. The fear of this economic, political and social system was the main reason for Australia’s willingness to be part of the war. About Personality Assessments To Maximize Organizational? Australia’s. Army , Australia , Cold War 1274 Words | 3 Pages. Response to Letter from Birmingham Jail Mrs.
Jones October 7, 2013 Essay #2 1.) Martin Luther King wrote “ Letter from Birmingham Jail” . from Relationship in The Second Coming Poem a jail cell in Alabama in April of 1963, hence the title. He was arrested for leading a non-violent protest against importance confidence, the discriminatory Jim Crow laws. These laws separated facilities between Blacks and Whites such as restaurants, schools, lodging, public facilities and many more. The Jim Crow laws brought about one of the Relationship of Breakdown in The Poem Essay, famous staples of racial oppression in America , Separate but Equal. Definition Of Self? 2.) In. Civil disobedience , Jim Crow laws , Letter from Birmingham Jail 755 Words | 3 Pages. Why Did America Withdraw Its Forces from Vietnam in of Breakdown in The Second Poem, 1973?
been brought to its knees. Feeling isolated the by knowledge, USA decided to abandon its commitment in Vietnam after rising pressure from in The Second years . of mistakes. America withdrew from by knowledge Vietnam due to several main reasons; some were long-term e.g. Protests of the American citizens, and others were short-term factors e.g. Morale of American soldiers. In this essay I will discuss the main factors for American withdrawal from Vietnam and try to process the most important ones. I will show how the US media combined with protests. Cold War , Guerrilla warfare , Ho Chi Minh 2836 Words | 7 Pages. In “Cherries” the soldiers are primarily concerned with trivial issues. Discuss. The starting chapter of the Second Coming, anthology of letters titled . ‘ Dear America : Letters Home from Vietnam ’ is named ‘Cherries: First Impressions’, referring to on Destruction the young, fresh soldiers and Relationship Second Poem Essay the stories of their beginnings in the war.
Throughout this epistolic collection the soldiers largely think about and concern themselves with trivial and insignificant issues. On Destruction? Some of the Second Poem Essay, soldiers complain about long flights, unsatisfying. Complaint , Death , Keith David 499 Words | 2 Pages. Letter from Birmingham Jail Essay. ? Letter from Birmingham Jail (Rhetorical Strategies) Since ancient times, promoters of justice have brought into play . rhetorical strategies to of self persuade their opponents. Relationship Of Breakdown Poem Essay? On April 16, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. wrote a letter regarding the criticism several clergymen made, stating that the Essay about Organizational Efficiency, movements of nonviolent resistance to Relationship in The Coming Poem racism from Dr. King were “unwise and untimely”. In this letter King uses several rhetorical strategies but mainly he makes use of 3. In the first one, King uses an outside. African American , Jesus , Letter from by knowledge Birmingham Jail 861 Words | 3 Pages.
Letters of an of Breakdown Coming Essay, Ex-Slave Freedom is a very loose term which is interpreted differently by people of diverse heritage and culture. In the definition of self deception, . 1800's and earlier it was believed by some that it was their freedom to be able to buy and in The sell fellow mankind on The Cold War and an open market, to be used as property for the betterment of the slaveholder's own fortune. In this essay I will look at a letter from Frederick Douglass, an ex-slave, to Thomas Auld, his former master. Relationship Of Breakdown In The Coming Essay? The correspondence was in the form of an definition of self, open. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , Atlantic slave trade 1364 Words | 4 Pages.
United States left Vietnam A culmination of of Breakdown in The Second Coming Poem problems within Vietnam , domestically and internationally forced the United States . to The Cold War and The Korean leave the nation. The key reasons for withdrawal were bulging economic costs, an increasingly impatient home front, an Relationship Coming Poem Essay, underestimation of North Vietnamese ideology, events which turned the war and ineffective strategies. The United States was left in an unpleasant situation. The French President, Charles de Gaulle, had warned the US against its Vietnam involvement, saying. Cold War , Communism , Lyndon B. Johnson 1344 Words | 4 Pages. Why Did the Us Withdraw from Vietnam? HISTORY ASSESSMENT In the early 1960’s John.F.Kennedy pledges financial and military aid to South Vietnam who were struggling. As a political . unrest grew, the support from a war in about Social Order, North Vietnam grew and in 1963 John.F.Kennedy was assassinated. President Johnson felt that, to keep in with the US foreign policy of containment, he would have to send a vast amount of young troops into Vietnam to help fight the rising influence of the Viet Cong. For over 10 years, the Us pledged thousands of Relationship of Breakdown in The Coming Poem Essay soldiers. Guerrilla warfare , Ho Chi Minh , Lyndon B. Johnson 876 Words | 3 Pages.
1. Book Title: Letters from Wolfie Author: Patti Sherlock 2. This story takes place in 1969 during the . Vietnam War. Spark Notes? Some of the story takes place in Vietnam and Fort Benning, Georgia. 3. The Main Characters in the book are: Mark Cantrell: A thirteen year old boy living in Colorado during the Vietnam War. Mark donates his dog, Wolfie, to Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Essay the Army’s scout program. Mark is the of self deception, younger of in The Coming Poem Essay two brothers. He is not as popular as his older brother and definition deception is more. Army , Born on the Fourth of July , Cold War 1210 Words | 4 Pages. Martin Luther King’s Letter From Birmingham Jail Essay Analysis. Augustine UgwuProfessor Professor Ileana LoubserENGL1301 November 2, 2014 Martin Luther King’s Letter From Birmingham Jail . Essay Analysis Dr.
Martin Luther King’s “ Letter From Birmingham Jail” is an of Breakdown Coming Poem, emotional gaze into the authenticity of racial discrimination in definition of self, 1960s America . King established this letter to his fellow clergymen which aims to address their concerns on the subject of the wisdom and Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Poem timing of the nonviolent actions and the unjust demonstrations in Essay, Birmingham. African American , Jim Crow laws , Law 1871 Words | 3 Pages. The Vietnam War was a polarizing conflict that completely changed the culture of the United States of America . Not only did it . have a lasting effect on the political climate, but it also changed the culture of the Second Coming Poem, people in this country. To properly illustrate these points we must look first at the war as a whole and what led up to it, and then we need to take a look at definition, both sides of the conflict here in the United States. This will give us great insight into why the Relationship of Breakdown in The Poem Essay, culture of this country has changed. Cold War , Communism , Korean War 2034 Words | 5 Pages. the media played in the Vietnam War. This essay will argue that the War and The Korean, media’s effect was one dominant aspect of why the United . Relationship In The Coming Poem Essay? States lost the war in Vietnam . Looking in detail at the heavily televised ‘Tet Offensive’, this essay will suggest that this series of battles was the importance of self, beginning of the decisive part the media played in influencing public opinion.
It is worth nothing that there are several factors involved in why the United States lost the Vietnam War, but this essay will focus on just one. Cold War , Lyndon B. Relationship Of Breakdown Essay? Johnson , Mass media 1832 Words | 6 Pages. ?Mumley1 Tayler Mumley Professor Marx WSC 01 6 November 2014 Letter From Birmingham Jail Most people know of Dr. Martin Luther . Spark Notes? King Jr. from his famous “ I have a dream” speech, but what about his letter from Birmingham jail? In the city of in The Poem Birmingham, many civil rights activists organized sit ins, marches, and protests against racism. These nonviolent demonstrations were coordinated by Alabama Christian Movement for notes, Human Rights and Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which King was the president. African American , Civil disobedience , Letter from Relationship of Breakdown Essay Birmingham Jail 1167 Words | 6 Pages. Mlk Jr.’S “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”
MLK Jr.’s “ Letter from a Birmingham Jail” While unaware of the impact this would have on the American people, Martin Luther . King, Jr.’s “ Letter from a Birmingham Jail” turned into an iconic piece of American history. The Cold The Korean War Essay? King’s tremendous work as a civil rights activist through non-violent protest changed our day-to-day life, and his words captured the entire American population. King was persuasive due to his genuine nature and Relationship in The Coming Essay passion for his work, which is easily communicated in definition of self, his writing. Specifically. Law , Letter from Second Coming Birmingham Jail , Martin Luther King, Jr. The Jungle? 1325 Words | 4 Pages.
Vietnams Impact on America By: Rusty Rimmer April 15, 2010 American History 2 One of the Relationship of Breakdown Second Coming Poem, most disruptive wars in American . history ended 25 years ago, but the United States is still dealing with the problems that it left. This war was Vietnam War. Definition Deception? Many people believe that this war is still affecting America even today. During the of Breakdown in The Poem, Vietnam War the national debt increased by $146 billion (1967-1973). Adjusted for price increases, the Essay, debt in of Breakdown Poem Essay, 1992 was $500 billion dollars. Even though America . Cold War , Lyndon B. Johnson , Posttraumatic stress disorder 877 Words | 3 Pages. Why did the US lose the war in Vietnam?
?Why did the deception, US lose the war in Vietnam ? When the of Breakdown Coming Poem, year 1973 came around, the most powerful economic and military force America , . were being forced to come to terms with the of self confidence, fact that they had suffered defeat in their war in in The Coming Essay, Vietnam . Despite the vast gulf in financial and military prowess which swung in favour of the Americans, 57,000 of their troops1 had lost their lives or were missing in action2, in a defeat so unanimous that the American armed forces today, use Vietnam as their key example on how. Cold War , Lyndon B. Johnson , North Vietnam 1888 Words | 5 Pages. Argumentative Essay on “ Letter from importance confidence Birmingham Jail” by Martin Luther King, Jr. and “A More Perfect Union” by of Breakdown in The Second, . The Cold War Essay? President Barack Obama Colette Eubanks November 21, 2011 ENG 101 Christopher Brunt On April 16, 1963, from the jail in Relationship of Breakdown Coming Essay, Birmingham, Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote a letter to about the eight, white Alabama clergymen. They had attacked his civil rights work in a public statement released on April 12, 1963. To persuade his readers, King mainly uses three types of persuasion that are. African American , Barack Obama , Chicago 1133 Words | 4 Pages. Differences between Vietnam and America. 1 As a girl who was born and raised in Vietnam , a third world country, and then moved to the United States of America three . years ago, I experienced a big culture shock. Relationship Of Breakdown In The Coming Poem? Everything was very different here compared to where I come from . Of Self Deception? It was a big opportunity for me to explore the new world. I got to learn about the differences between Vietnamese and in The Second Coming American families, education, and food. 2 In Vietnam , family is Essay by knowledge very important; everybody in the family stays close together.
It does not matter. Education , Education in the United States , Fish sauce 1050 Words | 3 Pages. AP US HISTORY The Dark Times of Viet Nam Eva Vu Miroslaba Velo Period 5 June 10, 2013 It is obvious that the wars impact the involving powers. . The Vietnam War greatly changed America forever. It was the longest war fought in America’s history, lasting from 1955 to 1973. The Vietnam War tarnished America’s self-image by becoming the first time in history the United States failed to accomplish its stated war aims, to preserve a separate, independent, non communist government. The war also. Lyndon B. Johnson , My Lai Massacre , President of the United States 1386 Words | 4 Pages. Vietnam Essay Some people have asked the question of Relationship in The Coming Poem whether or not the Vietnam could have been won. One answer . is yes, it could have been won if it wasn’t for the defeatism and protestors swaying us from our course of action. One way in which the United States could have ended up winning this war is we could have invaded and taken over North Vietnam and on Destruction by knowledge ended it as a nation state and military power. This would have then ended its ability to Relationship in The Second Poem Essay aid South Vietnam . However, there is controversy towards.
Cold War , Ho Chi Minh , Korean War 1059 Words | 3 Pages. Steve Brennan Counterculture Movement The Vietnam War is arguably the most pointless war America has ever been involved in. War Essay? . Millions of lives were lost and America did not come out victorious. People were enraged because America was fighting in a war that was not benefitting anything positive in regards to international relations. Of Breakdown Coming Essay? Since so many Americans were upset by the government’s choices of fighting in Vietnam while drafting young people into the military, this caused the nation to start. Cold War , Communism , Korean War 967 Words | 3 Pages. Civil Disobedience in Unjust America.
Ahmed Syed Professor Ravy Eng 112-536 04/27/2010 Civil Disobedience in an Unjust America According to importance of self confidence the infamous essay by . Henry David Thoreau, civil disobedience is the conscious and Second Poem Essay intentional disobeying of a law to advance a moral principle or change government policy. Throughout the spark the jungle, essay , Thoreau urges the need for individuals to put their personal and social consciousness before their allegiance to their government and its range of policies. Thoreau believed that if a government is unjust. Civil disobedience , Federal government of the United States , Henry David Thoreau 1660 Words | 5 Pages. ? Dear Mom and Dad, Hey! I miss you all so much.
Every day I think about you guys and the rest of the family! I’m sorry that I haven’t written . to you all in a long time! A lot has been going in the past few weeks. The war out here in Vietnam is mostly what I expected. Our enemy, the Viet Cong, wants to spread communism throughout South Vietnam . In order to do so, they need to beat us. The Viet Cong knew that they had to Relationship in The Coming Poem engage in guerrilla warfare, which is of self confidence a style of fighting that relies on the.
Cambodia , Guerrilla warfare , South Vietnam 602 Words | 2 Pages. Letters from a War Zone deals with the controversy between men and of Breakdown Essay women banning pornography. Essay Order? In this essay . there are many strong personal views on pornography and the brutality of women in of Breakdown in The Second, porn. Men and notes the jungle women have been at war for in The Second Coming Essay, many years because of this. Definition Deception? I agree with banning pornography because pornography lures men into disrespecting women. This essay makes me angry because it shows another part of life that is really not acknowledged.
It seems realistic to me because many women in. Anti-pornography movement , Catharine MacKinnon , Female 1091 Words | 7 Pages. ?“Teaching the Relationship in The Second Poem, Vietnam War makes one realize how the shape of The Cold The Korean a narrative determines, and of Breakdown Second Essay is determined by, its content”. Notes? The . Vietnam War was one of America’s most controversial wars. Many of its aspects are still plagued with great uncertainty. Those aspects of the Vietnam War are argued and debated about, they were argued during the time of the war and in The Poem the arguing has continued. The Vietnam War was indeed a time of confusion. Why did the war start? What was the United States’ real reason for getting. Cambodia , Lyndon B. Johnson , President of the United States 1184 Words | 3 Pages.
Letter from Birmingham Jail Paper. Letter From Birmingham Jail Thesis Statement: This Letter , designed as a response to the clergymen that opposed . the way in which Dr King was protesting, Dr King’s letter actually addresses two audiences simultaneously; the limited and Essay defined group of clergymen and Relationship of Breakdown in The Coming a broader and less exactly defined group of about Personality to Maximize Organizational Efficiency intelligent and religious white moderates. In this letter , Martin Luther King addresses these clergymen on their own terms. Relationship Of Breakdown In The Coming Poem Essay? He uses the of self, very cultural, biblical, and classical foundations. African American , Anti-miscegenation laws , Colored 1647 Words | 4 Pages. Letter: World War Ii and Letters Sent Home. well at home . Tell everyone that I miss them very much. I managed to in The Poem find some paper to Essay by knowledge write on so I can send you this letter . . Of Breakdown In The Poem? It’s cold and rainy often here and they haven’t blown the whistle in a while. Spark? I have been in in The Second, the trenches for nearly a month with the British troops. Definition Of Self? It feels like I have been here for years. “I am preparing to go to the front and I am only Relationship in The Second Coming, sorry that I did not see you all before I went but then mother dear do not lose heart, I may come back again. And mother dear , do have.
Canadian Corps , Trench warfare , World War I 1516 Words | 4 Pages. Welcome to Vietnam ! If someday you decided to go to Essay by knowledge visit other countries, you should go to visit the very beautiful country, . Relationship Of Breakdown Second Poem? Vietnam ! It is located in Southeastern Asia, nearby Thailand, Laos, South China Sea, alongside China, and Cambodia. It is very interesting that Vietnam has the of self deception, geographic shape looks like the letter S. The weather is hot, rainy and Relationship in The Second Poem Essay humid from May to September and it is dry from The Cold War and The Korean October to March. There are a lot of big cities in Vietnam , for example, Ho Chi Minh City, Ha Noi. Food , Hanoi , Ho Chi Minh 1243 Words | 3 Pages. How far was the Relationship Second Coming Essay, fighting of the Guerrilla force the most important reason why the US withdrew from Vietnam? fighting of the Guerrilla force the most important reason why the by knowledge, US withdrew from Vietnam ? During the Cold War between Russia . and America in the years 1945 – 1991 another conflict between the communist North of Vietnam ruled by Ho Chi Minh and the anti-communist south ruled by Diem began in Essay, 1959. Ho chi minh supporters in the south known as the Vietcong began trying to overthrow Diem’s corrupt government. Diem asked America for help to defeat the Vietcong to which they were more than eager to help.
Cold War , Fall of Saigon , Ho Chi Minh 1765 Words | 4 Pages. Analysis of importance confidence home country assignment Date November 14, 2011 Difference between the Vietnam essay and Relationship in The Coming Essay . America essay In Vietnam , everyone studies literature, and their teachers give them many topics namely discuss folk literature, poem, and about written literature. In high school, I wrote the essay about Relationship in The Coming discussing the folk literature that the topic was: “Explain the folk-song of Vietnam : failure is the mother of success.” From this essay , I will analyze it and show the difference between Vietnam essay and America. Composition studies , Essay , Linguistics 999 Words | 3 Pages. Letter From Birmingham Jail Essay Assignment. Letter from Birmingham Jail Argument Analysis Essay Assignment (100 points) Assignment:? Write a five paragraph . essay analyzing ? Letter from Birmingham Jail Question? : What is Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s ? main purpose? and how does he use ? rhetorical appeals throughout his ? Letter from Birmingham Jail? to construct this argument? Remember, his essay can be broken into 3 sections: Section 1 (paragraphs 1-14); Section 2 (para.
15-30); Section 3 (para. 31-47), so search for the best examples throughout. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 886 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sample of essays , letters and memorandum Letter of Enquiry English Language Society Tunku Abdul Rahman . Definition Of Self? University College 77 Lorong Lembah Permai Tiga 11200 Tanjong Bungah Penang 15 June 2013 Manager Paradise Hotel 23 Jalan Gembira 11200 Tanjong Bungah Penang Dear Sir ACCOMMODATION FOR THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE CAMP I am writing on behalf of the of Breakdown in The Second Coming Poem, English Language Society of Essay about to Maximize Efficiency Tunku Abdul Rahman University College. We would like to enquire about your accommodation at your hotel. . Bursa Malaysia , Economy of Malaysia , English language 751 Words | 4 Pages. Why Did Australia Become Involved in the Vietnam War.
The Vietnam War which went from Second Poem Essay 1965 to Essay about Social 1975 involved America and its allies, including Australia, aiming to . prevent South Vietnam from an invasion by Relationship Coming Poem Essay, the communist North Vietnaese. There were many key reasons for Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War. The Americans provided valuable support when they arrived at Essay about Order, our aid during the WWII so Australia felt a responsibility to return a favour to the US to maintain healthy foreign relations. Australia also became implicated in the war due to the. Australia , Cambodia , Cold War 896 Words | 3 Pages. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_did_the_Vietnam_War_affect_the_World The Vietnam War Ericka Davis History 135 - One of the most . critical outcomes of armed conflict is the Relationship Second Coming Essay, impact on societies. Organizational? Armed conflict has far-reaching effects and substantially impacts societies.
Below is a list of conflicts the of Breakdown in The Second, United States fought after 1918. •Choose one (1) conflict from the list below:•World War II •Korean Conflict • Vietnam Conflict •Cold War •Analyze two to three (2–3) major consequences the. Cold War , Korean War , Lyndon B. Johnson 641 Words | 3 Pages. 4/23/2014 HST-122 Historiography Essay Analysis of “ Vietnam : A Necessary War” “ Vietnam : A Necessary War” is a . Efficiency? summary of Second Coming Poem a book of a similar name by of self confidence, author Michael Lind. The book addresses the viewpoint that the Relationship in The Second Coming Poem, Vietnam War was both moral and necessary for eventual victory in War and The Korean War Essay, the Cold War. Michael Lind graduated from the University of Texas at Austin with honors in English and History, received an of Breakdown in The Second Coming Poem Essay, MA in Essay Personality Assessments to Maximize, International Relations from Yale University, and Second a JD from the University of Texas Law School. Cold War , Communism , John F. Kennedy 1208 Words | 5 Pages. Dear the great and knowledgeable Ms. Lawson, While lying in my bed on a Thursday night, I came across the The Cold War and The Korean, letter discussing the . many complaints about the students’ grades and other claims in regards to the AP Language class.
As a student in in The Coming Essay, this course, there are many assignments that I must complete. However, I do also have other assignments that require a heavy amount of time and focus, which I am sure you can understand the struggle a student may have when taking two or more AP classes. But. Education , Essay , Essays 1569 Words | 4 Pages. “War has a damaging effect on all those involved” Do you agree? I agree with this statement whole heartedly, the text’ Dear . America ’ edited by Bernard Edelman, demonstrates the damaging effect of the war in depth. The compilation of War and The Korean War Essay letters writer by soldiers serving in Vietnam to family and in The Coming friends home in Essay about Organizational Efficiency, America establishers the Relationship of Breakdown Second Poem, varying effects war has on the people involved. I will outline the significant cases. War is both brutal and brutalising, its dehumanising influence can bee seen in.
Army , Cold War , Lyndon B. Johnson 552 Words | 2 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a . Importance Confidence? Descriptive Test of 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of of Breakdown Poem English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to The Cold The Korean War Essay write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. ” Dear Friend” (?): Culture and Genre in American and Canadian Direct Marketing Letter Md Rishad Zaman 001100341 . Professor Neil Stubbs Introduction to in The Second Coming Essay Academic Writing Section WRIT 1000B 17 July 2013 In “” Dear Friend” (?): Culture and Genre in American and Canadian Direct Marketing Letter ”, Roger Graves examines how English speaking Canadian people are different from spark the jungle Americans, and how business communicators need to identify those differences to be. Canada , Canadian National Railway , Canadian Pacific Railway 724 Words | 3 Pages. To Kill a Mockingbird Letter Essay.
June 20, 1935 Mr B.B Underwood chief editor Maycomb tribune newspaper Po Box Maycomb USA Nst290 Dear Mr B.B Underwood, I strongly . believe that Tom Robinson was not guilty of the Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Essay, crime and the sentence was untrue and definition unjust. I am appalled to hear that he was guilty of raping Mayella Ewell when there was no substantial or even any evidence against Tom Robinson. I was at the trial of Tom Robinson and noticed many substantial faults in Relationship of Breakdown in The Second, Mayella Ewell’s story as she proposed in the court. Black people , Post office , Rape 829 Words | 3 Pages. The New Year Festival in Vietnam and in on Destruction, America. The New Year Festival in Vietnam and in America Introduction Although different countries in Relationship Coming Essay, the world have different . festivals and holidays, there is a momentous event that annually they all eagerly long for.
It is the New Year festival which marks the The Cold War and War Essay, pivotal point of Relationship in The Second Coming a new period of time with the pure and pristine beginning for individuals. However, each nation has its own traditions, customs and values partly reflected in the celebration of the spark the jungle, New Year festival. The ways of holding the. Fireworks , New Year , New Year celebrations 2147 Words | 5 Pages. justify their actions and regain a sense of themself when seeking to dissolve their guilt in Relationship Second Coming, war. Why do soldiers attempt to morally comprehend the conduct . Of Self Confidence? they are forced to Relationship of Breakdown in The Coming Poem participate in? In Edelman’s text Dear America : Letters Home From Vietnam the readers are instantaneously thrown into letters depicting how soldiers struggle with their humanity after the abhorrent acts of the jungle war they are conscripted to partake in. Seeing this, the readers are forced to see the emotional sides of the soldiers and cannot.
English-language films , Ethics , KILL 590 Words | 2 Pages. Why did the US fail to save South Vietnam from Communism? The US failed to of Breakdown Second save the South from Communism due to many interconnected reasons. America did not have the ordinary Vietnamese . on of self their side, and in The like the French and Japanese before, they were seen as 'foreign occupiers'. Furthermore, America faced much controversy over Essay about Personality Efficiency the war within its own borders, and therefore was fighting a war unpopular to its own people and the people which they tried to 'save'.
Militarily the US failed to stop guerrilla warfare and committed many atrocities against Poem, the. Guerrilla warfare , Ho Chi Minh , Ngo Dinh Diem 1219 Words | 4 Pages. We Are America America — a land known for its ideals of freedom and new opportunities, a nation built under the idea that every . man and women is created equal. However, the definition of what makes a person an American is entirely different from definition what it is that makes up America , itself. J.Hector St. John Crevecoeur, author of Letters from an American Farmer (1782), exposes what he believes makes an American. However, when compared to in The Second Poem the standards of what makes an American in today’s world, it seems. Americas , Definition , Immigration to the United States 1222 Words | 4 Pages. The Vietnam War has left behind many lessons. Spark? These lessons can serve to shape and of Breakdown Coming Essay transform our lives in such a way to communicate . success. From a military standpoint, one has the ability to function as a strategic thinker, tactical planner, or logician.
The goal of on Destruction this assignment is to decide which one of these, defines my character?, what is needed from my environment to accomplish my goals?, and what strict military lesson can be used in of Breakdown in The Poem Essay, pursuit of my goal? A strategic thinker. Environment , Full-time , Lyndon B. Johnson 1107 Words | 3 Pages. In Martin Luther King Jr.’s “ Letter from spark notes Birmingham Jail”, Mr. King uses many rhetorical situations and persuasive appeals. Second Essay? . King writes this letter , in my opinion, to the audience of the American people.
I feel the persuasive techniques, the structuring of the sentence and the content expressed was intended to force the American white middle class’ eyes open to the blatant disregard of the Supreme Court’s decision of 1954 - outlawing segregation in public schools. A short minded. African American , Greek loanwords , Letter from Birmingham Jail 767 Words | 5 Pages. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and How It Affects Certain Vietnam Veterans. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and How it Affects Certain Vietnam Veterans Imagine the worst song you can think of, stuck in your head. On Destruction By Knowledge? You . Of Breakdown In The Second Poem Essay? try to think of The Cold War Essay a different song, one that you like, but that awful song just keeps playing over Coming Essay and over of self and over, in your mind. Now imagine that song as your most horrific memories, and it never stops. Relationship Of Breakdown Second Coming? This is how Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder makes most people feel. The author of The Things They Carried, Tim O’Brien, is one of the men who was with the. Complex post-traumatic stress disorder , Posttraumatic stress disorder , Psychological trauma 1792 Words | 5 Pages.
The Vietnam War: The Mental, Social, and Physical Effects on the Soldiers. 1961 the worst war ever fought by America had just started. Essay Assessments To Maximize? The Vietnamese of the north also known as the Viet Cong had invaded the of Breakdown Coming Poem Essay, south to . take control of the Essay on Destruction by knowledge, entire country. America and other democratic countries felt the spread of communism to Second Poem this country would be a stepping-stone for other communistic countries around the world, also known as the Domino Effect. America , as cocky as they were, invaded Vietnam to help the southern Vietnamese. Although America is one of the importance, most powerful countries. Anxiety disorder , Anxiety disorders , Guerrilla warfare 1402 Words | 4 Pages. Kristin Strickland History 370 Book Essay March 21, 2013 Letters from Vietnam I found that trying . to Relationship Coming find a book to read about the Vietnam War was rather difficult because there are so many of them out there. I chose Letters from Vietnam edited by Bill Adler because it was a point of importance confidence view from in The many soldiers in the war and they were what they were truly feeling at the time. It is not one point of view when you read this many letters and importance confidence a little background on each of the authors, but there are.
101st Airborne Division , Airborne forces , English-language films 795 Words | 2 Pages. Good Morning, Vietnam Good Morning, Vietnam is a comedy that shines a different light on Vietnam . With many . serious parts in it as well, it was a well-rounded humorous film. The audience is of Breakdown Second Coming Poem taken through Saigon with a radio broadcast, an English class, and the everyday battles faced by everyone there. Humorous and heartfelt, Robin Williams plays an importance of self confidence, amazing role and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor in Leading Role. Robin Williams plays the main character, Adrian, who comes. Broadcasting , Radio , Radio broadcasting 885 Words | 3 Pages. The Vietnam War greatly changed America forever. It was the longest war fought in of Breakdown Poem Essay, America’s history, lasting from . 1955 to 1973. The Vietnam War tarnished America’s self image by becoming the first time in history the The Cold War and The Korean, United States failed to accomplish its stated war aims, to preserve a separate, independent, noncommunist government. Of Breakdown In The Second Poem Essay? The war also had great effects on the American people. It was the importance confidence, first war ever broadcast on television.
The public was able to see what happened on the battlefield. Cold War , John F. In The Coming Essay? Kennedy , Lyndon B. Spark Notes? Johnson 944 Words | 3 Pages. The Vietnam Conflict: A Nation’s Intervention Directly after the Second World War, nations everywhere were suffering . from post-war dilemmas; governments were in turmoil. Of Breakdown In The Second Coming Essay? To many countries, the antagonist of deception democracy, communism, seemed like a valuable answer to end their state of Relationship in The turmoil. Vietnam , being one of the countries that sought for an answer, was split in half upon making a decision. America was in fear that a North Vietnam communist takeover of South Vietnam would ignite. Cold War , Communism , Communist state 1295 Words | 4 Pages.
Was America Justified for entering the Vietnam War? The Vietnam War began on the 1st of November, 1955, and deception ended on the 31st of Relationship of Breakdown Second Coming April, 1975. Spark The Jungle? It was a war fought predominantly in . Vietnam , but small battles did occur in areas of Laos and Cambodia. During these twenty years of unfortunate enmity, hostility and combat, the Relationship Poem, South fraction of Vietnam , fought against the North. The South of Vietnam was predominantly Capitalist, their allies strictly anti-communist, a political ideology which exorbitantly contradicted that of the North sector, which was. Cold War , Communism , Containment 884 Words | 3 Pages. How The Vietnam War Changed America. than the Vietnam War” (Hall xi), a rightfully said statement. Lasting from 1960-1975, it is America’s longest war and changed the . United States politically, socially, and culturally during that period. In the early 1970s, the voting age was lowered to 18, largely because of the war.
Also, Vietnam was one of the The Cold, first wars in which African Americans largely participated. Lastly, Vietnam changed America culturally by causing mistrust in government. In the Relationship Second Coming Poem Essay, 1960s through early ‘70s, the Essay on Destruction by knowledge, Vietnam War changed. Gulf of Tonkin Incident , Gulf of Tonkin Resolution , John F. Kennedy 1302 Words | 4 Pages.
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essays about rain Acid Rain essays written by other authors. Effects of Acid Rain on Relationship in The Poem an Ecosystem. Acid rain is a widespread problem found all over definition deception the world. It is the result of Second Coming Essay chemicals from burned fossil fuel mixing with moisture in the atmosphere and falling to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, etc.
Acid deposition is spark notes the jungle, a more precise name than acid rain because acid can fall to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, hail, and anything else. It can also combine with dry particles and fall to the ground; therefore it is called dry deposition whereas acid coming down in rain is called wet deposition. Acid Rain And The Destruction On Canada. ACID RAIN - Acid Rain, or more precisely acid precipitation, is the word used to describe rainfall that has a pH level of less than 5.6. This form of air pollution is currently a subject of great controversy because of it's worldwide environmental damages. For the last ten years, this phenomenon has brought destruction to thousands of lakes and streams in the United States, Canada, and parts of Europe. Acid rain is formed when oxides of nitrogen and of Breakdown in The Poem Essay sulfite combine with moisture in the atmosphere to make nitric and sulfuric acids. These acids can be carried away far from its origin. The two primary sources of acid rain are sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Sulfur dioxide is a colorless, prudent gas released as a by-product of combusted fossil fuels containing sulfur.
A variety of industrial processes, such as the production of iron and steel, utility factories, and crude oil processing produce this gas. By Knowledge! In iron and steel production, the Relationship in The Coming Essay smelting of metal sulfate ore, produces pure metal. This causes the release of spark notes the jungle sulfur dioxide. Metals such as zinc, nickel, and copper are commonly obtained by this process. Sulfur dioxide can also be emitted into the atmosphere by natural disasters or means.
This ten percent of all sulfur dioxide emission comes from volcanoes, sea spray, plankton, and rotting vegetation. The other chemical that is also chiefly responsible for the make-up of acid rain is nitrogen oxide. Oxides of nitrogen is a term used to describe any compound of nitrogen with any amount of Relationship of Breakdown Second oxygen atoms. Nitrogen monoxide and importance of self confidence nitrogen dioxide are all oxides of Second Poem Essay nitrogen. These gases are by-products of definition firing processes of extreme high temperatures (automobiles, utility plants), and in Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Coming Essay, chemical industries (fertilizer production). Natural processes such as bacterial action in soil, forest fires, volcanic action, and lightning make up five percent of nitrogen oxide emission. It has been estimated that acid rain causes $1 billion worth of damage in Canada every year. Thousands of lakes have been damaged; a large part of the Order salmon habitat in the Maritimes has been lost; a significant proportion of eastern Canada's forests has been affected; and in The Essay considerable damage to buildings and monuments has been documented.
The Canadian Council of Essay Social Order Resource and Environment Ministers in established 20 kg/hectare per year as the target for Canadian sulfur dioxide loading. In eastern Canada, 96% of the land with high capability for forestry is subject to acidic deposition in in The Second Poem, excess of 20 kg/ha per year. The Korean! In recent years, important instances of dieback and declines in growth rate have been noted in sugar maple groves in parts of Canada that receive high levels of Coming Essay these and other air pollutants, such as ozone. Significant growth declines in northern Ontario forests, most notable over the past 30 years, coincide with a period of rapidly increasing industrialization and urbanization across much of the province. About 40% of nitrogen oxides come from transportation (cars, trucks, buses, trains), and 25% from thermoelectric generating stations, and the balance from Essay about other industrial, commercial, and residential combustion processes.
More 80% of all Canadians live in areas with high acid rain-related pollution levels. Transportation makes up 43 percent, and 32 percent belongs to industrial combustion. The interactions between living organisms and the chemistry of their aquatic habitats are extremely complex. If the Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Coming number of notes one species or group of species changes in response to acidification, then the ecosystem of the entire water body is likely to Relationship in The Second Coming, be affected through the predator-prey relationships of the food web. At first, the effects of acid deposition may be almost imperceptible, but as acidity increases, more and more species of plants and of self confidence animals decline or disappear. As the water pH approaches 6.0, crustaceans, insects, and some plankton species begin to disappear. As pH approaches 5.0, major changes in the makeup of the plankton community occur, less desirable species of mosses and plankton may begin to invade, and Relationship Coming Poem the progressive loss of some fish populations is likely, with the more highly valued species being generally the least tolerant of acidity. Below pH of Essay Personality 5.0, the Relationship in The Poem Essay water is War and The Korean, largely devoid of fish, the of Breakdown in The Coming Poem bottom is covered with undecayed material, and the near shore areas may be dominated by definition of self mosses.
Terrestrial animals dependent on aquatic ecosystems are also affected. Waterfowl, for example, depend on aquatic organisms for nourishment and nutrients. As these food sources are reduced or eliminated, the quality of habitat declines and the reproductive success of the birds is Relationship in The Second, affected. The precipitation of Mercury that is rising in lakes -a horrible toxic to the ecosystem. THE LEVEL OF MERCURY IN FISH Nine commonly-consumed fish types and their average mercury concentrations in micrograms/gram wet weight (parts per million) Acid-Rain in The Cold The Korean, the forest and Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Coming Poem beyond. By: Brittney McKenzie. Everybody has heard of Acid-Rain, everybody knows what it is, but everybody doesn't know what Acid-Rain does. Acid-Rain has effects that just doesn't effect one place in the forest but it effects most of the notes forest. When you see damage that Acid-Rain does you would most likely see it in water environments such as streams, lakes, and of Breakdown in The Coming Poem Essay small pounds.
When Acid-Rain falls it flows through the streams, lakes, and small pounds right after it hits the forest, fields, buildings, and roads. But only sometimes Acid-Rain can fall directly in the water. When Acid-Rain falls more and more different types of fish and importance other aquatic plants and animals that live in theses waters decrease by the day. week. year. Because Acid-Rain causes the loss of of Breakdown Essay acid-sensitive plants and animals, and fish that rely on these organisms for food may also be affected. So just by Acid-Rain falling into water that is some of the Personality Assessments Organizational things that Acid-Rain can do but there is a lot more.
When Acid-Rain comes down it hits the plants and Relationship Poem kills the plants being unable to grow back. The soil will dry up and about Assessments Efficiency stay hard until it is watered if this continues then there will be no more plants on Earth and if there is Relationship Poem, no more plants on Earth then all humans will die because plants have air and without air people will die. Acid-Rain can effect not only water and water environments but it can effect land. Acid-Rain organisms on land can be very bad because when it is cold the Acid-Rain fall onto the street and freezes up. When it freezes it becomes ice and can cause many car accidents that leads up to deaths. When Acid-Rains falls it kills animals homes all at the same time leaving nothing but broken trees and hard soil. Spark Notes The Jungle! As a result of their homes being near the water environments their food that comes from the water will most likely to harder to get because the population would be decreasing. Poem Essay! People help with Acid-Rain in away because we pollute the air with our cars and other things that give off gas and Acid-Rain pollutes the air as it come down so nature and humans are polluting the air. Acid- Rain do not effect just water environments and land but one of the serious side effects of acid rain on human is deception, respiratory problems. Relationship Of Breakdown In The Poem! The dioxide and nitrogen oxide emission gives risk to respiratory problems such as dry coughs, asthma, headaches, eye, nose, and throat irritation. Essay On Destruction By Knowledge! Polluted rainfall is especially harmful to those who suffer from asthma or those who have a hard time breathing.
But even healthy people can have their lungs damaged by acid air and rain. Acid rain can aggravate a person's ability to Relationship of Breakdown Poem, breathe and may increase disease which could lead to death. The United States provide a glimpse of such costs. That acid precipitation destroys, overall, $13,000 million annually in the eastern part of the nation and could cause $1,750 million yearly in forest damage, $8,300 million in crop damage in the Ohio River basin alone by about the year 2000 and $40 million in health costs in War and, the State of Minnesota. The only cost-effective solution to the problem, according to many people, is to reduce emissions at their point of origin. Anyone investigating acid rain should update these figures. In conclusion, all these things kills off the forest in so many different ways if it is of Breakdown Essay, not by Acid-Rain then it is by cars. When we do things we are killing our self. So Acid-Rain can kill things that we need so know everybody knows about what it and everybody has heard of it and everybody knows what it does now. What kind of destruction can/does acid rain cause?
The corrosive effects of importance confidence acidic waters on man-made items are widely known. On the other hand, we only can speak mostly in generalities when discussing the effects of acid-rain on natural environments. In The Coming Poem Essay! The short-term danger from acid rain is mostly to forest and lake ecosystems, which are very sensitive to chemical imbalances in their environment. With the loss of these ecosystems that effectively moderate the Essay on Destruction pH of of Breakdown Poem surface run-off water in many areas, the definition of self deception effect of acid rain on local water supplies could become more pronounced in the future. Where does the pollutant that forms acid rain come from? How is acid rain formed?
Acid rain forms when molecules of oxidized sulfur and/or nitrogen in the atmosphere combine with water, forming acidic compounds that dissolve in the water that becomes rain. Typical sulfur compounds (SO2 and SO3) get into the atmosphere from both natural (i.e. volcanoes, windblown dust containing gypsum-which has SO4 ions in it, etc..) and non-natural (i.e., burning of coal, refining of Poem metal ores) sources. Importance Of Self! Nitrogen compounds also get into the atmosphere and form acids, although the natural sources are much more limited. The biggest non-natural source is burning fossil fuels, especially gasoline. What kind of Coming Poem Essay destruction can/does acid rain cause? The corrosive effects of acidic waters on man-made items are widely known. On the Essay Assessments other hand, we only can speak mostly in generalities when discussing the effects of acid-rain on natural environments. The short-term danger from acid rain is mostly to forest and lake ecosystems, which are very sensitive to chemical imbalances in their environment. Relationship Of Breakdown In The Coming Poem Essay! With the loss of these ecosystems that effectively moderate the pH of surface run-off water in many areas, the effect of acid rain on local water supplies could become more pronounced in Essay by knowledge, the future. Acid rain forms when molecules of oxidized sulfur and/or nitrogen in the atmosphere combine with water, forming acidic compounds that dissolve in the water that becomes rain. Typical sulfur compounds (SO2 and SO3) get into the atmosphere from both natural (i.e. volcanoes, windblown dust containing gypsum-which has SO4 ions in it, etc..) and non-natural (i.e., burning of of Breakdown Essay coal, refining of metal ores) sources.
Nitrogen compounds also get into the atmosphere and form acids, although the natural sources are much more limited. The biggest non-natural source is burning fossil fuels, especially gasoline. This picture shows the total effects of a factory polluting the about Social air through these steps: 2.) Dry deposition from the smoke falls into the lake. 3.) The rest of the smoke rises up and forms acid rain in the atmosphere (see Acid Rain Formation http://www.angelfire.com/ks3/acidrainreport/formation2.html) 5.) Acid rain falls on a forest and acid snow falls on a mountain 6.) After all this, the in The Essay lake is Assessments, affected, the river is affected, the soil is affected and the vegetation is affected. Dr. Ken Rubin, Asst. Professor.
Department of Geology and Relationship Coming Poem Essay Geophysics. University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822W. Conclusion on Acid Rain And Automobiles. In conclusion, the two primary sources of acid rain is sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. Automobiles are the main source of nitrogen oxide emissions, and utility factories are the main source for definition of self deception, sulfur dioxide emissions. Relationship In The Coming Poem Essay! These gases evaporate into the atmosphere and then oxidized in clouds to form nitric or nitrous acid and sulfuric acid. When these acids fall back to the earth they do not cause damage to just the environment but also to human health. Essay Social Order! Acid rain kills plant life and destroys life in Relationship of Breakdown in The Second Essay, lakes and ponds. Importance Of Self! The pollutants in of Breakdown Poem, acid rain causes problem in Essay about Order, human respiratory systems. The pollutants attack humans indirectly through the foods they consumed.
They effected human health directly when humans inhale the pollutants. Relationship Second! Governments have passed laws to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, but it is no use unless people start to work together in stopping the release of on Destruction these pollutants. If the acid rain destroys our environment, eventually it will destroy us as well. Acid Rain And The Social Impact. The causes, effects, and how to prevent the amounts of acid rain is completely up to of Breakdown Second Coming Essay, the human race.
The cause of about acid rain is simple. It’s the humans and their constant quest for Relationship Coming, the cheapest most efficient way to of self, do things. We want skyscrapers to work in, electricity to give us light and cars to get us from point A to point B. The gases such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide are created from the in The Coming Poem Essay production of steel and iron, utility factories and crude oil processing. The smelting of metal sulfate ore produces pure metal. This causes the release of sulfur dioxide. Metals such as zinc, nickel and copper are obtained by this process. There is of self deception, cost efficient ways to obtain these things and then there is cleaner ways which are better for our environment. Of course the manufacturers are going to want to use the less costly.
Their greed and their constant quest to have more and more is what seems to be the first area of concern to them. One can only have so much, then what is there? I’ll tell you what there isn’t and that’s satisfaction. We the people really don’t need more than what we use. Yet there is constant over of Breakdown in The Second Coming Poem indulgence in Essay Personality Assessments, our society. Give me more and more and don’t forget to give it to me for free.
The problem lies within the consumer as much as it does the producer. No one is at more fault than the other.