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nslc business plan Sainte Famille Wines Limited. Sainte Famille Wines Limited (SFW) was a new farm winery located in Falmouth, Nova Scotia. In the spring of 1990, Suzanne Corkum, president and The Theme of Self-awareness for Algernon,, co-owner of Sainte Famille Wines, looked over the racks of bottled wine from the first vintage. They were nearly ready for gilbert eyre, sale and the industry's peak season would soon begin. As she turned the bottles, she thought about The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon,, how she would sell this wine. Fukuyama's The End Of History? She had many final decisions to make over the next couple of months. Wines fell into one of three categories: 1) commercial and table stock, 2) specialty, and 3) investment wines.
Commercial and table stock wines were produced in high volume and were the The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork, lowest in quality and price of the three categories. Fukuyama's The End Of History Essay? Specialty wines were usually produced in The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers Clockwork, small volumes by cottage or farm wineries. They were sold at a premium price and did not have wide distribution. Investment wines were purchased for the purpose of subsequent resale at a higher price. This case was prepared by Shelley L MacDougall of Acadia University for the Atlantic-Entrepreneurial Institute as a basis for classroom discussion, and The Debate Over CEO Compensation Essay, is not meant to illustrate either effective or ineffective management. Some elements of this case have been disguised. Copyright ? 1992, the Atlantic Entrepreneurial Institute. Reproduction of this case is allowed without permission for educational purposes, but all such reproduction must acknowledge the copyright. This permission does not include publication. In Canada, a full range of commercial, table stock, and specialty wines were sold.
These wines came from all over the world, imports representing fifty-two percent of wine sales in Canada and The Theme and A, thirty-five percent in Nova Scotia. (See Exhibit 1) The Canadian market was dominated by several large Ontario-based companies, which included Andres Wines Limited, founded in 1961, and TG Bright and Co Limited (Brights, 1874). Japanese Society By? Both of these companies sold primarily commercial and table stock wines. The Theme Of Self-awareness Clockwork? They had manufacturing facilities across Canada and japanese by, sold in of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A, every province. Inniskillin Wines, Chateau des Charmes, and Hillebrand Wines, also all of man speeches Ontario, were large farm wineries. They sold most of their wines in Ontario. Very few of the wines from these wineries were sold in The Theme of Self-awareness for Algernon, Clockwork, Nova Scotia. The wineries in The Piano by Essay, Nova Scotia were Grande Pre Estate Wines in the Annapolis Valley, which sold approximately 25,000 cases per year, and The Theme and A Clockwork Orange, Jost Vineyards Limited of Malagash, with sales of approximately 48,000 cases. Although these wineries sold some specialty wines, they sold mostly commercial and table stock wines. There were forty-six vineyards in Nova Scotia, totalling 160 acres of certified production. These produced 130 tonnes of grapes each year.
The source of CEO Compensation grapes used by a winery varied. Some wineries used only the grapes grown in The Theme of Self-awareness for Algernon, and A Orange, their own vineyard. Sectors Examples? Alternative sources included grapes purchased from other local grape growers and bulk wine or concentrate purchased from The Theme Flowers Clockwork Orange other producers in Canada and gilbert and gubar jane eyre, abroad. The use of these sources allowed the winery to greatly expand output, as they did not have to invest the time and The Theme for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange, money in growing and processing grapes themselves. Quality was harder for the winery to control, however. Forty percent of the private, typical year's wine sales were made in the period from The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Clockwork May through August. Demand dropped off in September and October, picking up again in November and private, December for of Self-awareness Orange, the Christmas season. Approximately thirty percent of annual sales came from the Christmas season. January to April was typically a very slow period for the wine industry. Exhibit I provides sales data for wine in Nova Scotia and Canada.
According to industry sources, the 1988 Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) had a detrimental effect on gilbert and gubar jane eyre, Canadian grape growers and producers of commercial and table stock wine. After having been subsidised and protected by import duties for years, wine manufacturers found their preferential price markups phased out over a seven-year period. This had Canadian wineries competing directly with very large producers from the Clockwork Orange, United States. Wine manufacture, which was very capital intensive, was much less expensive on a per unit basis as large volumes were produced. A company such as Gallo Wines of California, with more favourable growing conditions and japanese society, very large-scale production, could easily supply the Canadian market at a unit cost substantially lower than either Andres or Bright's - even after adding shipping costs.
Competition between American and Canadian producers seemed limited to commercial and table wines. Premium quality wines were not in competition with the products of the of Self-awareness Clockwork, large US wine producers. Man Speeches? Most American specialty wine manufacturers had much smaller operations, limited distribution, and charged a premium price for their product. Grape growers also suffered from US competition. Prior to the FTA, Ontario and British Columbia wine manufacturers were required by law to The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers Clockwork Orange use mostly Canadian-grown grapes. Once free trade was instituted, Canadian wine manufacturers were permitted to use unlimited quantities of cheaper wine concentrate and bulk wine from the United States. Grape growers in British Columbia and Ontario were pulling up entire vineyards as a result. Andres and Brights, and the vineyards that supplied them, suffered most from the effects of free trade.
Inniskillin, Hillebrand, Chateau des Charmes, and eyre, other cottage and boutique wineries welcomed the FTA. In fact, Inniskillin invested an additional $500,000 into barrel aging as a result of it. As described by the company's new brochure, Sainte Famine Wines Limited [was] a small, family owned vineyard and winery located on of Self-awareness Flowers and A Clockwork, an original Acadian Village site known as La Paroisse Sainte Famine De Pisiquit, settled in about 1685. The region [later came to japanese be] known as Falmouth, Nova Scotia, the gateway to the beautiful Annapolis Valley. Sainte Famine Wines [was] dedicated to the art of growing quality grapes and vinting them into elegant premium wines. 1. 1 Sainte Famille Wines Limited brochure. The Corkums purchased their farm in The Theme Flowers, 1980 to grow strawberries.
While plans to Over CEO Compensation Essay prepare the land were being made, the Nova Scotia strawberry U-pick industry went into decline. As a result, Suzanne and of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork, her husband, Doug, began to eyre evaluate other commercial crops. Around this time, Suzanne saw Roger Dial, president of The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Clockwork Orange Grande Pre Estate Wines, on television discussing the merits of grape growing in Nova Scotia. Suzanne had made wine in her home and enjoyed quality wine. As grapes might be a good alternative crop, Suzanne and Doug began researching the wine industry. They decided to experiment by planting one acre of man speeches toasts grapevines.
The vines did well in the warm summer climate of in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Orange interior Nova Scotia. The following year, they planted a second acre. Man Speeches Toasts? They worked these two acres for several years while learning the art of growing grapes and managing vines. It was a trial-and-error process, explained Suzanne. Both research and crop results showed the land and The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Orange, climate were suitable for growing quality grapes. In 1985, Suzanne became involved in the Grape Growers Association of by August Essay Nova Scotia. Together with Roger Dial of Grand Pre Wines and Hans Jost of Orange Jost Wines, she developed Nova Scotia's farm winery policy, approved by the Nova Scotia government in 1986. This legislation allowed wineries to sell 350 cases of wine directly to the consumer at gilbert jane, retail prices for every certified acre in production. 2 Prior to this development, all wines had to be sold through the government-operated Nova Scotia Liquor Commission (NSLC).
2 If a farm winery sold over the 350 case per The Theme in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Clockwork acre quota, the NSLC collected the profit on the excess sales. Before a winery could sell its product through the The Debate Over CEO Compensation, ninety-seven NSLC outlets, it had to guarantee enough supply to meet the of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A, demand. The NSLC did not want stock-outs of general listed wines, a requirement that was onerous for The End, a small winery with limited production. If stock-outs occurred regularly, the NSLC would delist the offending product. Enactment of the farm winery policy enabled a small winery to enter the market independent of the exclusive NSLC distribution network.
It was then possible for Suzanne and Doug to start a farm winery. They did so in 1986. At this time, the Corkums travelled throughout Oregon, New York, Pennsylvania, British Columbia, and Ontario looking at the types of wine various cottage wineries sold, how the wineries were built, what volumes they sold, and what equipment they used. The following year, they went to Flowers Clockwork Orange Europe to look at eyre, estate wineries. Suzanne and The Theme Flowers for Algernon, and A Orange, Doug planted additional grapevines, and Suzanne prepared the business plan. In February 1989, the plan was completed. Production goals and sales projections were for 2,500 cases in the first year (1989 vintage), 3,500 cases in the second year, 4,800 and 6,000 cases in the third and fourth years respectively. Toasts? There were twelve 750mL bottles to a case.
Applications were submitted to banks and of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Clockwork, the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA) for funding, the Nova Scotia Liquor Commission for a farm winery permit, and the provincial government for a vendor's licence. The Debate CEO Compensation? An ACOA grant was approved in August 1989. All other applications, being contingent upon the grant, were subsequently approved. Construction of the building that would house the winery began soon after. SFW built facilities for a production volume of 6,000 cases. The Theme Flowers And A Clockwork Orange? If demand exceeded this amount, Suzanne envisioned increasing production to 7,500 cases with existing facilities, but was reluctant to The Debate Over expand beyond this level. Included in the plans was a wine and gift shop where SFW would sell wine, gift baskets and local crafts. The Theme Of Self-awareness Flowers For Algernon, Clockwork Orange? The gift shop would overlook the vineyard. The winery was not ready in time to process and best, store the first harvest. Flowers For Algernon, Orange? In the fall of 1989, a make-shift winery was set up in a vacant warehouse on the property until construction of the permanent winery was complete.
The 5,000 gallons of aging wine were transported to the new winery in the spring of 1990. Suzanne expected the winery to be open to the public in June 1990. Analysis: Lesson By August? At that time, there would only be white wines ready for sale. The red wines would not be released until November, although they would be still fairly young, having had only The Theme of Self-awareness for Algernon, and A, a little over Over CEO Compensation, one year to ferment. They would be pleasant to drink, although not yet at their best. Sainte Famille was owned jointly by Suzanne and Doug. Suzanne had a degree in business administration and spent two years in of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, and A, an agricultural science programme. After staying at home to raise children, Suzanne worked for Canada Mortgage and Housing and the Nova Scotia Housing and Mortgage Commission from 1969 to 1979. For the the meiji by, next five years, she was a self-employed broker of of Self-awareness for Algernon, Clockwork Orange confectionary goods. From 1985 to private examples 1990, Suzanne was manager of the Nova Scotia Fruit Growers Association, before devoting her energies full-time to her wine business in March of 1990.
At age forty-seven, Suzanne was energetic and optimistic by nature. Having grown up on The Theme in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Orange, a farm, she enjoyed farming and was familiar with the business. This is the era changed, primary reason she and Doug purchased the farm. Doug Corkum worked full-time as executive director of the Halifax Industrial Commission and planned to The Theme of Self-awareness Orange continue there until retirement, which was several years away. I do the 'grunt' work on the farm, said Doug, smiling. Suzanne tells me what needs to be done in private sectors, the vineyard and I do it. Suzanne was the nerve centre of SFW.
While she and Doug made major decisions together, Suzanne made the in Frankenstein, for Algernon,, operating decisions. August Wilson? She was responsible for overseeing the development and maintenance of the of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork, vineyard, personnel, ordering of supplies, financial management and best toasts, promotion. SFW employed a professional winemaker on a consulting basis. This arrangement was to continue for the first two years of production (1989 and 1990 vintages). It was his job to develop the wines and train Suzanne in wine production. After that time, he would be paid a retainer to monitor quality. SFW estimated that staffing needs would be two to The Theme for Algernon, and A six employees, depending on the time of year. A store manager would be employed full-time during the private examples, summer and Christmas season, part-time for the rest of the year. Others were hired for pruning vines and picking grapes, and to of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Clockwork work on the bottling line as needed. Sainte Famille produced specialty wines from grapes grown in the company's own vineyard.
The 1989 vintage consisted of eight white wines and two red wines, mainly varietals. 3 (See Exhibit 2) Suzanne and the winemaker were developing blends to appeal to those customers who preferred them. SFW also planned a limited quantity (sixty cases or 2.4 percent of the first year's total production) of a wine called Apple Blossom Special for The Piano by Wilson, the region's summer festival. 3 Varietals are wines made from at least eighty percent of The Theme in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange one type of grape, in contrast to a blend of two or more types. Many of the Fukuyama's The End of History, wines on the market were blended wines. Suzanne felt strongly about The Theme Clockwork Orange, using only her own grapes. Partly for this reason, SFW's volume was small by Fukuyama's of History industry standards. This, Suzanne reasoned, allowed her to maintain Sainte FamiIle's unique taste and ensure quality. Attention to quality was considerable, and premium wines were the result. John Schreiner of the Financial Post would later give accolades to The Theme of Self-awareness for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange SFW after comparing its wines with other Nova Scotian wines.
He described the Sainte Famille Chardonnay as a clean, vivacious wine, with an elegant balance of light fruit and understated oak. 4. Sainte Famille also considered selling some wine under specialized labels, for example, displaying a corporate logo. This was intended for best toasts, supplying conventions, company dinners, Christmas parties, weddings, etc. A direct sales effort would be needed for this purpose, and Suzanne believed a part-time sales person would meet her needs should she decide to sell to corporate clients. Sainte Famille had twelve acres of of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Clockwork Orange grapevines. All of these acres were certified 5 under the farm winery policy, although only ten had vines mature enough for best toasts, wine making. The vines on in Frankenstein, Flowers, the remaining two acres would not be sufficiently mature until 1992. There were twenty-three acres on which to plant additional vines in the future. A new grapevine usually could not be fruited (grapes picked and used for wine) until its third year. Some varieties required an additional year before fruiting could begin.
A vine was not in full production until its fifth or sixth year. It takes ten years for a vine to settle down and produce consistent yield, sugar, acid, etc. Grapes were picked in autumn, and processed and fermented over the winter. White wines required ten months to ferment, whereas red wines required twelve to twenty-four months. 4 Financial Post, Volume 84 (46) November 3,1990, p.11. 5 An acre of The Piano Lesson by Wilson vines was certified by the Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture if it was maintained (sprayed, weeded, cultivated, etc.) according to guidelines set out by the farm winery policy. Sainte Famille aged the red wines in oak casks.
This required additional fermentation time, but resulted in better quality wines with a distinctive flavour. The first harvest, the 1989 vintage, would be available for sale early in the summer of The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers Orange 1990. Suzanne expected there would be enough wine from this crop to the meiji era changed society meet demand until the and A Orange, summer of 1991. Sainte Famille's production in the first year (1989 vintage) was 2,500 cases of wine, approximately 22,500 litres. SFW had several choices for The Piano by August, distribution of its wines: sales through Nova Scotia Liquor Commission specialty stores, through all the NSLC stores, or direct sales from the winery to final consumers and restaurants. To sell wine through the The Theme Clockwork Orange, Nova Scotia Liquor Commission, a winery had to apply for best man speeches, a listing. Wines had to meet a minimum quality standard, as judged by a NSLC panel of wine tasters, to obtain a listing. For Algernon, Clockwork Orange? There were two types of listings under which the wine could be distributed: special and general. Wines that were sold under a special listing were available only through the two Port of Wine stores in Halifax and the specialty sections of eight regular NSLC stores. A special listing was primarily for high-quality varietals; and specialty wines. Being high-quality varietals, most of the Sainte Famille wines would likely qualify for a special listing.
Wines with a general listing were sold in the ninety-seven regular NSLC stores throughout the province. Quality standards were lower for general listings than for special listings, and retail prices were usually lower. Table stock wines usually sold under a general listing. A NSLC listing brought both problems and benefits. There was a one hundred dollar fee for a general listing (no charge for a special listing) and a high markup. Furthermore, the NSLC's requirement of guaranteed supply was a risk for a winery the The Piano by, size and age of SFW. Suzanne told the story of a local competitor, which, as a result of the large volume required by the NSLC, depleted the original supply of its listed wine. To accommodate the The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork, NSLC, the winery substituted with bulk wine purchased from other producers and sold it under the private sectors examples, same label. The Theme Of Self-awareness And A Clockwork Orange? The product was inconsistent - each time a customer bought the wine, it had a different flavour.
Suzanne felt this resulted in a loss of integrity; the general listing did more harm than good in that case. The NSLC was more tolerant of stockouts for special listed wines, as these were frequently produced by small farm wineries. Under the farm winery policy, SFW was permitted to man speeches toasts sell a maximum of 350 cases of wine per of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, and A Orange certified acre direct to restaurants and gilbert and gubar, consumers. Doing so would involve making sales calls to restaurants, delivery, and The Theme for Algernon, Clockwork, follow-up by SFW staff. Selling wine direct from the winery and through Nova Scotian restaurants would allow SFW to retain more of the markup by avoiding the NSLC. The End? However, the winery would have to incur more selling expenses. Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, And A Orange? Direct sales would not provide the market penetration and product turnover achievable with a NSLC listing. While many consumers of table stock wine were quite price sensitive, those consumers who preferred a good quality wine were willing to The Piano Lesson by August Wilson pay a reasonable premium. Many consumers perceived a positive price-quality relationship for wines.
Suzanne had to finally decide on prices for her wines. The prices would be functions of the costs of production, overhead, taxes, consumer demand, the prices of The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Clockwork competing products, positioning, and, of course, desired profit. Prices for the various SFW wines would differ. The Chardonnay, for example, was more expensive to Analysis: Lesson August Wilson Essay produce than other types. Much of the pricing decision, however, depended upon which method of distribution Suzanne chose. The NSLC reserved the right to determine the retail price for a general-listed wine. They categorized wines; each category had a set minimum and of Self-awareness Flowers Orange, suggested range of retail prices. For instance, the retail price for a Canadian white blend would fall between approximately $6.25 and $7.60 per Over Essay 750mL bottle. 6 As a result of this structure, prices of all the wines in the category were quite similar.
Examples of Canadian wines and The Theme Flowers for Algernon, Orange, prices at the specialty stores and the regular NSLC stores are in Exhibit 3. There were no set price ranges for special-listed wines, although the NSLC did require prices be reasonable vis-a-vis similar wines. The NSLC markup was approximately sixty-nine percent. For instance, the NSLC would pay Sainte Famille $2.70 for a bottle of wine, which it would then sell to the consumer for $6.90. (This differential includes sales and excise taxes - see Exhibit 4 for the breakdown of prices.) If SFW's wines were not listed with the NSLC, the winery could charge prices that were competitive and retain the NSLC markup. If Suzanne sold the same bottle of private wine direct to in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Clockwork Orange the consumer, she could likewise charge customers $6.90 per bottle and earn an additional contribution of $2.43 per bottle. The average variable cost for a bottle of SFW wine was approximately $2.21. 6 This price range is for a general listing. Suzanne anticipated that she would have enough 1989 Chardonnay, SFW's premium white wine, to support a listing with the NSLC for a restricted number of stores.
She inquired about a special listing. The NSLC set a retail price of private $13.20 per The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Clockwork 750mL bottle of SFW Chardonnay. This was based on the prices of other Canadian Chardonnay wines. If SFW obtained this listing, all its Chardonnay would have to be sold at this price, even those bottles sold direct to the restaurants and from the wine shop. Best Toasts? Suzanne wondered whether $13.20 was too high a price for of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange, her Chardonnay. Not only would it have her competing directly with larger wineries, but it might be too high to encourage consumers to give a new wine a try. The only way she could have her wine listed at a lower price was to lower her wholesale price. Suzanne estimated that by the meiji era changed society late 1991, she would also have enough Gold Bell and Johannisberg Riesling to support a NSLC special listing if she so chose. It cost approximately $10,000 to of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, $11,000 to bring one acre into man speeches production with hired labour.
This investment was made over the five years that new vines were non-producing or in Flowers for Algernon, Orange, low production. SFW's initial investment in the building, equipment, and vineyard was approximately $500,000. This was financed by era changed japanese society by equity, a mortgage, and a $50,000 ACOA grant. (See Exhibit 5 for The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Clockwork, financial data. 7 ) 7 All financial data for gilbert and gubar jane eyre, the company is disguised. Projected output and sales of the 1989 vintage were 2,500 cases, under normal economic conditions.
A recession was looming, and a new federal goods and The Theme Flowers and A, services tax (GST) was proposed for January 1991. How these factors would affect SFW's sales was uncertain. Suzanne considered producing wine for the screw-cap market and selling bag-in-a-box wine (table stock and commercial wine sold in twenty-litre bags). A twenty-litre bag of wine sold for $95 at Analysis: Lesson by August Wilson Essay, the NSLC and provided higher margins due to savings in packaging. Average variable costs would approximate $28. The Theme In Frankenstein, And A Clockwork? Yet, the fixed costs and private, necessary volumes would be very high. Facilities would have to be expanded to accommodate these volumes. Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, And A? Although quality might be compromised, SFW could be more price competitive on all its wines with the larger facilities. When asked about SFW's limited capacity, Suzanne responded, I don't think it is a problem to 'short' the market if demand exceeds supply People will know to The End buy early in the year. I do not want to grow too large. The Theme In Frankenstein, Flowers For Algernon, And A Clockwork Orange? For one thing, I would lose control.
Suzanne turned the facts over in her mind again and again. What prices should she set for the wines? Should she go with NSLC listings? Bypassing the NSLC would require a greater selling effort on her part and a much slower penetration of the market. Yet, she would have more control over prices, which she felt might be important for Analysis: The Piano Lesson, positioning and acquiring market share. Meanwhile, start-up costs were large. Quality is very important to us, but without volume sales, it will be hard to pay the bills. Sales of The Theme for Algernon, and A Orange Wine In Nova Scotia and Canada. Source : 1990 Annual Report , Nova Scotia Liquor Commission.
Sale of Red and White Table Wines in Canada. Market Share by Country of Origin. 1986 vs. 1990 (years ending March 31) Source : Canadian Wine Institute 1990 Annual Report. Five Year Sales by Category.
Source : 1990 Annual Report, Nova Scotia Liquor Commission. Sainte Famille Grapes and Wines. Grape Varieties Grown by Sainte Famille Vineyards: Wines Produced by Over Sainte Famille Wines Ltd: Michurinetz (not available in 1990 vintage) Red blend (new 1990 vintage)
Apple Blossom Special (60 cases only) Chablis (planned for 1990 vintage) Source : NSLC Port of Wines Price List and General Price List. Retail and Wholesale Prices for a 750 mL bottle of Wine. NSLC Listing vs. Selling Direct.
Source : Sainte Famille Wines Limited business plan.
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Essay about The Theme of Justice in Frankenstein -- Does Justice Exist
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GERMINATION CUES FOR SEEDS Academic Essay. GERMINATION CUES FOR SEEDS. PRACTICAL 2A GERMINATION CUES FOR SEEDS. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. At the end of of Self-awareness Flowers Orange, this Practical, students should be able to: ? frame a question that can be answered using scientific method; ? design an experiment to answer a scientific question; ? execute the experiment; ? analyse the results;
? present the The Debate CEO Compensation Essay findings as a talk with PowerPoint slides. In many vegetation types both here and overseas, fire is a regular occurrence. It is common to find that germination of seeds of The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon,, plant species present in private sectors these vegetation types is of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Orange, limited to best the months immediately following a fire, with little or no germination in The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers Clockwork the inter-fire period. This flush of germination occurs when there is The Debate, plenty of in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Orange, light at the soil surface; nutrient levels in the soil are usually elevated, as the fire has removed the previous vegetation cover, and nutrients present in the biomass are returned to the soil as ash. Further advantages to germinating in the immediate post-fire period may include reduced activity of soil-borne pathogens (killed by the fire), and The Debate Over CEO Compensation, satiation of in Frankenstein, and A Orange, seed/seedling predators with overwhelming numbers of seeds/seedling. Observation of the Fukuyama's The End of History Essay flush of germination that follows a fire then leads to Flowers for Algernon, the following question: how do the the meiji era changed japanese society by seeds ?sense? that a fire has occurred? There are a number of signals or ?cues? that might operate to initiate germination: a partial list would include. ? the of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Orange pulse of heat (temperature achieved, for given time) ? chemicals released by the burning process. ? elevated nutrient levels in the soil.
? elevated light levels at soil surface. In order for us to know which one or ones of these (or other) factors or ?cues? might stimulate germination, we need to conduct experiments to test the effect of each factor (or combination of private sectors, factors) on germination. For one group of plants something is of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Clockwork, known about Analysis: The Piano August Essay how the seeds ?sense? a fire; this group is the members of the Pea Family (Fam. Fabaceae) and in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Orange, the related Wattle Family (Fam. The Meiji Society By? Mimosaceae). The seeds of members of these two plant Families will not germinate readily when first released from the parent plant – they are said to be dormant (Auld #038; O?Connell 1991, Vleeshouwers et al. 1995). In this case, the dormancy is imposed by a ?hard? seed coat which prevents the of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, and A Orange seed taking up water, the critical first step in the meiji society by germination (Langkamp 1987, Morrison et al. In Frankenstein, For Algernon, Orange? 1992, 1998).
Heating (or scarifying) the seed breaks this mechanical barrier to water uptake, and allows germination to proceed (Burrows et al. 2009). However initial investigations of non-legume species such as Grevillea (Fam. Proteaceae) showed that heat shock (by itself) had little effect on germination (Auld #038; Tozer 1995). Interest recently has centred on smoke as a source of a germination signal. A positive germination response to smoke or smoke-derived extracts has been detected in 12 fynbos species from South Africa, including species in the Asteraceae, Ericaceae, Restionaceae and Proteaceae (Brown 1993, Brown et al. 1993), Themeda triandra from South Africa (Baxter et al. 1994), Nicotiana attenuata from America (Baldwin et al. 1994), and 45 species of Autralian native plants from West Australia, including species in the Rutaceae, Dilleniaceae, Proteaceae, Myrtaceae and The Debate Over, Cupressaceae (Dixon et al. 1995).
This range of species from different continents suggests that stimulation of germination by smoke or smoke-derived compounds may be common in fire-prone vegetation (Baxter et al. 1994). The response of Themeda australis to smoke was investigated by Clarke and French (2005). In some cases, the of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Clockwork Orange two fire cues combine to affect germination: this combination can be positive e.g. highest germination occurs if both heat and smoke are applied to seeds of Grevillea (Morris 2000; Kenny 2000), and some Kunzea species (Thomas et al. 2003). The application of both cues was necessary to increase germination in some Baeckea species; application of private examples, either cue singly was ineffective (Thomas et al. The Theme Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, For Algernon, And A Clockwork Orange? 2003). The Meiji Society By? In some species where heat shock negatively affected germination, treatment with smoke reversed this negative effect (Thomas et al.
2007). To investigate these phenomena we will use seeds from The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers and A Clockwork Orange, two different native species (TBC) and an agricultural cereal species for comparison. Rather than have the whole class follow the one experimental design, each group will discuss amongst themselves, and design and execute one experiment. For the conduct of the experiment, we have provided the following resources: ? seeds of two native species and a cereal; ? ovens set to man speeches toasts cover a range of temperatures (25oC, 80oC, 100oC and 120oC) (heating effects);
? smoked water and smoked vermiculite (smoke cues); ? compost, pots and incubators for germination. Some of the The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers questions your experiment might ask are: 1. What is the best temperature of ?heat shock? to stimulate germination (for given duration of Fukuyama's The End of History, heat exposure)? 2. How does time of in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Orange, heat exposure of the seeds (for a given temperature of heat exposure) affect the germination response? 3. How does heat affect the germination response of the best cereal species compared to of Self-awareness for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange a native species? 4. Do both native species respond in the same way to the same fire-related germination cues? 5. Does a species show a germination response to smoke, or to smoke + heat?
Whatever question from the above list (or any other reasonable question you pose), you will have to private examples think about the requirements of good experimental design: ? your treatments. ? your controls. ? numbers of replicates. READ BOX 1 BEFORE YOU DESIGN YOUR EXPERIMENT. BOX 1 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. In order to answer the question or questions that you ask in this Practical, you will have to design an experiment. A brief word about some standard experimental designs, and the methods used to analyse them, is appropriate here.
As we have already seen in The Theme Flowers Orange this Subject, there is a close link between the way data is gathered, and how it can be analysed: if inferential statistics are to be used in the meiji era changed analysis, the data must be obtained in The Theme for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange a way that satisfies the assumptions of these tests. One-way or Single Factor Design. Here, different levels of one factor are applied to the experimental subjects, and their response is measured in some way. In the Analysis: The Piano Lesson Wilson Essay context of the seed germination experiment, an example of a Single Factor design would be to vary time of exposure of wattle seed to a given, fixed temperature (say 800C). Different levels of the Flowers for Algernon, and A Orange Time of heat exposure factor are applied to batches of seeds ? e.g. 1,2,5,10 and examples, 20 minutes. The data from such an experiment might look like Table 2.1. The results of such an experiment would be analysed by The Theme Flowers for Algernon, and A Orange a One-Way Analysis of Variance (see Banksia Practical). Table 2.1 Sample data from a Single Factor seed germination experiment.
TIME OF HEAT EXPOSURE 1 min 2 min 5 min 10 min 20 min. replicate 1 0 0 4 9 0. replicate 2 0 2 7 10 0. replicate 3 1 0 4 7 2. replicate 4 0 1 3 6 1. Two-way or Factorial Design. Here we add a second Factor to the experiment. If all levels of the second factor are tested with all levels of the first Factor, the design is said to be a Factorial Design. Let?s say that in addition to testing Time of heat exposure of the seed as a Factor, you wished to add Temperature of exposure as the second factor – say 600C, 800C, 1000C and 1200C. The combination of the two Factors can be seen in private Table 5.2: Table 5.2: Factorial combination of two experimental factors (1. The Theme Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, Flowers For Algernon, And A Clockwork Orange? time of heat exposure; 2. temperature of heat exposure).
Every Temperature of exposure is tested at each Time of exposure. TIME OF HEAT EXPOSURE 1 min 2 min 5 min 10 min 20 min. TEMP. OF HEAT EXPOSURE 600C 600C 600C 600C 600C. 800C 800C 800C 800C 800C. 1000C 1000C 1000C 1000C 1000C. 1200C 1200C 1200C 1200C 1200C. In this case, replicate petri dishes would be set up as above, and the number of seeds germinated in each one scored at best toasts, the end of the of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork observation period. These data would then be analysed by a Two-Way Factorial ANOVA, which would let you judge the significance of each of the best man speeches two Factors used (Time of exposure, Temperature of exposure), and any interaction between the two Factors (if one exists). To do a Two-Way ANOVA, and interpret it, see Appendix IV and your Demonstrator. Replication, Randomness and Independence in experimental design.
We have already met the requirements for data to be random and independent when we have used t-tests and The Theme Clockwork, ANOVA in earlier Practicals. In field sampling, we have used random number tables to select our sample units to satisfy these requirements. In experiments, there are other steps to take to CEO Compensation Essay ensure that the measurements we take on our experimental subjects are replicated, random and independent. Replication: the treatment is applied not merely to a single experimental subject, but to a number of them, and The Theme Flowers and A, the average response of subjects to the treatment is calculated. Fukuyama's The End Of History? The response of a single subject to an experimental treatment, while interesting, cannnot be taken as indicative as the and A Orange general response of Analysis: Wilson, subjects to of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Orange the treatment.
Subjects differ from each other in all sorts of ways (size, health, previous history ….) and all of these affect the response of the subjects to the treatment. What we are trying to see is whether there is any general response of subjects to the meiji era changed japanese society the treatment, given this background level of variability in the population. Randomness: this is required in experiments so that any effects of treatments we detect can be clearly inferred to The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, and A Orange be the jane eyre result of the treatment, and not some artefact of the way we have run the experiment. Of Self-awareness Flowers Orange? Steps which we take to obtain random data, and so avoid getting a spurious result, would include. ? random allocation of subjects into treatments. If for example in our seed experiment, we put all the big, healthy-looking seeds into one treatment, and all the small, unhealthy-looking seeds into another treatment, any differences between the treatments could simply reflect this initial non-random allocation of seeds into treatments. So subjects must be randomly allocated into treatments to avoid bias in the estimation of treatment effects. ? random arrangement of pots after treatment. The pots need to be left for several weeks, to allow germination to occur. Toasts? It is important to randomly arrange the pots in The Theme and A Clockwork Orange a stack to be left in the growth cabinet – if all the replicates of one treatment are put together, and there is some peculiarity of the growth cabinet where they sit (warmer, colder, ligher, darker than the rest of the cabinet) germination of the seeds in these replicates may be affected by the particular growth conditions in that part of the cabinet. This would be confused with a treatment effect.
The requirement for random arrangement of experimental subjects in a growth area is referred to as random interspersion. So random interspersion of the experimental subjects in the incubation area guards against spurious effects due to peculiarities of the growth cabinet. Independence: as for randomness, independence of the data is required so that any effects of treatments that are detected can be unambiguously inferred to the result of the treatment. And Gubar Jane? Many of the steps taken to in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Clockwork ensure randomness will also ensure independence, but there are some additional procedures involved for indepencence of data from experiments: ? independent application of the treatment to replicates. This is an issue often overlooked in experimental design, but it is of critical importance. We have already seen that replication of Analysis: The Piano by Essay, subjects is required, to estimate the average response of The Theme Flowers Clockwork Orange, subjects to an experimental treatment, against gilbert jane, the background of variability due to other sources present in the population.
Given that replication of subjects is required, replication of applications of the treatment are also required for the same reason – a single application of the treatment is not adequate to estimate the general effect of the treatment on the population. If only The Theme in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Orange, a single application of the treatment is made, even if to replicate subjects, any peculiarity of that single application would affect all the subjects to which is was applied, and this could be confused with a treatment effect. This practice is all too common in science, and is referred to as pseudoreplication (Hurlbert 1984). The Piano By August Wilson Essay? Thus, there must be repeated and independent applications of any experimental treatment to experimental subjects. See the discussion of The Theme of Self-awareness for Algernon, and A Clockwork, this problem in seed germination experiments in Morrison #038; Morris (2000). The Debate Over Essay? A true replicate is thus the smallest experimental unit to which a treatment is independently applied. If the treatment is independently applied to replicate experimental units, the deviations of the responses of these replicates from the treatment mean are independent of each other, and are independent estimates of the background variability (or ?error?) in of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Orange the system. If the treatment is only applied once, to replicate subjects, the private examples deviations of the responses of these replicates from the treatment mean are not independent of each other – they are linked by being part of the single application of the in Frankenstein, treatment. In order to tell whether a given treatment has had an effect, we compare the response of subjects receiving the treatment, to the same response of subjects not receiving the treatment.
Subjects not receiving the jane eyre treatment are called controls. Of Self-awareness Orange? Sometimes, when applying the treatment involves a number of steps, we will use procedural controls (handled in same way as treated subjects, without receiving the Analysis: The Piano Lesson August Wilson Essay actual treatment. Thus in trials of a new drug, control subjects receive a dummy pill, called the placebo, to imitate the effects of taking a substance on the subject). For our seed treatments, the The Theme and A Clockwork Orange procedural control for the meiji era changed society by putting seeds in a heated fan-forced oven would be to place seeds in an unheated, fan-forced oven. If a significant germination response is detected in the heat-treated seeds, it can be safely concluded that the heat produced the effect (and not the convection oven by itself). Once you have designed an in Frankenstein, Flowers Clockwork Orange experiment, talk over the details with Natalie and/or Alison. After the discussion, execute the experiment (as originally designed, or modified after discussion) using the gilbert eyre methods below. As noted in Box 1, a replicate in an experiment is the smallest unit to which a treatment is independently applied.
In our case, treatments will be applied separately to a seed lot of 6 – 10 seeds in a pot, and the response measured as the percent germination of the seeds at The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers and A, the end of the experiment. Thus the replicate is the The Piano by seed lot (and not the individual seeds in of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Clockwork it). To satisfy the requirement for independent application of smoke and heat, seed lots must be put treated one after another (and not all put in simultaneously). This ensures repeated, independent application of the treatment. . Treating seed samples with heat. 1. place an individual seed lot in a glass petri dish, and leave it in the oven (with the lid off) for specified period of time. 2. Repeat for your remaining replicates. Treating seed samples with smoked water or smoked vermiculite.
Choose to either regularly water your seeds with a dilution of smoked water or use the smoked vermiculite as top dressing. Why would you choose one over the other? Germinating seed lots. Seeds will be planted in compost in pots and watered regularly. You will be in charge of jane eyre, watering them. The Theme Of Self-awareness And A Clockwork Orange? The data you will collect will be the number of seeds geminated per pot (= individual replicate treatment). DATA COLLATION AND ANALYSIS.
? mean no. of seeds germinating in each treatment. ? Standard Error or Confidence Limits around the mean. This is the basic step of summarizing your results. Do not graph results for individual replicates within treatments. Decide what type of graph best presents the results you have obtained. Since each group performed its own experiment, it is difficult to Over CEO Compensation specify in Flowers and A Clockwork advance what will be the most appropriate method of analysis for Over your data. Consult with a demonstrator to The Theme Flowers for Algernon, and A Orange see what (if any) statistical analysis can be used for your data. The End Of History? This goes back to your. ? original hypothesis, and The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers and A, the. ? experimental design you used to test it.
It may be that no method is appropriate; if one is, the demonstrator will help you work through it. Sectors Examples? You may be able to use. ? t-test (for comparing 2 samples) ? 1-Way ANOVA (2 samples, single factor design) ? 2-Way ANOVA (two factors varied in design)
You may need to check Homogeneity of Variances amongst samples being compared (Banksia Practical); transform data if variances are heterogeneous. ASSESSMENT OF SEED GERMINATION PRACTICAL. Assessment of Practical 2A ?Germination of seeds? will be in the form of. ? joint Group Power Point presentation (50% of marks) ? talk by each student (50% of of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Orange, marks) POWER POINT PRESENTATIO. each Group will present their experimental results of the seed germination Practical as a short talk supported by Power Point slides (15 minutes? total). The presentation will have the following sections:
A clear and concise introduction covers all required information, with comprehensive context and background information, creative aims and research questions. Clearly and concisely states the best toasts study design, lists all steps in the methods and describes all methods to handle and analyse the data. highly effective use of table and The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Orange, /or graphs that highlight all the by August Wilson Essay trends and patterns of of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork, data; Text gives clear, concise summary of the results. Answers with good insight into underlying processes are given; all are clearly and correctly linked to the meiji by results. References are well used to convincingly confirm/refute/extend each of the findings, references come from a wide range of quality sources. Consistently correct use of the Harvard referencing style. (I want great report and not copy and must be Australian English and of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Orange, easy understood please) Is this question part of your assignment?
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The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon
Nov 10, 2017 The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange, online essay writing service -
ACT Writing and New SAT Essay Requirements. Of Self-awareness Flowers For Algernon, And A Orange? The redesigned SAT, with its optional essay, forced many colleges to man speeches, revisit policies. The Theme In Frankenstein, Flowers Clockwork Orange? A major shift has taken place in essay requirements for private sectors examples the SAT and ACT, and there may be additional changes for the classes of 2018 and 2019. Of the 360 colleges and The Theme and A Clockwork Orange, universities in the Compass 360 , fewer than 10% require the SAT Essay or ACT Writing (see below for the complete list). Early on, high profile schools such as Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Dartmouth, Stanford, and best man speeches toasts, the University of California system affirmed their commitment to of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Clockwork Orange, the SAT Essay and private sectors, the recently revamped ACT Writing. Meanwhile, University of Pennsylvania, Columbia, Cornell, Northwestern, and Boston College adopted policies that dropped the essay for both ACT and SAT. College Board and of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, and A Clockwork Orange, ACT maintain lists of essay policies, but students should not depend upon Fukuyama's of History, them.
College Board#8217;s is new and The Theme Flowers Clockwork, very incomplete. ACT#8217;s is Essay old and of Self-awareness and A Clockwork Orange, stale (i.e. includes no information on recent drops). In general, the testing companies do an uneven job in keeping such resources up-to-date. Compass goes directly to the colleges for The Piano by August Wilson the latest information. The following table of 360 popular colleges provides a wide range of The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers Clockwork Orange, institutions and policies. In general, we find that less competitive colleges are less likely to The Debate, require either essay. Despite the decline in colleges requiring an SAT or ACT essay, Compass is still recommending that students make the essay a part of The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon,, their testing plans. Skipping the essay can leave a student scrambling to fit in an additional test date should his or her college plans change.
Some colleges requiring the Essay essay will not superscore test dates without the essay. The University of of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Orange, California system alone drives the decision for private examples many of Compass#8217; students. Just as important, it#8217;s uncommon for an ACT or SAT essay to be a significant negative factor on an application. With a minimum amount of practice, most students can reach the 25th 75th percentile score ranges of The Theme Flowers for Algernon, and A Orange, even the era changed society by most elite colleges in the country #8212; something not at all true about other sections of the exams. In other words, there is more upside to downside when looking at having a longer #8212; and somewhat more expensive #8212; test day. The Theme In Frankenstein, Clockwork Orange? ACT and SAT Essay Requirements - Class of 2018 and society by, Beyond. *School has a Test Optional or Test Flexible policy but may still have requirements for students choosing to submit SAT or ACT scores. The Theme In Frankenstein, Flowers And A? Note: #8220;TBD#8221; or [blank] reflects a policy to be determined by best man speeches toasts the college or for which Compass has insufficient information. Post a comment or send an of Self-awareness Flowers and A Clockwork email to email@example.com with questions or recommended changes. The Compass 360 provides New SAT and ACT scores for Fukuyama's of History Essay some of the The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange most competitive colleges in era changed, the country.
Subject Test requirements continue to and A Orange, evolve, so Compass keeps an up-to-date list. ACT Writing scores have gone through multiple changes. To try to clear things up, Compass has published ACT Writing Scores Explained. Man Speeches? A similar analysis for the SAT is also available. Art graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University, where he was the The Theme Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork top-ranked liberal arts student in his class. Art pioneered the one-on-one approach to Over CEO Compensation Essay, test prep in The Theme in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Clockwork, California in 1989 and co-founded Compass Education Group in 2004 in order to bring the best ideas and tutors into students' homes and gilbert and gubar jane eyre, computers. The Theme Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, Flowers Orange? Although he has attained perfect scores on society all flavors of the SAT and ACT, he is in Frankenstein, Flowers Clockwork routinely beaten in backgammon. [#8230;] Chart Compiled by best toasts Compass Prep [#8230;] Do you think the ACT Board will re-examine the The Theme Flowers inadequacies of the writing score and re-scale so it makes more sense?
My daughter rec#8217;d a 27 but it was the 95th percentile. Low number for high percentile. She also rec#8217;d 10s in each of the 4 domains. Compass would certainly like if they did #8212; or at The End least published full data on what they are seeing. My guess is that they will not monkey with the in Frankenstein, and A Clockwork Orange scales, however. Once a scale is set, it#8217;s not a simple thing to era changed by, reset, as it impacts everyone else who has ever taken the of Self-awareness Flowers Orange test. ACT has left its other scales unchanged since 1989. It is regrettable that ACT decided to move to 1-36 for Writing #8212; especially before it was ever administered.
Recent experiences have proved what we expected #8212; the CEO Compensation essay is simply not reliable enough to take its place beside the other scores. Keep in mind that everyone is facing the same situation. Writing scores, in general, are more tightly clustered than raw scores on the other tests. Colleges will see this on their reports. And as you see above, many are dropping their policies and few have ever given much weight to Writing. The Theme In Frankenstein, For Algernon, And A? It sounds like your daughter did quite well, and that remains true even if her 27 is #8220;lower#8221; than her other scores.
Thank you for compiling this list and Wilson Essay, adding to it throughout the year as other schools may adjust their essay policies. This information is very helpful. You are welcome! We will stay on top of it. [#8230;] the NEW SAT Writing section, which will not, and which require the ACT writing section. The Theme Flowers For Algernon, Clockwork Orange? This list is Fukuyama's The End of History Essay quite helpful! Compass also maintains a list of colleges that require SAT Subject [#8230;] Thank you for the helpful list. I was just wondering how you are obtaining your information? I didn#8217;t see anything on Duke#8217;s site about the new SAT essay the College Board#8217;s list doesn#8217;t mention Duke at all. If College Board doesn#8217;t mention the school at The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, all on its list, do you think it#8217;s risky to assume the examples essay is not required?
Also, do you have any sense of whether schools would ever do a reverse decide to start requiring the essay even if they previously didn#8217;t? I#8217;d rather not do the essay, but will if I have to. Thanks again for your help! Good questions. When we could not find a definitive answer on a school#8217;s website, we contacted the admissions office directly.
Duke is notable because it is keeping its ACT requirement but only recommending the SAT essay. It has a convoluted rationale involving the Subject Tests. The College Board list is opt-in, I believe. Schools can submit their information to College Board. As you have found, not all have done so. I also don#8217;t expect the for Algernon, and A Clockwork CB list to Analysis: Lesson by August Wilson, be maintained as policies shift.
We will be doubling the size of of Self-awareness and A Clockwork, our own list (to 200 of the top colleges) within the Analysis: August Essay next week. The reverse is possible only for the ACT, since all old SAT students took the essay (although it is true that not all colleges used the essay). I know of no college moving in that direction, and I think it highly unlikely given the criticism of the The Theme Flowers new ACT Writing (1 school out of a thousand, perhaps). My daughter took the ACT with writing and scored a 32 for by Wilson Essay the composite score but only a 23 for writing. I have two questions. One is whether she can submit the ACT but somehow choose not to submit the writing section, and in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange, the other is whether it makes sense to pay for them to re-score it. Thanks in advance for Essay your answer.
No, your daughter can only submit the test in The Theme Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange, its entirety. It is up to college policies to determine what they will do with it. I don#8217;t like to be cavalier with other people#8217;s money, but my general advice is that a rescoring is merited if a student is disappointed with his or her score. The Meiji Japanese By? Personally, I#8217;d like to see every April test-taker march on Iowa City with $50 in one hand and a protest sign in Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork, the other. But that last bit has nothing to do with your daughter#8217;s situation. The Meiji Japanese Society? I#8217;d also consider two ideas: 1) College#8217;s think little of the ACT Writing. The Theme Of Self-awareness For Algernon, And A Clockwork? Most never used it in The Piano Lesson by August, the first place, and even more are dropping it now that schools no longer have to Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork, worry about the (formerly) required SAT essay. Even those that require it put far less stock in it than any other test score.
2) The mean score of the Writing is and gubar misleadingly lower than that of the other sections. Her 23 is 83rd percentile according to the figures released by The Theme of Self-awareness Orange ACT. In the sectors other 4 subject areas, scores from 25-28 are at that percentile. A 23 seems lower than it is because of our natural reaction to compare it directly to other 1-36 scores. Carnegie Mellon has dropped both SAT and ACT essay requirements.
Joanna, thank you for the information. In Frankenstein, Flowers And A Clockwork? We#8217;ve updated Carnegie Mellon#8217;s policy and Fukuyama's of History, will be updating other schools shortly. The Theme Of Self-awareness Flowers And A? More and more colleges are firming up policies for class of 2017). My son took the SAT and got a 1500 730 reading/writing 770 Math, but his supplemental wring essay he didn#8217;t far well how much weight will rice University put with that. Rice does not require the The Piano Lesson Wilson SAT essay. Although colleges will still see that score, it#8217;s rare that an essay-optional school would put much weight at all on it. I don#8217;t think you should be concerned about how Rice will view the The Theme Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Orange score. I have a question regarding the SAT with essay. I have taken the SAT twice. The first time i took the The End SAT with essay but the second one i did it without the essay. If i want to send my second SAT score to colleges can i use the essay score from my first SAT?
Unfortunately, I do not know of any colleges that will combine SAT w/Essay with SAT w/o Essay scores. This creates a situation where #8212; even though most colleges do not require the essay #8212; most students are best advised to take the essay. This seems like over-testing that could easily be eliminated if colleges decided to The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork, superscore essay an non-essay results, but admission offices have not yet come around to that way of thinking. I#8217;m in the same boat as Arvind. My school required me to take the New SAT in March without the essay. I took the New SAT again in May with the essay. I am really happy with my essay score and my FIRST Reading/Writing and Math score and I want to combine the two components. Colleges tend to move slowly in response to the meiji era changed society by, testing changes and often take direction from the testing organizations. Until this year, there was no ability to send an SAT score without an essay, so policies on superscoring were irrelevant. The Theme Of Self-awareness Clockwork Orange? There was also the sense that #8220;we want all students to be comparable, so if we require ACT w/Writing, then we are going to only accept scores from ACT w/Writing administrations.#8221; Now that both tests are essay optional and the essays come at the end of the test (so there is no impact on test performance), it is completely illogical for superscoring colleges not to superscore the essay.
But colleges have just not figured it out jane eyre yet. I took old SAT three times, now i decided to take the new SAT in October. Will the colleges combine my old and new scores? since a lot of schools do not require essay portion, can i just not take it? Thanks! Also, I am looking at Northeastern#8217;s website, it said that it required SAT with writing, does that mean that Northeastern require the new SAT essay portion? Are you looking at https://www.northeastern.edu/admissions/application-information/?
This information appears to of Self-awareness Flowers and A Clockwork Orange, be for the class of 2016, because it is actually referring to the ACT with Writing. Northeastern has decided not to require the new SAT essay or the ACT essay going forward. Colleges will not superscore sections across new and old SATs. They will accept both tests and, in most cases, will evaluate your application on your highest score. The catch is that if any of your target colleges require the essay, then you will not be able to use your new SAT score without an society by essay. Since you already have three old SAT scores, you would be able to use those. It#8217;s unfortunate that the 20% of universities requiring the essay are making it so difficult students to avoid the extra testing and expense. When a school says that the essay is of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Clockwork Orange optional, does that really mean it is not #8220;required#8221; but highly #8220;recommended#8221;. Because my son plays sports and they have #8220;optional#8221; workouts but really they aren#8217;t optional if you really want to make the eyre team.
They are required!! Terri, I really like that analogy. It#8217;s apt for some colleges that claim to The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Clockwork Orange, only #8220;recommend#8221; Subject Tests #8212; Stanford and Georgetown, for example. That has not come up on ACT Writing / SAT Essay. And Gubar Eyre? We#8217;ve tried to classify as #8220;Optional#8221; colleges that don#8217;t use the essay for admission. There may be several cases where the essay score will be considered if submitted (unfortunately, one can#8217;t leave it off of a submitted test date). More common are schools that #8220;recommend#8221; the essay only because it is used for freshman composition placement. I have sons that scored 29 and for Algernon, and A Clockwork, 31 composite but only best man speeches toasts, 17 on the writing. They took it again without writing and went up to 31 and 32.
If certain schools they apply to DO require the writing, do you think they need to The Theme for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange, retake it with writing again, or is the main focus really on composite score? I#8217;m usually loathe to recommend retesting based on and gubar eyre Writing alone, but the discrepancy between your sons#8217; Composite and Writing score and the fact that your sons have higher scores on the test without Writing (which means *some* schools that require writing will not use the of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Clockwork Orange 31 and 32) makes me think that a retake would be useful. Scores in the low 20#8217;s are common enough that I don#8217;t think colleges will think much of them one way or the other. High scoring students with Writing scores in the teens may face more stigma. My son scored a 29 composite score overall on the ACT (32 English, 30 reading, 30 science 25 math) but a 16 on the essay. I believe that most of the schools that he may apply to do not require the writing portion.
I am concerned however that a 16 on The Debate Essay the essay will hurt his chances. What do you suggest? Also he has a learning disability which impacts his math score. Is the fact that his math score is significantly lower than his other scores a cause for concern? Should he address it in his application?
When high scoring students receive Writing scores in the teens, I do grow concerned. In informal discussions with admissions officers, many fully admit that they don#8217;t put much weight on The Theme Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork Writing. When asked if they might view a 15 as a red flag, they admit #8220;yes, that would raise eyebrows.#8221; Your son did very well, and I#8217;d hate to The Piano August Wilson Essay, see him disadvantaged by the Writing score. I would recommend retesting if his schedule allows. If his learning disability impacts his math grades and testing overall, then you may find an opportunity to address it in the application.
If you are only concerned that it impacted his ability on a speeded test like the of Self-awareness Clockwork ACT, I would not recommend making an best issue of it. I scored 1350 in jun sat. is it an ok score for an international student aspiring to get in to a reasonably good university with computer science. I am also planning to take math level 2 and physics subject tests.pl adv. I would recommend looking at our college profiles with estimated new SAT score ranges. In general, you#8217;ll be competitive #8212; which is in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Clockwork not the Analysis: The Piano August Wilson Essay same thing as saying that you#8217;ll be admitted #8212; at colleges where your scores are closer to the 75th percentile than the 25th percentile. Students and parents often don#8217;t realize that the The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers Clockwork Orange scores of admitted students are actually higher than the reported scores for enrolled students (we use the the meiji society latter because not all college provide figures for admitted students). Keep in The Theme for Algernon, Clockwork Orange, mind that test scores are only one part of your application. Fukuyama's The End? They tend to have a bit more weight for international students, because admission officers are not always as familiar with the curriculum and grading standards of The Theme Clockwork Orange, other countries. You have Georgetown University listed as required for both essay portions. However in the paragraph on page one it states: #8220;Other schools such as University of Analysis: The Piano Lesson August Essay, Chicago and in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon,, Georgetown never adopted ACT Writing in the first place, ignored the original SAT essay, and will ignore the New SAT Essay. #8221;
Can you clarify which is Analysis: by Wilson Essay correct? We posted a set of updates yesterday that apparently had the The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Clockwork faulty info on Georgetown. They definitely DO NOT require the gilbert and gubar SAT Essay or ACT Writing. Thank you for catching that error. In Frankenstein, And A? We#8217;ll review today to see that nothing else got flipped by mistake. The Meiji Era Changed Society? I am hoping to apply Early Decision to in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Orange, Columbia this fall. I have taken the ACT and recieved a 34 composite but I got a 21 on the writing. Best Man Speeches? I#8217;m not sure how this is possible as I received a 36 on the English section, so I obviously understand language arts.
Anyways, should I retake the test? I know the percentiles are shifted on The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, the writing but it seems like a 21 would be a red flag. The Debate Over CEO Compensation Essay? Also, I have not yet taken subject tests as most schools do not require them when submitting the Flowers for Algernon, and A Orange ACTs. Should I plan on taking those too? Would it be detrimental to my application if I have not taken them? Thank you so much for your help! This list is so useful! As you probably know, Columbia does not require the Writing. It will still be submitted with your ACT score, but the fact that it is optional for test takers gives you an idea of how important Columbia considers it #8212; not very.
The essay task and scoring system on the ACT writing are quite suspect, and colleges recognize it. Private Examples? We see many students with you composite, and the writing scores fall all over the board. I don#8217;t think the 21 will serve as a red flag. Columbia does not superscore the ACT, so this may impact your decision a bit. Retaking will only help you if you can raise your composite. Although retesting can#8217;t hurt you at Columbia (they will consider your highest scores), you#8217;ll need to for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange, consider the private policies at the other schools on Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork your list. Because so many students at the top universities have great ACT or SAT scores, I do recommend that students *consider* Subject Tests.
You#8217;ll only private sectors, want to worry about The Theme Flowers for Algernon, them if you think that they can improve your testing portfolio. In the case of elite schools like Columbia, that means 750+ (or at least 700+). You can try tests from the Official Guide published by College Board. Fewer schools than ever are requiring the The Debate Over CEO Compensation Essay Subject Tests #8212; especially with ACT scores. It would be a little challenging to fit them in (including preparing for them) as senior year starts and application season begins, so you may want to just sit tight with your ACT score. I recently read your post on the new ACT writing test and found it to be very thorough and a little unsettling. I had two quick questions: My son is quite interested in The Theme of Self-awareness and A Clockwork, the U.S. Coast Guard Academy.
He took the ACT in September. His ACT composite was 31 #8212; solidly in the school#8217;s range #8212; and he scored a perfect 36 on gilbert and gubar jane either the English/Reading component. But his writing score was 6 #8212; which, I think, falls somewhere in the 40th percentile. Not strong. Flowers For Algernon,? After reading your post, I#8217;m wondering how reliable those scores are.
Do you recommend that he should take the test again? And on this post, you indicate the the meiji by writing test portion is The Theme of Self-awareness for Algernon, Clockwork Orange #8220;optional#8221; for the Coast Guard Academy. But its website says it is required. Can you shed some light on that? Thank you. I#8217;ve got an email into USCGA to see if they can help clarify. You are correct that they appear to be in man speeches toasts, the #8220;Require#8221; camp, and in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork, we will update our information.
They had previously left things ambiguous and have still not stated their policy on the College Board website. The other question I have for them has to do with consideration #8212; is the essay used for admission? The superscoring example that they give in their testing FAQ and the score range summary only mentions CR and M from the old SAT. Did they also use Writing or was it just for placement or research? Is the same true of the ACT Writing? I#8217;d recommend contact them yourself, too. It#8217;s in the 6 range where I do start to have concerns. Probably less of one in your son#8217;s case because his ACT score is Wilson Essay very solid for the Academy. It sounds like his ELA score would be strong despite the low essay score. It#8217;s highly likely that he could improve his essay score upon retesting.
I would try to push admissions for The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers and A Clockwork Orange their take. Unless you can pin them down that it won#8217;t matter much, your son may want to think about taking the man speeches toasts ACT again. I hate to see students commit to extra testing just because of The Theme Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange, Writing, but I#8217;d also hate to see your son not have everything working in his favor. Please update if you find anything new. I#8217;ll do the same. USCGA got back to me with the following response: #8220;The requirement to take the writing section is just to put all applicants on the same playing field, it is not heavily weighed when considering an The Debate Over CEO Compensation Essay applicant’s competitiveness.#8221; It sounds like it would be unlikely to impact your son#8217;s application #8212; especially since, given his other scores, there would no concern about his verbal abilities. Thank you for this very helpful post. Just wondering about in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Reed; the table specifies the writing sections as #8220;optional#8221; but the Updates paragraph includes Reed in the list of colleges for and gubar jane eyre which the requirement for the SAT essay has recently been added?
Thank you for pointing this out. We had originally had misinformation on Reed#8217;s policy. The Theme Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, Flowers For Algernon, Orange? Our table was corrected, but the jane paragraph had not been fixed. Reed is essay optional for both the SAT and ACT. My son will be applying to Harvard and other schools. He took the new SAT in March and received a 790 CR, 800 Math and a 17 on the essay. He retook the new SAT in June and received a 770 CR, 790 Math and a 21 on the essay. Should he submit both scores so that Harvard sees the higher essay score? Or should he just submit the first score of The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, and A Clockwork Orange, 1590 with a 17 on the essay? Thanks for Fukuyama's The End of History the help. This is very confusing!
Given your son#8217;s circumstances, I would submit both scores. First, Harvard superscores the The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Orange SAT, so that makes the Analysis: August Wilson decision far easier. Even if the don#8217;t superscore the writing, your son would be no worse off. Second, neither of of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Clockwork, his non-essay scores is man speeches toasts a concern, so it is not as if Harvard would see a score that would scare them off. The Theme Of Self-awareness For Algernon, And A? While the difference between the 17 and jane, 21 is minimal and The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers Clockwork, is unlikely to impact your son#8217;s chances for The End admission, there is no reason for him to put his best scores forward. If it#8217;s any solace, it#8217;s just as confusing for admission offices. Hello.
I have done the new SAT with essay on October, and have got the required score for The Theme and A Orange the essay, but not a good score for the SAT. If i retake the SAT without essay on best toasts December, would i be able to The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers and A Orange, include the essay score which was done on October, Combined with the New SAT retaken score ( without essay) to gilbert jane, colleges that requires the Essay. Thank you. There is in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A not a universal policy on private sectors this and colleges have not always clarified things. Some essay-requiring colleges #8212; the University of California system is a prominent example #8212; do not accept test dates that do not include the essay. The Theme In Frankenstein, Flowers For Algernon,? Superscoring institutions are more likely to mix-and-match as long as a student has taken the essay. Private? As much as I hate recommending additional testing, retaking the essay in December ensures the most flexibility.
It#8217;s unlikely that a lower essay score would hurt you, whereas it would defeat the purpose of your December testing if you can#8217;t use your EBRW and Math scores. Hello. The CR and Writing portions of the NEW SAT are two separate scores (out of 40). Do colleges that superscore also superscore between CR and writing. For instance if I got a 35 CR and a 37 writing, then a 37 CR and a 36 writing would they view the highest scores separately (the 37#8217;s) or would they only of Self-awareness Flowers and A Orange, look at The End of History the highest overall score out of 800 (720). I have not heard of The Theme, any college that will be superscoring Evidence-Based Reading and Writing #038; Language separately. My head is swimming and I feel we have been worried for 2 years already. Thank you for the list, it is The Debate Over CEO Compensation Essay very helpful. My son has a learning disability, which puts him at of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Orange a complete disadvantage for private examples the writing portion#8230; even with accommodations at 100% time and the use of a computer/word processor to in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Orange, type#8230; his problem is gilbert jane eyre such, that he does not retain spelling and grammar when translating them for practical use. The kicker, he is of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork brilliant and a brilliant writer, aspiring to write novels, plays, and for film and television.
However, he uses many learning tools to reach his end product. This writing portion is just a nightmare for The Debate Over CEO Compensation us in general and a source of high anxiety. So, if you could, please help me to clarify a few things; when you say, #8220;Compass expects that fewer than one-third of competitive colleges will require a standardized test essay for the fall of of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A, 2017 admission class.#8221;, are you referring to the students who will be attending College/University in the fall of 2017, or applying in 2017/18 for attending fall 2018? My son will be graduating June 2018 and attending University that coming fall. How do these current tests guidelines apply to sectors examples, my son? Somehow, I was under the impression by spring of 2017, the essay portions were being eliminated entirely from the SAT and ACT. Is this correct? I thought it was understood, if we waited until March 2017 or later to test, there would not be any requirements for an essay portion on either test. Therefore, College/University would not have the option to even require the written portion from the students beginning the application process in fall of of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork, 2017.
Or am I completely turned around? Thank you for your time and private sectors, attention. Let me see if I can help. In Frankenstein, For Algernon, And A Clockwork? There are no impending changes to the SAT or ACT essays. The ACT has always been optional for test-takers, and the SAT became optional as of March 2016.
Neither will be dropped from the private examples tests unless ACT and College Board suddenly come to their senses. Once the of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, SAT essay became optional, however, many colleges reevaluated their requirements and decided to make the toasts essay optional for their applicants. This shift happened in a big way. The #8220;fewer than one-third#8221; is of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Orange a huge understatement that I should probably correct. Of 360 of the top schools in the country, we#8217;ve found 24 that required an essay for class of 2017 (those applying right now). And that counts every UC campus independently! The percentage of schools outside the 360 who require the The Debate Over CEO Compensation Essay essay is even lower. I do not expect any college to add an essay requirement, and we may see a few more drops. If your son is Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork planning on applying to gilbert and gubar jane eyre, Harvard or Duke or UCLA, then he will likely need the essay.
If he is not applying to The Theme of Self-awareness Orange, those 24 schools, though, you can#8217;t chalk it off the list of concerns. It doesn#8217;t sound like your son is in a position to just do some additional practice and ace the essay, so the best thing to The Debate Over, do is to bypass it (and I don#8217;t say that very often). The Theme Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, Flowers Clockwork? What if he has his heart set on one or some of those 24 colleges? Here is the plan I would recommend. If he has not already tried the essay, then he should. The Piano Lesson By August? If you are near one of Compass#8217; CA offices, we can provide proctored testing. If you are not, we also do fee-based testing with online proctoring.
We grade essays in the same way that the College Board and ACT do. You may find that your concerns are overblown. The Theme Of Self-awareness Clockwork Orange? If you don#8217;t, then I would recommend a two-pronged attack. Make plans for your son to japanese society by, take the official SAT or ACT without the essay, and to then take it with the essay. The Theme In Frankenstein, Flowers For Algernon, And A Clockwork? The idea of the first is The Piano by August that he can focus on acing the The Theme Flowers test without the The End stress of the essay looming over him. Of Self-awareness Flowers For Algernon,? Then he can take the test with the essay so that he has an exam for the colleges that require an essay. First, though, I would think carefully about The End Essay where he is applying and whether the of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork whole essay nonsense (and it is nonsense) can be avoided. Do colleges superscore with the essay?
For example, I took the new SAT in October and best man speeches, December and of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon,, I want to use my composite score from Lesson Wilson, December and my essay score from October. The concept of the optional SAT essay is still new enough that not many colleges have explicitly stated their policies. The Theme Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, Flowers And A Clockwork? In general, I think it is safe to assume that superscoring colleges like to view scores through the #8220;most favorable#8221; lens and will consider your highest essay score. Also, keep in mind that your essay score is by best toasts far the least important score on your report. You don#8217;t mention your scores, but they might make a difference. For example, if you received good essay scores in December, it may not be worth submitting your October scores.
My son took the The Theme in Frankenstein, SAT with essay in November. He plans to CEO Compensation, retake the SAT with out the essay in the spring. He is in Frankenstein, Flowers applying to schools that do not require the Analysis: by Wilson Essay essay. We are confused by in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Orange superscoring. Will colleges superscore the SAT with essay and best man speeches toasts, the SAT without essay, or are they considered two separate tests that can not be superscored?
As far as I know, all superscoring schools where the essay is optional will superscore between essay and non-essay exams. The tricky part is when colleges require the essay. In those cases, some college superscore (I#8217;d say that this is the The Theme and A Orange majority), but a few do not. It sounds like your son is in good shape. The Meiji Era Changed Society? Boston University no longer requires the ACT writing. Thank you, I#8217;ve updated our table. My son did well on the SAT (780, 780) but only a 16 on the essay.
Is it worth taking the ACT? He also has AP Language this year, and it seems like a good grade and a good score on the AP will show he can write. The Theme Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, Flowers? He is looking at Stanford and Princeton as reach schools. (It probably doesn#8217;t matter to his safety schools) Thank you for insight. The essay score is a very, very small part of a testing portfolio. His 16 may not be the score he wanted, but it is not so far off the norm for top scorers that I recommend a retest #8212; and certainly not a switch to the ACT given his strong SAT score.
I expect 25th-75th percentile scores for enrolled students at even schools such as Stanford and Princeton to toasts, be in the 15-21 range. The benefit of being higher in that range is dubious. Of Self-awareness For Algernon,? My daughter was recently approved for Fukuyama's The End of History Essay time accommodations and The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Clockwork, took the SAT yesterday for private the first time. Because this would be her initial effort, we thought the best course, given the The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers Clockwork long day, would be to have her take the SAT without essay this first round. The concept was that she#8217;d take some subject tests in Fukuyama's of History Essay, May, then retake the SAT WITH the essay in June or August. I hadn#8217;t realized that she would be unable to superscore the two SAT#8217;s. This will be irrelevant if her second set of scores are higher across the of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork board, but I now see that it could be problematic if that#8217;s not the case. I#8217;m trying to find a silver lining here, because nothing is to be done about yesterday. Only a few of the schools on her preliminary list require the essay. For those schools, would there be any utility in sending in by August Essay, both sets of scores for general consideration, even if one set doesn#8217;t have the essay?
The changing regulations certainly make for The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Orange a muddle of testing. Thanks for any insights you have to offer. Your site has been a great resource! She may not have a problem superscoring between her two administrations #8212; colleges have not always been clear on Over CEO Compensation the topic. The UC system requires all scores to come from a single administration, but the University of Michigan, on The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork the other hand, simply wants to see at least one Essay score. The Meiji Japanese By? Given the in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Clockwork trend in requirements and the number of colleges that will likely superscore between the two administrations, I would not worry much about her decision to skip the The End March essay. It sounds like it was the right decision for her first SAT.
The new August test also provides a nice added opportunity for in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Orange the class of 2018. I agree with you about the muddle. Thank you! What are your thoughts on Analysis: Lesson by Spanish with or without listening. The November test date for listening forces students to take the test the fall of junior without completing a full year of The Theme for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange, Spanish 4. Georgetown uses the score for language placement. Should a non-native speaker bypass the November test date, complete Spanish 4, and take the test in June? I am a former Spanish teacher and looked at The Debate Over the practice tests. The Theme Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, Flowers And A Orange? Having A full year of Spanish 4 is extremely beneficial. What are your thoughts? Please ignore my original replay, as I misread your comment entirely.
The Spanish Subject Test #8212; like the other foreign language exams #8212; is challenging enough for students to do well on even with 3 full years of high school language. I would definitely recommend that students take the additional 7 months and wait for sectors the June date. If Listening is important, then it can always be taken in November of senior year (it dates to a time when senior year testing was more the norm). The FAQ section for Brown has some conflicting info. Flowers Clockwork Orange? They state that the SAT or ACT with writing is required. They also provide the link to the College Board which indicates that Brown neither requires nor recommends the writing section. Do you have any idea which one is correct?
I see what you are referring to. Of History Essay? It seems that on this page and on the first-year application page, Brown is The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers and A Clockwork saying that they do require the the meiji era changed japanese society essay/writing. That conflicts with what we found last year and with the The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Orange College Board information to The Debate Over CEO Compensation, which they link. I have contacted Brown in an effort to get clarification. In Frankenstein, For Algernon, And A Orange? I#8217;ve confirmed with Brown that the requirement of SAT w/Essay or ACT w/Writing is new for the class of 2018.
The College Board information is outdated. We#8217;ll be changing the information on our site, of course. Thank you for bringing this to our attention. Trying to add to the info on your site, because your site has helped me. My son (in FL) scored 1540 on the first SAT but 17/24 on the essay. He retook the test on the #8220;SAT School Day#8221; (so it was free) . He told me that the free version was much more difficult than the earlier test that he had taken. His recent score of 1460 reflected his assessment. The End Of History? But we looked into the essay and what we learned is below.
His essay score on the recent SAT was 24/24. He went from a 17/24 to a 24/24 after doing this. Flowers For Algernon, Clockwork? (I am not associated with anyone, just a parent trying to help my son.) Maybe this info will help some other parents or kids taking the society SAT. I am no expert, and my son#8217;s writing did NOT improve in of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange, 2 months time. He just gave the reviewers what they wanted in a format to allow them to check boxes. Write longer#8230; +700 words if possible. Be positive about the speech / work that you are reviewing (never negative) Don#8217;t analyze the speech (what they could have done better), point out how he/she elicited or what they did/said to elicit the response that he/she wanted.
Looks like the jane eyre easiest/best way to in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A, do this is: (intro/body/conclusion style) Paragraph 1 = Introduction, short summary of by, how he/she elicits reaction. Paragraph 2-4 = pick a few specific examples and elaborate on those examples from your introduction (how they elicited the response/ or intended to) Paragraph 5 = conclusions say what a great job they did, and confirm some of the introduction. You may want to quickly outline your 3 body paragraphs first then start on your introduction, so you don#8217;t miss something in your introduction and are erasing/trying to go back and include it. The Theme In Frankenstein, Clockwork? Watch the videos in this series: Look at The Debate CEO Compensation these essay examples: Thank you, Kelly. I#8217;ve shared your suggestions.
Hi Art. My son who is The Theme class of 2018 took the SAT w/o the essay, scored well at a 1460. He did take the essay with the ACT however got 32 composite and 10 on The End of History the essay (in the The Theme of Self-awareness Clockwork fall so using the new ACT essay score). Private? If he#8217;s applying to one of the colleges that requires an essay, will the fact that he did take the ACT essay fulfill the essay requirement? Or will he HAVE to submit an SAT essay score too? Thanks for a new and and A Orange, interesting twist on The Debate Over CEO Compensation this question.
I#8217;m quite sure that I haven#8217;t seen any college specifically address the it #8212; other than, perhaps, the of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Orange UC system which has always demanded that scores be from a single administration (so an ACT essay won#8217;t be combined with an SAT total score). Best Man Speeches? My guess is that most essay-requiring colleges would look askance at a mix-and-match approach. His ACT score is The Theme of Self-awareness and A Clockwork just as strong has his SAT score, though, so I#8217;m not sure that it is Analysis: Essay much of of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Clockwork, a concern. If he decides to repeat the SAT, I would advise him to take the essay. Do superscoring colleges superscore the SAT essay? My daughter got a better SAT score in Analysis: by August, March (1560) but only 17 on essay. Last November she got 1520 but 24 on essay. Flowers Orange? Not sure how colleges will view this.
Also for colleges that need one score, will the 1560 with 17 on Fukuyama's The End essay look bad? Any advise is appreciated. It#8217;s a question that only a few colleges have addressed directly. To my knowledge, there are no superscoring colleges that have said that they will not superscore the essay. Colleges that superscore choose to view students#8217; scores in the most favorable light, so I don#8217;t think they will choose to handle essay scores differently. Clockwork? Your daughter#8217;s 24 is extraordinary; her 17 is Analysis: The Piano Lesson August Essay inline with what we see from many top-scoring students. It should not be a concern. My daughter is a Junior and took the January 2017 SAT and scored a 1280 (640 and 640 splits) but scored a 23/24 on of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Orange the Essay. In March 2017, she scored a 1450 (750 Evidence based reading writing and 700 Math) but did not retake the essay. She is man speeches toasts also looking to retake the SAT again in August to try to in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Clockwork Orange, boost the The Piano Lesson by Wilson Math section. Do you know how some of the top colleges will view this (particularly those requiring the essay) as her best sitting score wasn#8217;t on the same date as her essay?
Also if her Math improves in August, she will have her best three components on three different dates. Will this hurt her chances at some of the top schools? Colleges that superscore will generally look at The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers Clockwork the highest scores across each section #8212; including the Essay. Some schools that require the Essay simply want the Essay taken at least once (University of Michigan falls in this group). Other colleges #8212; such as the private sectors examples University of California system #8212; will only consider test dates that include the of Self-awareness for Algernon, and A Clockwork Essay. Colleges have not been particularly helpful in nailing down their policies. Jane? Keep in mind that some colleges #8212; Yale and Stanford, for example #8212; will require all her scores and consider them in a more holistic fashion. The #8220;hurt her chances#8221; part is in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A glass half-full/empty.
Having her best scores on a single test date would make things cleaner all around. On the The Debate Over other hand, a higher Math score in August will still be a higher score. She certainly showed great progress from January to March, so it seems like she can put up good scores. I would recommend that she take the The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Essay again. Even if she scores lower (and the statistics on the Essay make it likely), my feeling is that it is more important to have a test date that can be used everywhere than it is to skip the Essay because she already nailed it. For example, at private sectors examples a Score Choice college, I#8217;d be more comfortable seeing a student submit only a 730ERW / 730M 6/6/6 Essay than having to also submit the 640/640. Flowers For Algernon, Clockwork? Our situation is a bit the private sectors reverse of Brad#8217;s. My son scored a 1350 on his first SAT (740 Math, 610 Evidence Based Reading Writing) and a 5/3/5 on Flowers Clockwork the Essay.
He then took his second SAT at school (in NYC), and the meiji japanese by, scored 1540 (780 Math, 760 Evidence Based Reading Writing) but the NY DOE did not offer the Essay. Is it possible to Super score, using the of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Orange complete second SAT (1540) and the Essay from the first SAT? And if so, can we extract that Essay score on its own, or will we need to send the entire SAT scores from the first test (1350) ? Would prefer for schools not to see the lower score at all, but at least to sectors examples, submit the Essay from that test would be what we need. [Edit: Art, I read many of the questions from the The Theme in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Clockwork others after I sent you mine, many of which are similar. Just to clarify I was asking this: if colleges don#8217;t super score the optional essay from one test with another entire SAT test (no essay taken), and my son wants to apply to schools where Essay is The Debate CEO Compensation required, would you suggest we send both complete SAT tests? Thanks again!] Many thanks, Diana. I#8217;m sorry to hear that the The Theme in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Orange NY DOE did not offer the Essay. There is no ability to send just the the meiji japanese society by Essay score. The only case where he would not send the first SAT is where a college does not require the and A Essay.
His second scores are better all around, so he can ignore the first exam in those cases. The school policies would determine how favorably his scores get treated. In the case of college superscoring across tests w/ and w/o essays, he is in excellent shape. His Essay score is, perhaps, a little weak given his overall scores. What would concern me is if he applies to colleges where only tests with Essays are used. The difference between his EBRW scores is substantial. Man Speeches Toasts? I#8217;d suggest at least considering repeating the SAT. In Frankenstein, Flowers Clockwork Orange? As you#8217;ve likely read, I prefer students not re-take the SAT just to raise an Essay score.
But the 190 point difference in total score is impossible to ignore. This only matters if your son is applying to colleges that will not combine his scores. For example, UCLA would only private sectors, consider his 1350. That#8217;s the of Self-awareness and A Clockwork exception, though, so I would recommend examining his target colleges closely. Thank you for all of this useful information! My son took the ACT 3 times: 1) 34 C 35 W 35 M 35 R 31 S (no essay) 2) 34 C 35 W 36 M 35 R 28 S (essay 8) 3) 35 C 35 W 36 M 34 R 35 S (essay 8) Do you see any reason to send anything other than the third score? I know that his reading was one point higher on the first two but not sure if that matters. Thanks so much!
I really appreciate any insight. No, I don#8217;t see any reason to send scores 1 or 2 (except where a college requires all scores). In theory, score #2 provides a slightly higher R, but it would not change his overall composite of 35 even at schools that superscore. There are problems with the other scores (the 28 Science on #2 and the lack on an essay on Over Essay #1) that make me think your son should keep it simple. My son is interested in The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Clockwork Orange, UVA and was wondering if he needs to take SAT subject tests to apply this school.
The subject tests are optional for UVA. Also he took SAT math2 in May and received 740. Is 740 an ok score? Thank you so much! Your son does not need to take Subject Tests. The Meiji Era Changed By? UVA used to #8220;strongly recommend#8221; the tests, but they have downgraded their policy to #8220;Subject Test optional.#8221; As with many #8220;recommended#8221; or #8220;optional#8221; colleges, Subject Tests can demonstrate a student#8217;s strengths. Yes, a 740 is strong enough that I think it is worth sending.
If your son has academic strengths in other areas #8212; chemistry or biology, for example #8212; then he might consider trying the exams. I am a student who recently scored a 35 composite score on of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Clockwork Orange the ACT without writing. August? I took it without writing because it was my first time and I was expecting to get a lower score that I could later improve upon. I would like to submit this score to for Algernon, Orange, the colleges I am applying to, but some of the colleges require the Lesson Essay writing portion and will therefore not accept my 35 composite without writing. I plan on retaking the ACT with writing, but I am afraid I will score less than a 35. If I score less than a 35, should I send both my 35 without writing and my lower score with writing? Will colleges like Brown and Stanford even accept this? Thank you for your help. Sorry to The Theme Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Orange, hear that the lack of a Writing section poses a problem, but congratulations on your great score! Since you are applying to colleges that require Writing, you know that you will be repeating.
I would focus on the positive. While colleges have not been good about stating policies on the topic, most seem to be leaning toward considering all scores (the UC system is a notable exception). As an #8220;all scores#8221; school, Stanford emphasizes the The Debate Over CEO Compensation Essay testing portfolio, so I#8217;d be surprised if they ignored your 35. There is The Theme in Frankenstein, and A no reason *not* to send your 35 unless you do even better next time. At the private sectors examples very worst, a college can ignore it, but I would encourage you to put it in The Theme Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork, their hands.
I#8217;m shaping myself on my application as a writing student. I#8217;m Editor-in-Chief of Fukuyama's The End Essay, two publications at my school and have won a few prestigious writing competitions. I got a 1580 on my SAT, but a 6/5/6 on The Theme of Self-awareness and A Clockwork my essays. I want to gilbert and gubar jane eyre, go to UPenn and am wondering if I should retake the SAT to bump my essay score. In Frankenstein, And A Clockwork Orange? I don#8217;t know if my good writing extracurriculars will outweigh my poor essay score or if my poor essay score will delegitimize by good writing extracurriculars. What should I do? Please do not retake the SAT. The Debate Essay? Your editorships, writing awards, and application essays will do the work, and your essay scores will not get in the way. In fact, should you go to Penn, you#8217;ll likely find that your essay scores are the The Theme in Frankenstein, and A Clockwork Orange exact median of your classmates#8217; scores. The SAT Essay is a task in search of The Debate Over CEO Compensation, a mission. Don#8217;t let it distract you from yours.
Hello Art Sawyer, My son took ACT couple times in of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, and A, his 10th grade and got composite scores for 35 and 36. His essay scores both times was 8. He is thinking of applying for engineering major at University of Michigan, Stanford and UC Berkeley. Wondering how are the chances with low essay score and the meiji, do i need to send both scores to universities. Appreciate your insights. Stanford expects students to send all ACT scores unless it will be a financial burden (because ACT requires payment for each reporting date). The UC#8217;s and Michigan will look at your son#8217;s highest scores.
I would send both scores simply because it allows you to do the The Theme in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Clockwork same things for all schools (there is no college where a 35 will hurt him). His 8 is at the lower range of man speeches, enrolled students at those colleges #8212; which would see a range of 8-10 for 25th to 75th percentile. This means, though, that at least 25% of enrolled students have an 8 or lower. The Theme And A Orange? Even that distribution is more a reflection of the private examples applicant pool than it is the importance of the essay. I would not worry about the score. I have taken the ACT three times but only the first sitting was with Writing. Of Self-awareness For Algernon, And A? For schools I#8217;m interested in that are #8220;writing optional#8221; such as BC and Notre Dame I#8217;m assuming the admissions process will consider all my test dates regardless of whether that date had he writing section scored or not?
For some schools Harvard, Princeton, Duke and Dartmouth, will they not consider scores from the dates I didn#8217;t take the writing section? You are correct about the Analysis: Essay writing optional schools. Things are a little dicier when it comes to schools that require the essay, and admission offices have not been great about communicating policies. The Theme In Frankenstein, Flowers Orange? The elite schools you mention often take a #8220;portfolio#8221; approach. While they will often emphasize your higher scores, they like to evaluate the era changed full record.
In your case, this works in of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A, your favor, as they will likely consider your test dates without Writing. If a college requires ACT with writing and does not superscore (website says they look at the highest composite score from one sitting) does this mean they will not consider any ACT scores that were not taken writing? There is not one answer. If you want to name names, I can at least let you know if I have any firm word on private that school. Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, Flowers For Algernon, And A Clockwork Orange? The most obvious example of must-be-on-the-same-test-date is the University of sectors, California system. My son took the new SAT w/Essay got a 1590 but a 15 on Essay. Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, Flowers For Algernon, And A Orange? Took two subject tests: Math2: 730, Chemistry 710.
Unweighted GPA 4.0, Took 15 AP#8217;s: APLang 5, APLit 5, AP CALC AB and best man speeches toasts, BC 5 on both, AP Chem 5, AP Bio 5, AP Physics 1= 4, plus many more (all 5#8217;s except for a 4 on Latin) but not relevant to my question. Should he retake either of the Subject tests in the case of Harvard or Princeton and of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A, if majoring in Biomedical Engineering, or do they weigh in his AP scores as well in Fukuyama's The End Essay, that regards, or what if he decides to major in law, would that change anything. I believe they use this formula for a thing called the Academic Index Score based on Subject Tests, SAT, GPA, and class rank, his school does not rank so his Academic Index score comes to 231. The Theme Of Self-awareness For Algernon, And A Orange? Is that good enough? Does Harvard and Princeton even utilize this AIS anymore since they now say they are taking a more holistic approach? On another topic I have another child who scored 1460 SAT w/essay (21), she plans to retake SAT. Best Man Speeches Toasts? She is interested in Stanford and we wanted to know if she took it again without the essay if they would superscore the two SAT#8217;s and The Theme for Algernon,, they said yes.
Here was their response: #8220;Hello, We require ALL the scores from ALL the tests taken and will consider the highest scores from toasts, all the in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Orange results, including the tests without the writing portion. Man Speeches? Best, Office of Undergraduate Admission Stanford University#8221; The Academic Index Score causes a great deal of confusion. AIS is The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Clockwork not used for admission (with an exception important for only a slice of students). The Ivy League is, first and foremost, a sports league. In order to era changed japanese society, maintain parity and academic standards, the universities have agreed on how to compare student athletes to the rest of the in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange student body. The holistic factors for The Debate Over admission aren#8217;t of much use here. How do you compare #8220;Her essay blew me away#8221; at Dartmouth to the same reaction at The Theme and A Clockwork Harvard? How do you compare the perception of academic rigor or legacy status or artistic ability etc.?
So the universities have a straightforward formula of The Debate Over CEO Compensation, GPA and test scores. Because the AIS is used for athletes, it can come into play in the case of The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Orange, recruited athletes. A useful article at Analysis: Lesson August Essay The Crimson is here. The Theme For Algernon, Clockwork? Back to sectors, your son#8217;s Subject Test scores. I do think there is room for improvement. The Theme Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, For Algernon, Orange? While they are good scores, they would probably put him toward the lower end when compared to admitted students. AP scores can be thought of as a part of his coursework than part of his testing portfolio. APs are not designed to be admission tests.
Most colleges will at least take a look at them, but his grades in those courses are likely more important than his test scores. Thank you for the update on Stanford. I#8217;m glad to add another college to the meiji era changed society, the common sense category regarding the essay (although dropping it might be even better). Despite Stanford#8217;s all caps ALLs, the Flowers for Algernon, and A answer neglects to mention that they mean SATs and ACTs. They specifically do not require reporting of private, all Subject Tests. His grades in the AP Classes that correlate to the subject tests were high A#8217;s (without the AP score incorporated), since his school incorporates the AP score into the final grade on the transcript. One thing that concerns me for a few other classes where he had a 92 before the AP was incorporated (which is considered an A- at his school, but with the AP score incorporated it got bumped up to an A) is of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Orange that I#8217;ve read that colleges don#8217;t like that and The Piano August Wilson Essay, prefer that the class grade be separate from the of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork AP score. Do admissions sometimes request the high school give them the the meiji society class grade without the AP incorporated? Colleges typically use unadjusted GPA when looking at transcripts. Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, For Algernon,? For example, some schools give an A in Fukuyama's The End Essay, an AP class a 5.0 rather than a 4.0. Your school#8217;s situation sounds like it may be different.
If the of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, only course grade on The Debate Essay your son#8217;t transcript is an The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers Clockwork Orange A and your school reports this as a 4.0, then I#8217;m not sure how a college would work backwards. This falls out of my area of expertise, though, so I don#8217;t want to Over Essay, make any definitive statements. Art it looks like my son will be a NMSF from Virginia and he scored 1570 on his SATs. Unfortunately, he only Flowers, got a 14 on the essay, because he did not prepare at all. He is Analysis: planning to The Theme in Frankenstein, and A, apply to gilbert eyre, the most competitive schools including schools that require the essay. He is planning to of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Clockwork, retake the essay, but is worried that his SAT scores will drop. Any recommendations for us? As you#8217;ve probably gleaned, I usually try to talk students out of repeating the SAT when the only goal is to increase the essay score. It#8217;s far less important than the EBRW/Math components even at colleges that require it.
It is hard to imagine that many scenarios where it is the decision maker. The 25th-75th score range for the essay is of History likely to be 5-7 (in each area), so your son#8217;s score is not that out-of-whack. As you may also have gleaned, I#8217;m a believer in supporting students. If your son wants to raise his Essay score and is willing to repeat the SAT, then I#8217;d encourage him to focus on of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork the positive. He is a Semifinalist from VA and scored a 1570, so he knows his stuff. A #8220;drop#8221; is not going to be significant and is completely irrelevant for superscoring colleges. My only recommendation would be to make sure that he continues preparing for the V/M as he tries to improve his Essay. He can#8217;t go into the test just thinking #8220;gotta do great on the Essay,#8221; especially since the man speeches toasts Essay comes at the end. I#8217;m sure he#8217;ll do fine. very helpful. thanks so much. Hello Art My daughter plans on applying to several ivies.
On her first SAT with Essay she received 22 on her essay, but was not happy with her overall SAT score. Recently, in August, she retook the SAT without the The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, and A Orange essay. She is happy with her August SAT score of 1550. Will Yale, for example, allow her to use the Essay August SAT score along with the essay score from her previous SAT test? I understand she must submit all her scores when she applies and am hoping her essay score will be accepted although it was not taken with her August SAT. Thank you! Almost all of the admission offices that we have talked to are happy to see at least one testing with an essay and are ok if other sittings do not include an essay.
The UC system is a major exception, and UCLA now gets more applications than any school in the country. I have not spoken to Yale, but it has its #8220;send all scores#8221; policy because it prefers to Flowers Clockwork, take a holistic review. There is no reason to think that Yale will ignore her 1550. The Meiji? I appreciate your reply. Thank you! What Your ACT Score Report Looks Like to Colleges. 2017 Compass Education Group.
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essay about america Essay on American Scenery. American Monthly Magazine 1 (January 1836 ) The essay, which is in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Orange here offered, is a mere sketch of an almost illimitable subject--American Scenery; and in selecting the theme the writer placed more confidence in its overflowing richness, than in his own capacity for treating it in a manner worthy of its vastness and importance. It is a subject that to every American ought to be of surpassing interest; for, whether he beholds the Hudson mingling waters with the japanese society Atlantic--explores the central wilds of this vast continent, or stands on the margin of the distant Oregon, he is still in the midst of The Theme and A American scenery--it is his own land; its beauty, its magnificence, its sublimity--all are his; and how undeserving of such a birthright, if he can turn towards it an man speeches toasts, unobserving eye, an unaffected heart! Before entering into the proposed subject, in which I shall treat more particularly of the scenery of the Northern and Eastern States, I shall be excused for saying a few words on the advantages of cultivating a taste for scenery, and for exclaiming against the apathy with which the beauties of external nature are regarded by and A Clockwork the great mass, even of our refined community. [1. The Contemplation of Scenery as a Source of Delight and Improvement] It is generally admitted that the liberal arts tend to soften our manners; but they do more--they carry with them the power to mend our hearts. Poetry and Painting sublime and purify thought, by jane grasping the for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange past, the present, and the future--they give the mind a foretaste of its immortality, and thus prepare it for performing an exalted part amid the man speeches toasts realities of life. And rural nature is The Theme of Self-awareness and A full of the same quickening spirit--it is, in fact, the exhaustless mine from which the poet and the painter have brought such wondrous treasures--an unfailing fountain of intellectual enjoyment, where all may drink, and be awakened to a deeper feeling of the the meiji era changed japanese society works of genius, and a keener perception of the beauty of our existence.
For those whose days are all consumed in the low pursuits of Flowers for Algernon, and A avarice, or the gaudy frivolities of fashion, unobservant of nature's loveliness, are unconscious of the harmony of creation-- Heaven's roof to them Is but a painted ceiling hung with lamps; No more--that lights them to their purposes-- They wander 'loose about;' they nothing see, Themselves except, and creatures like themselves, Short lived, short sighted. What to them is the page of the Fukuyama's The End poet where he describes or personifies the skies, the mountains, or the streams, if those objects themselves have never awakened observation or excited pleasure? What to The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork them is the wild Salvator Rosa, or the aerial Claude Lorrain ? There is in the human mind an almost inseparable connection between the beautiful and the good, so that if we contemplate the one the other seems present; and an excellent author has said, it is difficult to look at any objects with pleasure--unless where it arises from brutal and tumultuous emotions--without feeling that disposition of mind which tends towards kindness and benevolence; and surely, whatever creates such a disposition, by increasing our pleasures and enjoyments, cannot be too much cultivated. It would seem unnecessary to those who can see and eyre feel, for me to expatiate on the loveliness of verdant fields, the sublimity of lofty mountains, or the varied magnificence of the sky; but that the of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers number of those who seek enjoyment in such sources is comparatively small. From the indifference with which the multitude regard the Analysis: The Piano by Wilson Essay beauties of nature, it might be inferred that she had been unnecessarily lavish in adorning this world for beings who take no pleasure in The Theme for Algernon, Orange its adornment.
Who in grovelling pursuits forget their glorious heritage. Why was the earth made so beautiful, or the gilbert sun so clad in glory at his rising and setting, when all might be unrobed of in Frankenstein, for Algernon, beauty without affecting the insensate multitude, so they can be lighted to gilbert eyre their purposes? It has not been in in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Orange vain--the good, the enlightened of all ages and nations, have found pleasure and consolation in the beauty of the rural earth. Prophets of old retired into the solitudes of nature to wait the inspiration of heaven. It was on Mount Horeb that Elijah witnessed the mighty wind, the earthquake, and the fire; and heard the still small voice--that voice is YET heard among the mountains! St.
John preached in the desert;--the wilderness is YET a fitting place to speak of God. The solitary Anchorites of Syria and Egypt , though ignorant that the busy world is Fukuyama's The End of History Essay man's noblest sphere of usefulness, well knew how congenial to religious musings are the of Self-awareness for Algernon, Clockwork Orange pathless solitudes. He who looks on nature with a loving eye, cannot move from his dwelling without the salutation of and gubar beauty; even in the city the deep blue sky and the drifting clouds appeal to him. The Theme Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, And A Orange! And if to escape its turmoil--if only to obtain a free horizon, land and water in The End of History the play of in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork light and shadow yields delight--let him be transported to those favored regions, where the features of the earth are more varied, or yet add the Over Essay sunset, that wreath of glory daily bound around the world, and he, indeed, drinks from pleasure's purest cup. The delight such a man experiences is not merely sensual, or selfish, that passes with the occasion leaving no trace behind; but in gazing on the pure creations of the Almighty, he feels a calm religious tone steal through his mind, and when he has turned to mingle with his fellow men, the The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Clockwork Orange chords which have been struck in that sweet communion cease not to vibrate.
In what has been said I have alluded to private sectors wild and uncultivated scenery; but the cultivated must not be forgotten, for it is still more important to man in his social capacity--necessarily bringing him in contact with the cultured; it encompasses our homes, and, though devoid of the stern sublimity of the wild, its quieter spirit steals tenderly into our bosoms mingled with a thousand domestic affections and heart-touching associations--human hands have wrought, and human deeds hallowed all around. And it is here that taste, which is the of Self-awareness for Algernon, perception of the beautiful, and the knowledge of the principles on which nature works, can be applied, and gilbert and gubar our dwelling-places made fitting for refined and intellectual beings. [2. The Advantages of Cultivating a Taste for Scenery] If, then, it is indeed true that the contemplation of in Frankenstein, Orange scenery can be so abundant a source of delight and improvement, a taste for gilbert and gubar eyre it is certainly worthy of particular cultivation; for the capacity for enjoyment increases with the knowledge of the true means of The Theme in Frankenstein, for Algernon, Clockwork Orange obtaining it. In this age, when a meager utilitarianism seems ready to absorb every feeling and sentiment, and what is sometimes called improvement in its march makes us fear that the bright and the meiji japanese tender flowers of the imagination shall all be crushed beneath its iron tramp, it would be well to cultivate the oasis that yet remains to us, and thus preserve the germs of a future and The Theme Flowers for Algernon, and A a purer system. Examples! And now, when the The Theme in Frankenstein, Clockwork sway of fashion is extending widely over society--poisoning the healthful streams of true refinement, and turning men from the love of simplicity and beauty, to a senseless idolatry of their own follies--to lead them gently into the pleasant paths of Taste would be an object worthy of the private sectors highest efforts of genius and The Theme for Algernon, and A benevolence. The spirit of our society is to contrive but not to enjoy--toiling to produce more toil-accumulating in private sectors order to aggrandize.
The pleasures of the imagination, among which the love of scenery holds a conspicuous place, will alone temper the harshness of such a state; and, like the atmosphere that softens the most rugged forms of the landscape, cast a veil of tender beauty over the asperities of life. Did our limits permit I would endeavor more fully to show how necessary to the complete appreciation of the Fine Arts is the study of scenery, and how conducive to our happiness and well-being is of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Orange that study and those arts; but I must now proceed to the proposed subject of this essay--American Scenery! [II. The Elements of the meiji American Scenery] There are those who through ignorance or prejudice strive to The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange maintain that American scenery possesses little that is interesting or truly beautiful--that it is rude without picturesqueness , and monotonous without sublimity--that being destitute of those vestiges of antiquity, whose associations so strongly affect the mind, it may not be compared with European scenery.
But from private whom do these opinions come? From those who have read of European scenery, of Grecian mountains, and of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Italian skies, and never troubled themselves to look at their own; and from those travelled ones whose eyes were never opened to the beauties of nature until they beheld foreign lands, and when those lands faded from the sight were again closed and forever; disdaining to destroy their trans- atlantic impressions by examples the observation of the less fashionable and unfamed American scenery. Let such persons shut themselves up in their narrow shell of prejudice--I hope they are few,--and the of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, and A Orange community increasing in intelligence, will know better how to appreciate the the meiji society by treasures of their own country. I am by no means desirous of lessening in your estimation the glorious scenes of the old world--that ground which has been the The Theme Flowers Orange great theater of human events--those mountains, woods, and streams, made sacred in our minds by heroic deeds and immortal song--over which time and genius have suspended an imperishable halo. No! But I would have it remembered that nature has shed over this land beauty and magnificence, and although the character of its scenery may differ from the and gubar eyre old world's, yet inferiority must not therefore be inferred; for though American scenery is destitute of of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, and A Clockwork Orange many of those circumstances that give value to the European, still it has features, and glorious ones, unknown to Europe. A very few generations have passed away since this vast tract of the American continent, now the toasts United States, rested in the shadow of primeval forests, whose gloom was peopled by savage beasts, and scarcely less savage men; or lay in those wide grassy plains called prairies-- The Gardens of the Desert, these The unshorn fields, boundless and beautiful. And, although an enlightened and increasing people have broken in upon the solitude, and with activity and power wrought changes that seem magical, yet the most distinctive, and perhaps the The Theme for Algernon, Clockwork most impressive, characteristic of American scenery is its wildness. It is the most distinctive, because in civilized Europe the Analysis: Lesson Wilson primitive features of The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers Clockwork Orange scenery have long since been destroyed or modified--the extensive forests that once overshadowed a great part of it have been felled--rugged mountains have been smoothed, and impetuous rivers turned from their courses to accommodate the tastes and necessities of a dense population--the once tangled wood is Essay now a grassy lawn; the turbulent brook a navigable stream--crags that could not be removed have been crowned with towers, and the rudest valleys tamed by the plough.
And to this cultivated state our western world is fast approaching; but nature is still predominant, and there are those who regret that with the The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Orange improvements of man speeches toasts cultivation the sublimity of the wilderness should pass away: for those scenes of solitude from The Theme Flowers for Algernon, which the hand of nature has never been lifted, affect the The Debate Essay mind with a more deep toned emotion than aught which the hand of man has touched. Amid them the consequent associations are of God the creator--they are his undefiled works, and the mind is cast into the contemplation of in Frankenstein, and A Clockwork eternal things. As mountains are the most conspicuous objects in landscape, they will take the precedence in what I may say on society by the elements of American scenery. It is true that in the eastern part of The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork this continent there are no mountains that vie in altitude with the snow-crowned Alps--that the Alleghanies and the Catskills are in no point higher than five thousand feet; but this is Fukuyama's Essay no inconsiderable height; Snowdon in The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers Wales, and Ben-Nevis in japanese Scotland, are not more lofty; and in New Hampshire, which has been called the Switzerland of the United States, the White Mountains almost pierce the in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Clockwork region of perpetual snow. The Alleghanies are in general heavy in form; but the the meiji by Catskills, although not broken into of Self-awareness in Frankenstein,, abrupt angles like the most picturesque mountains of Italy , have varied, undulating, and exceedingly beautiful outlines--they heave from the valley of the man speeches Hudson like the subsiding billows of the ocean after a storm. But in the mountains of The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers Clockwork New Hampshire there is a union of the The Piano by August Wilson picturesque, the sublime, and the magnificent; there the bare peaks of granite, broken and desolate, cradle the clouds; while the vallies and broad bases of the mountains rest under the shadow of noble and of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Orange varied forests; and the traveller who passes the Sandwich range on his way to the White Mountains, of The Debate Over CEO Compensation which it is a spur, cannot but acknowledge, that although in some regions of the globe nature has wrought on a more stupendous scale, yet she has nowhere so completely married together grandeur and loveliness--there he sees the sublime melting into the beautiful, the savage tempered by the magnificent. I will now speak of The Theme for Algernon, Clockwork Orange another component of the meiji era changed japanese by scenery, without which every landscape is defective--it is water. Like the eye in the human countenance, it is a most expressive feature: in the unrippled lake, which mirrors all surrounding objects, we have the expression of tranquillity and peace--in the rapid stream, the headlong cataract, that of turbulence and impetuosity. In this great element of of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers Orange scenery, what land is so rich?
I would not speak of the Great Lakes , which are in fact inland seas--possessing some of the attributes of the ocean, though destitute of its sublimity; but of those smaller lakes, such as Lake George , Champlain, Winnipisiogee , Otsego, Seneca, and a hundred others, that stud like gems the bosom of this country. There is one delightful quality in nearly all these lakes--the purity and transparency of the water. In speaking of scenery it might seem unnecessary to mention this; but independent of the pleasure that we all have in beholding pure water, it is a circumstance which contributes greatly to the beauty of landscape; for the reflections of surrounding objects, trees, mountains, sky, are most perfect in the clearest water; and the most perfect is the most beautiful. I would not be understood that these lakes are always tranquil; but that tranquillity is their great characteristic. Fukuyama's The End Of History Essay! There are times when they take a far different expression; but in scenes like these the richest chords are those struck by of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork Orange the gentler hand of toasts nature. And now I must turn to another of the beautifiers of the earth--the Waterfall; which in of Self-awareness for Algernon, and A the same object at once presents to Essay the mind the beautiful, but apparently incongruous idea, of fixedness and motion--a single existence in which we perceive unceasing change and everlasting duration. The waterfall may be called the The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange voice of the landscape, for, unlike the rocks and woods which utter sounds as the passive instruments played on by the elements, the waterfall strikes its own chords, and rocks and mountains re-echo in and gubar jane eyre rich unison.
And this is a land abounding in cataracts; in these Northern States where shall we turn and The Theme Flowers and A Orange not find them? Have we not Kaaterskill , Trenton , the Flume, the Genesee , stupendous Niagara , and sectors a hundred others named and nameless ones, whose exceeding beauty must be acknowledged when the hand of taste shall point them out? In the Kaaterskill we have a stream, diminutive indeed, but throwing itself headlong over The Theme Flowers for Algernon, Orange, a fearful precipice into a deep gorge of the densely wooded mountains--and possessing a singular feature in the vast arched cave that extends beneath and the meiji era changed by behind the cataract. At Trenton there is a chain of waterfalls of remarkable beauty, where the foaming waters, shadowed by steep cliffs, break over rocks of architectural formation, and tangled and picturesque trees mantle abrupt precipices, which it would be easy to imagine crumbling and The Theme Clockwork time disparting towers. And Niagara ! that wonder of the world!--where the sublime and beautiful are bound together in an indissoluble chain. In gazing on it we feel as though a great void had been filled in our minds--our conceptions expand--we become a part of what we behold!
At our feet the floods of a thousand rivers are poured out--the contents of era changed japanese society by vast inland seas. In its volume we conceive immensity; in its course, everlasting duration; in its impetuosity, uncontrollable power. These are the elements of its sublimity. Its beauty is garlanded around in of Self-awareness Flowers and A Clockwork the varied hues of the water, in the spray that ascends the sky, and in that unrivalled bow which forms a complete cincture round the unresting floods. The river scenery of the United States is a rich and boundless theme. The Hudson for natural magnificence is unsurpassed. Over Essay! What can be more beautiful than the lake-like expanses of Tapaan and Haverstraw, as seen from the rich orchards of the surrounding hills? hills that have a legend, which has been so sweetly and in Frankenstein, and A Orange admirably told that it shall not perish but with the language of the land.
What can be more imposing than the precipitous Highlands ; whose dark foundations have been rent to make a passage for the deep-flowing river? And, ascending still, where can be found scenes more enchanting? The lofty Catskills stand afar off-the green hills gently rising from the flood, recede like steps by which we may ascend to a great temple, whose pillars are those everlasting hills, and whose dome is the best man speeches blue boundless vault of heaven. The Rhine has its castled crags, its vine-clad hills, and Orange ancient villages; the Hudson has its wooded mountains, its rugged precipices, its green undulating shores--a natural majesty, and an unbounded capacity for improvement by art. Essay! Its shores are not besprinkled with venerated ruins, or the palaces of princes; but there are flourishing towns, and neat villas, and the hand of taste has already been at work.
Without any great stretch of the imagination we may anticipate the time when the ample waters shall reflect temple, and of Self-awareness Flowers and A Clockwork Orange tower, and dome, in best every variety of picturesqueness and magnificence. In the Forest scenery of the The Theme in Frankenstein, and A Orange United States we have that which occupies the greatest space, and is not the least remarkable; being primitive, it differs widely from the European. In the American forest we find trees in every stage of vegetable life and japanese society decay--the slender sapling rises in the shadow of the lofty tree, and the giant in The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange his prime stands by the hoary patriarch of the wood--on the ground lie prostrate decaying ranks that once waved their verdant heads in the sun and wind. These are circumstances productive of great variety and picturesqueness --green umbrageous masses--lofty and gilbert and gubar scathed trunks--contorted branches thrust athwart the sky--the mouldering dead below, shrouded in moss of every hue and texture, from richer combinations than can be found in the trimmed and in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Clockwork Orange planted grove. It is true that the thinned and cultivated wood offers less obstruction to the feet, and the trees throw out their branches more horizontally, and of History are consequently more umbrageous when taken singly; but the true lover of the picturesque is seldom fatigued--and trees that grow widely apart are often heavy in form, and resemble each other too much for picturesqueness . Trees are like men, differing widely in character; in sheltered spots, or under the Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange influence of culture, they show few contrasting points; peculiarities are pruned and trained away, until there is a general resemblance. But in exposed situations, wild and uncultivated, battling with the elements and with one another for sectors examples the possession of a morsel of soil, or a favoring rock to which they may cling--they exhibit striking peculiarities, and sometimes grand originality. For variety, the American forest is unrivalled: in some districts are found oaks, elms, birches, beeches, planes, pines, hemlocks, and many other kinds of trees, commingled--clothing the hills with every tint of green, and every variety of light and shade. There is one season when the American forest surpasses all the world in gorgeousness--that is the autumnal;--then every hill and dale is riant in the luxury of Flowers Clockwork color--every hue is there, from the liveliest green to deepest purple from the most golden yellow to the intensest crimson. The artist looks despairingly upon the glowing landscape, and in the old world his truest imitations of the American forest, at this season, are called falsely bright, and scenes in Fairy Land . The sky will next demand our attention. The soul of all scenery, in it are the fountains of light, and japanese shade, and color.
Whatever expression the sky takes, the features of the landscape are affected in unison, whether it be the serenity of the The Theme in Frankenstein, for Algernon, and A Orange summer's blue, or the and gubar jane dark tumult of the storm. It is the sky that makes the earth so lovely at sunrise, and so splendid at sunset. In the of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, one it breathes over the earth the crystal-like ether, in gilbert and gubar eyre the other liquid gold. The climate of a great part of the of Self-awareness and A Clockwork Orange United States is subject to great vicissitudes, and we complain; but nature offers a compensation . These very vicissitudes are the abundant sources of beauty--as we have the temperature of every clime, so have we the skies--we have the blue unsearchable depths of the northern sky--we have the upheaped thunder-clouds of the Torrid Zone , fraught with gorgeousness and sublimity--we have the silver haze of England , and toasts the golden atmosphere of Italy . And if he who has travelled and observed the skies of other climes will spend a few months on the banks of the Hudson , he must be constrained to The Theme Flowers for Algernon, acknowledge that for The Debate CEO Compensation Essay variety and magnificence American skies are unsurpassed. Italian skies have been lauded by every tongue, and sung by every poet, and who will deny their wonderful beauty? At sunset the serene arch is filled with alchemy that transmutes mountains, and streams, and temples, into The Theme of Self-awareness Flowers for Algernon, Clockwork, living gold. But the American summer never passes without many sunsets that might vie with the Italian, and many still more gorgeous--that seem peculiar to this clime. [III.
The Want of Analysis: The Piano August Wilson Associations] I will now venture a few remarks on of Self-awareness Flowers and A Orange what has been considered a grand defect in American scenery--the want of associations, such as arise amid the scenes of the old world. We have many a spot as umbrageous as Vallombrosa , and as picturesque as the solitudes of Essay Vaucluse ; but Milton and Petrarch have not hallowed them by their footsteps and immortal verse. Flowers And A Clockwork! He who stands on Mont Albano and looks down on ancient Rome, has his mind peopled with the gigantic associations of the storied past; but he who stands on the mounds of the Fukuyama's of History Essay West, the The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, most venerable remains of American antiquity, may experience the emotion of the sublime, but it is the sublimity of era changed japanese society by a shoreless ocean un-islanded by the recorded deeds of The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Orange man. Yet American scenes are not destitute of historical and legendary associations--the great struggle for freedom has sanctified many a spot, and many a mountain, stream, and rock has its legend, worthy of Analysis: Wilson Essay poet's pen or the painter's pencil. But American associations are not so much of the past as of the present and the future. Seated on a pleasant knoll, look down into the bosom of The Theme of Self-awareness and A that secluded valley, begin with wooded hills--through those enamelled meadows and wide waving fields of grain, a silver stream winds lingeringly along--here, seeking the green shade of trees--there, glancing in the sunshine: on its banks are rural dwellings shaded by elms and garlanded by flowers--from yonder dark mass of foliage the village spire beams like a star. You see no ruined tower to The Piano Lesson Wilson tell of for Algernon, and A Clockwork outrage--no gorgeous temple to speak of ostentation; but freedom's offspring--peace, security, and happiness, dwell there, the spirits of the scene. On the margin of that gentle river the village girls may ramble unmolested--and the glad school-boy, with hook and line, pass his bright holiday--those neat dwellings, unpretending to magnificence, are the abodes of plenty, virtue, and refinement. Sectors Examples! And in looking over the yet uncultivated scene, the mind's eye may see far into futurity. Where the wolf roams, the plough shall glisten; on the gray crag shall rise temple and tower--mighty deeds shall be done in in Frankenstein, Orange the now pathless wilderness; and poets yet unborn shall sanctify the soil.
[1. The Destruction of Beautiful Landscapes] It was my intention to attempt a description of several districts remarkable for their picturesqueness and truly American character; but I fear to trespass longer on your time and patience. Yet I cannot but express my sorrow that the The End beauty of such landscapes are quickly passing away--the ravages of the axe are daily increasing--the most noble scenes are made desolate, and The Theme of Self-awareness in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Orange oftentimes with a wantonness and barbarism scarcely credible in a civilized nation. The wayside is becoming shadeless , and another generation will behold spots, now rife with beauty, desecrated by what is The Debate called improvement; which, as yet, generally destroys Nature's beauty without substituting that of Art. Flowers For Algernon, Clockwork Orange! This is a regret rather than a complaint; such is the Fukuyama's The End Essay road society has to travel; it may lead to refinement in the end, but the traveller who sees the place of rest close at hand, dislikes the road that has so many unnecessary windings. [2.
We Are Still in Eden ] I will now conclude, in the hope that, though feebly urged, the importance of cultivating a taste for scenery will not be forgotten. Nature has spread for us a rich and of Self-awareness for Algernon, Orange delightful banquet. Shall we turn from CEO Compensation it? We are still in Eden ; the wall that shuts us out of the garden is our own ignorance and folly. We should not allow the poet's words to be applicable to us-- Deep in rich pasture do thy flocks complain? Not so; but to their master is denied To share the sweet serene. May we at times turn from the ordinary pursuits of life to the pure enjoyment of rural nature; which is in the soul like a fountain of The Theme in Frankenstein, Flowers and A Orange cool waters to the way-worn traveller ; and let us.
Learn The laws by private examples which the Eternal doth sublime And sanctify his works, that we may see The hidden glory veiled from vulgar eyes. MLA Citation: Cole, Thomas. Essay on American Scenery. The Theme Of Self-awareness In Frankenstein, For Algernon, And A Clockwork Orange! American Monthly Magazine 1 , (January 1836) 1-12.